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  • 现如今,大多数的企业开始重视云计算技术,这也让一些计算机从业人员感到了就业压力,要想在这个行业内找到好工作,拿到aws认证证书非常重要。那么aws认证sap考试经验有哪些?aws认证运维人员考察什么?...

    现如今,大多数的企业开始重视云计算技术,这也让一些计算机从业人员感到了就业压力,要想在这个行业内找到好工作,拿到aws认证证书非常重要。那么aws认证sap考试经验有哪些?aws认证运维人员考察什么?认证大使小编给大家分享一下!

    一、aws认证计算机类型

    EC2(Elastic Compute Cloud)是一种弹性云计算服务,可为用户提供弹性可变的计算容量,通常用户可以创建和管理多个虚拟机,在虚拟机上部署自己的业务,虚拟机的计算能力(CPU、内存等)可以根据业务需求随时调整。

    Elastic IP Addresses(弹性IP地址)– 弹性IP地址是为动态云计算设计的静态IP地址。一个弹性IP地址是和你的账户相关,而不是和你的一个特定实例相关。不像传统的静态IP地址,弹性IP地址可以通过重新匹配你的共有IP地址到你账户任意的实例,从而让你可以忽略实例或者可用区域的错误。连接本质上是通过NAT1:1的匹配每个Elastic IP和Private IP。

    Elastic MapReduce:EMR采用运行在亚马逊EC2和S3的托管Hadoop框架上。以立即获得满足需要的计算能力,例如网页索引、数据挖掘等数据密集型任务,轻松、经济地处理海量数据,不用担心对Hadoop集群耗时的设置、管理或调优。

    aws认证sap考试经验

    二、aws认证运维人员考察什么?

    AWS DevOps Engineer Professional:这是专家级别的DevOps工程师考试,结合了助理级别的开发者考试和系统管理员考试的内容之外,还深入考察了一些实施和管理持续交付方法的能力。这门着重考察诸如CloudFormation,AutoScaling, Security, Elastic Beanstalk, OpsWork等组件。

    AWS SysOps Administrator Associate:这门考试主要针对对象是那些AWS平台的系统管理员/运维人员,主要考察如何在AWS上部署、管理和运营高可用的系统。这门考试基本上涵盖了AWS Certified Solutions Architect –Associate的考试内容,再加上一些实际场景中的问题,而且个人感觉内容深度也要比前者要多一些。考题题干比较长,而且很多是多选题,答案选项都比较相似,经常需要用排除法才能选出正确的答案。

    三、aws认证sap考试经验有哪些?

    1、报名参加AWS培训课程,可以是本文提到的任何一种。这些课程一定会帮助你增加云计算和AWS方面的知识。

    2、复习可以获取的学习或考试指南。

    3、阅读各种AWS白皮书。这些白皮书包含了一些极有价值的信息,可以回答你的很多问题。

    4、实操,实操,实操,重要的事情重复三遍,实操可以帮助你更加了解每个服务和产品的细节功能,从而减轻认证考试中可能会出现的忧虑或压力。

    5、一旦准备好,就为考试制定计划吧。根据个人经验和希望获得的证书类型,你通常需要花80-120小时去练习或学习,才能充分备考。

    aws认证sap考试经验

    aws认证sap考试经验有哪些?aws认证运维人员考察什么?以上就是认证大使小编给大家分享的一些考试经验,大家可以选择性的参考一下哦!

    展开全文
  • 2019年10月22日AWS SAP-C01 大捷战报

    千次阅读 2019-10-23 11:37:32
    关注公众号:AWS爱好者 ... 标题用了大捷,900+分,算么?哈哈 经过自己的持续学习、不懈的努力于2019年10月22日北京拿下AWS SAP-C01 认证,在完成考试后看到屏幕上PASS的那一刻,在辛苦感觉也值得。...

    标题用了大捷,900+分,算么?哈哈

    在这里插入图片描述

    经过自己的持续学习、不懈的努力于2019年10月22日北京拿下AWS SAP-C01 认证,在完成考试后看到屏幕上PASS的那一刻,在辛苦感觉也值得。哭泣

    早上考完后,晚上证书就可以下载了:

    先说下我个人的情况,我是今年1月份通过了SAA,然后开始准备SAP-C01,中间耽误了一段时间考了阿里云的ACP证书,在平常工作中也会用到aws以及各种云,相对来说实践的机会还是有的。

    公司对于证书没有什么要求,也不给报销,考证书完全是因为自己想检验自己的学习成果,所以在备考学习的过程中,没有急功近利,踏踏实实一步一步来准备。

    说下我备考的顺序和使用的资料:

    我考过SAA,所以一些特别基础的知识点之前基本就已经掌握了,备考SAP-C01重点资料是:

    1、教学视频,我买了两套视频并下载下来看了2-3遍,是根据SAP-C01的考点梳理各个知识点,讲的很不错,通过教学视频能让我快速的梳理整个知识体系,对各个知识点都有个大概的了解。目的学知识,考试其次。

    在这里插入图片描述
    在这里插入图片描述
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    2、各种白皮书,非常重要,自己下载个SAP-C01的考点指南,尤其是里面提的白皮书,多读几遍,很多考题的知识点都在白皮书里,我看过几十到一百多本白皮书,都是一点一点啃的,比如我看了无数遍的:

    在这里插入图片描述
    3、aws官方http://docs.aws.amazon.com,对于一些考试重点的服务,我都是把对应的服务的内容完整不拉的看了一遍。

    4、做实验,因为工作中会用到AWS,自己也申请了免费账号,一些重要的服务,上控制台上点一点,生成一次,这样比光看文档更容易理解。

    5、小茶的群 和 AWS爱好者 公众号,前者群里有非常热心的同学解答各种问题,后者公众号里有很多梳理后的知识点虽然不是完全针对考试,但是很多知识点有助于通过考试。

    考试过程中遇到的一些题的知识点:

    这是AWS对于SAP-01的考试指南,包括五个域对应相应的知识点

    在这里插入图片描述

    考试遇到的太多太多的题是关于 AWS Organizations 、迁移相关、怎么节省aws使用成本等等的题目了,比如:

    1、提出了一个场景,让你规划账号体系,怎么安全并方便管理。涉及到的只是点就是 AWS Organizations,STS,角色,IAM等等

    2、本地业务,怎么迁移到AWS上,对业务影响最小,停机时间最短,或者更节省成本? 迁移内容考试的时候遇到的题目太多了,所以重要看DMS,SMS,各种DX,vpn这些都是涉及迁移相关的。

    3、成本控制,也遇到了很多的题,给你一个场景,怎么改善优化成本。涉及到的知识点是,RI、计划预留实例,一些EFS的需求的看看是不是能用S3替代等等

    4、无服务架构,太多的题目涉及到无服务架构,LAMBDA,API gameway的内容,一定要了解掌握。

    最后,特别感谢沉默恶魔—我的好哥们给我提供的一些考试的视频资料和耐心的辅导帮我通过,他经营的微信公众号,里面有很多AWS架构师相关的知识点,对考试的通过和AWS知识的学习带来了很大的帮助,所以我很愿意安利下,哈哈。

    大家一起加油吧!!

    关注公众号:AWS爱好者

    展开全文
  • AWS认证题库20200104

    2020-01-08 18:02:50
    关注云计算狂魔微信公众号,获取更多云计算认证题库 A call center application consists of a three-tierapplication using Auto Scaling groups to automatically scale resources asneeded. Users report that ...

    欢迎关注云计算狂魔微信公众号

    A call center application consists of a three-tierapplication using Auto Scaling groups to automatically scale resources asneeded. Users report that every morning at 9:00 AM the system becomes very slowfor about 15 minutes. A Solution Architect determines that a large percentageof the call center staff starts work at

    9:00 AM, so Auto Scaling does not have enough time to scaleout to meet demand.

    How can the Architect fix the problem?

    A. Change the Auto Scaling group’s scale out event to scalebased on network utilization.

    B. Create an Auto Scaling scheduled action to scale out thenecessary resources at 8:30 AM every morning.

    C. Use Reserved Instances to ensure the system has reservedthe right amount of capacity for the scale- up events.

    D. Permanently keep a steady state of instances that isneeded at 9:00 AM to guarantee available resources, but leverage SpotInstances.

    Answer: B

    展开全文
  • Introduction to Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud 1.    Benefits of Amazon EC2 Time to market Scalability Control Reliable Secure Multiple instance type Integration ...&n...

    前注:
    学习书籍

    Introduction to Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud

    1. Benefits of Amazon EC2

    Time to market

    Scalability

    Control

    Reliable

    Secure

    Multiple instance type

    Integration

    Cost effective

    2. Amazon EC2 Instance Types and Features

    (1) Types

    Instance Type: determines the hardware of the host computer used for your instance.

    Two types of instances in EC2 ecosystem: current-generation instances, previous-generation instances.

    Current-generation: contain the latest of everything (eg. the latest version of chipsets, memory, processor…)

    Previous-generation: consist of the machines that are one or two generations older than the current one.

    Instance types can be broadly divided into the following categories: general purpose, compute optimized, memory optimized, storage optimized, advanced computing.

    General Purpose (T2, M5, M4, and M3)

    Provide a balance of computer memory and network resources and are a pretty good choice for many applications.

    T2: provide burst performance, suitable for workloads that do not use full CPU utilization, such as web server, development environments …

    M5, M4 and M3: don’t provide burstable performance, can be used for building websites, development environments, build servers, code repositories, microservices, test and staging environments and so on.

    Compute Optimized (C5, C4 and C3)

    Used for the application or workload that is heavy on compute, such as media transcoding, applications supporting a large number of concurrent users, long-running batch jobs, high-performance computing, gaming servers and so on.

    Memory Optimized (X1E, X1, R4, and R3)

    Used for the workload that has a lot of memory requirements like memory databased, such as a SAP HANA or Oracle database in-memory, NoSQL databases like MongoDB and Cassandra, big data processing engines like Presto or Apache Spark, high-performance computing (HPC) and Electronic Design Automation (EDA) applications, Genome assembly and analysis, and so on.

    Storage Optimized (H1, I3 and D2)

    Used for the workloads that require high sequential read and write access to very large data sets on local storage, such as running a relational database that is I/O bound, running an I/O-bound application, NoSQL databases, data warehouse applications, MapReduce and Hadoop distributed caches for in-memory databased like Redis and so on.

    Advanced Computing (P3, P2, G3 and F1)

    Used for high-processing computing requirements, such as machine learning algorithms, molecular modeling, genomics, computation of fluid dynamics, computational finance and so on.

    (2) Features

    Processor Features

    EC2 instances use an Intel processor, so they use all the processor features that
    Intel provides.

    Network Features

    EC2-Classic: the original release of EC2, instances run in a single, flat network that is shared with other customers.

    Now all accounts are automatically enabled with the default Amazon VPC.

    A placement group / cluster networking: a logical grouping of instances within a single AZ, can provide the benefit of low-latency or high-network throughput.

    R4, X1, M5, M4, C5, C4, C3, I2, P3, P2, G3 and D2 instances support cluster networking.

    A placement group cannot span multiple AZs.

    Recommend:

    · Use the same type of instance in a placement group.

    · To get the maximum benefit for the placement group, should choose an instance type that supports “enhanced networking”.

    Storage Features

    The block storage that you attach along with the EC2 instance is known as Elastic Block Storage (EBS).

    Some EC2 instances include a local disk in the physical hardware, which is known as an instance store.

    Three types of volumes:

    A general-purpose EBS volume: backed up by solid-state drives.

    A provisioned IOPS-based EBS volume: maximize the I/O throughput.

    A magnetic hard drive: provide the lowest cost per gigabyte.

    3. Steps for Using Amazon EC2

    (1) Select a preconfigured Amazon Machine Image. You can also create your custom AMI and later use that to launch an instance.

    (2) Configure the networking and security (VPC, public/private subnet …)

    (3) Choose the instance type

    (4) Choose the AZ, attach EBS and optionally choose static EIP

    (5) Start the instance and you are all set

    4. Pricing for Amazon EC2

    The instances are divided into three categories from a pricing perspective: On-demand instance, Reserved instance, Spot instance.

    (1) On-demand Instance

    The most popular pricing model.

    Pay just for the usage on a flat hourly rate or per-second billing.

    No up-front costs or hidden costs or anything else.

    (2) Reserved Instance

    A reserved instance is ideal when you know your application has a pretty steady state or is predictable in terms of performance. (how many resources your workload is going to take and for how long)

    Compared to an on-demand instance, a reserved instance provides up to a 75 percent discount.

    Time options: either one-year or three-year commitment.

    Payment options: all up-front costs, partial up-front costs, no up-front costs.

    Two subcategories: standard reserved instance, convertible reserved instance.

    The convertible reserved instance provides better flexibility if your compute requirement changes over the given period of time. It is only for three-year commitment.

    Standard and convertible reserved instances can be purchased to apply to instances in a specific availability zone or to instances in a region.

    (3) Spot Instance

    Bid for the unused capacity and create the instance.

    The spot price fluctuates based on supply and demand, and if someone overbids, you then lose the instance at a very short notice.

    Spot instances are great for running non-mission-critical projects. Often customers add a few spot instances along with on-demand instances to provide additional horsepower.

    5. Shared Tenancy, Dedicated Hosts, and Dedicated instances

    EC2 runs on a virtualized environment, therefore, it is possible that on the same physical machine another customer might be running a different EC2 instance.

    Sometimes, because of some compliance requirement, you may have to segregate your instances even at the physical level. Dedicated hosts and dedicated instances solve this problem.

    (1) Shared Tenancy

    Default behavior when you launch an EC2 instance. You run the EC2 instances on multitenant hardware.

    (2) Dedicated Host

    A physical server exclusively assigned to you.

    Dedicated hosts can help you reduce costs by allowing you to use your existing server-bound software licenses, including Windows Server, SQL Server, and SUSE Linux Enterprise Server.

    (3) Dedicated Instance

    The EC2 instances run on single-tenant hardware.

    Dedicated instances are Amazon EC2 instances that run in a virtual private cloud on hardware that’s dedicated to a single customer.

    6. Instance and AMIs

    An AMI is a blueprint that has all the details of the software configuration of the server that you are going to launch in the Amazon Cloud.

    The AMI contains a blueprint about the root volume for the instance, and the root volume contains information about the operating system and various other software running on top of the operating system.

    Launch permission information that controls what AWS account can use the AMI to launch the instance.

    Public: grant launch permissions to all AWS accounts.

    Explicit: grant launch permissions to specific AWS accounts.

    Implicit: have implicit launch permission for an AMI.

    (1) Instance Root Volume

    Instance store-backed AMI

    在这里插入图片描述

    When EC2 is launched initially, all the root devices used to get launched from S3 since the instance root used to be backed up at S3.

    If you launch an instance that is backed up by instance store, then when the instance is launched, the image that is used to boot the instance is copied to the root volume.

    As long as the instance is running, all the data in the instance store volume persists, but whenever the instance is terminated, all the data is gone. The instance store-backed instances do not support the stop action, so you can’t stop the instance. The only exception is when the instance is rebooted, data in the instance store persists.

    It is important that you should back up your data to a persistent storage regularly and/or on your instance stores across multiple AZs.

    Also, you can’t detach an instance store volume from one instance and re-attach it to a different instance.

    Amazon EBS-backed AMI

    在这里插入图片描述

    When the instance is launched, the root device for the instance is launched from the EBS volume, which is created from an EBS snapshot.

    If you launch an instance that is backed up any Amazon EBS-backed instance, the =data always persists. Even if the instance terminates or fails, you don’t lose data. These instances also support the stop action.

    Since the instance root volume runs out of an EBS volume, you can even attach the root volume of your instance to a different running instance for debugging or any other purpose, such as changing the size of instance or modifying the properties of the instance.

    (2) Obtaining an AMI

    From AWS publisher, community, AWS Marketplace …

    An AMI is a regional resource. If you want to share an AMI to a different region, you need to copy the AMI to a different region and then share it.

    (3) Virtualization in AMI

    Linux AMI use one of two types of virtualization: Hardware Virtual Machine (HVM), Paravirtual (PV) (半虚拟化).

    The difference between them is how they boot and how they take advantage of the hardware extensions in the context of CPU, memory and storage to provide better performance.

    HVM AMI

    HVM AMI executes the master boot records of the root block device and then presents a fully virtualized set of hardware to the operating system. As a result, the operating system runs directly on top of the VM as it is without any modification similar to the way it runs on a bare-metal hardware.

    HVM AMI执行根块设备的主引导记录,然后将完整的虚拟化硬件集提供给操作系统。因此,操作系统可以直接在VM上运行而无需任何修改,就像其在裸机硬件上运行一样。

    The performance becomes really fast since HVM guests can take full advantage of all the hardware extensions that provide fast access to the underlying hardware on the host system.

    All current-generation instance types support HVM AMIs. The CC2, CR1, HI1, and HS1 previous-generation instance types support HVM AMIs.

    PV AMI

    PV AMIs boot with a boot loaded called PV-GRUB. It starts the boot cycle and loads the kernel specified in the menu.lst file on your image. Paravirtual guests can run on host hardware that does not have explicit support for virtualization. But unfortunately, they can’t really take advantage of special hardware extensions that HVM can take such as enhanced networking or GPU processing and so on.

    PV AMIs在启动时加载了称为PV-GRUB的启动程序,其开始启动周期,并在映像上加载menu.lst文件中指定的内核。半虚拟化客户机可以在不显式支持虚拟化的主机硬件上运行。但不幸的是,它们无法真正利用HVM可以利用的特殊硬件扩展,如增强的网络或GPU处理等。

    The C3 and M3 current-generation instance types support PV AMIs. The C1, HI1, HS1, M1, M2, and T1 previous-generation instance types support PV AMIs.

    Amazon recommends you use an HMV image to get the maximum performance when you launch
    your instance.

    7. Instance Life Cycle

    (1) Launch

    When you launch an instance, immediately it enters into the “pending” state.

    Before starting the instance, a few health checks are performed to make sure that there are no issues with the hardware and the instance can come online without any issues.

    Once the instance is up and running and is ready for you, it enters into the “running” state.

    As soon as it is in the running state, the instance is ready for all practical purposes, and you can connect to it and start using it. At this moment, the billing starts.

    (2) Start and Stop

    If health check fails, the instance does not get started. → You can either start a new instance or try to fix the issue.

    If there are no issues with the health check, the instance starts normally. → You can start using it thereafter.

    You can stop an instance only if it is backed up by an EBS-backup instance. You can’t stop an instance backed by an instance store.

    When you stop your instance, it enters the “stopping” state and then the “stopped” state.

    (3) Reboot

    You can reboot an instance that is either backed up by instance store or backed by EBS.

    All the data is saved after the reboot. The IP address, machine type, and DNS name all remain the same after the reboot.

    You can reboot the instance either via the Amazon console or via CLI and API calls.

    (4) Termination

    If you do not need the instance anymore, you can terminate it.

    As soon as you terminate the instance, you will see that the status changes to “shutting down” or “terminated”.

    If the instance has termination protection enabled, you may have to perform an additional step, or you may have to disable termination protection to terminate the environment.

    The Amazon EBS volume supports the “DeleteOnTermination” attribute, which controls whether the volume is deleted or preserved when you terminate the instance. The default behavior is to delete the root device volume and preserve any other EBS volumes.

    (5) Retirement

    When AWS determines there is an irreparable hardware failure that is hosting the instance, then the instance is either retired or scheduled to be retired.

    If the instance is a backed EBS volume, you have all the data stored in the EBS volume.

    If the instance’s root volume is backed up by the instance store, you must take the backup of all the files stored in the instance store before it gets terminated or you will lose all the data.

    8. Connecting to an Instance

    (1) Launch an instance in a public subnet

    It will be assigned a public IP address and public DNS name via which you can reach the instance from the Internet and a private IP address and private DNS. If you choose the IPv6 address, it will be allocated a public IPv6 IP address as well.

    Public DNS Name: automatically create; stay with the instance for its tenure; cannot change.

    Public IP Address: automatically create; unique; cannot modify; persist for the life span of the instance; cannot associate the same public IP address in any other server even if you terminate an instance; if you want to associate an IP address from one server to another, you can do it via an elastic IP address.

    (2) Launch an instance in a private subnet

    It will be allocated a private IP address and a private DNS.

    (3) Connect to an instance

    To connect to an instance, the console prompts you to download a private key in your local machine and then change the permission in it.

    Amazon EC2 uses the public-private key concept used in cryptography to encrypt and decrypt the login information.

    9. Security Group

    A security group acts as a virtual firewall that controls the traffic for one or more instances.

    (1) The characteristics of security group rules

    By default, security groups allow all outbound traffic;

    Can’t change the outbound rules for an EC2-Classic security group;

    Security group rules are always permissive, can’t create deny access rules;

    Security group are stateful. (If you send a request from your instance, the response traffic for that request is allowed to flow in regardless of the inbound security group rules.)

    Can add and remove rules at any time, the changes are automatically applied.

    When you associate multiple security groups with an instance, the rules from each security group are effectively aggregated to create one set of rules.

    (2) For each rule, you specify the following

    Protocol: the most common protocols are 6 (TCP), 17 (UDP) and 1 (ICMP).

    Port range: For TCP, UDP or a custom protocol, you can specify a single port number or a range of port numbers.

    ICMP type and code

    Source or destination: the source(inbound rules) or destination (outbound rules) for the traffic. Specify one of these options: an individual IPv4 address, (VPC only) an individual IPv6 address, a range of IPv4 addresses, (VPC only) a range of IPv6 addressed, another security group, the current security group.

    EC2-Classic

    EC2-Classic

    EC2-VPC

    10.Amazon Elastic Container Service (ECS)

    Amazon Elastic Container Service (ECS) is a container management service that allows you to manage Docker containers on a cluster of Amazon EC2.

    Containers are similar to hardware virtualization (like EC2), but instead of partitioning a machine, containers isolate the processes running on a single operating system. (容器类似于硬件虚拟化(如EC2),但是容器不对计算机进行分区,而是隔离在单个操作系统上运行的进程。)

    You can use the OS kernel to create multiple isolated user space processes that can have constraints on them like CPU and memory. (可以使用OS内核创建多个隔离的用户空间进程,这些进程可能会对它们产生约束,如CPU和内存。)

    These isolated user space processes are called containers.

    Containers enable the concept of microservices.

    Benefits of running containers on Amazon ECS:

    · Eliminates cluster management software. (No need to install any cluster management software).

    · Easily manage clusters for any scale.

    · Can design fault-tolerant cluster architecture.

    · Can manage cluster state using Amazon ECS.

    · Can easily control and monitor the containers seamlessly.

    · Can scale from one to tens of thousands of containers almost instantly.

    · ECS gives you the ability to make good placement decisions about where to place your containers.

    · ECS gives you the intel about the availability of resources (CPU, memory).

    · At any time, you can add new resources to the cluster with EC2 Auto Scaling.

    · It is integrated with other services such as Amazon Elastic Container Registry, ELB, EBS, Elastic Network Interfaces, VPC, IAM and CloudTrail.

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