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  • hostapd.conf.txt

    2019-08-12 17:37:01
    wpa_supplicant, hostapd配置文件选项解释, station , ap 启动。
  • hostapd.conf

    2014-02-28 18:52:34
    hostapd.conf 配置文档,只需要配置两个地方就可以用了 interface=wlan0//你无线网卡的设备名 wpa_passphrase=0123456789 //密码
  • hostapd.conf稳定配置

    2021-10-08 17:07:50
    interface=wlan0 driver=nl80211 ctrl_interface_group=0 ssid=esp8085 country_code=CN ieee80211d=1 hw_mode=g channel=11 chanlist=1 6 11 beacon_int=100 max_num_sta=10 auth_algs=1 ...wpa_pai.
    interface=wlan0
    driver=nl80211
    ctrl_interface_group=0
    ssid=esp8085
    country_code=CN
    ieee80211d=1
    hw_mode=g
    channel=11
    chanlist=1 6 11
    beacon_int=100
    max_num_sta=10
    auth_algs=1
    wmm_enabled=1
    wpa=2
    wpa_passphrase=12345678
    wpa_key_mgmt=WPA-PSK WPA-EAP
    wpa_pairwise=TKIP CCMP
    rsn_pairwise=CCMP
    wpa_group_rekey=86400

    展开全文
  • hostapd.conf配置文件详细说明

    千次阅读 2020-07-06 17:32:22
    ##### hostapd configuration file ############################################## # Empty lines and lines starting with # are ignored # AP netdevice name (without 'ap' postfix, i.e., wlan0 uses wlan0ap...
    ##### hostapd configuration file ##############################################
    # Empty lines and lines starting with # are ignored
    
    # AP netdevice name (without 'ap' postfix, i.e., wlan0 uses wlan0ap for
    # management frames with the Host AP driver); wlan0 with many nl80211 drivers
    # Note: This attribute can be overridden by the values supplied with the '-i'
    # command line parameter.
    interface=wlan0
    
    # In case of atheros and nl80211 driver interfaces, an additional
    # configuration parameter, bridge, may be used to notify hostapd if the
    # interface is included in a bridge. This parameter is not used with Host AP
    # driver. If the bridge parameter is not set, the drivers will automatically
    # figure out the bridge interface (assuming sysfs is enabled and mounted to
    # /sys) and this parameter may not be needed.
    #
    # For nl80211, this parameter can be used to request the AP interface to be
    # added to the bridge automatically (brctl may refuse to do this before hostapd
    # has been started to change the interface mode). If needed, the bridge
    # interface is also created.
    #bridge=br0
    
    # Driver interface type (hostap/wired/none/nl80211/bsd);
    # default: hostap). nl80211 is used with all Linux mac80211 drivers.
    # Use driver=none if building hostapd as a standalone RADIUS server that does
    # not control any wireless/wired driver.
    # driver=hostap
    
    # Driver interface parameters (mainly for development testing use)
    # driver_params=<params>
    
    # hostapd event logger configuration
    #
    # Two output method: syslog and stdout (only usable if not forking to
    # background).
    #
    # Module bitfield (ORed bitfield of modules that will be logged; -1 = all
    # modules):
    # bit 0 (1) = IEEE 802.11
    # bit 1 (2) = IEEE 802.1X
    # bit 2 (4) = RADIUS
    # bit 3 (8) = WPA
    # bit 4 (16) = driver interface
    # bit 5 (32) = IAPP
    # bit 6 (64) = MLME
    #
    # Levels (minimum value for logged events):
    #  0 = verbose debugging
    #  1 = debugging
    #  2 = informational messages
    #  3 = notification
    #  4 = warning
    #
    logger_syslog=-1
    logger_syslog_level=2
    logger_stdout=-1
    logger_stdout_level=2
    
    # Interface for separate control program. If this is specified, hostapd
    # will create this directory and a UNIX domain socket for listening to requests
    # from external programs (CLI/GUI, etc.) for status information and
    # configuration. The socket file will be named based on the interface name, so
    # multiple hostapd processes/interfaces can be run at the same time if more
    # than one interface is used.
    # /var/run/hostapd is the recommended directory for sockets and by default,
    # hostapd_cli will use it when trying to connect with hostapd.
    ctrl_interface=/var/run/hostapd
    
    # Access control for the control interface can be configured by setting the
    # directory to allow only members of a group to use sockets. This way, it is
    # possible to run hostapd as root (since it needs to change network
    # configuration and open raw sockets) and still allow GUI/CLI components to be
    # run as non-root users. However, since the control interface can be used to
    # change the network configuration, this access needs to be protected in many
    # cases. By default, hostapd is configured to use gid 0 (root). If you
    # want to allow non-root users to use the contron interface, add a new group
    # and change this value to match with that group. Add users that should have
    # control interface access to this group.
    #
    # This variable can be a group name or gid.
    #ctrl_interface_group=wheel
    ctrl_interface_group=0
    
    
    ##### IEEE 802.11 related configuration #######################################
    
    # SSID to be used in IEEE 802.11 management frames
    ssid=test
    # Alternative formats for configuring SSID
    # (double quoted string, hexdump, printf-escaped string)
    #ssid2="test"
    #ssid2=74657374
    #ssid2=P"hello\nthere"
    
    # UTF-8 SSID: Whether the SSID is to be interpreted using UTF-8 encoding
    #utf8_ssid=1
    
    # Country code (ISO/IEC 3166-1). Used to set regulatory domain.
    # Set as needed to indicate country in which device is operating.
    # This can limit available channels and transmit power.
    # These two octets are used as the first two octets of the Country String
    # (dot11CountryString)
    #country_code=US
    
    # The third octet of the Country String (dot11CountryString)
    # This parameter is used to set the third octet of the country string.
    #
    # All environments of the current frequency band and country (default)
    #country3=0x20
    # Outdoor environment only
    #country3=0x4f
    # Indoor environment only
    #country3=0x49
    # Noncountry entity (country_code=XX)
    #country3=0x58
    # IEEE 802.11 standard Annex E table indication: 0x01 .. 0x1f
    # Annex E, Table E-4 (Global operating classes)
    #country3=0x04
    
    # Enable IEEE 802.11d. This advertises the country_code and the set of allowed
    # channels and transmit power levels based on the regulatory limits. The
    # country_code setting must be configured with the correct country for
    # IEEE 802.11d functions.
    # (default: 0 = disabled)
    #ieee80211d=1
    
    # Enable IEEE 802.11h. This enables radar detection and DFS support if
    # available. DFS support is required on outdoor 5 GHz channels in most countries
    # of the world. This can be used only with ieee80211d=1.
    # (default: 0 = disabled)
    #ieee80211h=1
    
    # Add Power Constraint element to Beacon and Probe Response frames
    # This config option adds Power Constraint element when applicable and Country
    # element is added. Power Constraint element is required by Transmit Power
    # Control. This can be used only with ieee80211d=1.
    # Valid values are 0..255.
    #local_pwr_constraint=3
    
    # Set Spectrum Management subfield in the Capability Information field.
    # This config option forces the Spectrum Management bit to be set. When this
    # option is not set, the value of the Spectrum Management bit depends on whether
    # DFS or TPC is required by regulatory authorities. This can be used only with
    # ieee80211d=1 and local_pwr_constraint configured.
    #spectrum_mgmt_required=1
    
    # Operation mode (a = IEEE 802.11a (5 GHz), b = IEEE 802.11b (2.4 GHz),
    # g = IEEE 802.11g (2.4 GHz), ad = IEEE 802.11ad (60 GHz); a/g options are used
    # with IEEE 802.11n (HT), too, to specify band). For IEEE 802.11ac (VHT), this
    # needs to be set to hw_mode=a. When using ACS (see channel parameter), a
    # special value "any" can be used to indicate that any support band can be used.
    # This special case is currently supported only with drivers with which
    # offloaded ACS is used.
    # Default: IEEE 802.11b
    hw_mode=g
    
    # Channel number (IEEE 802.11)
    # (default: 0, i.e., not set)
    # Please note that some drivers do not use this value from hostapd and the
    # channel will need to be configured separately with iwconfig.
    #
    # If CONFIG_ACS build option is enabled, the channel can be selected
    # automatically at run time by setting channel=acs_survey or channel=0, both of
    # which will enable the ACS survey based algorithm.
    channel=1
    
    # ACS tuning - Automatic Channel Selection
    # See: http://wireless.kernel.org/en/users/Documentation/acs
    #
    # You can customize the ACS survey algorithm with following variables:
    #
    # acs_num_scans requirement is 1..100 - number of scans to be performed that
    # are used to trigger survey data gathering of an underlying device driver.
    # Scans are passive and typically take a little over 100ms (depending on the
    # driver) on each available channel for given hw_mode. Increasing this value
    # means sacrificing startup time and gathering more data wrt channel
    # interference that may help choosing a better channel. This can also help fine
    # tune the ACS scan time in case a driver has different scan dwell times.
    #
    # acs_chan_bias is a space-separated list of <channel>:<bias> pairs. It can be
    # used to increase (or decrease) the likelihood of a specific channel to be
    # selected by the ACS algorithm. The total interference factor for each channel
    # gets multiplied by the specified bias value before finding the channel with
    # the lowest value. In other words, values between 0.0 and 1.0 can be used to
    # make a channel more likely to be picked while values larger than 1.0 make the
    # specified channel less likely to be picked. This can be used, e.g., to prefer
    # the commonly used 2.4 GHz band channels 1, 6, and 11 (which is the default
    # behavior on 2.4 GHz band if no acs_chan_bias parameter is specified).
    #
    # Defaults:
    #acs_num_scans=5
    #acs_chan_bias=1:0.8 6:0.8 11:0.8
    
    # Channel list restriction. This option allows hostapd to select one of the
    # provided channels when a channel should be automatically selected.
    # Channel list can be provided as range using hyphen ('-') or individual
    # channels can be specified by space (' ') separated values
    # Default: all channels allowed in selected hw_mode
    #chanlist=100 104 108 112 116
    #chanlist=1 6 11-13
    
    # Exclude DFS channels from ACS
    # This option can be used to exclude all DFS channels from the ACS channel list
    # in cases where the driver supports DFS channels.
    #acs_exclude_dfs=1
    
    # Beacon interval in kus (1.024 ms) (default: 100; range 15..65535)
    beacon_int=100
    
    # DTIM (delivery traffic information message) period (range 1..255):
    # number of beacons between DTIMs (1 = every beacon includes DTIM element)
    # (default: 2)
    dtim_period=2
    
    # Maximum number of stations allowed in station table. New stations will be
    # rejected after the station table is full. IEEE 802.11 has a limit of 2007
    # different association IDs, so this number should not be larger than that.
    # (default: 2007)
    max_num_sta=255
    
    # RTS/CTS threshold; -1 = disabled (default); range -1..65535
    # If this field is not included in hostapd.conf, hostapd will not control
    # RTS threshold and 'iwconfig wlan# rts <val>' can be used to set it.
    rts_threshold=-1
    
    # Fragmentation threshold; -1 = disabled (default); range -1, 256..2346
    # If this field is not included in hostapd.conf, hostapd will not control
    # fragmentation threshold and 'iwconfig wlan# frag <val>' can be used to set
    # it.
    fragm_threshold=-1
    
    # Rate configuration
    # Default is to enable all rates supported by the hardware. This configuration
    # item allows this list be filtered so that only the listed rates will be left
    # in the list. If the list is empty, all rates are used. This list can have
    # entries that are not in the list of rates the hardware supports (such entries
    # are ignored). The entries in this list are in 100 kbps, i.e., 11 Mbps = 110.
    # If this item is present, at least one rate have to be matching with the rates
    # hardware supports.
    # default: use the most common supported rate setting for the selected
    # hw_mode (i.e., this line can be removed from configuration file in most
    # cases)
    #supported_rates=10 20 55 110 60 90 120 180 240 360 480 540
    
    # Basic rate set configuration
    # List of rates (in 100 kbps) that are included in the basic rate set.
    # If this item is not included, usually reasonable default set is used.
    #basic_rates=10 20
    #basic_rates=10 20 55 110
    #basic_rates=60 120 240
    
    # Beacon frame TX rate configuration
    # This sets the TX rate that is used to transmit Beacon frames. If this item is
    # not included, the driver default rate (likely lowest rate) is used.
    # Legacy (CCK/OFDM rates):
    #    beacon_rate=<legacy rate in 100 kbps>
    # HT:
    #    beacon_rate=ht:<HT MCS>
    # VHT:
    #    beacon_rate=vht:<VHT MCS>
    #
    # For example, beacon_rate=10 for 1 Mbps or beacon_rate=60 for 6 Mbps (OFDM).
    #beacon_rate=10
    
    # Short Preamble
    # This parameter can be used to enable optional use of short preamble for
    # frames sent at 2 Mbps, 5.5 Mbps, and 11 Mbps to improve network performance.
    # This applies only to IEEE 802.11b-compatible networks and this should only be
    # enabled if the local hardware supports use of short preamble. If any of the
    # associated STAs do not support short preamble, use of short preamble will be
    # disabled (and enabled when such STAs disassociate) dynamically.
    # 0 = do not allow use of short preamble (default)
    # 1 = allow use of short preamble
    #preamble=1
    
    # Station MAC address -based authentication
    # Please note that this kind of access control requires a driver that uses
    # hostapd to take care of management frame processing and as such, this can be
    # used with driver=hostap or driver=nl80211, but not with driver=atheros.
    # 0 = accept unless in deny list
    # 1 = deny unless in accept list
    # 2 = use external RADIUS server (accept/deny lists are searched first)
    macaddr_acl=0
    
    # Accept/deny lists are read from separate files (containing list of
    # MAC addresses, one per line). Use absolute path name to make sure that the
    # files can be read on SIGHUP configuration reloads.
    #accept_mac_file=/etc/hostapd.accept
    #deny_mac_file=/etc/hostapd.deny
    
    # IEEE 802.11 specifies two authentication algorithms. hostapd can be
    # configured to allow both of these or only one. Open system authentication
    # should be used with IEEE 802.1X.
    # Bit fields of allowed authentication algorithms:
    # bit 0 = Open System Authentication
    # bit 1 = Shared Key Authentication (requires WEP)
    auth_algs=3
    
    # Send empty SSID in beacons and ignore probe request frames that do not
    # specify full SSID, i.e., require stations to know SSID.
    # default: disabled (0)
    # 1 = send empty (length=0) SSID in beacon and ignore probe request for
    #     broadcast SSID
    # 2 = clear SSID (ASCII 0), but keep the original length (this may be required
    #     with some clients that do not support empty SSID) and ignore probe
    #     requests for broadcast SSID
    ignore_broadcast_ssid=0
    
    # Do not reply to broadcast Probe Request frames from unassociated STA if there
    # is no room for additional stations (max_num_sta). This can be used to
    # discourage a STA from trying to associate with this AP if the association
    # would be rejected due to maximum STA limit.
    # Default: 0 (disabled)
    #no_probe_resp_if_max_sta=0
    
    # Additional vendor specific elements for Beacon and Probe Response frames
    # This parameter can be used to add additional vendor specific element(s) into
    # the end of the Beacon and Probe Response frames. The format for these
    # element(s) is a hexdump of the raw information elements (id+len+payload for
    # one or more elements)
    #vendor_elements=dd0411223301
    
    # Additional vendor specific elements for (Re)Association Response frames
    # This parameter can be used to add additional vendor specific element(s) into
    # the end of the (Re)Association Response frames. The format for these
    # element(s) is a hexdump of the raw information elements (id+len+payload for
    # one or more elements)
    #assocresp_elements=dd0411223301
    
    # TX queue parameters (EDCF / bursting)
    # tx_queue_<queue name>_<param>
    # queues: data0, data1, data2, data3
    #		(data0 is the highest priority queue)
    # parameters:
    #   aifs: AIFS (default 2)
    #   cwmin: cwMin (1, 3, 7, 15, 31, 63, 127, 255, 511, 1023, 2047, 4095, 8191,
    #	   16383, 32767)
    #   cwmax: cwMax (same values as cwMin, cwMax >= cwMin)
    #   burst: maximum length (in milliseconds with precision of up to 0.1 ms) for
    #          bursting
    #
    # Default WMM parameters (IEEE 802.11 draft; 11-03-0504-03-000e):
    # These parameters are used by the access point when transmitting frames
    # to the clients.
    #
    # Low priority / AC_BK = background
    #tx_queue_data3_aifs=7
    #tx_queue_data3_cwmin=15
    #tx_queue_data3_cwmax=1023
    #tx_queue_data3_burst=0
    # Note: for IEEE 802.11b mode: cWmin=31 cWmax=1023 burst=0
    #
    # Normal priority / AC_BE = best effort
    #tx_queue_data2_aifs=3
    #tx_queue_data2_cwmin=15
    #tx_queue_data2_cwmax=63
    #tx_queue_data2_burst=0
    # Note: for IEEE 802.11b mode: cWmin=31 cWmax=127 burst=0
    #
    # High priority / AC_VI = video
    #tx_queue_data1_aifs=1
    #tx_queue_data1_cwmin=7
    #tx_queue_data1_cwmax=15
    #tx_queue_data1_burst=3.0
    # Note: for IEEE 802.11b mode: cWmin=15 cWmax=31 burst=6.0
    #
    # Highest priority / AC_VO = voice
    #tx_queue_data0_aifs=1
    #tx_queue_data0_cwmin=3
    #tx_queue_data0_cwmax=7
    #tx_queue_data0_burst=1.5
    # Note: for IEEE 802.11b mode: cWmin=7 cWmax=15 burst=3.3
    
    # 802.1D Tag (= UP) to AC mappings
    # WMM specifies following mapping of data frames to different ACs. This mapping
    # can be configured using Linux QoS/tc and sch_pktpri.o module.
    # 802.1D Tag	802.1D Designation	Access Category	WMM Designation
    # 1		BK			AC_BK		Background
    # 2		-			AC_BK		Background
    # 0		BE			AC_BE		Best Effort
    # 3		EE			AC_BE		Best Effort
    # 4		CL			AC_VI		Video
    # 5		VI			AC_VI		Video
    # 6		VO			AC_VO		Voice
    # 7		NC			AC_VO		Voice
    # Data frames with no priority information: AC_BE
    # Management frames: AC_VO
    # PS-Poll frames: AC_BE
    
    # Default WMM parameters (IEEE 802.11 draft; 11-03-0504-03-000e):
    # for 802.11a or 802.11g networks
    # These parameters are sent to WMM clients when they associate.
    # The parameters will be used by WMM clients for frames transmitted to the
    # access point.
    #
    # note - txop_limit is in units of 32microseconds
    # note - acm is admission control mandatory flag. 0 = admission control not
    # required, 1 = mandatory
    # note - Here cwMin and cmMax are in exponent form. The actual cw value used
    # will be (2^n)-1 where n is the value given here. The allowed range for these
    # wmm_ac_??_{cwmin,cwmax} is 0..15 with cwmax >= cwmin.
    #
    wmm_enabled=1
    #
    # WMM-PS Unscheduled Automatic Power Save Delivery [U-APSD]
    # Enable this flag if U-APSD supported outside hostapd (eg., Firmware/driver)
    #uapsd_advertisement_enabled=1
    #
    # Low priority / AC_BK = background
    wmm_ac_bk_cwmin=4
    wmm_ac_bk_cwmax=10
    wmm_ac_bk_aifs=7
    wmm_ac_bk_txop_limit=0
    wmm_ac_bk_acm=0
    # Note: for IEEE 802.11b mode: cWmin=5 cWmax=10
    #
    # Normal priority / AC_BE = best effort
    wmm_ac_be_aifs=3
    wmm_ac_be_cwmin=4
    wmm_ac_be_cwmax=10
    wmm_ac_be_txop_limit=0
    wmm_ac_be_acm=0
    # Note: for IEEE 802.11b mode: cWmin=5 cWmax=7
    #
    # High priority / AC_VI = video
    wmm_ac_vi_aifs=2
    wmm_ac_vi_cwmin=3
    wmm_ac_vi_cwmax=4
    wmm_ac_vi_txop_limit=94
    wmm_ac_vi_acm=0
    # Note: for IEEE 802.11b mode: cWmin=4 cWmax=5 txop_limit=188
    #
    # Highest priority / AC_VO = voice
    wmm_ac_vo_aifs=2
    wmm_ac_vo_cwmin=2
    wmm_ac_vo_cwmax=3
    wmm_ac_vo_txop_limit=47
    wmm_ac_vo_acm=0
    # Note: for IEEE 802.11b mode: cWmin=3 cWmax=4 burst=102
    
    # Enable Multi-AP functionality
    # 0 = disabled (default)
    # 1 = AP support backhaul BSS
    # 2 = AP support fronthaul BSS
    # 3 = AP supports both backhaul BSS and fronthaul BSS
    #multi_ap=0
    
    # Static WEP key configuration
    #
    # The key number to use when transmitting.
    # It must be between 0 and 3, and the corresponding key must be set.
    # default: not set
    #wep_default_key=0
    # The WEP keys to use.
    # A key may be a quoted string or unquoted hexadecimal digits.
    # The key length should be 5, 13, or 16 characters, or 10, 26, or 32
    # digits, depending on whether 40-bit (64-bit), 104-bit (128-bit), or
    # 128-bit (152-bit) WEP is used.
    # Only the default key must be supplied; the others are optional.
    # default: not set
    #wep_key0=123456789a
    #wep_key1="vwxyz"
    #wep_key2=0102030405060708090a0b0c0d
    #wep_key3=".2.4.6.8.0.23"
    
    # Station inactivity limit
    #
    # If a station does not send anything in ap_max_inactivity seconds, an
    # empty data frame is sent to it in order to verify whether it is
    # still in range. If this frame is not ACKed, the station will be
    # disassociated and then deauthenticated. This feature is used to
    # clear station table of old entries when the STAs move out of the
    # range.
    #
    # The station can associate again with the AP if it is still in range;
    # this inactivity poll is just used as a nicer way of verifying
    # inactivity; i.e., client will not report broken connection because
    # disassociation frame is not sent immediately without first polling
    # the STA with a data frame.
    # default: 300 (i.e., 5 minutes)
    #ap_max_inactivity=300
    #
    # The inactivity polling can be disabled to disconnect stations based on
    # inactivity timeout so that idle stations are more likely to be disconnected
    # even if they are still in range of the AP. This can be done by setting
    # skip_inactivity_poll to 1 (default 0).
    #skip_inactivity_poll=0
    
    # Disassociate stations based on excessive transmission failures or other
    # indications of connection loss. This depends on the driver capabilities and
    # may not be available with all drivers.
    #disassoc_low_ack=1
    
    # Maximum allowed Listen Interval (how many Beacon periods STAs are allowed to
    # remain asleep). Default: 65535 (no limit apart from field size)
    #max_listen_interval=100
    
    # WDS (4-address frame) mode with per-station virtual interfaces
    # (only supported with driver=nl80211)
    # This mode allows associated stations to use 4-address frames to allow layer 2
    # bridging to be used.
    #wds_sta=1
    
    # If bridge parameter is set, the WDS STA interface will be added to the same
    # bridge by default. This can be overridden with the wds_bridge parameter to
    # use a separate bridge.
    #wds_bridge=wds-br0
    
    # Start the AP with beaconing disabled by default.
    #start_disabled=0
    
    # Client isolation can be used to prevent low-level bridging of frames between
    # associated stations in the BSS. By default, this bridging is allowed.
    #ap_isolate=1
    
    # BSS Load update period (in BUs)
    # This field is used to enable and configure adding a BSS Load element into
    # Beacon and Probe Response frames.
    #bss_load_update_period=50
    
    # Channel utilization averaging period (in BUs)
    # This field is used to enable and configure channel utilization average
    # calculation with bss_load_update_period. This should be in multiples of
    # bss_load_update_period for more accurate calculation.
    #chan_util_avg_period=600
    
    # Fixed BSS Load value for testing purposes
    # This field can be used to configure hostapd to add a fixed BSS Load element
    # into Beacon and Probe Response frames for testing purposes. The format is
    # <station count>:<channel utilization>:<available admission capacity>
    #bss_load_test=12:80:20000
    
    # Multicast to unicast conversion
    # Request that the AP will do multicast-to-unicast conversion for ARP, IPv4, and
    # IPv6 frames (possibly within 802.1Q). If enabled, such frames are to be sent
    # to each station separately, with the DA replaced by their own MAC address
    # rather than the group address.
    #
    # Note that this may break certain expectations of the receiver, such as the
    # ability to drop unicast IP packets received within multicast L2 frames, or the
    # ability to not send ICMP destination unreachable messages for packets received
    # in L2 multicast (which is required, but the receiver can't tell the difference
    # if this new option is enabled).
    #
    # This also doesn't implement the 802.11 DMS (directed multicast service).
    #
    #multicast_to_unicast=0
    
    # Send broadcast Deauthentication frame on AP start/stop
    # Default: 1 (enabled)
    #broadcast_deauth=1
    
    ##### IEEE 802.11n related configuration ######################################
    
    # ieee80211n: Whether IEEE 802.11n (HT) is enabled
    # 0 = disabled (default)
    # 1 = enabled
    # Note: You will also need to enable WMM for full HT functionality.
    # Note: hw_mode=g (2.4 GHz) and hw_mode=a (5 GHz) is used to specify the band.
    #ieee80211n=1
    
    # ht_capab: HT capabilities (list of flags)
    # LDPC coding capability: [LDPC] = supported
    # Supported channel width set: [HT40-] = both 20 MHz and 40 MHz with secondary
    #	channel below the primary channel; [HT40+] = both 20 MHz and 40 MHz
    #	with secondary channel above the primary channel
    #	(20 MHz only if neither is set)
    #	Note: There are limits on which channels can be used with HT40- and
    #	HT40+. Following table shows the channels that may be available for
    #	HT40- and HT40+ use per IEEE 802.11n Annex J:
    #	freq		HT40-		HT40+
    #	2.4 GHz		5-13		1-7 (1-9 in Europe/Japan)
    #	5 GHz		40,48,56,64	36,44,52,60
    #	(depending on the location, not all of these channels may be available
    #	for use)
    #	Please note that 40 MHz channels may switch their primary and secondary
    #	channels if needed or creation of 40 MHz channel maybe rejected based
    #	on overlapping BSSes. These changes are done automatically when hostapd
    #	is setting up the 40 MHz channel.
    # Spatial Multiplexing (SM) Power Save: [SMPS-STATIC] or [SMPS-DYNAMIC]
    #	(SMPS disabled if neither is set)
    # HT-greenfield: [GF] (disabled if not set)
    # Short GI for 20 MHz: [SHORT-GI-20] (disabled if not set)
    # Short GI for 40 MHz: [SHORT-GI-40] (disabled if not set)
    # Tx STBC: [TX-STBC] (disabled if not set)
    # Rx STBC: [RX-STBC1] (one spatial stream), [RX-STBC12] (one or two spatial
    #	streams), or [RX-STBC123] (one, two, or three spatial streams); Rx STBC
    #	disabled if none of these set
    # HT-delayed Block Ack: [DELAYED-BA] (disabled if not set)
    # Maximum A-MSDU length: [MAX-AMSDU-7935] for 7935 octets (3839 octets if not
    #	set)
    # DSSS/CCK Mode in 40 MHz: [DSSS_CCK-40] = allowed (not allowed if not set)
    # 40 MHz intolerant [40-INTOLERANT] (not advertised if not set)
    # L-SIG TXOP protection support: [LSIG-TXOP-PROT] (disabled if not set)
    #ht_capab=[HT40-][SHORT-GI-20][SHORT-GI-40]
    
    # Require stations to support HT PHY (reject association if they do not)
    #require_ht=1
    
    # If set non-zero, require stations to perform scans of overlapping
    # channels to test for stations which would be affected by 40 MHz traffic.
    # This parameter sets the interval in seconds between these scans. Setting this
    # to non-zero allows 2.4 GHz band AP to move dynamically to a 40 MHz channel if
    # no co-existence issues with neighboring devices are found.
    #obss_interval=0
    
    ##### IEEE 802.11ac related configuration #####################################
    
    # ieee80211ac: Whether IEEE 802.11ac (VHT) is enabled
    # 0 = disabled (default)
    # 1 = enabled
    # Note: You will also need to enable WMM for full VHT functionality.
    # Note: hw_mode=a is used to specify that 5 GHz band is used with VHT.
    #ieee80211ac=1
    
    # vht_capab: VHT capabilities (list of flags)
    #
    # vht_max_mpdu_len: [MAX-MPDU-7991] [MAX-MPDU-11454]
    # Indicates maximum MPDU length
    # 0 = 3895 octets (default)
    # 1 = 7991 octets
    # 2 = 11454 octets
    # 3 = reserved
    #
    # supported_chan_width: [VHT160] [VHT160-80PLUS80]
    # Indicates supported Channel widths
    # 0 = 160 MHz & 80+80 channel widths are not supported (default)
    # 1 = 160 MHz channel width is supported
    # 2 = 160 MHz & 80+80 channel widths are supported
    # 3 = reserved
    #
    # Rx LDPC coding capability: [RXLDPC]
    # Indicates support for receiving LDPC coded pkts
    # 0 = Not supported (default)
    # 1 = Supported
    #
    # Short GI for 80 MHz: [SHORT-GI-80]
    # Indicates short GI support for reception of packets transmitted with TXVECTOR
    # params format equal to VHT and CBW = 80Mhz
    # 0 = Not supported (default)
    # 1 = Supported
    #
    # Short GI for 160 MHz: [SHORT-GI-160]
    # Indicates short GI support for reception of packets transmitted with TXVECTOR
    # params format equal to VHT and CBW = 160Mhz
    # 0 = Not supported (default)
    # 1 = Supported
    #
    # Tx STBC: [TX-STBC-2BY1]
    # Indicates support for the transmission of at least 2x1 STBC
    # 0 = Not supported (default)
    # 1 = Supported
    #
    # Rx STBC: [RX-STBC-1] [RX-STBC-12] [RX-STBC-123] [RX-STBC-1234]
    # Indicates support for the reception of PPDUs using STBC
    # 0 = Not supported (default)
    # 1 = support of one spatial stream
    # 2 = support of one and two spatial streams
    # 3 = support of one, two and three spatial streams
    # 4 = support of one, two, three and four spatial streams
    # 5,6,7 = reserved
    #
    # SU Beamformer Capable: [SU-BEAMFORMER]
    # Indicates support for operation as a single user beamformer
    # 0 = Not supported (default)
    # 1 = Supported
    #
    # SU Beamformee Capable: [SU-BEAMFORMEE]
    # Indicates support for operation as a single user beamformee
    # 0 = Not supported (default)
    # 1 = Supported
    #
    # Compressed Steering Number of Beamformer Antennas Supported:
    # [BF-ANTENNA-2] [BF-ANTENNA-3] [BF-ANTENNA-4]
    #   Beamformee's capability indicating the maximum number of beamformer
    #   antennas the beamformee can support when sending compressed beamforming
    #   feedback
    # If SU beamformer capable, set to maximum value minus 1
    # else reserved (default)
    #
    # Number of Sounding Dimensions:
    # [SOUNDING-DIMENSION-2] [SOUNDING-DIMENSION-3] [SOUNDING-DIMENSION-4]
    # Beamformer's capability indicating the maximum value of the NUM_STS parameter
    # in the TXVECTOR of a VHT NDP
    # If SU beamformer capable, set to maximum value minus 1
    # else reserved (default)
    #
    # MU Beamformer Capable: [MU-BEAMFORMER]
    # Indicates support for operation as an MU beamformer
    # 0 = Not supported or sent by Non-AP STA (default)
    # 1 = Supported
    #
    # VHT TXOP PS: [VHT-TXOP-PS]
    # Indicates whether or not the AP supports VHT TXOP Power Save Mode
    #  or whether or not the STA is in VHT TXOP Power Save mode
    # 0 = VHT AP doesn't support VHT TXOP PS mode (OR) VHT STA not in VHT TXOP PS
    #  mode
    # 1 = VHT AP supports VHT TXOP PS mode (OR) VHT STA is in VHT TXOP power save
    #  mode
    #
    # +HTC-VHT Capable: [HTC-VHT]
    # Indicates whether or not the STA supports receiving a VHT variant HT Control
    # field.
    # 0 = Not supported (default)
    # 1 = supported
    #
    # Maximum A-MPDU Length Exponent: [MAX-A-MPDU-LEN-EXP0]..[MAX-A-MPDU-LEN-EXP7]
    # Indicates the maximum length of A-MPDU pre-EOF padding that the STA can recv
    # This field is an integer in the range of 0 to 7.
    # The length defined by this field is equal to
    # 2 pow(13 + Maximum A-MPDU Length Exponent) -1 octets
    #
    # VHT Link Adaptation Capable: [VHT-LINK-ADAPT2] [VHT-LINK-ADAPT3]
    # Indicates whether or not the STA supports link adaptation using VHT variant
    # HT Control field
    # If +HTC-VHTcapable is 1
    #  0 = (no feedback) if the STA does not provide VHT MFB (default)
    #  1 = reserved
    #  2 = (Unsolicited) if the STA provides only unsolicited VHT MFB
    #  3 = (Both) if the STA can provide VHT MFB in response to VHT MRQ and if the
    #      STA provides unsolicited VHT MFB
    # Reserved if +HTC-VHTcapable is 0
    #
    # Rx Antenna Pattern Consistency: [RX-ANTENNA-PATTERN]
    # Indicates the possibility of Rx antenna pattern change
    # 0 = Rx antenna pattern might change during the lifetime of an association
    # 1 = Rx antenna pattern does not change during the lifetime of an association
    #
    # Tx Antenna Pattern Consistency: [TX-ANTENNA-PATTERN]
    # Indicates the possibility of Tx antenna pattern change
    # 0 = Tx antenna pattern might change during the lifetime of an association
    # 1 = Tx antenna pattern does not change during the lifetime of an association
    #vht_capab=[SHORT-GI-80][HTC-VHT]
    #
    # Require stations to support VHT PHY (reject association if they do not)
    #require_vht=1
    
    # 0 = 20 or 40 MHz operating Channel width
    # 1 = 80 MHz channel width
    # 2 = 160 MHz channel width
    # 3 = 80+80 MHz channel width
    #vht_oper_chwidth=1
    #
    # center freq = 5 GHz + (5 * index)
    # So index 42 gives center freq 5.210 GHz
    # which is channel 42 in 5G band
    #
    #vht_oper_centr_freq_seg0_idx=42
    #
    # center freq = 5 GHz + (5 * index)
    # So index 159 gives center freq 5.795 GHz
    # which is channel 159 in 5G band
    #
    #vht_oper_centr_freq_seg1_idx=159
    
    # Workaround to use station's nsts capability in (Re)Association Response frame
    # This may be needed with some deployed devices as an interoperability
    # workaround for beamforming if the AP's capability is greater than the
    # station's capability. This is disabled by default and can be enabled by
    # setting use_sta_nsts=1.
    #use_sta_nsts=0
    
    ##### IEEE 802.11ax related configuration #####################################
    
    #ieee80211ax: Whether IEEE 802.11ax (HE) is enabled
    # 0 = disabled (default)
    # 1 = enabled
    #ieee80211ax=1
    
    #he_su_beamformer: HE single user beamformer support
    # 0 = not supported (default)
    # 1 = supported
    #he_su_beamformer=1
    
    #he_su_beamformee: HE single user beamformee support
    # 0 = not supported (default)
    # 1 = supported
    #he_su_beamformee=1
    
    #he_mu_beamformer: HE multiple user beamformer support
    # 0 = not supported (default)
    # 1 = supported
    #he_mu_beamformer=1
    
    # he_bss_color: BSS color (1-63)
    #he_bss_color=1
    
    #he_default_pe_duration: The duration of PE field in an HE PPDU in us
    # Possible values are 0 us (default), 4 us, 8 us, 12 us, and 16 us
    #he_default_pe_duration=0
    
    #he_twt_required: Whether TWT is required
    # 0 = not required (default)
    # 1 = required
    #he_twt_required=0
    
    #he_rts_threshold: Duration of STA transmission
    # 0 = not set (default)
    # unsigned integer = duration in units of 16 us
    #he_rts_threshold=0
    
    #he_mu_edca_qos_info_param_count
    #he_mu_edca_qos_info_q_ack
    #he_mu_edca_qos_info_queue_request=1
    #he_mu_edca_qos_info_txop_request
    #he_mu_edca_ac_be_aifsn=0
    #he_mu_edca_ac_be_ecwmin=15
    #he_mu_edca_ac_be_ecwmax=15
    #he_mu_edca_ac_be_timer=255
    #he_mu_edca_ac_bk_aifsn=0
    #he_mu_edca_ac_bk_aci=1
    #he_mu_edca_ac_bk_ecwmin=15
    #he_mu_edca_ac_bk_ecwmax=15
    #he_mu_edca_ac_bk_timer=255
    #he_mu_edca_ac_vi_ecwmin=15
    #he_mu_edca_ac_vi_ecwmax=15
    #he_mu_edca_ac_vi_aifsn=0
    #he_mu_edca_ac_vi_aci=2
    #he_mu_edca_ac_vi_timer=255
    #he_mu_edca_ac_vo_aifsn=0
    #he_mu_edca_ac_vo_aci=3
    #he_mu_edca_ac_vo_ecwmin=15
    #he_mu_edca_ac_vo_ecwmax=15
    #he_mu_edca_ac_vo_timer=255
    
    # Spatial Reuse Parameter Set
    #he_spr_sr_control
    #he_spr_non_srg_obss_pd_max_offset
    #he_spr_srg_obss_pd_min_offset
    #he_spr_srg_obss_pd_max_offset
    
    ##### IEEE 802.1X-2004 related configuration ##################################
    
    # Require IEEE 802.1X authorization
    #ieee8021x=1
    
    # IEEE 802.1X/EAPOL version
    # hostapd is implemented based on IEEE Std 802.1X-2004 which defines EAPOL
    # version 2. However, there are many client implementations that do not handle
    # the new version number correctly (they seem to drop the frames completely).
    # In order to make hostapd interoperate with these clients, the version number
    # can be set to the older version (1) with this configuration value.
    #eapol_version=2
    
    # Optional displayable message sent with EAP Request-Identity. The first \0
    # in this string will be converted to ASCII-0 (nul). This can be used to
    # separate network info (comma separated list of attribute=value pairs); see,
    # e.g., RFC 4284.
    #eap_message=hello
    #eap_message=hello\0networkid=netw,nasid=foo,portid=0,NAIRealms=example.com
    
    # WEP rekeying (disabled if key lengths are not set or are set to 0)
    # Key lengths for default/broadcast and individual/unicast keys:
    # 5 = 40-bit WEP (also known as 64-bit WEP with 40 secret bits)
    # 13 = 104-bit WEP (also known as 128-bit WEP with 104 secret bits)
    #wep_key_len_broadcast=5
    #wep_key_len_unicast=5
    # Rekeying period in seconds. 0 = do not rekey (i.e., set keys only once)
    #wep_rekey_period=300
    
    # EAPOL-Key index workaround (set bit7) for WinXP Supplicant (needed only if
    # only broadcast keys are used)
    eapol_key_index_workaround=0
    
    # EAP reauthentication period in seconds (default: 3600 seconds; 0 = disable
    # reauthentication).
    #eap_reauth_period=3600
    
    # Use PAE group address (01:80:c2:00:00:03) instead of individual target
    # address when sending EAPOL frames with driver=wired. This is the most common
    # mechanism used in wired authentication, but it also requires that the port
    # is only used by one station.
    #use_pae_group_addr=1
    
    # EAP Re-authentication Protocol (ERP) authenticator (RFC 6696)
    #
    # Whether to initiate EAP authentication with EAP-Initiate/Re-auth-Start before
    # EAP-Identity/Request
    #erp_send_reauth_start=1
    #
    # Domain name for EAP-Initiate/Re-auth-Start. Omitted from the message if not
    # set (no local ER server). This is also used by the integrated EAP server if
    # ERP is enabled (eap_server_erp=1).
    #erp_domain=example.com
    
    ##### Integrated EAP server ###################################################
    
    # Optionally, hostapd can be configured to use an integrated EAP server
    # to process EAP authentication locally without need for an external RADIUS
    # server. This functionality can be used both as a local authentication server
    # for IEEE 802.1X/EAPOL and as a RADIUS server for other devices.
    
    # Use integrated EAP server instead of external RADIUS authentication
    # server. This is also needed if hostapd is configured to act as a RADIUS
    # authentication server.
    eap_server=0
    
    # Path for EAP server user database
    # If SQLite support is included, this can be set to "sqlite:/path/to/sqlite.db"
    # to use SQLite database instead of a text file.
    #eap_user_file=/etc/hostapd.eap_user
    
    # CA certificate (PEM or DER file) for EAP-TLS/PEAP/TTLS
    #ca_cert=/etc/hostapd.ca.pem
    
    # Server certificate (PEM or DER file) for EAP-TLS/PEAP/TTLS
    #server_cert=/etc/hostapd.server.pem
    
    # Private key matching with the server certificate for EAP-TLS/PEAP/TTLS
    # This may point to the same file as server_cert if both certificate and key
    # are included in a single file. PKCS#12 (PFX) file (.p12/.pfx) can also be
    # used by commenting out server_cert and specifying the PFX file as the
    # private_key.
    #private_key=/etc/hostapd.server.prv
    
    # Passphrase for private key
    #private_key_passwd=secret passphrase
    
    # Server identity
    # EAP methods that provide mechanism for authenticated server identity delivery
    # use this value. If not set, "hostapd" is used as a default.
    #server_id=server.example.com
    
    # Enable CRL verification.
    # Note: hostapd does not yet support CRL downloading based on CDP. Thus, a
    # valid CRL signed by the CA is required to be included in the ca_cert file.
    # This can be done by using PEM format for CA certificate and CRL and
    # concatenating these into one file. Whenever CRL changes, hostapd needs to be
    # restarted to take the new CRL into use. Alternatively, crl_reload_interval can
    # be used to configure periodic updating of the loaded CRL information.
    # 0 = do not verify CRLs (default)
    # 1 = check the CRL of the user certificate
    # 2 = check all CRLs in the certificate path
    #check_crl=1
    
    # Specify whether to ignore certificate CRL validity time mismatches with
    # errors X509_V_ERR_CERT_HAS_EXPIRED and X509_V_ERR_CERT_NOT_YET_VALID.
    #
    # 0 = ignore errors
    # 1 = do not ignore errors (default)
    #check_crl_strict=1
    
    # CRL reload interval in seconds
    # This can be used to reload ca_cert file and the included CRL on every new TLS
    # session if difference between last reload and the current reload time in
    # seconds is greater than crl_reload_interval.
    # Note: If interval time is very short, CPU overhead may be negatively affected
    # and it is advised to not go below 300 seconds.
    # This is applicable only with check_crl values 1 and 2.
    # 0 = do not reload CRLs (default)
    # crl_reload_interval = 300
    
    # If check_cert_subject is set, the value of every field will be checked
    # against the DN of the subject in the client certificate. If the values do
    # not match, the certificate verification will fail, rejecting the user.
    # This option allows hostapd to match every individual field in the right order
    # against the DN of the subject in the client certificate.
    #
    # For example, check_cert_subject=C=US/O=XX/OU=ABC/OU=XYZ/CN=1234 will check
    # every individual DN field of the subject in the client certificate. If OU=XYZ
    # comes first in terms of the order in the client certificate (DN field of
    # client certificate C=US/O=XX/OU=XYZ/OU=ABC/CN=1234), hostapd will reject the
    # client because the order of 'OU' is not matching the specified string in
    # check_cert_subject.
    #
    # This option also allows '*' as a wildcard. This option has some limitation.
    # It can only be used as per the following example.
    #
    # For example, check_cert_subject=C=US/O=XX/OU=Production* and we have two
    # clients and DN of the subject in the first client certificate is
    # (C=US/O=XX/OU=Production Unit) and DN of the subject in the second client is
    # (C=US/O=XX/OU=Production Factory). In this case, hostapd will allow both
    # clients because the value of 'OU' field in both client certificates matches
    # 'OU' value in 'check_cert_subject' up to 'wildcard'.
    #
    # * (Allow all clients, e.g., check_cert_subject=*)
    #check_cert_subject=string
    
    # TLS Session Lifetime in seconds
    # This can be used to allow TLS sessions to be cached and resumed with an
    # abbreviated handshake when using EAP-TLS/TTLS/PEAP.
    # (default: 0 = session caching and resumption disabled)
    #tls_session_lifetime=3600
    
    # TLS flags
    # [ALLOW-SIGN-RSA-MD5] = allow MD5-based certificate signatures (depending on
    #	the TLS library, these may be disabled by default to enforce stronger
    #	security)
    # [DISABLE-TIME-CHECKS] = ignore certificate validity time (this requests
    #	the TLS library to accept certificates even if they are not currently
    #	valid, i.e., have expired or have not yet become valid; this should be
    #	used only for testing purposes)
    # [DISABLE-TLSv1.0] = disable use of TLSv1.0
    # [ENABLE-TLSv1.0] = explicitly enable use of TLSv1.0 (this allows
    #	systemwide TLS policies to be overridden)
    # [DISABLE-TLSv1.1] = disable use of TLSv1.1
    # [ENABLE-TLSv1.1] = explicitly enable use of TLSv1.1 (this allows
    #	systemwide TLS policies to be overridden)
    # [DISABLE-TLSv1.2] = disable use of TLSv1.2
    # [ENABLE-TLSv1.2] = explicitly enable use of TLSv1.2 (this allows
    #	systemwide TLS policies to be overridden)
    # [DISABLE-TLSv1.3] = disable use of TLSv1.3
    # [ENABLE-TLSv1.3] = enable TLSv1.3 (experimental - disabled by default)
    #tls_flags=[flag1][flag2]...
    
    # Cached OCSP stapling response (DER encoded)
    # If set, this file is sent as a certificate status response by the EAP server
    # if the EAP peer requests certificate status in the ClientHello message.
    # This cache file can be updated, e.g., by running following command
    # periodically to get an update from the OCSP responder:
    # openssl ocsp \
    #	-no_nonce \
    #	-CAfile /etc/hostapd.ca.pem \
    #	-issuer /etc/hostapd.ca.pem \
    #	-cert /etc/hostapd.server.pem \
    #	-url http://ocsp.example.com:8888/ \
    #	-respout /tmp/ocsp-cache.der
    #ocsp_stapling_response=/tmp/ocsp-cache.der
    
    # Cached OCSP stapling response list (DER encoded OCSPResponseList)
    # This is similar to ocsp_stapling_response, but the extended version defined in
    # RFC 6961 to allow multiple OCSP responses to be provided.
    #ocsp_stapling_response_multi=/tmp/ocsp-multi-cache.der
    
    # dh_file: File path to DH/DSA parameters file (in PEM format)
    # This is an optional configuration file for setting parameters for an
    # ephemeral DH key exchange. In most cases, the default RSA authentication does
    # not use this configuration. However, it is possible setup RSA to use
    # ephemeral DH key exchange. In addition, ciphers with DSA keys always use
    # ephemeral DH keys. This can be used to achieve forward secrecy. If the file
    # is in DSA parameters format, it will be automatically converted into DH
    # params. This parameter is required if anonymous EAP-FAST is used.
    # You can generate DH parameters file with OpenSSL, e.g.,
    # "openssl dhparam -out /etc/hostapd.dh.pem 2048"
    #dh_file=/etc/hostapd.dh.pem
    
    # OpenSSL cipher string
    #
    # This is an OpenSSL specific configuration option for configuring the default
    # ciphers. If not set, the value configured at build time ("DEFAULT:!EXP:!LOW"
    # by default) is used.
    # See https://www.openssl.org/docs/apps/ciphers.html for OpenSSL documentation
    # on cipher suite configuration. This is applicable only if hostapd is built to
    # use OpenSSL.
    #openssl_ciphers=DEFAULT:!EXP:!LOW
    
    # OpenSSL ECDH curves
    #
    # This is an OpenSSL specific configuration option for configuring the ECDH
    # curves for EAP-TLS/TTLS/PEAP/FAST server. If not set, automatic curve
    # selection is enabled. If set to an empty string, ECDH curve configuration is
    # not done (the exact library behavior depends on the library version).
    # Otherwise, this is a colon separated list of the supported curves (e.g.,
    # P-521:P-384:P-256). This is applicable only if hostapd is built to use
    # OpenSSL. This must not be used for Suite B cases since the same OpenSSL
    # parameter is set differently in those cases and this might conflict with that
    # design.
    #openssl_ecdh_curves=P-521:P-384:P-256
    
    # Fragment size for EAP methods
    #fragment_size=1400
    
    # Finite cyclic group for EAP-pwd. Number maps to group of domain parameters
    # using the IANA repository for IKE (RFC 2409).
    #pwd_group=19
    
    # Configuration data for EAP-SIM database/authentication gateway interface.
    # This is a text string in implementation specific format. The example
    # implementation in eap_sim_db.c uses this as the UNIX domain socket name for
    # the HLR/AuC gateway (e.g., hlr_auc_gw). In this case, the path uses "unix:"
    # prefix. If hostapd is built with SQLite support (CONFIG_SQLITE=y in .config),
    # database file can be described with an optional db=<path> parameter.
    #eap_sim_db=unix:/tmp/hlr_auc_gw.sock
    #eap_sim_db=unix:/tmp/hlr_auc_gw.sock db=/tmp/hostapd.db
    
    # EAP-SIM DB request timeout
    # This parameter sets the maximum time to wait for a database request response.
    # The parameter value is in seconds.
    #eap_sim_db_timeout=1
    
    # Encryption key for EAP-FAST PAC-Opaque values. This key must be a secret,
    # random value. It is configured as a 16-octet value in hex format. It can be
    # generated, e.g., with the following command:
    # od -tx1 -v -N16 /dev/random | colrm 1 8 | tr -d ' '
    #pac_opaque_encr_key=000102030405060708090a0b0c0d0e0f
    
    # EAP-FAST authority identity (A-ID)
    # A-ID indicates the identity of the authority that issues PACs. The A-ID
    # should be unique across all issuing servers. In theory, this is a variable
    # length field, but due to some existing implementations requiring A-ID to be
    # 16 octets in length, it is strongly recommended to use that length for the
    # field to provid interoperability with deployed peer implementations. This
    # field is configured in hex format.
    #eap_fast_a_id=101112131415161718191a1b1c1d1e1f
    
    # EAP-FAST authority identifier information (A-ID-Info)
    # This is a user-friendly name for the A-ID. For example, the enterprise name
    # and server name in a human-readable format. This field is encoded as UTF-8.
    #eap_fast_a_id_info=test server
    
    # Enable/disable different EAP-FAST provisioning modes:
    #0 = provisioning disabled
    #1 = only anonymous provisioning allowed
    #2 = only authenticated provisioning allowed
    #3 = both provisioning modes allowed (default)
    #eap_fast_prov=3
    
    # EAP-FAST PAC-Key lifetime in seconds (hard limit)
    #pac_key_lifetime=604800
    
    # EAP-FAST PAC-Key refresh time in seconds (soft limit on remaining hard
    # limit). The server will generate a new PAC-Key when this number of seconds
    # (or fewer) of the lifetime remains.
    #pac_key_refresh_time=86400
    
    # EAP-SIM and EAP-AKA protected success/failure indication using AT_RESULT_IND
    # (default: 0 = disabled).
    #eap_sim_aka_result_ind=1
    
    # Trusted Network Connect (TNC)
    # If enabled, TNC validation will be required before the peer is allowed to
    # connect. Note: This is only used with EAP-TTLS and EAP-FAST. If any other
    # EAP method is enabled, the peer will be allowed to connect without TNC.
    #tnc=1
    
    # EAP Re-authentication Protocol (ERP) - RFC 6696
    #
    # Whether to enable ERP on the EAP server.
    #eap_server_erp=1
    
    ##### IEEE 802.11f - Inter-Access Point Protocol (IAPP) #######################
    
    # Interface to be used for IAPP broadcast packets
    #iapp_interface=eth0
    
    
    ##### RADIUS client configuration #############################################
    # for IEEE 802.1X with external Authentication Server, IEEE 802.11
    # authentication with external ACL for MAC addresses, and accounting
    
    # The own IP address of the access point (used as NAS-IP-Address)
    own_ip_addr=127.0.0.1
    
    # NAS-Identifier string for RADIUS messages. When used, this should be unique
    # to the NAS within the scope of the RADIUS server. Please note that hostapd
    # uses a separate RADIUS client for each BSS and as such, a unique
    # nas_identifier value should be configured separately for each BSS. This is
    # particularly important for cases where RADIUS accounting is used
    # (Accounting-On/Off messages are interpreted as clearing all ongoing sessions
    # and that may get interpreted as applying to all BSSes if the same
    # NAS-Identifier value is used.) For example, a fully qualified domain name
    # prefixed with a unique identifier of the BSS (e.g., BSSID) can be used here.
    #
    # When using IEEE 802.11r, nas_identifier must be set and must be between 1 and
    # 48 octets long.
    #
    # It is mandatory to configure either own_ip_addr or nas_identifier to be
    # compliant with the RADIUS protocol. When using RADIUS accounting, it is
    # strongly recommended that nas_identifier is set to a unique value for each
    # BSS.
    #nas_identifier=ap.example.com
    
    # RADIUS client forced local IP address for the access point
    # Normally the local IP address is determined automatically based on configured
    # IP addresses, but this field can be used to force a specific address to be
    # used, e.g., when the device has multiple IP addresses.
    #radius_client_addr=127.0.0.1
    
    # RADIUS authentication server
    #auth_server_addr=127.0.0.1
    #auth_server_port=1812
    #auth_server_shared_secret=secret
    
    # RADIUS accounting server
    #acct_server_addr=127.0.0.1
    #acct_server_port=1813
    #acct_server_shared_secret=secret
    
    # Secondary RADIUS servers; to be used if primary one does not reply to
    # RADIUS packets. These are optional and there can be more than one secondary
    # server listed.
    #auth_server_addr=127.0.0.2
    #auth_server_port=1812
    #auth_server_shared_secret=secret2
    #
    #acct_server_addr=127.0.0.2
    #acct_server_port=1813
    #acct_server_shared_secret=secret2
    
    # Retry interval for trying to return to the primary RADIUS server (in
    # seconds). RADIUS client code will automatically try to use the next server
    # when the current server is not replying to requests. If this interval is set,
    # primary server will be retried after configured amount of time even if the
    # currently used secondary server is still working.
    #radius_retry_primary_interval=600
    
    
    # Interim accounting update interval
    # If this is set (larger than 0) and acct_server is configured, hostapd will
    # send interim accounting updates every N seconds. Note: if set, this overrides
    # possible Acct-Interim-Interval attribute in Access-Accept message. Thus, this
    # value should not be configured in hostapd.conf, if RADIUS server is used to
    # control the interim interval.
    # This value should not be less 600 (10 minutes) and must not be less than
    # 60 (1 minute).
    #radius_acct_interim_interval=600
    
    # Request Chargeable-User-Identity (RFC 4372)
    # This parameter can be used to configure hostapd to request CUI from the
    # RADIUS server by including Chargeable-User-Identity attribute into
    # Access-Request packets.
    #radius_request_cui=1
    
    # Dynamic VLAN mode; allow RADIUS authentication server to decide which VLAN
    # is used for the stations. This information is parsed from following RADIUS
    # attributes based on RFC 3580 and RFC 2868: Tunnel-Type (value 13 = VLAN),
    # Tunnel-Medium-Type (value 6 = IEEE 802), Tunnel-Private-Group-ID (value
    # VLANID as a string). Optionally, the local MAC ACL list (accept_mac_file) can
    # be used to set static client MAC address to VLAN ID mapping.
    # Dynamic VLAN mode is also used with VLAN ID assignment based on WPA/WPA2
    # passphrase from wpa_psk_file or vlan_id parameter from sae_password.
    # 0 = disabled (default); only VLAN IDs from accept_mac_file will be used
    # 1 = optional; use default interface if RADIUS server does not include VLAN ID
    # 2 = required; reject authentication if RADIUS server does not include VLAN ID
    #dynamic_vlan=0
    
    # Per-Station AP_VLAN interface mode
    # If enabled, each station is assigned its own AP_VLAN interface.
    # This implies per-station group keying and ebtables filtering of inter-STA
    # traffic (when passed through the AP).
    # If the sta is not assigned to any VLAN, then its AP_VLAN interface will be
    # added to the bridge given by the "bridge" configuration option (see above).
    # Otherwise, it will be added to the per-VLAN bridge.
    # 0 = disabled (default)
    # 1 = enabled
    #per_sta_vif=0
    
    # VLAN interface list for dynamic VLAN mode is read from a separate text file.
    # This list is used to map VLAN ID from the RADIUS server to a network
    # interface. Each station is bound to one interface in the same way as with
    # multiple BSSIDs or SSIDs. Each line in this text file is defining a new
    # interface and the line must include VLAN ID and interface name separated by
    # white space (space or tab).
    # If no entries are provided by this file, the station is statically mapped
    # to <bss-iface>.<vlan-id> interfaces.
    # Each line can optionally also contain the name of a bridge to add the VLAN to
    #vlan_file=/etc/hostapd.vlan
    
    # Interface where 802.1q tagged packets should appear when a RADIUS server is
    # used to determine which VLAN a station is on.  hostapd creates a bridge for
    # each VLAN.  Then hostapd adds a VLAN interface (associated with the interface
    # indicated by 'vlan_tagged_interface') and the appropriate wireless interface
    # to the bridge.
    #vlan_tagged_interface=eth0
    
    # Bridge (prefix) to add the wifi and the tagged interface to. This gets the
    # VLAN ID appended. It defaults to brvlan%d if no tagged interface is given
    # and br%s.%d if a tagged interface is given, provided %s = tagged interface
    # and %d = VLAN ID.
    #vlan_bridge=brvlan
    
    # When hostapd creates a VLAN interface on vlan_tagged_interfaces, it needs
    # to know how to name it.
    # 0 = vlan<XXX>, e.g., vlan1
    # 1 = <vlan_tagged_interface>.<XXX>, e.g. eth0.1
    #vlan_naming=0
    
    # Arbitrary RADIUS attributes can be added into Access-Request and
    # Accounting-Request packets by specifying the contents of the attributes with
    # the following configuration parameters. There can be multiple of these to
    # add multiple attributes. These parameters can also be used to override some
    # of the attributes added automatically by hostapd.
    # Format: <attr_id>[:<syntax:value>]
    # attr_id: RADIUS attribute type (e.g., 26 = Vendor-Specific)
    # syntax: s = string (UTF-8), d = integer, x = octet string
    # value: attribute value in format indicated by the syntax
    # If syntax and value parts are omitted, a null value (single 0x00 octet) is
    # used.
    #
    # Additional Access-Request attributes
    # radius_auth_req_attr=<attr_id>[:<syntax:value>]
    # Examples:
    # Operator-Name = "Operator"
    #radius_auth_req_attr=126:s:Operator
    # Service-Type = Framed (2)
    #radius_auth_req_attr=6:d:2
    # Connect-Info = "testing" (this overrides the automatically generated value)
    #radius_auth_req_attr=77:s:testing
    # Same Connect-Info value set as a hexdump
    #radius_auth_req_attr=77:x:74657374696e67
    
    #
    # Additional Accounting-Request attributes
    # radius_acct_req_attr=<attr_id>[:<syntax:value>]
    # Examples:
    # Operator-Name = "Operator"
    #radius_acct_req_attr=126:s:Operator
    
    # Dynamic Authorization Extensions (RFC 5176)
    # This mechanism can be used to allow dynamic changes to user session based on
    # commands from a RADIUS server (or some other disconnect client that has the
    # needed session information). For example, Disconnect message can be used to
    # request an associated station to be disconnected.
    #
    # This is disabled by default. Set radius_das_port to non-zero UDP port
    # number to enable.
    #radius_das_port=3799
    #
    # DAS client (the host that can send Disconnect/CoA requests) and shared secret
    # Format: <IP address> <shared secret>
    # IP address 0.0.0.0 can be used to allow requests from any address.
    #radius_das_client=192.168.1.123 shared secret here
    #
    # DAS Event-Timestamp time window in seconds
    #radius_das_time_window=300
    #
    # DAS require Event-Timestamp
    #radius_das_require_event_timestamp=1
    #
    # DAS require Message-Authenticator
    #radius_das_require_message_authenticator=1
    
    ##### RADIUS authentication server configuration ##############################
    
    # hostapd can be used as a RADIUS authentication server for other hosts. This
    # requires that the integrated EAP server is also enabled and both
    # authentication services are sharing the same configuration.
    
    # File name of the RADIUS clients configuration for the RADIUS server. If this
    # commented out, RADIUS server is disabled.
    #radius_server_clients=/etc/hostapd.radius_clients
    
    # The UDP port number for the RADIUS authentication server
    #radius_server_auth_port=1812
    
    # The UDP port number for the RADIUS accounting server
    # Commenting this out or setting this to 0 can be used to disable RADIUS
    # accounting while still enabling RADIUS authentication.
    #radius_server_acct_port=1813
    
    # Use IPv6 with RADIUS server (IPv4 will also be supported using IPv6 API)
    #radius_server_ipv6=1
    
    
    ##### WPA/IEEE 802.11i configuration ##########################################
    
    # Enable WPA. Setting this variable configures the AP to require WPA (either
    # WPA-PSK or WPA-RADIUS/EAP based on other configuration). For WPA-PSK, either
    # wpa_psk or wpa_passphrase must be set and wpa_key_mgmt must include WPA-PSK.
    # Instead of wpa_psk / wpa_passphrase, wpa_psk_radius might suffice.
    # For WPA-RADIUS/EAP, ieee8021x must be set (but without dynamic WEP keys),
    # RADIUS authentication server must be configured, and WPA-EAP must be included
    # in wpa_key_mgmt.
    # This field is a bit field that can be used to enable WPA (IEEE 802.11i/D3.0)
    # and/or WPA2 (full IEEE 802.11i/RSN):
    # bit0 = WPA
    # bit1 = IEEE 802.11i/RSN (WPA2) (dot11RSNAEnabled)
    # Note that WPA3 is also configured with bit1 since it uses RSN just like WPA2.
    # In other words, for WPA3, wpa=2 is used the configuration (and
    # wpa_key_mgmt=SAE for WPA3-Personal instead of wpa_key_mgmt=WPA-PSK).
    #wpa=2
    
    # WPA pre-shared keys for WPA-PSK. This can be either entered as a 256-bit
    # secret in hex format (64 hex digits), wpa_psk, or as an ASCII passphrase
    # (8..63 characters) that will be converted to PSK. This conversion uses SSID
    # so the PSK changes when ASCII passphrase is used and the SSID is changed.
    # wpa_psk (dot11RSNAConfigPSKValue)
    # wpa_passphrase (dot11RSNAConfigPSKPassPhrase)
    #wpa_psk=0123456789abcdef0123456789abcdef0123456789abcdef0123456789abcdef
    #wpa_passphrase=secret passphrase
    
    # Optionally, WPA PSKs can be read from a separate text file (containing list
    # of (PSK,MAC address) pairs. This allows more than one PSK to be configured.
    # Use absolute path name to make sure that the files can be read on SIGHUP
    # configuration reloads.
    #wpa_psk_file=/etc/hostapd.wpa_psk
    
    # Optionally, WPA passphrase can be received from RADIUS authentication server
    # This requires macaddr_acl to be set to 2 (RADIUS)
    # 0 = disabled (default)
    # 1 = optional; use default passphrase/psk if RADIUS server does not include
    #	Tunnel-Password
    # 2 = required; reject authentication if RADIUS server does not include
    #	Tunnel-Password
    #wpa_psk_radius=0
    
    # Set of accepted key management algorithms (WPA-PSK, WPA-EAP, or both). The
    # entries are separated with a space. WPA-PSK-SHA256 and WPA-EAP-SHA256 can be
    # added to enable SHA256-based stronger algorithms.
    # WPA-PSK = WPA-Personal / WPA2-Personal
    # WPA-PSK-SHA256 = WPA2-Personal using SHA256
    # WPA-EAP = WPA-Enterprise / WPA2-Enterprise
    # WPA-EAP-SHA256 = WPA2-Enterprise using SHA256
    # SAE = SAE (WPA3-Personal)
    # WPA-EAP-SUITE-B-192 = WPA3-Enterprise with 192-bit security/CNSA suite
    # FT-PSK = FT with passphrase/PSK
    # FT-EAP = FT with EAP
    # FT-EAP-SHA384 = FT with EAP using SHA384
    # FT-SAE = FT with SAE
    # FILS-SHA256 = Fast Initial Link Setup with SHA256
    # FILS-SHA384 = Fast Initial Link Setup with SHA384
    # FT-FILS-SHA256 = FT and Fast Initial Link Setup with SHA256
    # FT-FILS-SHA384 = FT and Fast Initial Link Setup with SHA384
    # OWE = Opportunistic Wireless Encryption (a.k.a. Enhanced Open)
    # DPP = Device Provisioning Protocol
    # OSEN = Hotspot 2.0 online signup with encryption
    # (dot11RSNAConfigAuthenticationSuitesTable)
    #wpa_key_mgmt=WPA-PSK WPA-EAP
    
    # Set of accepted cipher suites (encryption algorithms) for pairwise keys
    # (unicast packets). This is a space separated list of algorithms:
    # CCMP = AES in Counter mode with CBC-MAC (CCMP-128)
    # TKIP = Temporal Key Integrity Protocol
    # CCMP-256 = AES in Counter mode with CBC-MAC with 256-bit key
    # GCMP = Galois/counter mode protocol (GCMP-128)
    # GCMP-256 = Galois/counter mode protocol with 256-bit key
    # Group cipher suite (encryption algorithm for broadcast and multicast frames)
    # is automatically selected based on this configuration. If only CCMP is
    # allowed as the pairwise cipher, group cipher will also be CCMP. Otherwise,
    # TKIP will be used as the group cipher. The optional group_cipher parameter can
    # be used to override this automatic selection.
    #
    # (dot11RSNAConfigPairwiseCiphersTable)
    # Pairwise cipher for WPA (v1) (default: TKIP)
    #wpa_pairwise=TKIP CCMP
    # Pairwise cipher for RSN/WPA2 (default: use wpa_pairwise value)
    #rsn_pairwise=CCMP
    
    # Optional override for automatic group cipher selection
    # This can be used to select a specific group cipher regardless of which
    # pairwise ciphers were enabled for WPA and RSN. It should be noted that
    # overriding the group cipher with an unexpected value can result in
    # interoperability issues and in general, this parameter is mainly used for
    # testing purposes.
    #group_cipher=CCMP
    
    # Time interval for rekeying GTK (broadcast/multicast encryption keys) in
    # seconds. (dot11RSNAConfigGroupRekeyTime)
    # This defaults to 86400 seconds (once per day) when using CCMP/GCMP as the
    # group cipher and 600 seconds (once per 10 minutes) when using TKIP as the
    # group cipher.
    #wpa_group_rekey=86400
    
    # Rekey GTK when any STA that possesses the current GTK is leaving the BSS.
    # (dot11RSNAConfigGroupRekeyStrict)
    #wpa_strict_rekey=1
    
    # The number of times EAPOL-Key Message 1/2 in the RSN Group Key Handshake is
    #retried per GTK Handshake attempt. (dot11RSNAConfigGroupUpdateCount)
    # This value should only be increased when stations are constantly
    # deauthenticated during GTK rekeying with the log message
    # "group key handshake failed...".
    # You should consider to also increase wpa_pairwise_update_count then.
    # Range 1..4294967295; default: 4
    #wpa_group_update_count=4
    
    # Time interval for rekeying GMK (master key used internally to generate GTKs
    # (in seconds).
    #wpa_gmk_rekey=86400
    
    # Maximum lifetime for PTK in seconds. This can be used to enforce rekeying of
    # PTK to mitigate some attacks against TKIP deficiencies.
    #wpa_ptk_rekey=600
    
    # The number of times EAPOL-Key Message 1/4 and Message 3/4 in the RSN 4-Way
    # Handshake are retried per 4-Way Handshake attempt.
    # (dot11RSNAConfigPairwiseUpdateCount)
    # Range 1..4294967295; default: 4
    #wpa_pairwise_update_count=4
    
    # Workaround for key reinstallation attacks
    #
    # This parameter can be used to disable retransmission of EAPOL-Key frames that
    # are used to install keys (EAPOL-Key message 3/4 and group message 1/2). This
    # is similar to setting wpa_group_update_count=1 and
    # wpa_pairwise_update_count=1, but with no impact to message 1/4 and with
    # extended timeout on the response to avoid causing issues with stations that
    # may use aggressive power saving have very long time in replying to the
    # EAPOL-Key messages.
    #
    # This option can be used to work around key reinstallation attacks on the
    # station (supplicant) side in cases those station devices cannot be updated
    # for some reason. By removing the retransmissions the attacker cannot cause
    # key reinstallation with a delayed frame transmission. This is related to the
    # station side vulnerabilities CVE-2017-13077, CVE-2017-13078, CVE-2017-13079,
    # CVE-2017-13080, and CVE-2017-13081.
    #
    # This workaround might cause interoperability issues and reduced robustness of
    # key negotiation especially in environments with heavy traffic load due to the
    # number of attempts to perform the key exchange is reduced significantly. As
    # such, this workaround is disabled by default (unless overridden in build
    # configuration). To enable this, set the parameter to 1.
    #wpa_disable_eapol_key_retries=1
    
    # Enable IEEE 802.11i/RSN/WPA2 pre-authentication. This is used to speed up
    # roaming be pre-authenticating IEEE 802.1X/EAP part of the full RSN
    # authentication and key handshake before actually associating with a new AP.
    # (dot11RSNAPreauthenticationEnabled)
    #rsn_preauth=1
    #
    # Space separated list of interfaces from which pre-authentication frames are
    # accepted (e.g., 'eth0' or 'eth0 wlan0wds0'. This list should include all
    # interface that are used for connections to other APs. This could include
    # wired interfaces and WDS links. The normal wireless data interface towards
    # associated stations (e.g., wlan0) should not be added, since
    # pre-authentication is only used with APs other than the currently associated
    # one.
    #rsn_preauth_interfaces=eth0
    
    # ieee80211w: Whether management frame protection (MFP) is enabled
    # 0 = disabled (default)
    # 1 = optional
    # 2 = required
    #ieee80211w=0
    
    # Group management cipher suite
    # Default: AES-128-CMAC (BIP)
    # Other options (depending on driver support):
    # BIP-GMAC-128
    # BIP-GMAC-256
    # BIP-CMAC-256
    # Note: All the stations connecting to the BSS will also need to support the
    # selected cipher. The default AES-128-CMAC is the only option that is commonly
    # available in deployed devices.
    #group_mgmt_cipher=AES-128-CMAC
    
    # Association SA Query maximum timeout (in TU = 1.024 ms; for MFP)
    # (maximum time to wait for a SA Query response)
    # dot11AssociationSAQueryMaximumTimeout, 1...4294967295
    #assoc_sa_query_max_timeout=1000
    
    # Association SA Query retry timeout (in TU = 1.024 ms; for MFP)
    # (time between two subsequent SA Query requests)
    # dot11AssociationSAQueryRetryTimeout, 1...4294967295
    #assoc_sa_query_retry_timeout=201
    
    # ocv: Operating Channel Validation
    # This is a countermeasure against multi-channel man-in-the-middle attacks.
    # Enabling this automatically also enables ieee80211w, if not yet enabled.
    # 0 = disabled (default)
    # 1 = enabled
    #ocv=1
    
    # disable_pmksa_caching: Disable PMKSA caching
    # This parameter can be used to disable caching of PMKSA created through EAP
    # authentication. RSN preauthentication may still end up using PMKSA caching if
    # it is enabled (rsn_preauth=1).
    # 0 = PMKSA caching enabled (default)
    # 1 = PMKSA caching disabled
    #disable_pmksa_caching=0
    
    # okc: Opportunistic Key Caching (aka Proactive Key Caching)
    # Allow PMK cache to be shared opportunistically among configured interfaces
    # and BSSes (i.e., all configurations within a single hostapd process).
    # 0 = disabled (default)
    # 1 = enabled
    #okc=1
    
    # SAE password
    # This parameter can be used to set passwords for SAE. By default, the
    # wpa_passphrase value is used if this separate parameter is not used, but
    # wpa_passphrase follows the WPA-PSK constraints (8..63 characters) even though
    # SAE passwords do not have such constraints. If the BSS enabled both SAE and
    # WPA-PSK and both values are set, SAE uses the sae_password values and WPA-PSK
    # uses the wpa_passphrase value.
    #
    # Each sae_password entry is added to a list of available passwords. This
    # corresponds to the dot11RSNAConfigPasswordValueEntry. sae_password value
    # starts with the password (dot11RSNAConfigPasswordCredential). That value can
    # be followed by optional peer MAC address (dot11RSNAConfigPasswordPeerMac) and
    # by optional password identifier (dot11RSNAConfigPasswordIdentifier). In
    # addition, an optional VLAN ID specification can be used to bind the station
    # to the specified VLAN whenver the specific SAE password entry is used.
    #
    # If the peer MAC address is not included or is set to the wildcard address
    # (ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff), the entry is available for any station to use. If a
    # specific peer MAC address is included, only a station with that MAC address
    # is allowed to use the entry.
    #
    # If the password identifier (with non-zero length) is included, the entry is
    # limited to be used only with that specified identifier.
    
    # The last matching (based on peer MAC address and identifier) entry is used to
    # select which password to use. Setting sae_password to an empty string has a
    # special meaning of removing all previously added entries.
    #
    # sae_password uses the following encoding:
    #<password/credential>[|mac=<peer mac>][|vlanid=<VLAN ID>][|id=<identifier>]
    # Examples:
    #sae_password=secret
    #sae_password=really secret|mac=ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
    #sae_password=example secret|mac=02:03:04:05:06:07|id=pw identifier
    #sae_password=example secret|vlanid=3|id=pw identifier
    
    # SAE threshold for anti-clogging mechanism (dot11RSNASAEAntiCloggingThreshold)
    # This parameter defines how many open SAE instances can be in progress at the
    # same time before the anti-clogging mechanism is taken into use.
    #sae_anti_clogging_threshold=5
    
    # Maximum number of SAE synchronization errors (dot11RSNASAESync)
    # The offending SAe peer will be disconnected if more than this many
    # synchronization errors happen.
    #sae_sync=5
    
    # Enabled SAE finite cyclic groups
    # SAE implementation are required to support group 19 (ECC group defined over a
    # 256-bit prime order field). This configuration parameter can be used to
    # specify a set of allowed groups. If not included, only the mandatory group 19
    # is enabled.
    # The group values are listed in the IANA registry:
    # http://www.iana.org/assignments/ipsec-registry/ipsec-registry.xml#ipsec-registry-9
    # Note that groups 1, 2, 5, 22, 23, and 24 should not be used in production
    # purposes due limited security (see RFC 8247). Groups that are not as strong as
    # group 19 (ECC, NIST P-256) are unlikely to be useful for production use cases
    # since all implementations are required to support group 19.
    #sae_groups=19 20 21
    
    # Require MFP for all associations using SAE
    # This parameter can be used to enforce negotiation of MFP for all associations
    # that negotiate use of SAE. This is used in cases where SAE-capable devices are
    # known to be MFP-capable and the BSS is configured with optional MFP
    # (ieee80211w=1) for legacy support. The non-SAE stations can connect without
    # MFP while SAE stations are required to negotiate MFP if sae_require_mfp=1.
    #sae_require_mfp=0
    
    # FILS Cache Identifier (16-bit value in hexdump format)
    #fils_cache_id=0011
    
    # FILS Realm Information
    # One or more FILS realms need to be configured when FILS is enabled. This list
    # of realms is used to define which realms (used in keyName-NAI by the client)
    # can be used with FILS shared key authentication for ERP.
    #fils_realm=example.com
    #fils_realm=example.org
    
    # FILS DH Group for PFS
    # 0 = PFS disabled with FILS shared key authentication (default)
    # 1-65535 DH Group to use for FILS PFS
    #fils_dh_group=0
    
    # OWE DH groups
    # OWE implementations are required to support group 19 (NIST P-256). All groups
    # that are supported by the implementation (e.g., groups 19, 20, and 21 when
    # using OpenSSL) are enabled by default. This configuration parameter can be
    # used to specify a limited set of allowed groups. The group values are listed
    # in the IANA registry:
    # http://www.iana.org/assignments/ipsec-registry/ipsec-registry.xml#ipsec-registry-10
    #owe_groups=19 20 21
    
    # OWE transition mode configuration
    # Pointer to the matching open/OWE BSS
    #owe_transition_bssid=<bssid>
    # SSID in same format as ssid2 described above.
    #owe_transition_ssid=<SSID>
    # Alternatively, OWE transition mode BSSID/SSID can be configured with a
    # reference to a BSS operated by this hostapd process.
    #owe_transition_ifname=<ifname>
    
    # DHCP server for FILS HLP
    # If configured, hostapd will act as a DHCP relay for all FILS HLP requests
    # that include a DHCPDISCOVER message and send them to the specific DHCP
    # server for processing. hostapd will then wait for a response from that server
    # before replying with (Re)Association Response frame that encapsulates this
    # DHCP response. own_ip_addr is used as the local address for the communication
    # with the DHCP server.
    #dhcp_server=127.0.0.1
    
    # DHCP server UDP port
    # Default: 67
    #dhcp_server_port=67
    
    # DHCP relay UDP port on the local device
    # Default: 67; 0 means not to bind any specific port
    #dhcp_relay_port=67
    
    # DHCP rapid commit proxy
    # If set to 1, this enables hostapd to act as a DHCP rapid commit proxy to
    # allow the rapid commit options (two message DHCP exchange) to be used with a
    # server that supports only the four message DHCP exchange. This is disabled by
    # default (= 0) and can be enabled by setting this to 1.
    #dhcp_rapid_commit_proxy=0
    
    # Wait time for FILS HLP (dot11HLPWaitTime) in TUs
    # default: 30 TUs (= 30.72 milliseconds)
    #fils_hlp_wait_time=30
    
    ##### IEEE 802.11r configuration ##############################################
    
    # Mobility Domain identifier (dot11FTMobilityDomainID, MDID)
    # MDID is used to indicate a group of APs (within an ESS, i.e., sharing the
    # same SSID) between which a STA can use Fast BSS Transition.
    # 2-octet identifier as a hex string.
    #mobility_domain=a1b2
    
    # PMK-R0 Key Holder identifier (dot11FTR0KeyHolderID)
    # 1 to 48 octet identifier.
    # This is configured with nas_identifier (see RADIUS client section above).
    
    # Default lifetime of the PMK-R0 in seconds; range 60..4294967295
    # (default: 14 days / 1209600 seconds; 0 = disable timeout)
    # (dot11FTR0KeyLifetime)
    #ft_r0_key_lifetime=1209600
    
    # Maximum lifetime for PMK-R1; applied only if not zero
    # PMK-R1 is removed at latest after this limit.
    # Removing any PMK-R1 for expiry can be disabled by setting this to -1.
    # (default: 0)
    #r1_max_key_lifetime=0
    
    # PMK-R1 Key Holder identifier (dot11FTR1KeyHolderID)
    # 6-octet identifier as a hex string.
    # Defaults to BSSID.
    #r1_key_holder=000102030405
    
    # Reassociation deadline in time units (TUs / 1.024 ms; range 1000..65535)
    # (dot11FTReassociationDeadline)
    #reassociation_deadline=1000
    
    # List of R0KHs in the same Mobility Domain
    # format: <MAC address> <NAS Identifier> <256-bit key as hex string>
    # This list is used to map R0KH-ID (NAS Identifier) to a destination MAC
    # address when requesting PMK-R1 key from the R0KH that the STA used during the
    # Initial Mobility Domain Association.
    #r0kh=02:01:02:03:04:05 r0kh-1.example.com 000102030405060708090a0b0c0d0e0f000102030405060708090a0b0c0d0e0f
    #r0kh=02:01:02:03:04:06 r0kh-2.example.com 00112233445566778899aabbccddeeff00112233445566778899aabbccddeeff
    # And so on.. One line per R0KH.
    # Wildcard entry:
    # Upon receiving a response from R0KH, it will be added to this list, so
    # subsequent requests won't be broadcast. If R0KH does not reply, it will be
    # blacklisted.
    #r0kh=ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff * 00112233445566778899aabbccddeeff
    
    # List of R1KHs in the same Mobility Domain
    # format: <MAC address> <R1KH-ID> <256-bit key as hex string>
    # This list is used to map R1KH-ID to a destination MAC address when sending
    # PMK-R1 key from the R0KH. This is also the list of authorized R1KHs in the MD
    # that can request PMK-R1 keys.
    #r1kh=02:01:02:03:04:05 02:11:22:33:44:55 000102030405060708090a0b0c0d0e0f000102030405060708090a0b0c0d0e0f
    #r1kh=02:01:02:03:04:06 02:11:22:33:44:66 00112233445566778899aabbccddeeff00112233445566778899aabbccddeeff
    # And so on.. One line per R1KH.
    # Wildcard entry:
    # Upon receiving a request from an R1KH not yet known, it will be added to this
    # list and thus will receive push notifications.
    #r1kh=00:00:00:00:00:00 00:00:00:00:00:00 00112233445566778899aabbccddeeff
    
    # Timeout (seconds) for newly discovered R0KH/R1KH (see wildcard entries above)
    # Special values: 0 -> do not expire
    # Warning: do not cache implies no sequence number validation with wildcards
    #rkh_pos_timeout=86400 (default = 1 day)
    
    # Timeout (milliseconds) for requesting PMK-R1 from R0KH using PULL request
    # and number of retries.
    #rkh_pull_timeout=1000 (default = 1 second)
    #rkh_pull_retries=4 (default)
    
    # Timeout (seconds) for non replying R0KH (see wildcard entries above)
    # Special values: 0 -> do not cache
    # default: 60 seconds
    #rkh_neg_timeout=60
    
    # Note: The R0KH/R1KH keys used to be 128-bit in length before the message
    # format was changed. That shorter key length is still supported for backwards
    # compatibility of the configuration files. If such a shorter key is used, a
    # 256-bit key is derived from it. For new deployments, configuring the 256-bit
    # key is recommended.
    
    # Whether PMK-R1 push is enabled at R0KH
    # 0 = do not push PMK-R1 to all configured R1KHs (default)
    # 1 = push PMK-R1 to all configured R1KHs whenever a new PMK-R0 is derived
    #pmk_r1_push=1
    
    # Whether to enable FT-over-DS
    # 0 = FT-over-DS disabled
    # 1 = FT-over-DS enabled (default)
    #ft_over_ds=1
    
    # Whether to generate FT response locally for PSK networks
    # This avoids use of PMK-R1 push/pull from other APs with FT-PSK networks as
    # the required information (PSK and other session data) is already locally
    # available.
    # 0 = disabled (default)
    # 1 = enabled
    #ft_psk_generate_local=0
    
    ##### Neighbor table ##########################################################
    # Maximum number of entries kept in AP table (either for neigbor table or for
    # detecting Overlapping Legacy BSS Condition). The oldest entry will be
    # removed when adding a new entry that would make the list grow over this
    # limit. Note! WFA certification for IEEE 802.11g requires that OLBC is
    # enabled, so this field should not be set to 0 when using IEEE 802.11g.
    # default: 255
    #ap_table_max_size=255
    
    # Number of seconds of no frames received after which entries may be deleted
    # from the AP table. Since passive scanning is not usually performed frequently
    # this should not be set to very small value. In addition, there is no
    # guarantee that every scan cycle will receive beacon frames from the
    # neighboring APs.
    # default: 60
    #ap_table_expiration_time=3600
    
    # Maximum number of stations to track on the operating channel
    # This can be used to detect dualband capable stations before they have
    # associated, e.g., to provide guidance on which colocated BSS to use.
    # Default: 0 (disabled)
    #track_sta_max_num=100
    
    # Maximum age of a station tracking entry in seconds
    # Default: 180
    #track_sta_max_age=180
    
    # Do not reply to group-addressed Probe Request from a station that was seen on
    # another radio.
    # Default: Disabled
    #
    # This can be used with enabled track_sta_max_num configuration on another
    # interface controlled by the same hostapd process to restrict Probe Request
    # frame handling from replying to group-addressed Probe Request frames from a
    # station that has been detected to be capable of operating on another band,
    # e.g., to try to reduce likelihood of the station selecting a 2.4 GHz BSS when
    # the AP operates both a 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz BSS concurrently.
    #
    # Note: Enabling this can cause connectivity issues and increase latency for
    # discovering the AP.
    #no_probe_resp_if_seen_on=wlan1
    
    # Reject authentication from a station that was seen on another radio.
    # Default: Disabled
    #
    # This can be used with enabled track_sta_max_num configuration on another
    # interface controlled by the same hostapd process to reject authentication
    # attempts from a station that has been detected to be capable of operating on
    # another band, e.g., to try to reduce likelihood of the station selecting a
    # 2.4 GHz BSS when the AP operates both a 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz BSS concurrently.
    #
    # Note: Enabling this can cause connectivity issues and increase latency for
    # connecting with the AP.
    #no_auth_if_seen_on=wlan1
    
    ##### Wi-Fi Protected Setup (WPS) #############################################
    
    # WPS state
    # 0 = WPS disabled (default)
    # 1 = WPS enabled, not configured
    # 2 = WPS enabled, configured
    #wps_state=2
    
    # Whether to manage this interface independently from other WPS interfaces
    # By default, a single hostapd process applies WPS operations to all configured
    # interfaces. This parameter can be used to disable that behavior for a subset
    # of interfaces. If this is set to non-zero for an interface, WPS commands
    # issued on that interface do not apply to other interfaces and WPS operations
    # performed on other interfaces do not affect this interface.
    #wps_independent=0
    
    # AP can be configured into a locked state where new WPS Registrar are not
    # accepted, but previously authorized Registrars (including the internal one)
    # can continue to add new Enrollees.
    #ap_setup_locked=1
    
    # Universally Unique IDentifier (UUID; see RFC 4122) of the device
    # This value is used as the UUID for the internal WPS Registrar. If the AP
    # is also using UPnP, this value should be set to the device's UPnP UUID.
    # If not configured, UUID will be generated based on the local MAC address.
    #uuid=12345678-9abc-def0-1234-56789abcdef0
    
    # Note: If wpa_psk_file is set, WPS is used to generate random, per-device PSKs
    # that will be appended to the wpa_psk_file. If wpa_psk_file is not set, the
    # default PSK (wpa_psk/wpa_passphrase) will be delivered to Enrollees. Use of
    # per-device PSKs is recommended as the more secure option (i.e., make sure to
    # set wpa_psk_file when using WPS with WPA-PSK).
    
    # When an Enrollee requests access to the network with PIN method, the Enrollee
    # PIN will need to be entered for the Registrar. PIN request notifications are
    # sent to hostapd ctrl_iface monitor. In addition, they can be written to a
    # text file that could be used, e.g., to populate the AP administration UI with
    # pending PIN requests. If the following variable is set, the PIN requests will
    # be written to the configured file.
    #wps_pin_requests=/var/run/hostapd_wps_pin_requests
    
    # Device Name
    # User-friendly description of device; up to 32 octets encoded in UTF-8
    #device_name=Wireless AP
    
    # Manufacturer
    # The manufacturer of the device (up to 64 ASCII characters)
    #manufacturer=Company
    
    # Model Name
    # Model of the device (up to 32 ASCII characters)
    #model_name=WAP
    
    # Model Number
    # Additional device description (up to 32 ASCII characters)
    #model_number=123
    
    # Serial Number
    # Serial number of the device (up to 32 characters)
    #serial_number=12345
    
    # Primary Device Type
    # Used format: <categ>-<OUI>-<subcateg>
    # categ = Category as an integer value
    # OUI = OUI and type octet as a 4-octet hex-encoded value; 0050F204 for
    #       default WPS OUI
    # subcateg = OUI-specific Sub Category as an integer value
    # Examples:
    #   1-0050F204-1 (Computer / PC)
    #   1-0050F204-2 (Computer / Server)
    #   5-0050F204-1 (Storage / NAS)
    #   6-0050F204-1 (Network Infrastructure / AP)
    #device_type=6-0050F204-1
    
    # OS Version
    # 4-octet operating system version number (hex string)
    #os_version=01020300
    
    # Config Methods
    # List of the supported configuration methods
    # Available methods: usba ethernet label display ext_nfc_token int_nfc_token
    #	nfc_interface push_button keypad virtual_display physical_display
    #	virtual_push_button physical_push_button
    #config_methods=label virtual_display virtual_push_button keypad
    
    # WPS capability discovery workaround for PBC with Windows 7
    # Windows 7 uses incorrect way of figuring out AP's WPS capabilities by acting
    # as a Registrar and using M1 from the AP. The config methods attribute in that
    # message is supposed to indicate only the configuration method supported by
    # the AP in Enrollee role, i.e., to add an external Registrar. For that case,
    # PBC shall not be used and as such, the PushButton config method is removed
    # from M1 by default. If pbc_in_m1=1 is included in the configuration file,
    # the PushButton config method is left in M1 (if included in config_methods
    # parameter) to allow Windows 7 to use PBC instead of PIN (e.g., from a label
    # in the AP).
    #pbc_in_m1=1
    
    # Static access point PIN for initial configuration and adding Registrars
    # If not set, hostapd will not allow external WPS Registrars to control the
    # access point. The AP PIN can also be set at runtime with hostapd_cli
    # wps_ap_pin command. Use of temporary (enabled by user action) and random
    # AP PIN is much more secure than configuring a static AP PIN here. As such,
    # use of the ap_pin parameter is not recommended if the AP device has means for
    # displaying a random PIN.
    #ap_pin=12345670
    
    # Skip building of automatic WPS credential
    # This can be used to allow the automatically generated Credential attribute to
    # be replaced with pre-configured Credential(s).
    #skip_cred_build=1
    
    # Additional Credential attribute(s)
    # This option can be used to add pre-configured Credential attributes into M8
    # message when acting as a Registrar. If skip_cred_build=1, this data will also
    # be able to override the Credential attribute that would have otherwise been
    # automatically generated based on network configuration. This configuration
    # option points to an external file that much contain the WPS Credential
    # attribute(s) as binary data.
    #extra_cred=hostapd.cred
    
    # Credential processing
    #   0 = process received credentials internally (default)
    #   1 = do not process received credentials; just pass them over ctrl_iface to
    #	external program(s)
    #   2 = process received credentials internally and pass them over ctrl_iface
    #	to external program(s)
    # Note: With wps_cred_processing=1, skip_cred_build should be set to 1 and
    # extra_cred be used to provide the Credential data for Enrollees.
    #
    # wps_cred_processing=1 will disabled automatic updates of hostapd.conf file
    # both for Credential processing and for marking AP Setup Locked based on
    # validation failures of AP PIN. An external program is responsible on updating
    # the configuration appropriately in this case.
    #wps_cred_processing=0
    
    # Whether to enable SAE (WPA3-Personal transition mode) automatically for
    # WPA2-PSK credentials received using WPS.
    # 0 = only add the explicitly listed WPA2-PSK configuration (default)
    # 1 = add both the WPA2-PSK and SAE configuration and enable PMF so that the
    #     AP gets configured in WPA3-Personal transition mode (supports both
    #     WPA2-Personal (PSK) and WPA3-Personal (SAE) clients).
    #wps_cred_add_sae=0
    
    # AP Settings Attributes for M7
    # By default, hostapd generates the AP Settings Attributes for M7 based on the
    # current configuration. It is possible to override this by providing a file
    # with pre-configured attributes. This is similar to extra_cred file format,
    # but the AP Settings attributes are not encapsulated in a Credential
    # attribute.
    #ap_settings=hostapd.ap_settings
    
    # Multi-AP backhaul BSS config
    # Used in WPS when multi_ap=2 or 3. Defines "backhaul BSS" credentials.
    # These are passed in WPS M8 instead of the normal (fronthaul) credentials
    # if the Enrollee has the Multi-AP subelement set. Backhaul SSID is formatted
    # like ssid2. The key is set like wpa_psk or wpa_passphrase.
    #multi_ap_backhaul_ssid="backhaul"
    #multi_ap_backhaul_wpa_psk=0123456789abcdef0123456789abcdef0123456789abcdef0123456789abcdef
    #multi_ap_backhaul_wpa_passphrase=secret passphrase
    
    # WPS UPnP interface
    # If set, support for external Registrars is enabled.
    #upnp_iface=br0
    
    # Friendly Name (required for UPnP)
    # Short description for end use. Should be less than 64 characters.
    #friendly_name=WPS Access Point
    
    # Manufacturer URL (optional for UPnP)
    #manufacturer_url=http://www.example.com/
    
    # Model Description (recommended for UPnP)
    # Long description for end user. Should be less than 128 characters.
    #model_description=Wireless Access Point
    
    # Model URL (optional for UPnP)
    #model_url=http://www.example.com/model/
    
    # Universal Product Code (optional for UPnP)
    # 12-digit, all-numeric code that identifies the consumer package.
    #upc=123456789012
    
    # WPS RF Bands (a = 5G, b = 2.4G, g = 2.4G, ag = dual band, ad = 60 GHz)
    # This value should be set according to RF band(s) supported by the AP if
    # hw_mode is not set. For dual band dual concurrent devices, this needs to be
    # set to ag to allow both RF bands to be advertized.
    #wps_rf_bands=ag
    
    # NFC password token for WPS
    # These parameters can be used to configure a fixed NFC password token for the
    # AP. This can be generated, e.g., with nfc_pw_token from wpa_supplicant. When
    # these parameters are used, the AP is assumed to be deployed with a NFC tag
    # that includes the matching NFC password token (e.g., written based on the
    # NDEF record from nfc_pw_token).
    #
    #wps_nfc_dev_pw_id: Device Password ID (16..65535)
    #wps_nfc_dh_pubkey: Hexdump of DH Public Key
    #wps_nfc_dh_privkey: Hexdump of DH Private Key
    #wps_nfc_dev_pw: Hexdump of Device Password
    
    ##### Wi-Fi Direct (P2P) ######################################################
    
    # Enable P2P Device management
    #manage_p2p=1
    
    # Allow cross connection
    #allow_cross_connection=1
    
    #### TDLS (IEEE 802.11z-2010) #################################################
    
    # Prohibit use of TDLS in this BSS
    #tdls_prohibit=1
    
    # Prohibit use of TDLS Channel Switching in this BSS
    #tdls_prohibit_chan_switch=1
    
    ##### IEEE 802.11v-2011 #######################################################
    
    # Time advertisement
    # 0 = disabled (default)
    # 2 = UTC time at which the TSF timer is 0
    #time_advertisement=2
    
    # Local time zone as specified in 8.3 of IEEE Std 1003.1-2004:
    # stdoffset[dst[offset][,start[/time],end[/time]]]
    #time_zone=EST5
    
    # WNM-Sleep Mode (extended sleep mode for stations)
    # 0 = disabled (default)
    # 1 = enabled (allow stations to use WNM-Sleep Mode)
    #wnm_sleep_mode=1
    
    # WNM-Sleep Mode GTK/IGTK workaround
    # Normally, WNM-Sleep Mode exit with management frame protection negotiated
    # would result in the current GTK/IGTK getting added into the WNM-Sleep Mode
    # Response frame. Some station implementations may have a vulnerability that
    # results in GTK/IGTK reinstallation based on this frame being replayed. This
    # configuration parameter can be used to disable that behavior and use EAPOL-Key
    # frames for GTK/IGTK update instead. This would likely be only used with
    # wpa_disable_eapol_key_retries=1 that enables a workaround for similar issues
    # with EAPOL-Key. This is related to station side vulnerabilities CVE-2017-13087
    # and CVE-2017-13088. To enable this AP-side workaround, set the parameter to 1.
    #wnm_sleep_mode_no_keys=0
    
    # BSS Transition Management
    # 0 = disabled (default)
    # 1 = enabled
    #bss_transition=1
    
    # Proxy ARP
    # 0 = disabled (default)
    # 1 = enabled
    #proxy_arp=1
    
    # IPv6 Neighbor Advertisement multicast-to-unicast conversion
    # This can be used with Proxy ARP to allow multicast NAs to be forwarded to
    # associated STAs using link layer unicast delivery.
    # 0 = disabled (default)
    # 1 = enabled
    #na_mcast_to_ucast=0
    
    ##### IEEE 802.11u-2011 #######################################################
    
    # Enable Interworking service
    #interworking=1
    
    # Access Network Type
    # 0 = Private network
    # 1 = Private network with guest access
    # 2 = Chargeable public network
    # 3 = Free public network
    # 4 = Personal device network
    # 5 = Emergency services only network
    # 14 = Test or experimental
    # 15 = Wildcard
    #access_network_type=0
    
    # Whether the network provides connectivity to the Internet
    # 0 = Unspecified
    # 1 = Network provides connectivity to the Internet
    #internet=1
    
    # Additional Step Required for Access
    # Note: This is only used with open network, i.e., ASRA shall ne set to 0 if
    # RSN is used.
    #asra=0
    
    # Emergency services reachable
    #esr=0
    
    # Unauthenticated emergency service accessible
    #uesa=0
    
    # Venue Info (optional)
    # The available values are defined in IEEE Std 802.11u-2011, 7.3.1.34.
    # Example values (group,type):
    # 0,0 = Unspecified
    # 1,7 = Convention Center
    # 1,13 = Coffee Shop
    # 2,0 = Unspecified Business
    # 7,1  Private Residence
    #venue_group=7
    #venue_type=1
    
    # Homogeneous ESS identifier (optional; dot11HESSID)
    # If set, this shall be identifical to one of the BSSIDs in the homogeneous
    # ESS and this shall be set to the same value across all BSSs in homogeneous
    # ESS.
    #hessid=02:03:04:05:06:07
    
    # Roaming Consortium List
    # Arbitrary number of Roaming Consortium OIs can be configured with each line
    # adding a new OI to the list. The first three entries are available through
    # Beacon and Probe Response frames. Any additional entry will be available only
    # through ANQP queries. Each OI is between 3 and 15 octets and is configured as
    # a hexstring.
    #roaming_consortium=021122
    #roaming_consortium=2233445566
    
    # Venue Name information
    # This parameter can be used to configure one or more Venue Name Duples for
    # Venue Name ANQP information. Each entry has a two or three character language
    # code (ISO-639) separated by colon from the venue name string.
    # Note that venue_group and venue_type have to be set for Venue Name
    # information to be complete.
    #venue_name=eng:Example venue
    #venue_name=fin:Esimerkkipaikka
    # Alternative format for language:value strings:
    # (double quoted string, printf-escaped string)
    #venue_name=P"eng:Example\nvenue"
    
    # Venue URL information
    # This parameter can be used to configure one or more Venue URL Duples to
    # provide additional information corresponding to Venue Name information.
    # Each entry has a Venue Number value separated by colon from the Venue URL
    # string. Venue Number indicates the corresponding venue_name entry (1 = 1st
    # venue_name, 2 = 2nd venue_name, and so on; 0 = no matching venue_name)
    #venue_url=1:http://www.example.com/info-eng
    #venue_url=2:http://www.example.com/info-fin
    
    # Network Authentication Type
    # This parameter indicates what type of network authentication is used in the
    # network.
    # format: <network auth type indicator (1-octet hex str)> [redirect URL]
    # Network Authentication Type Indicator values:
    # 00 = Acceptance of terms and conditions
    # 01 = On-line enrollment supported
    # 02 = http/https redirection
    # 03 = DNS redirection
    #network_auth_type=00
    #network_auth_type=02http://www.example.com/redirect/me/here/
    
    # IP Address Type Availability
    # format: <1-octet encoded value as hex str>
    # (ipv4_type & 0x3f) << 2 | (ipv6_type & 0x3)
    # ipv4_type:
    # 0 = Address type not available
    # 1 = Public IPv4 address available
    # 2 = Port-restricted IPv4 address available
    # 3 = Single NATed private IPv4 address available
    # 4 = Double NATed private IPv4 address available
    # 5 = Port-restricted IPv4 address and single NATed IPv4 address available
    # 6 = Port-restricted IPv4 address and double NATed IPv4 address available
    # 7 = Availability of the address type is not known
    # ipv6_type:
    # 0 = Address type not available
    # 1 = Address type available
    # 2 = Availability of the address type not known
    #ipaddr_type_availability=14
    
    # Domain Name
    # format: <variable-octet str>[,<variable-octet str>]
    #domain_name=example.com,another.example.com,yet-another.example.com
    
    # 3GPP Cellular Network information
    # format: <MCC1,MNC1>[;<MCC2,MNC2>][;...]
    #anqp_3gpp_cell_net=244,91;310,026;234,56
    
    # NAI Realm information
    # One or more realm can be advertised. Each nai_realm line adds a new realm to
    # the set. These parameters provide information for stations using Interworking
    # network selection to allow automatic connection to a network based on
    # credentials.
    # format: <encoding>,<NAI Realm(s)>[,<EAP Method 1>][,<EAP Method 2>][,...]
    # encoding:
    #	0 = Realm formatted in accordance with IETF RFC 4282
    #	1 = UTF-8 formatted character string that is not formatted in
    #	    accordance with IETF RFC 4282
    # NAI Realm(s): Semi-colon delimited NAI Realm(s)
    # EAP Method: <EAP Method>[:<[AuthParam1:Val1]>][<[AuthParam2:Val2]>][...]
    # EAP Method types, see:
    # http://www.iana.org/assignments/eap-numbers/eap-numbers.xhtml#eap-numbers-4
    # AuthParam (Table 8-188 in IEEE Std 802.11-2012):
    # ID 2 = Non-EAP Inner Authentication Type
    #	1 = PAP, 2 = CHAP, 3 = MSCHAP, 4 = MSCHAPV2
    # ID 3 = Inner authentication EAP Method Type
    # ID 5 = Credential Type
    #	1 = SIM, 2 = USIM, 3 = NFC Secure Element, 4 = Hardware Token,
    #	5 = Softoken, 6 = Certificate, 7 = username/password, 9 = Anonymous,
    #	10 = Vendor Specific
    #nai_realm=0,example.com;example.net
    # EAP methods EAP-TLS with certificate and EAP-TTLS/MSCHAPv2 with
    # username/password
    #nai_realm=0,example.org,13[5:6],21[2:4][5:7]
    
    # Arbitrary ANQP-element configuration
    # Additional ANQP-elements with arbitrary values can be defined by specifying
    # their contents in raw format as a hexdump of the payload. Note that these
    # values will override ANQP-element contents that may have been specified in the
    # more higher layer configuration parameters listed above.
    # format: anqp_elem=<InfoID>:<hexdump of payload>
    # For example, AP Geospatial Location ANQP-element with unknown location:
    #anqp_elem=265:0000
    # For example, AP Civic Location ANQP-element with unknown location:
    #anqp_elem=266:000000
    
    # GAS Address 3 behavior
    # 0 = P2P specification (Address3 = AP BSSID) workaround enabled by default
    #     based on GAS request Address3
    # 1 = IEEE 802.11 standard compliant regardless of GAS request Address3
    # 2 = Force non-compliant behavior (Address3 = AP BSSID for all cases)
    #gas_address3=0
    
    # QoS Map Set configuration
    #
    # Comma delimited QoS Map Set in decimal values
    # (see IEEE Std 802.11-2012, 8.4.2.97)
    #
    # format:
    # [<DSCP Exceptions[DSCP,UP]>,]<UP 0 range[low,high]>,...<UP 7 range[low,high]>
    #
    # There can be up to 21 optional DSCP Exceptions which are pairs of DSCP Value
    # (0..63 or 255) and User Priority (0..7). This is followed by eight DSCP Range
    # descriptions with DSCP Low Value and DSCP High Value pairs (0..63 or 255) for
    # each UP starting from 0. If both low and high value are set to 255, the
    # corresponding UP is not used.
    #
    # default: not set
    #qos_map_set=53,2,22,6,8,15,0,7,255,255,16,31,32,39,255,255,40,47,255,255
    
    ##### Hotspot 2.0 #############################################################
    
    # Enable Hotspot 2.0 support
    #hs20=1
    
    # Disable Downstream Group-Addressed Forwarding (DGAF)
    # This can be used to configure a network where no group-addressed frames are
    # allowed. The AP will not forward any group-address frames to the stations and
    # random GTKs are issued for each station to prevent associated stations from
    # forging such frames to other stations in the BSS.
    #disable_dgaf=1
    
    # OSU Server-Only Authenticated L2 Encryption Network
    #osen=1
    
    # ANQP Domain ID (0..65535)
    # An identifier for a set of APs in an ESS that share the same common ANQP
    # information. 0 = Some of the ANQP information is unique to this AP (default).
    #anqp_domain_id=1234
    
    # Deauthentication request timeout
    # If the RADIUS server indicates that the station is not allowed to connect to
    # the BSS/ESS, the AP can allow the station some time to download a
    # notification page (URL included in the message). This parameter sets that
    # timeout in seconds.
    #hs20_deauth_req_timeout=60
    
    # Operator Friendly Name
    # This parameter can be used to configure one or more Operator Friendly Name
    # Duples. Each entry has a two or three character language code (ISO-639)
    # separated by colon from the operator friendly name string.
    #hs20_oper_friendly_name=eng:Example operator
    #hs20_oper_friendly_name=fin:Esimerkkioperaattori
    
    # Connection Capability
    # This can be used to advertise what type of IP traffic can be sent through the
    # hotspot (e.g., due to firewall allowing/blocking protocols/ports).
    # format: <IP Protocol>:<Port Number>:<Status>
    # IP Protocol: 1 = ICMP, 6 = TCP, 17 = UDP
    # Port Number: 0..65535
    # Status: 0 = Closed, 1 = Open, 2 = Unknown
    # Each hs20_conn_capab line is added to the list of advertised tuples.
    #hs20_conn_capab=1:0:2
    #hs20_conn_capab=6:22:1
    #hs20_conn_capab=17:5060:0
    
    # WAN Metrics
    # format: <WAN Info>:<DL Speed>:<UL Speed>:<DL Load>:<UL Load>:<LMD>
    # WAN Info: B0-B1: Link Status, B2: Symmetric Link, B3: At Capabity
    #    (encoded as two hex digits)
    #    Link Status: 1 = Link up, 2 = Link down, 3 = Link in test state
    # Downlink Speed: Estimate of WAN backhaul link current downlink speed in kbps;
    #	1..4294967295; 0 = unknown
    # Uplink Speed: Estimate of WAN backhaul link current uplink speed in kbps
    #	1..4294967295; 0 = unknown
    # Downlink Load: Current load of downlink WAN connection (scaled to 255 = 100%)
    # Uplink Load: Current load of uplink WAN connection (scaled to 255 = 100%)
    # Load Measurement Duration: Duration for measuring downlink/uplink load in
    # tenths of a second (1..65535); 0 if load cannot be determined
    #hs20_wan_metrics=01:8000:1000:80:240:3000
    
    # Operating Class Indication
    # List of operating classes the BSSes in this ESS use. The Global operating
    # classes in Table E-4 of IEEE Std 802.11-2012 Annex E define the values that
    # can be used in this.
    # format: hexdump of operating class octets
    # for example, operating classes 81 (2.4 GHz channels 1-13) and 115 (5 GHz
    # channels 36-48):
    #hs20_operating_class=5173
    
    # Terms and Conditions information
    #
    # hs20_t_c_filename contains the Terms and Conditions filename that the AP
    # indicates in RADIUS Access-Request messages.
    #hs20_t_c_filename=terms-and-conditions
    #
    # hs20_t_c_timestamp contains the Terms and Conditions timestamp that the AP
    # indicates in RADIUS Access-Request messages. Usually, this contains the number
    # of seconds since January 1, 1970 00:00 UTC showing the time when the file was
    # last modified.
    #hs20_t_c_timestamp=1234567
    #
    # hs20_t_c_server_url contains a template for the Terms and Conditions server
    # URL. This template is used to generate the URL for a STA that needs to
    # acknowledge Terms and Conditions. Unlike the other hs20_t_c_* parameters, this
    # parameter is used on the authentication server, not the AP.
    # Macros:
    # @1@ = MAC address of the STA (colon separated hex octets)
    #hs20_t_c_server_url=https://example.com/t_and_c?addr=@1@&ap=123
    
    # OSU and Operator icons
    # <Icon Width>:<Icon Height>:<Language code>:<Icon Type>:<Name>:<file path>
    #hs20_icon=32:32:eng:image/png:icon32:/tmp/icon32.png
    #hs20_icon=64:64:eng:image/png:icon64:/tmp/icon64.png
    
    # OSU SSID (see ssid2 for format description)
    # This is the SSID used for all OSU connections to all the listed OSU Providers.
    #osu_ssid="example"
    
    # OSU Providers
    # One or more sets of following parameter. Each OSU provider is started by the
    # mandatory osu_server_uri item. The other parameters add information for the
    # last added OSU provider. osu_nai specifies the OSU_NAI value for OSEN
    # authentication when using a standalone OSU BSS. osu_nai2 specifies the OSU_NAI
    # value for OSEN authentication when using a shared BSS (Single SSID) for OSU.
    #
    #osu_server_uri=https://example.com/osu/
    #osu_friendly_name=eng:Example operator
    #osu_friendly_name=fin:Esimerkkipalveluntarjoaja
    #osu_nai=anonymous@example.com
    #osu_nai2=anonymous@example.com
    #osu_method_list=1 0
    #osu_icon=icon32
    #osu_icon=icon64
    #osu_service_desc=eng:Example services
    #osu_service_desc=fin:Esimerkkipalveluja
    #
    #osu_server_uri=...
    
    # Operator Icons
    # Operator icons are specified using references to the hs20_icon entries
    # (Name subfield). This information, if present, is advertsised in the
    # Operator Icon Metadata ANQO-element.
    #operator_icon=icon32
    #operator_icon=icon64
    
    ##### Multiband Operation (MBO) ###############################################
    #
    # MBO enabled
    # 0 = disabled (default)
    # 1 = enabled
    #mbo=1
    #
    # Cellular data connection preference
    # 0 = Excluded - AP does not want STA to use the cellular data connection
    # 1 = AP prefers the STA not to use cellular data connection
    # 255 = AP prefers the STA to use cellular data connection
    #mbo_cell_data_conn_pref=1
    
    ##### Optimized Connectivity Experience (OCE) #################################
    #
    # Enable OCE specific features (bitmap)
    # BIT(0) - Reserved
    # Set BIT(1) (= 2) to enable OCE in STA-CFON mode
    # Set BIT(2) (= 4) to enable OCE in AP mode
    # Default is 0 = OCE disabled
    #oce=0
    
    # RSSI-based assocition rejection
    #
    # Reject STA association if RSSI is below given threshold (in dBm)
    # Allowed range: -60 to -90 dBm; default = 0 (rejection disabled)
    # Note: This rejection happens based on a signal strength detected while
    # receiving a single frame and as such, there is significant risk of the value
    # not being accurate and this resulting in valid stations being rejected. As
    # such, this functionality is not recommended to be used for purposes other than
    # testing.
    #rssi_reject_assoc_rssi=-75
    #
    # Association retry delay in seconds allowed by the STA if RSSI has not met the
    # threshold (range: 0..255, default=30).
    #rssi_reject_assoc_timeout=30
    
    ##### Fast Session Transfer (FST) support #####################################
    #
    # The options in this section are only available when the build configuration
    # option CONFIG_FST is set while compiling hostapd. They allow this interface
    # to be a part of FST setup.
    #
    # FST is the transfer of a session from a channel to another channel, in the
    # same or different frequency bands.
    #
    # For detals, see IEEE Std 802.11ad-2012.
    
    # Identifier of an FST Group the interface belongs to.
    #fst_group_id=bond0
    
    # Interface priority within the FST Group.
    # Announcing a higher priority for an interface means declaring it more
    # preferable for FST switch.
    # fst_priority is in 1..255 range with 1 being the lowest priority.
    #fst_priority=100
    
    # Default LLT value for this interface in milliseconds. The value used in case
    # no value provided during session setup. Default is 50 ms.
    # fst_llt is in 1..4294967 range (due to spec limitation, see 10.32.2.2
    # Transitioning between states).
    #fst_llt=100
    
    ##### Radio measurements / location ###########################################
    
    # The content of a LCI measurement subelement
    #lci=<Hexdump of binary data of the LCI report>
    
    # The content of a location civic measurement subelement
    #civic=<Hexdump of binary data of the location civic report>
    
    # Enable neighbor report via radio measurements
    #rrm_neighbor_report=1
    
    # Enable beacon report via radio measurements
    #rrm_beacon_report=1
    
    # Publish fine timing measurement (FTM) responder functionality
    # This parameter only controls publishing via Extended Capabilities element.
    # Actual functionality is managed outside hostapd.
    #ftm_responder=0
    
    # Publish fine timing measurement (FTM) initiator functionality
    # This parameter only controls publishing via Extended Capabilities element.
    # Actual functionality is managed outside hostapd.
    #ftm_initiator=0
    #
    # Stationary AP config indicates that the AP doesn't move hence location data
    # can be considered as always up to date. If configured, LCI data will be sent
    # as a radio measurement even if the request doesn't contain a max age element
    # that allows sending of such data. Default: 0.
    #stationary_ap=0
    
    ##### Airtime policy configuration ###########################################
    
    # Set the airtime policy operating mode:
    # 0 = disabled (default)
    # 1 = static config
    # 2 = per-BSS dynamic config
    # 3 = per-BSS limit mode
    #airtime_mode=0
    
    # Interval (in milliseconds) to poll the kernel for updated station activity in
    # dynamic and limit modes
    #airtime_update_interval=200
    
    # Static configuration of station weights (when airtime_mode=1). Kernel default
    # weight is 256; set higher for larger airtime share, lower for smaller share.
    # Each entry is a MAC address followed by a weight.
    #airtime_sta_weight=02:01:02:03:04:05 256
    #airtime_sta_weight=02:01:02:03:04:06 512
    
    # Per-BSS airtime weight. In multi-BSS mode, set for each BSS and hostapd will
    # configure station weights to enforce the correct ratio between BSS weights
    # depending on the number of active stations. The *ratios* between different
    # BSSes is what's important, not the absolute numbers.
    # Must be set for all BSSes if airtime_mode=2 or 3, has no effect otherwise.
    #airtime_bss_weight=1
    
    # Whether the current BSS should be limited (when airtime_mode=3).
    #
    # If set, the BSS weight ratio will be applied in the case where the current BSS
    # would exceed the share defined by the BSS weight ratio. E.g., if two BSSes are
    # set to the same weights, and one is set to limited, the limited BSS will get
    # no more than half the available airtime, but if the non-limited BSS has more
    # stations active, that *will* be allowed to exceed its half of the available
    # airtime.
    #airtime_bss_limit=1
    
    ##### TESTING OPTIONS #########################################################
    #
    # The options in this section are only available when the build configuration
    # option CONFIG_TESTING_OPTIONS is set while compiling hostapd. They allow
    # testing some scenarios that are otherwise difficult to reproduce.
    #
    # Ignore probe requests sent to hostapd with the given probability, must be a
    # floating point number in the range [0, 1).
    #ignore_probe_probability=0.0
    #
    # Ignore authentication frames with the given probability
    #ignore_auth_probability=0.0
    #
    # Ignore association requests with the given probability
    #ignore_assoc_probability=0.0
    #
    # Ignore reassociation requests with the given probability
    #ignore_reassoc_probability=0.0
    #
    # Corrupt Key MIC in GTK rekey EAPOL-Key frames with the given probability
    #corrupt_gtk_rekey_mic_probability=0.0
    #
    # Include only ECSA IE without CSA IE where possible
    # (channel switch operating class is needed)
    #ecsa_ie_only=0
    
    ##### Multiple BSSID support ##################################################
    #
    # Above configuration is using the default interface (wlan#, or multi-SSID VLAN
    # interfaces). Other BSSIDs can be added by using separator 'bss' with
    # default interface name to be allocated for the data packets of the new BSS.
    #
    # hostapd will generate BSSID mask based on the BSSIDs that are
    # configured. hostapd will verify that dev_addr & MASK == dev_addr. If this is
    # not the case, the MAC address of the radio must be changed before starting
    # hostapd (ifconfig wlan0 hw ether <MAC addr>). If a BSSID is configured for
    # every secondary BSS, this limitation is not applied at hostapd and other
    # masks may be used if the driver supports them (e.g., swap the locally
    # administered bit)
    #
    # BSSIDs are assigned in order to each BSS, unless an explicit BSSID is
    # specified using the 'bssid' parameter.
    # If an explicit BSSID is specified, it must be chosen such that it:
    # - results in a valid MASK that covers it and the dev_addr
    # - is not the same as the MAC address of the radio
    # - is not the same as any other explicitly specified BSSID
    #
    # Alternatively, the 'use_driver_iface_addr' parameter can be used to request
    # hostapd to use the driver auto-generated interface address (e.g., to use the
    # exact MAC addresses allocated to the device).
    #
    # Not all drivers support multiple BSSes. The exact mechanism for determining
    # the driver capabilities is driver specific. With the current (i.e., a recent
    # kernel) drivers using nl80211, this information can be checked with "iw list"
    # (search for "valid interface combinations").
    #
    # Please note that hostapd uses some of the values configured for the first BSS
    # as the defaults for the following BSSes. However, it is recommended that all
    # BSSes include explicit configuration of all relevant configuration items.
    #
    #bss=wlan0_0
    #ssid=test2
    # most of the above items can be used here (apart from radio interface specific
    # items, like channel)
    
    #bss=wlan0_1
    #bssid=00:13:10:95:fe:0b
    # ...
    展开全文
  • hostapd.conf详细

    千次阅读 2019-05-24 17:21:04
    ##### hostapd configuration file ############################################## # Empty lines and lines starting with # are ignored # AP netdevice name (without 'ap' postfix, i.e., wlan0 uses wlan0a....
    ##### hostapd configuration file ##############################################
    # Empty lines and lines starting with # are ignored
    
    # AP netdevice name (without 'ap' postfix, i.e., wlan0 uses wlan0ap for
    # management frames with the Host AP driver); wlan0 with many nl80211 drivers
    # Note: This attribute can be overridden by the values supplied with the '-i'
    # command line parameter.
    interface=wlan0
    
    # In case of atheros and nl80211 driver interfaces, an additional
    # configuration parameter, bridge, may be used to notify hostapd if the
    # interface is included in a bridge. This parameter is not used with Host AP
    # driver. If the bridge parameter is not set, the drivers will automatically
    # figure out the bridge interface (assuming sysfs is enabled and mounted to
    # /sys) and this parameter may not be needed.
    #
    # For nl80211, this parameter can be used to request the AP interface to be
    # added to the bridge automatically (brctl may refuse to do this before hostapd
    # has been started to change the interface mode). If needed, the bridge
    # interface is also created.
    #bridge=br0
    
    # Driver interface type (hostap/wired/none/nl80211/bsd);
    # default: hostap). nl80211 is used with all Linux mac80211 drivers.
    # Use driver=none if building hostapd as a standalone RADIUS server that does
    # not control any wireless/wired driver.
    # driver=hostap
    
    # Driver interface parameters (mainly for development testing use)
    # driver_params=<params>
    
    # hostapd event logger configuration
    #
    # Two output method: syslog and stdout (only usable if not forking to
    # background).
    #
    # Module bitfield (ORed bitfield of modules that will be logged; -1 = all
    # modules):
    # bit 0 (1) = IEEE 802.11
    # bit 1 (2) = IEEE 802.1X
    # bit 2 (4) = RADIUS
    # bit 3 (8) = WPA
    # bit 4 (16) = driver interface
    # bit 5 (32) = IAPP
    # bit 6 (64) = MLME
    #
    # Levels (minimum value for logged events):
    #  0 = verbose debugging
    #  1 = debugging
    #  2 = informational messages
    #  3 = notification
    #  4 = warning
    #
    logger_syslog=-1
    logger_syslog_level=2
    logger_stdout=-1
    logger_stdout_level=2
    
    # Interface for separate control program. If this is specified, hostapd
    # will create this directory and a UNIX domain socket for listening to requests
    # from external programs (CLI/GUI, etc.) for status information and
    # configuration. The socket file will be named based on the interface name, so
    # multiple hostapd processes/interfaces can be run at the same time if more
    # than one interface is used.
    # /var/run/hostapd is the recommended directory for sockets and by default,
    # hostapd_cli will use it when trying to connect with hostapd.
    ctrl_interface=/var/run/hostapd
    
    # Access control for the control interface can be configured by setting the
    # directory to allow only members of a group to use sockets. This way, it is
    # possible to run hostapd as root (since it needs to change network
    # configuration and open raw sockets) and still allow GUI/CLI components to be
    # run as non-root users. However, since the control interface can be used to
    # change the network configuration, this access needs to be protected in many
    # cases. By default, hostapd is configured to use gid 0 (root). If you
    # want to allow non-root users to use the contron interface, add a new group
    # and change this value to match with that group. Add users that should have
    # control interface access to this group.
    #
    # This variable can be a group name or gid.
    #ctrl_interface_group=wheel
    ctrl_interface_group=0
    
    
    ##### IEEE 802.11 related configuration #######################################
    
    # SSID to be used in IEEE 802.11 management frames
    ssid=test
    # Alternative formats for configuring SSID
    # (double quoted string, hexdump, printf-escaped string)
    #ssid2="test"
    #ssid2=74657374
    #ssid2=P"hello\nthere"
    
    # UTF-8 SSID: Whether the SSID is to be interpreted using UTF-8 encoding
    #utf8_ssid=1
    
    # Country code (ISO/IEC 3166-1). Used to set regulatory domain.
    # Set as needed to indicate country in which device is operating.
    # This can limit available channels and transmit power.
    # These two octets are used as the first two octets of the Country String
    # (dot11CountryString)
    #country_code=US
    
    # The third octet of the Country String (dot11CountryString)
    # This parameter is used to set the third octet of the country string.
    #
    # All environments of the current frequency band and country (default)
    #country3=0x20
    # Outdoor environment only
    #country3=0x4f
    # Indoor environment only
    #country3=0x49
    # Noncountry entity (country_code=XX)
    #country3=0x58
    # IEEE 802.11 standard Annex E table indication: 0x01 .. 0x1f
    # Annex E, Table E-4 (Global operating classes)
    #country3=0x04
    
    # Enable IEEE 802.11d. This advertises the country_code and the set of allowed
    # channels and transmit power levels based on the regulatory limits. The
    # country_code setting must be configured with the correct country for
    # IEEE 802.11d functions.
    # (default: 0 = disabled)
    #ieee80211d=1
    
    # Enable IEEE 802.11h. This enables radar detection and DFS support if
    # available. DFS support is required on outdoor 5 GHz channels in most countries
    # of the world. This can be used only with ieee80211d=1.
    # (default: 0 = disabled)
    #ieee80211h=1
    
    # Add Power Constraint element to Beacon and Probe Response frames
    # This config option adds Power Constraint element when applicable and Country
    # element is added. Power Constraint element is required by Transmit Power
    # Control. This can be used only with ieee80211d=1.
    # Valid values are 0..255.
    #local_pwr_constraint=3
    
    # Set Spectrum Management subfield in the Capability Information field.
    # This config option forces the Spectrum Management bit to be set. When this
    # option is not set, the value of the Spectrum Management bit depends on whether
    # DFS or TPC is required by regulatory authorities. This can be used only with
    # ieee80211d=1 and local_pwr_constraint configured.
    #spectrum_mgmt_required=1
    
    # Operation mode (a = IEEE 802.11a (5 GHz), b = IEEE 802.11b (2.4 GHz),
    # g = IEEE 802.11g (2.4 GHz), ad = IEEE 802.11ad (60 GHz); a/g options are used
    # with IEEE 802.11n (HT), too, to specify band). For IEEE 802.11ac (VHT), this
    # needs to be set to hw_mode=a. When using ACS (see channel parameter), a
    # special value "any" can be used to indicate that any support band can be used.
    # This special case is currently supported only with drivers with which
    # offloaded ACS is used.
    # Default: IEEE 802.11b
    hw_mode=g
    
    # Channel number (IEEE 802.11)
    # (default: 0, i.e., not set)
    # Please note that some drivers do not use this value from hostapd and the
    # channel will need to be configured separately with iwconfig.
    #
    # If CONFIG_ACS build option is enabled, the channel can be selected
    # automatically at run time by setting channel=acs_survey or channel=0, both of
    # which will enable the ACS survey based algorithm.
    channel=1
    
    # ACS tuning - Automatic Channel Selection
    # See: http://wireless.kernel.org/en/users/Documentation/acs
    #
    # You can customize the ACS survey algorithm with following variables:
    #
    # acs_num_scans requirement is 1..100 - number of scans to be performed that
    # are used to trigger survey data gathering of an underlying device driver.
    # Scans are passive and typically take a little over 100ms (depending on the
    # driver) on each available channel for given hw_mode. Increasing this value
    # means sacrificing startup time and gathering more data wrt channel
    # interference that may help choosing a better channel. This can also help fine
    # tune the ACS scan time in case a driver has different scan dwell times.
    #
    # acs_chan_bias is a space-separated list of <channel>:<bias> pairs. It can be
    # used to increase (or decrease) the likelihood of a specific channel to be
    # selected by the ACS algorithm. The total interference factor for each channel
    # gets multiplied by the specified bias value before finding the channel with
    # the lowest value. In other words, values between 0.0 and 1.0 can be used to
    # make a channel more likely to be picked while values larger than 1.0 make the
    # specified channel less likely to be picked. This can be used, e.g., to prefer
    # the commonly used 2.4 GHz band channels 1, 6, and 11 (which is the default
    # behavior on 2.4 GHz band if no acs_chan_bias parameter is specified).
    #
    # Defaults:
    #acs_num_scans=5
    #acs_chan_bias=1:0.8 6:0.8 11:0.8
    
    # Channel list restriction. This option allows hostapd to select one of the
    # provided channels when a channel should be automatically selected.
    # Channel list can be provided as range using hyphen ('-') or individual
    # channels can be specified by space (' ') separated values
    # Default: all channels allowed in selected hw_mode
    #chanlist=100 104 108 112 116
    #chanlist=1 6 11-13
    
    # Exclude DFS channels from ACS
    # This option can be used to exclude all DFS channels from the ACS channel list
    # in cases where the driver supports DFS channels.
    #acs_exclude_dfs=1
    
    # Beacon interval in kus (1.024 ms) (default: 100; range 15..65535)
    beacon_int=100
    
    # DTIM (delivery traffic information message) period (range 1..255):
    # number of beacons between DTIMs (1 = every beacon includes DTIM element)
    # (default: 2)
    dtim_period=2
    
    # Maximum number of stations allowed in station table. New stations will be
    # rejected after the station table is full. IEEE 802.11 has a limit of 2007
    # different association IDs, so this number should not be larger than that.
    # (default: 2007)
    max_num_sta=255
    
    # RTS/CTS threshold; -1 = disabled (default); range -1..65535
    # If this field is not included in hostapd.conf, hostapd will not control
    # RTS threshold and 'iwconfig wlan# rts <val>' can be used to set it.
    rts_threshold=-1
    
    # Fragmentation threshold; -1 = disabled (default); range -1, 256..2346
    # If this field is not included in hostapd.conf, hostapd will not control
    # fragmentation threshold and 'iwconfig wlan# frag <val>' can be used to set
    # it.
    fragm_threshold=-1
    
    # Rate configuration
    # Default is to enable all rates supported by the hardware. This configuration
    # item allows this list be filtered so that only the listed rates will be left
    # in the list. If the list is empty, all rates are used. This list can have
    # entries that are not in the list of rates the hardware supports (such entries
    # are ignored). The entries in this list are in 100 kbps, i.e., 11 Mbps = 110.
    # If this item is present, at least one rate have to be matching with the rates
    # hardware supports.
    # default: use the most common supported rate setting for the selected
    # hw_mode (i.e., this line can be removed from configuration file in most
    # cases)
    #supported_rates=10 20 55 110 60 90 120 180 240 360 480 540
    
    # Basic rate set configuration
    # List of rates (in 100 kbps) that are included in the basic rate set.
    # If this item is not included, usually reasonable default set is used.
    #basic_rates=10 20
    #basic_rates=10 20 55 110
    #basic_rates=60 120 240
    
    # Beacon frame TX rate configuration
    # This sets the TX rate that is used to transmit Beacon frames. If this item is
    # not included, the driver default rate (likely lowest rate) is used.
    # Legacy (CCK/OFDM rates):
    #    beacon_rate=<legacy rate in 100 kbps>
    # HT:
    #    beacon_rate=ht:<HT MCS>
    # VHT:
    #    beacon_rate=vht:<VHT MCS>
    #
    # For example, beacon_rate=10 for 1 Mbps or beacon_rate=60 for 6 Mbps (OFDM).
    #beacon_rate=10
    
    # Short Preamble
    # This parameter can be used to enable optional use of short preamble for
    # frames sent at 2 Mbps, 5.5 Mbps, and 11 Mbps to improve network performance.
    # This applies only to IEEE 802.11b-compatible networks and this should only be
    # enabled if the local hardware supports use of short preamble. If any of the
    # associated STAs do not support short preamble, use of short preamble will be
    # disabled (and enabled when such STAs disassociate) dynamically.
    # 0 = do not allow use of short preamble (default)
    # 1 = allow use of short preamble
    #preamble=1
    
    # Station MAC address -based authentication
    # Please note that this kind of access control requires a driver that uses
    # hostapd to take care of management frame processing and as such, this can be
    # used with driver=hostap or driver=nl80211, but not with driver=atheros.
    # 0 = accept unless in deny list
    # 1 = deny unless in accept list
    # 2 = use external RADIUS server (accept/deny lists are searched first)
    macaddr_acl=0
    
    # Accept/deny lists are read from separate files (containing list of
    # MAC addresses, one per line). Use absolute path name to make sure that the
    # files can be read on SIGHUP configuration reloads.
    #accept_mac_file=/etc/hostapd.accept
    #deny_mac_file=/etc/hostapd.deny
    
    # IEEE 802.11 specifies two authentication algorithms. hostapd can be
    # configured to allow both of these or only one. Open system authentication
    # should be used with IEEE 802.1X.
    # Bit fields of allowed authentication algorithms:
    # bit 0 = Open System Authentication
    # bit 1 = Shared Key Authentication (requires WEP)
    auth_algs=3
    
    # Send empty SSID in beacons and ignore probe request frames that do not
    # specify full SSID, i.e., require stations to know SSID.
    # default: disabled (0)
    # 1 = send empty (length=0) SSID in beacon and ignore probe request for
    #     broadcast SSID
    # 2 = clear SSID (ASCII 0), but keep the original length (this may be required
    #     with some clients that do not support empty SSID) and ignore probe
    #     requests for broadcast SSID
    ignore_broadcast_ssid=0
    
    # Do not reply to broadcast Probe Request frames from unassociated STA if there
    # is no room for additional stations (max_num_sta). This can be used to
    # discourage a STA from trying to associate with this AP if the association
    # would be rejected due to maximum STA limit.
    # Default: 0 (disabled)
    #no_probe_resp_if_max_sta=0
    
    # Additional vendor specific elements for Beacon and Probe Response frames
    # This parameter can be used to add additional vendor specific element(s) into
    # the end of the Beacon and Probe Response frames. The format for these
    # element(s) is a hexdump of the raw information elements (id+len+payload for
    # one or more elements)
    #vendor_elements=dd0411223301
    
    # Additional vendor specific elements for (Re)Association Response frames
    # This parameter can be used to add additional vendor specific element(s) into
    # the end of the (Re)Association Response frames. The format for these
    # element(s) is a hexdump of the raw information elements (id+len+payload for
    # one or more elements)
    #assocresp_elements=dd0411223301
    
    # TX queue parameters (EDCF / bursting)
    # tx_queue_<queue name>_<param>
    # queues: data0, data1, data2, data3
    #		(data0 is the highest priority queue)
    # parameters:
    #   aifs: AIFS (default 2)
    #   cwmin: cwMin (1, 3, 7, 15, 31, 63, 127, 255, 511, 1023, 2047, 4095, 8191,
    #	   16383, 32767)
    #   cwmax: cwMax (same values as cwMin, cwMax >= cwMin)
    #   burst: maximum length (in milliseconds with precision of up to 0.1 ms) for
    #          bursting
    #
    # Default WMM parameters (IEEE 802.11 draft; 11-03-0504-03-000e):
    # These parameters are used by the access point when transmitting frames
    # to the clients.
    #
    # Low priority / AC_BK = background
    #tx_queue_data3_aifs=7
    #tx_queue_data3_cwmin=15
    #tx_queue_data3_cwmax=1023
    #tx_queue_data3_burst=0
    # Note: for IEEE 802.11b mode: cWmin=31 cWmax=1023 burst=0
    #
    # Normal priority / AC_BE = best effort
    #tx_queue_data2_aifs=3
    #tx_queue_data2_cwmin=15
    #tx_queue_data2_cwmax=63
    #tx_queue_data2_burst=0
    # Note: for IEEE 802.11b mode: cWmin=31 cWmax=127 burst=0
    #
    # High priority / AC_VI = video
    #tx_queue_data1_aifs=1
    #tx_queue_data1_cwmin=7
    #tx_queue_data1_cwmax=15
    #tx_queue_data1_burst=3.0
    # Note: for IEEE 802.11b mode: cWmin=15 cWmax=31 burst=6.0
    #
    # Highest priority / AC_VO = voice
    #tx_queue_data0_aifs=1
    #tx_queue_data0_cwmin=3
    #tx_queue_data0_cwmax=7
    #tx_queue_data0_burst=1.5
    # Note: for IEEE 802.11b mode: cWmin=7 cWmax=15 burst=3.3
    
    # 802.1D Tag (= UP) to AC mappings
    # WMM specifies following mapping of data frames to different ACs. This mapping
    # can be configured using Linux QoS/tc and sch_pktpri.o module.
    # 802.1D Tag	802.1D Designation	Access Category	WMM Designation
    # 1		BK			AC_BK		Background
    # 2		-			AC_BK		Background
    # 0		BE			AC_BE		Best Effort
    # 3		EE			AC_BE		Best Effort
    # 4		CL			AC_VI		Video
    # 5		VI			AC_VI		Video
    # 6		VO			AC_VO		Voice
    # 7		NC			AC_VO		Voice
    # Data frames with no priority information: AC_BE
    # Management frames: AC_VO
    # PS-Poll frames: AC_BE
    
    # Default WMM parameters (IEEE 802.11 draft; 11-03-0504-03-000e):
    # for 802.11a or 802.11g networks
    # These parameters are sent to WMM clients when they associate.
    # The parameters will be used by WMM clients for frames transmitted to the
    # access point.
    #
    # note - txop_limit is in units of 32microseconds
    # note - acm is admission control mandatory flag. 0 = admission control not
    # required, 1 = mandatory
    # note - Here cwMin and cmMax are in exponent form. The actual cw value used
    # will be (2^n)-1 where n is the value given here. The allowed range for these
    # wmm_ac_??_{cwmin,cwmax} is 0..15 with cwmax >= cwmin.
    #
    wmm_enabled=1
    #
    # WMM-PS Unscheduled Automatic Power Save Delivery [U-APSD]
    # Enable this flag if U-APSD supported outside hostapd (eg., Firmware/driver)
    #uapsd_advertisement_enabled=1
    #
    # Low priority / AC_BK = background
    wmm_ac_bk_cwmin=4
    wmm_ac_bk_cwmax=10
    wmm_ac_bk_aifs=7
    wmm_ac_bk_txop_limit=0
    wmm_ac_bk_acm=0
    # Note: for IEEE 802.11b mode: cWmin=5 cWmax=10
    #
    # Normal priority / AC_BE = best effort
    wmm_ac_be_aifs=3
    wmm_ac_be_cwmin=4
    wmm_ac_be_cwmax=10
    wmm_ac_be_txop_limit=0
    wmm_ac_be_acm=0
    # Note: for IEEE 802.11b mode: cWmin=5 cWmax=7
    #
    # High priority / AC_VI = video
    wmm_ac_vi_aifs=2
    wmm_ac_vi_cwmin=3
    wmm_ac_vi_cwmax=4
    wmm_ac_vi_txop_limit=94
    wmm_ac_vi_acm=0
    # Note: for IEEE 802.11b mode: cWmin=4 cWmax=5 txop_limit=188
    #
    # Highest priority / AC_VO = voice
    wmm_ac_vo_aifs=2
    wmm_ac_vo_cwmin=2
    wmm_ac_vo_cwmax=3
    wmm_ac_vo_txop_limit=47
    wmm_ac_vo_acm=0
    # Note: for IEEE 802.11b mode: cWmin=3 cWmax=4 burst=102
    
    # Enable Multi-AP functionality
    # 0 = disabled (default)
    # 1 = AP support backhaul BSS
    # 2 = AP support fronthaul BSS
    # 3 = AP supports both backhaul BSS and fronthaul BSS
    #multi_ap=0
    
    # Static WEP key configuration
    #
    # The key number to use when transmitting.
    # It must be between 0 and 3, and the corresponding key must be set.
    # default: not set
    #wep_default_key=0
    # The WEP keys to use.
    # A key may be a quoted string or unquoted hexadecimal digits.
    # The key length should be 5, 13, or 16 characters, or 10, 26, or 32
    # digits, depending on whether 40-bit (64-bit), 104-bit (128-bit), or
    # 128-bit (152-bit) WEP is used.
    # Only the default key must be supplied; the others are optional.
    # default: not set
    #wep_key0=123456789a
    #wep_key1="vwxyz"
    #wep_key2=0102030405060708090a0b0c0d
    #wep_key3=".2.4.6.8.0.23"
    
    # Station inactivity limit
    #
    # If a station does not send anything in ap_max_inactivity seconds, an
    # empty data frame is sent to it in order to verify whether it is
    # still in range. If this frame is not ACKed, the station will be
    # disassociated and then deauthenticated. This feature is used to
    # clear station table of old entries when the STAs move out of the
    # range.
    #
    # The station can associate again with the AP if it is still in range;
    # this inactivity poll is just used as a nicer way of verifying
    # inactivity; i.e., client will not report broken connection because
    # disassociation frame is not sent immediately without first polling
    # the STA with a data frame.
    # default: 300 (i.e., 5 minutes)
    #ap_max_inactivity=300
    #
    # The inactivity polling can be disabled to disconnect stations based on
    # inactivity timeout so that idle stations are more likely to be disconnected
    # even if they are still in range of the AP. This can be done by setting
    # skip_inactivity_poll to 1 (default 0).
    #skip_inactivity_poll=0
    
    # Disassociate stations based on excessive transmission failures or other
    # indications of connection loss. This depends on the driver capabilities and
    # may not be available with all drivers.
    #disassoc_low_ack=1
    
    # Maximum allowed Listen Interval (how many Beacon periods STAs are allowed to
    # remain asleep). Default: 65535 (no limit apart from field size)
    #max_listen_interval=100
    
    # WDS (4-address frame) mode with per-station virtual interfaces
    # (only supported with driver=nl80211)
    # This mode allows associated stations to use 4-address frames to allow layer 2
    # bridging to be used.
    #wds_sta=1
    
    # If bridge parameter is set, the WDS STA interface will be added to the same
    # bridge by default. This can be overridden with the wds_bridge parameter to
    # use a separate bridge.
    #wds_bridge=wds-br0
    
    # Start the AP with beaconing disabled by default.
    #start_disabled=0
    
    # Client isolation can be used to prevent low-level bridging of frames between
    # associated stations in the BSS. By default, this bridging is allowed.
    #ap_isolate=1
    
    # BSS Load update period (in BUs)
    # This field is used to enable and configure adding a BSS Load element into
    # Beacon and Probe Response frames.
    #bss_load_update_period=50
    
    # Channel utilization averaging period (in BUs)
    # This field is used to enable and configure channel utilization average
    # calculation with bss_load_update_period. This should be in multiples of
    # bss_load_update_period for more accurate calculation.
    #chan_util_avg_period=600
    
    # Fixed BSS Load value for testing purposes
    # This field can be used to configure hostapd to add a fixed BSS Load element
    # into Beacon and Probe Response frames for testing purposes. The format is
    # <station count>:<channel utilization>:<available admission capacity>
    #bss_load_test=12:80:20000
    
    # Multicast to unicast conversion
    # Request that the AP will do multicast-to-unicast conversion for ARP, IPv4, and
    # IPv6 frames (possibly within 802.1Q). If enabled, such frames are to be sent
    # to each station separately, with the DA replaced by their own MAC address
    # rather than the group address.
    #
    # Note that this may break certain expectations of the receiver, such as the
    # ability to drop unicast IP packets received within multicast L2 frames, or the
    # ability to not send ICMP destination unreachable messages for packets received
    # in L2 multicast (which is required, but the receiver can't tell the difference
    # if this new option is enabled).
    #
    # This also doesn't implement the 802.11 DMS (directed multicast service).
    #
    #multicast_to_unicast=0
    
    # Send broadcast Deauthentication frame on AP start/stop
    # Default: 1 (enabled)
    #broadcast_deauth=1
    
    ##### IEEE 802.11n related configuration ######################################
    
    # ieee80211n: Whether IEEE 802.11n (HT) is enabled
    # 0 = disabled (default)
    # 1 = enabled
    # Note: You will also need to enable WMM for full HT functionality.
    # Note: hw_mode=g (2.4 GHz) and hw_mode=a (5 GHz) is used to specify the band.
    #ieee80211n=1
    
    # ht_capab: HT capabilities (list of flags)
    # LDPC coding capability: [LDPC] = supported
    # Supported channel width set: [HT40-] = both 20 MHz and 40 MHz with secondary
    #	channel below the primary channel; [HT40+] = both 20 MHz and 40 MHz
    #	with secondary channel above the primary channel
    #	(20 MHz only if neither is set)
    #	Note: There are limits on which channels can be used with HT40- and
    #	HT40+. Following table shows the channels that may be available for
    #	HT40- and HT40+ use per IEEE 802.11n Annex J:
    #	freq		HT40-		HT40+
    #	2.4 GHz		5-13		1-7 (1-9 in Europe/Japan)
    #	5 GHz		40,48,56,64	36,44,52,60
    #	(depending on the location, not all of these channels may be available
    #	for use)
    #	Please note that 40 MHz channels may switch their primary and secondary
    #	channels if needed or creation of 40 MHz channel maybe rejected based
    #	on overlapping BSSes. These changes are done automatically when hostapd
    #	is setting up the 40 MHz channel.
    # Spatial Multiplexing (SM) Power Save: [SMPS-STATIC] or [SMPS-DYNAMIC]
    #	(SMPS disabled if neither is set)
    # HT-greenfield: [GF] (disabled if not set)
    # Short GI for 20 MHz: [SHORT-GI-20] (disabled if not set)
    # Short GI for 40 MHz: [SHORT-GI-40] (disabled if not set)
    # Tx STBC: [TX-STBC] (disabled if not set)
    # Rx STBC: [RX-STBC1] (one spatial stream), [RX-STBC12] (one or two spatial
    #	streams), or [RX-STBC123] (one, two, or three spatial streams); Rx STBC
    #	disabled if none of these set
    # HT-delayed Block Ack: [DELAYED-BA] (disabled if not set)
    # Maximum A-MSDU length: [MAX-AMSDU-7935] for 7935 octets (3839 octets if not
    #	set)
    # DSSS/CCK Mode in 40 MHz: [DSSS_CCK-40] = allowed (not allowed if not set)
    # 40 MHz intolerant [40-INTOLERANT] (not advertised if not set)
    # L-SIG TXOP protection support: [LSIG-TXOP-PROT] (disabled if not set)
    #ht_capab=[HT40-][SHORT-GI-20][SHORT-GI-40]
    
    # Require stations to support HT PHY (reject association if they do not)
    #require_ht=1
    
    # If set non-zero, require stations to perform scans of overlapping
    # channels to test for stations which would be affected by 40 MHz traffic.
    # This parameter sets the interval in seconds between these scans. Setting this
    # to non-zero allows 2.4 GHz band AP to move dynamically to a 40 MHz channel if
    # no co-existence issues with neighboring devices are found.
    #obss_interval=0
    
    ##### IEEE 802.11ac related configuration #####################################
    
    # ieee80211ac: Whether IEEE 802.11ac (VHT) is enabled
    # 0 = disabled (default)
    # 1 = enabled
    # Note: You will also need to enable WMM for full VHT functionality.
    # Note: hw_mode=a is used to specify that 5 GHz band is used with VHT.
    #ieee80211ac=1
    
    # vht_capab: VHT capabilities (list of flags)
    #
    # vht_max_mpdu_len: [MAX-MPDU-7991] [MAX-MPDU-11454]
    # Indicates maximum MPDU length
    # 0 = 3895 octets (default)
    # 1 = 7991 octets
    # 2 = 11454 octets
    # 3 = reserved
    #
    # supported_chan_width: [VHT160] [VHT160-80PLUS80]
    # Indicates supported Channel widths
    # 0 = 160 MHz & 80+80 channel widths are not supported (default)
    # 1 = 160 MHz channel width is supported
    # 2 = 160 MHz & 80+80 channel widths are supported
    # 3 = reserved
    #
    # Rx LDPC coding capability: [RXLDPC]
    # Indicates support for receiving LDPC coded pkts
    # 0 = Not supported (default)
    # 1 = Supported
    #
    # Short GI for 80 MHz: [SHORT-GI-80]
    # Indicates short GI support for reception of packets transmitted with TXVECTOR
    # params format equal to VHT and CBW = 80Mhz
    # 0 = Not supported (default)
    # 1 = Supported
    #
    # Short GI for 160 MHz: [SHORT-GI-160]
    # Indicates short GI support for reception of packets transmitted with TXVECTOR
    # params format equal to VHT and CBW = 160Mhz
    # 0 = Not supported (default)
    # 1 = Supported
    #
    # Tx STBC: [TX-STBC-2BY1]
    # Indicates support for the transmission of at least 2x1 STBC
    # 0 = Not supported (default)
    # 1 = Supported
    #
    # Rx STBC: [RX-STBC-1] [RX-STBC-12] [RX-STBC-123] [RX-STBC-1234]
    # Indicates support for the reception of PPDUs using STBC
    # 0 = Not supported (default)
    # 1 = support of one spatial stream
    # 2 = support of one and two spatial streams
    # 3 = support of one, two and three spatial streams
    # 4 = support of one, two, three and four spatial streams
    # 5,6,7 = reserved
    #
    # SU Beamformer Capable: [SU-BEAMFORMER]
    # Indicates support for operation as a single user beamformer
    # 0 = Not supported (default)
    # 1 = Supported
    #
    # SU Beamformee Capable: [SU-BEAMFORMEE]
    # Indicates support for operation as a single user beamformee
    # 0 = Not supported (default)
    # 1 = Supported
    #
    # Compressed Steering Number of Beamformer Antennas Supported:
    # [BF-ANTENNA-2] [BF-ANTENNA-3] [BF-ANTENNA-4]
    #   Beamformee's capability indicating the maximum number of beamformer
    #   antennas the beamformee can support when sending compressed beamforming
    #   feedback
    # If SU beamformer capable, set to maximum value minus 1
    # else reserved (default)
    #
    # Number of Sounding Dimensions:
    # [SOUNDING-DIMENSION-2] [SOUNDING-DIMENSION-3] [SOUNDING-DIMENSION-4]
    # Beamformer's capability indicating the maximum value of the NUM_STS parameter
    # in the TXVECTOR of a VHT NDP
    # If SU beamformer capable, set to maximum value minus 1
    # else reserved (default)
    #
    # MU Beamformer Capable: [MU-BEAMFORMER]
    # Indicates support for operation as an MU beamformer
    # 0 = Not supported or sent by Non-AP STA (default)
    # 1 = Supported
    #
    # VHT TXOP PS: [VHT-TXOP-PS]
    # Indicates whether or not the AP supports VHT TXOP Power Save Mode
    #  or whether or not the STA is in VHT TXOP Power Save mode
    # 0 = VHT AP doesn't support VHT TXOP PS mode (OR) VHT STA not in VHT TXOP PS
    #  mode
    # 1 = VHT AP supports VHT TXOP PS mode (OR) VHT STA is in VHT TXOP power save
    #  mode
    #
    # +HTC-VHT Capable: [HTC-VHT]
    # Indicates whether or not the STA supports receiving a VHT variant HT Control
    # field.
    # 0 = Not supported (default)
    # 1 = supported
    #
    # Maximum A-MPDU Length Exponent: [MAX-A-MPDU-LEN-EXP0]..[MAX-A-MPDU-LEN-EXP7]
    # Indicates the maximum length of A-MPDU pre-EOF padding that the STA can recv
    # This field is an integer in the range of 0 to 7.
    # The length defined by this field is equal to
    # 2 pow(13 + Maximum A-MPDU Length Exponent) -1 octets
    #
    # VHT Link Adaptation Capable: [VHT-LINK-ADAPT2] [VHT-LINK-ADAPT3]
    # Indicates whether or not the STA supports link adaptation using VHT variant
    # HT Control field
    # If +HTC-VHTcapable is 1
    #  0 = (no feedback) if the STA does not provide VHT MFB (default)
    #  1 = reserved
    #  2 = (Unsolicited) if the STA provides only unsolicited VHT MFB
    #  3 = (Both) if the STA can provide VHT MFB in response to VHT MRQ and if the
    #      STA provides unsolicited VHT MFB
    # Reserved if +HTC-VHTcapable is 0
    #
    # Rx Antenna Pattern Consistency: [RX-ANTENNA-PATTERN]
    # Indicates the possibility of Rx antenna pattern change
    # 0 = Rx antenna pattern might change during the lifetime of an association
    # 1 = Rx antenna pattern does not change during the lifetime of an association
    #
    # Tx Antenna Pattern Consistency: [TX-ANTENNA-PATTERN]
    # Indicates the possibility of Tx antenna pattern change
    # 0 = Tx antenna pattern might change during the lifetime of an association
    # 1 = Tx antenna pattern does not change during the lifetime of an association
    #vht_capab=[SHORT-GI-80][HTC-VHT]
    #
    # Require stations to support VHT PHY (reject association if they do not)
    #require_vht=1
    
    # 0 = 20 or 40 MHz operating Channel width
    # 1 = 80 MHz channel width
    # 2 = 160 MHz channel width
    # 3 = 80+80 MHz channel width
    #vht_oper_chwidth=1
    #
    # center freq = 5 GHz + (5 * index)
    # So index 42 gives center freq 5.210 GHz
    # which is channel 42 in 5G band
    #
    #vht_oper_centr_freq_seg0_idx=42
    #
    # center freq = 5 GHz + (5 * index)
    # So index 159 gives center freq 5.795 GHz
    # which is channel 159 in 5G band
    #
    #vht_oper_centr_freq_seg1_idx=159
    
    # Workaround to use station's nsts capability in (Re)Association Response frame
    # This may be needed with some deployed devices as an interoperability
    # workaround for beamforming if the AP's capability is greater than the
    # station's capability. This is disabled by default and can be enabled by
    # setting use_sta_nsts=1.
    #use_sta_nsts=0
    
    ##### IEEE 802.11ax related configuration #####################################
    
    #ieee80211ax: Whether IEEE 802.11ax (HE) is enabled
    # 0 = disabled (default)
    # 1 = enabled
    #ieee80211ax=1
    
    #he_su_beamformer: HE single user beamformer support
    # 0 = not supported (default)
    # 1 = supported
    #he_su_beamformer=1
    
    #he_su_beamformee: HE single user beamformee support
    # 0 = not supported (default)
    # 1 = supported
    #he_su_beamformee=1
    
    #he_mu_beamformer: HE multiple user beamformer support
    # 0 = not supported (default)
    # 1 = supported
    #he_mu_beamformer=1
    
    # he_bss_color: BSS color (1-63)
    #he_bss_color=1
    
    #he_default_pe_duration: The duration of PE field in an HE PPDU in us
    # Possible values are 0 us (default), 4 us, 8 us, 12 us, and 16 us
    #he_default_pe_duration=0
    
    #he_twt_required: Whether TWT is required
    # 0 = not required (default)
    # 1 = required
    #he_twt_required=0
    
    #he_rts_threshold: Duration of STA transmission
    # 0 = not set (default)
    # unsigned integer = duration in units of 16 us
    #he_rts_threshold=0
    
    #he_mu_edca_qos_info_param_count
    #he_mu_edca_qos_info_q_ack
    #he_mu_edca_qos_info_queue_request=1
    #he_mu_edca_qos_info_txop_request
    #he_mu_edca_ac_be_aifsn=0
    #he_mu_edca_ac_be_ecwmin=15
    #he_mu_edca_ac_be_ecwmax=15
    #he_mu_edca_ac_be_timer=255
    #he_mu_edca_ac_bk_aifsn=0
    #he_mu_edca_ac_bk_aci=1
    #he_mu_edca_ac_bk_ecwmin=15
    #he_mu_edca_ac_bk_ecwmax=15
    #he_mu_edca_ac_bk_timer=255
    #he_mu_edca_ac_vi_ecwmin=15
    #he_mu_edca_ac_vi_ecwmax=15
    #he_mu_edca_ac_vi_aifsn=0
    #he_mu_edca_ac_vi_aci=2
    #he_mu_edca_ac_vi_timer=255
    #he_mu_edca_ac_vo_aifsn=0
    #he_mu_edca_ac_vo_aci=3
    #he_mu_edca_ac_vo_ecwmin=15
    #he_mu_edca_ac_vo_ecwmax=15
    #he_mu_edca_ac_vo_timer=255
    
    # Spatial Reuse Parameter Set
    #he_spr_sr_control
    #he_spr_non_srg_obss_pd_max_offset
    #he_spr_srg_obss_pd_min_offset
    #he_spr_srg_obss_pd_max_offset
    
    ##### IEEE 802.1X-2004 related configuration ##################################
    
    # Require IEEE 802.1X authorization
    #ieee8021x=1
    
    # IEEE 802.1X/EAPOL version
    # hostapd is implemented based on IEEE Std 802.1X-2004 which defines EAPOL
    # version 2. However, there are many client implementations that do not handle
    # the new version number correctly (they seem to drop the frames completely).
    # In order to make hostapd interoperate with these clients, the version number
    # can be set to the older version (1) with this configuration value.
    #eapol_version=2
    
    # Optional displayable message sent with EAP Request-Identity. The first \0
    # in this string will be converted to ASCII-0 (nul). This can be used to
    # separate network info (comma separated list of attribute=value pairs); see,
    # e.g., RFC 4284.
    #eap_message=hello
    #eap_message=hello\0networkid=netw,nasid=foo,portid=0,NAIRealms=example.com
    
    # WEP rekeying (disabled if key lengths are not set or are set to 0)
    # Key lengths for default/broadcast and individual/unicast keys:
    # 5 = 40-bit WEP (also known as 64-bit WEP with 40 secret bits)
    # 13 = 104-bit WEP (also known as 128-bit WEP with 104 secret bits)
    #wep_key_len_broadcast=5
    #wep_key_len_unicast=5
    # Rekeying period in seconds. 0 = do not rekey (i.e., set keys only once)
    #wep_rekey_period=300
    
    # EAPOL-Key index workaround (set bit7) for WinXP Supplicant (needed only if
    # only broadcast keys are used)
    eapol_key_index_workaround=0
    
    # EAP reauthentication period in seconds (default: 3600 seconds; 0 = disable
    # reauthentication).
    #eap_reauth_period=3600
    
    # Use PAE group address (01:80:c2:00:00:03) instead of individual target
    # address when sending EAPOL frames with driver=wired. This is the most common
    # mechanism used in wired authentication, but it also requires that the port
    # is only used by one station.
    #use_pae_group_addr=1
    
    # EAP Re-authentication Protocol (ERP) authenticator (RFC 6696)
    #
    # Whether to initiate EAP authentication with EAP-Initiate/Re-auth-Start before
    # EAP-Identity/Request
    #erp_send_reauth_start=1
    #
    # Domain name for EAP-Initiate/Re-auth-Start. Omitted from the message if not
    # set (no local ER server). This is also used by the integrated EAP server if
    # ERP is enabled (eap_server_erp=1).
    #erp_domain=example.com
    
    ##### Integrated EAP server ###################################################
    
    # Optionally, hostapd can be configured to use an integrated EAP server
    # to process EAP authentication locally without need for an external RADIUS
    # server. This functionality can be used both as a local authentication server
    # for IEEE 802.1X/EAPOL and as a RADIUS server for other devices.
    
    # Use integrated EAP server instead of external RADIUS authentication
    # server. This is also needed if hostapd is configured to act as a RADIUS
    # authentication server.
    eap_server=0
    
    # Path for EAP server user database
    # If SQLite support is included, this can be set to "sqlite:/path/to/sqlite.db"
    # to use SQLite database instead of a text file.
    #eap_user_file=/etc/hostapd.eap_user
    
    # CA certificate (PEM or DER file) for EAP-TLS/PEAP/TTLS
    #ca_cert=/etc/hostapd.ca.pem
    
    # Server certificate (PEM or DER file) for EAP-TLS/PEAP/TTLS
    #server_cert=/etc/hostapd.server.pem
    
    # Private key matching with the server certificate for EAP-TLS/PEAP/TTLS
    # This may point to the same file as server_cert if both certificate and key
    # are included in a single file. PKCS#12 (PFX) file (.p12/.pfx) can also be
    # used by commenting out server_cert and specifying the PFX file as the
    # private_key.
    #private_key=/etc/hostapd.server.prv
    
    # Passphrase for private key
    #private_key_passwd=secret passphrase
    
    # Server identity
    # EAP methods that provide mechanism for authenticated server identity delivery
    # use this value. If not set, "hostapd" is used as a default.
    #server_id=server.example.com
    
    # Enable CRL verification.
    # Note: hostapd does not yet support CRL downloading based on CDP. Thus, a
    # valid CRL signed by the CA is required to be included in the ca_cert file.
    # This can be done by using PEM format for CA certificate and CRL and
    # concatenating these into one file. Whenever CRL changes, hostapd needs to be
    # restarted to take the new CRL into use. Alternatively, crl_reload_interval can
    # be used to configure periodic updating of the loaded CRL information.
    # 0 = do not verify CRLs (default)
    # 1 = check the CRL of the user certificate
    # 2 = check all CRLs in the certificate path
    #check_crl=1
    
    # Specify whether to ignore certificate CRL validity time mismatches with
    # errors X509_V_ERR_CERT_HAS_EXPIRED and X509_V_ERR_CERT_NOT_YET_VALID.
    #
    # 0 = ignore errors
    # 1 = do not ignore errors (default)
    #check_crl_strict=1
    
    # CRL reload interval in seconds
    # This can be used to reload ca_cert file and the included CRL on every new TLS
    # session if difference between last reload and the current reload time in
    # seconds is greater than crl_reload_interval.
    # Note: If interval time is very short, CPU overhead may be negatively affected
    # and it is advised to not go below 300 seconds.
    # This is applicable only with check_crl values 1 and 2.
    # 0 = do not reload CRLs (default)
    # crl_reload_interval = 300
    
    # If check_cert_subject is set, the value of every field will be checked
    # against the DN of the subject in the client certificate. If the values do
    # not match, the certificate verification will fail, rejecting the user.
    # This option allows hostapd to match every individual field in the right order
    # against the DN of the subject in the client certificate.
    #
    # For example, check_cert_subject=C=US/O=XX/OU=ABC/OU=XYZ/CN=1234 will check
    # every individual DN field of the subject in the client certificate. If OU=XYZ
    # comes first in terms of the order in the client certificate (DN field of
    # client certificate C=US/O=XX/OU=XYZ/OU=ABC/CN=1234), hostapd will reject the
    # client because the order of 'OU' is not matching the specified string in
    # check_cert_subject.
    #
    # This option also allows '*' as a wildcard. This option has some limitation.
    # It can only be used as per the following example.
    #
    # For example, check_cert_subject=C=US/O=XX/OU=Production* and we have two
    # clients and DN of the subject in the first client certificate is
    # (C=US/O=XX/OU=Production Unit) and DN of the subject in the second client is
    # (C=US/O=XX/OU=Production Factory). In this case, hostapd will allow both
    # clients because the value of 'OU' field in both client certificates matches
    # 'OU' value in 'check_cert_subject' up to 'wildcard'.
    #
    # * (Allow all clients, e.g., check_cert_subject=*)
    #check_cert_subject=string
    
    # TLS Session Lifetime in seconds
    # This can be used to allow TLS sessions to be cached and resumed with an
    # abbreviated handshake when using EAP-TLS/TTLS/PEAP.
    # (default: 0 = session caching and resumption disabled)
    #tls_session_lifetime=3600
    
    # TLS flags
    # [ALLOW-SIGN-RSA-MD5] = allow MD5-based certificate signatures (depending on
    #	the TLS library, these may be disabled by default to enforce stronger
    #	security)
    # [DISABLE-TIME-CHECKS] = ignore certificate validity time (this requests
    #	the TLS library to accept certificates even if they are not currently
    #	valid, i.e., have expired or have not yet become valid; this should be
    #	used only for testing purposes)
    # [DISABLE-TLSv1.0] = disable use of TLSv1.0
    # [ENABLE-TLSv1.0] = explicitly enable use of TLSv1.0 (this allows
    #	systemwide TLS policies to be overridden)
    # [DISABLE-TLSv1.1] = disable use of TLSv1.1
    # [ENABLE-TLSv1.1] = explicitly enable use of TLSv1.1 (this allows
    #	systemwide TLS policies to be overridden)
    # [DISABLE-TLSv1.2] = disable use of TLSv1.2
    # [ENABLE-TLSv1.2] = explicitly enable use of TLSv1.2 (this allows
    #	systemwide TLS policies to be overridden)
    # [DISABLE-TLSv1.3] = disable use of TLSv1.3
    # [ENABLE-TLSv1.3] = enable TLSv1.3 (experimental - disabled by default)
    #tls_flags=[flag1][flag2]...
    
    # Cached OCSP stapling response (DER encoded)
    # If set, this file is sent as a certificate status response by the EAP server
    # if the EAP peer requests certificate status in the ClientHello message.
    # This cache file can be updated, e.g., by running following command
    # periodically to get an update from the OCSP responder:
    # openssl ocsp \
    #	-no_nonce \
    #	-CAfile /etc/hostapd.ca.pem \
    #	-issuer /etc/hostapd.ca.pem \
    #	-cert /etc/hostapd.server.pem \
    #	-url http://ocsp.example.com:8888/ \
    #	-respout /tmp/ocsp-cache.der
    #ocsp_stapling_response=/tmp/ocsp-cache.der
    
    # Cached OCSP stapling response list (DER encoded OCSPResponseList)
    # This is similar to ocsp_stapling_response, but the extended version defined in
    # RFC 6961 to allow multiple OCSP responses to be provided.
    #ocsp_stapling_response_multi=/tmp/ocsp-multi-cache.der
    
    # dh_file: File path to DH/DSA parameters file (in PEM format)
    # This is an optional configuration file for setting parameters for an
    # ephemeral DH key exchange. In most cases, the default RSA authentication does
    # not use this configuration. However, it is possible setup RSA to use
    # ephemeral DH key exchange. In addition, ciphers with DSA keys always use
    # ephemeral DH keys. This can be used to achieve forward secrecy. If the file
    # is in DSA parameters format, it will be automatically converted into DH
    # params. This parameter is required if anonymous EAP-FAST is used.
    # You can generate DH parameters file with OpenSSL, e.g.,
    # "openssl dhparam -out /etc/hostapd.dh.pem 2048"
    #dh_file=/etc/hostapd.dh.pem
    
    # OpenSSL cipher string
    #
    # This is an OpenSSL specific configuration option for configuring the default
    # ciphers. If not set, the value configured at build time ("DEFAULT:!EXP:!LOW"
    # by default) is used.
    # See https://www.openssl.org/docs/apps/ciphers.html for OpenSSL documentation
    # on cipher suite configuration. This is applicable only if hostapd is built to
    # use OpenSSL.
    #openssl_ciphers=DEFAULT:!EXP:!LOW
    
    # OpenSSL ECDH curves
    #
    # This is an OpenSSL specific configuration option for configuring the ECDH
    # curves for EAP-TLS/TTLS/PEAP/FAST server. If not set, automatic curve
    # selection is enabled. If set to an empty string, ECDH curve configuration is
    # not done (the exact library behavior depends on the library version).
    # Otherwise, this is a colon separated list of the supported curves (e.g.,
    # P-521:P-384:P-256). This is applicable only if hostapd is built to use
    # OpenSSL. This must not be used for Suite B cases since the same OpenSSL
    # parameter is set differently in those cases and this might conflict with that
    # design.
    #openssl_ecdh_curves=P-521:P-384:P-256
    
    # Fragment size for EAP methods
    #fragment_size=1400
    
    # Finite cyclic group for EAP-pwd. Number maps to group of domain parameters
    # using the IANA repository for IKE (RFC 2409).
    #pwd_group=19
    
    # Configuration data for EAP-SIM database/authentication gateway interface.
    # This is a text string in implementation specific format. The example
    # implementation in eap_sim_db.c uses this as the UNIX domain socket name for
    # the HLR/AuC gateway (e.g., hlr_auc_gw). In this case, the path uses "unix:"
    # prefix. If hostapd is built with SQLite support (CONFIG_SQLITE=y in .config),
    # database file can be described with an optional db=<path> parameter.
    #eap_sim_db=unix:/tmp/hlr_auc_gw.sock
    #eap_sim_db=unix:/tmp/hlr_auc_gw.sock db=/tmp/hostapd.db
    
    # EAP-SIM DB request timeout
    # This parameter sets the maximum time to wait for a database request response.
    # The parameter value is in seconds.
    #eap_sim_db_timeout=1
    
    # Encryption key for EAP-FAST PAC-Opaque values. This key must be a secret,
    # random value. It is configured as a 16-octet value in hex format. It can be
    # generated, e.g., with the following command:
    # od -tx1 -v -N16 /dev/random | colrm 1 8 | tr -d ' '
    #pac_opaque_encr_key=000102030405060708090a0b0c0d0e0f
    
    # EAP-FAST authority identity (A-ID)
    # A-ID indicates the identity of the authority that issues PACs. The A-ID
    # should be unique across all issuing servers. In theory, this is a variable
    # length field, but due to some existing implementations requiring A-ID to be
    # 16 octets in length, it is strongly recommended to use that length for the
    # field to provid interoperability with deployed peer implementations. This
    # field is configured in hex format.
    #eap_fast_a_id=101112131415161718191a1b1c1d1e1f
    
    # EAP-FAST authority identifier information (A-ID-Info)
    # This is a user-friendly name for the A-ID. For example, the enterprise name
    # and server name in a human-readable format. This field is encoded as UTF-8.
    #eap_fast_a_id_info=test server
    
    # Enable/disable different EAP-FAST provisioning modes:
    #0 = provisioning disabled
    #1 = only anonymous provisioning allowed
    #2 = only authenticated provisioning allowed
    #3 = both provisioning modes allowed (default)
    #eap_fast_prov=3
    
    # EAP-FAST PAC-Key lifetime in seconds (hard limit)
    #pac_key_lifetime=604800
    
    # EAP-FAST PAC-Key refresh time in seconds (soft limit on remaining hard
    # limit). The server will generate a new PAC-Key when this number of seconds
    # (or fewer) of the lifetime remains.
    #pac_key_refresh_time=86400
    
    # EAP-SIM and EAP-AKA protected success/failure indication using AT_RESULT_IND
    # (default: 0 = disabled).
    #eap_sim_aka_result_ind=1
    
    # Trusted Network Connect (TNC)
    # If enabled, TNC validation will be required before the peer is allowed to
    # connect. Note: This is only used with EAP-TTLS and EAP-FAST. If any other
    # EAP method is enabled, the peer will be allowed to connect without TNC.
    #tnc=1
    
    # EAP Re-authentication Protocol (ERP) - RFC 6696
    #
    # Whether to enable ERP on the EAP server.
    #eap_server_erp=1
    
    ##### IEEE 802.11f - Inter-Access Point Protocol (IAPP) #######################
    
    # Interface to be used for IAPP broadcast packets
    #iapp_interface=eth0
    
    
    ##### RADIUS client configuration #############################################
    # for IEEE 802.1X with external Authentication Server, IEEE 802.11
    # authentication with external ACL for MAC addresses, and accounting
    
    # The own IP address of the access point (used as NAS-IP-Address)
    own_ip_addr=127.0.0.1
    
    # NAS-Identifier string for RADIUS messages. When used, this should be unique
    # to the NAS within the scope of the RADIUS server. Please note that hostapd
    # uses a separate RADIUS client for each BSS and as such, a unique
    # nas_identifier value should be configured separately for each BSS. This is
    # particularly important for cases where RADIUS accounting is used
    # (Accounting-On/Off messages are interpreted as clearing all ongoing sessions
    # and that may get interpreted as applying to all BSSes if the same
    # NAS-Identifier value is used.) For example, a fully qualified domain name
    # prefixed with a unique identifier of the BSS (e.g., BSSID) can be used here.
    #
    # When using IEEE 802.11r, nas_identifier must be set and must be between 1 and
    # 48 octets long.
    #
    # It is mandatory to configure either own_ip_addr or nas_identifier to be
    # compliant with the RADIUS protocol. When using RADIUS accounting, it is
    # strongly recommended that nas_identifier is set to a unique value for each
    # BSS.
    #nas_identifier=ap.example.com
    
    # RADIUS client forced local IP address for the access point
    # Normally the local IP address is determined automatically based on configured
    # IP addresses, but this field can be used to force a specific address to be
    # used, e.g., when the device has multiple IP addresses.
    #radius_client_addr=127.0.0.1
    
    # RADIUS authentication server
    #auth_server_addr=127.0.0.1
    #auth_server_port=1812
    #auth_server_shared_secret=secret
    
    # RADIUS accounting server
    #acct_server_addr=127.0.0.1
    #acct_server_port=1813
    #acct_server_shared_secret=secret
    
    # Secondary RADIUS servers; to be used if primary one does not reply to
    # RADIUS packets. These are optional and there can be more than one secondary
    # server listed.
    #auth_server_addr=127.0.0.2
    #auth_server_port=1812
    #auth_server_shared_secret=secret2
    #
    #acct_server_addr=127.0.0.2
    #acct_server_port=1813
    #acct_server_shared_secret=secret2
    
    # Retry interval for trying to return to the primary RADIUS server (in
    # seconds). RADIUS client code will automatically try to use the next server
    # when the current server is not replying to requests. If this interval is set,
    # primary server will be retried after configured amount of time even if the
    # currently used secondary server is still working.
    #radius_retry_primary_interval=600
    
    
    # Interim accounting update interval
    # If this is set (larger than 0) and acct_server is configured, hostapd will
    # send interim accounting updates every N seconds. Note: if set, this overrides
    # possible Acct-Interim-Interval attribute in Access-Accept message. Thus, this
    # value should not be configured in hostapd.conf, if RADIUS server is used to
    # control the interim interval.
    # This value should not be less 600 (10 minutes) and must not be less than
    # 60 (1 minute).
    #radius_acct_interim_interval=600
    
    # Request Chargeable-User-Identity (RFC 4372)
    # This parameter can be used to configure hostapd to request CUI from the
    # RADIUS server by including Chargeable-User-Identity attribute into
    # Access-Request packets.
    #radius_request_cui=1
    
    # Dynamic VLAN mode; allow RADIUS authentication server to decide which VLAN
    # is used for the stations. This information is parsed from following RADIUS
    # attributes based on RFC 3580 and RFC 2868: Tunnel-Type (value 13 = VLAN),
    # Tunnel-Medium-Type (value 6 = IEEE 802), Tunnel-Private-Group-ID (value
    # VLANID as a string). Optionally, the local MAC ACL list (accept_mac_file) can
    # be used to set static client MAC address to VLAN ID mapping.
    # Dynamic VLAN mode is also used with VLAN ID assignment based on WPA/WPA2
    # passphrase from wpa_psk_file or vlan_id parameter from sae_password.
    # 0 = disabled (default); only VLAN IDs from accept_mac_file will be used
    # 1 = optional; use default interface if RADIUS server does not include VLAN ID
    # 2 = required; reject authentication if RADIUS server does not include VLAN ID
    #dynamic_vlan=0
    
    # Per-Station AP_VLAN interface mode
    # If enabled, each station is assigned its own AP_VLAN interface.
    # This implies per-station group keying and ebtables filtering of inter-STA
    # traffic (when passed through the AP).
    # If the sta is not assigned to any VLAN, then its AP_VLAN interface will be
    # added to the bridge given by the "bridge" configuration option (see above).
    # Otherwise, it will be added to the per-VLAN bridge.
    # 0 = disabled (default)
    # 1 = enabled
    #per_sta_vif=0
    
    # VLAN interface list for dynamic VLAN mode is read from a separate text file.
    # This list is used to map VLAN ID from the RADIUS server to a network
    # interface. Each station is bound to one interface in the same way as with
    # multiple BSSIDs or SSIDs. Each line in this text file is defining a new
    # interface and the line must include VLAN ID and interface name separated by
    # white space (space or tab).
    # If no entries are provided by this file, the station is statically mapped
    # to <bss-iface>.<vlan-id> interfaces.
    # Each line can optionally also contain the name of a bridge to add the VLAN to
    #vlan_file=/etc/hostapd.vlan
    
    # Interface where 802.1q tagged packets should appear when a RADIUS server is
    # used to determine which VLAN a station is on.  hostapd creates a bridge for
    # each VLAN.  Then hostapd adds a VLAN interface (associated with the interface
    # indicated by 'vlan_tagged_interface') and the appropriate wireless interface
    # to the bridge.
    #vlan_tagged_interface=eth0
    
    # Bridge (prefix) to add the wifi and the tagged interface to. This gets the
    # VLAN ID appended. It defaults to brvlan%d if no tagged interface is given
    # and br%s.%d if a tagged interface is given, provided %s = tagged interface
    # and %d = VLAN ID.
    #vlan_bridge=brvlan
    
    # When hostapd creates a VLAN interface on vlan_tagged_interfaces, it needs
    # to know how to name it.
    # 0 = vlan<XXX>, e.g., vlan1
    # 1 = <vlan_tagged_interface>.<XXX>, e.g. eth0.1
    #vlan_naming=0
    
    # Arbitrary RADIUS attributes can be added into Access-Request and
    # Accounting-Request packets by specifying the contents of the attributes with
    # the following configuration parameters. There can be multiple of these to
    # add multiple attributes. These parameters can also be used to override some
    # of the attributes added automatically by hostapd.
    # Format: <attr_id>[:<syntax:value>]
    # attr_id: RADIUS attribute type (e.g., 26 = Vendor-Specific)
    # syntax: s = string (UTF-8), d = integer, x = octet string
    # value: attribute value in format indicated by the syntax
    # If syntax and value parts are omitted, a null value (single 0x00 octet) is
    # used.
    #
    # Additional Access-Request attributes
    # radius_auth_req_attr=<attr_id>[:<syntax:value>]
    # Examples:
    # Operator-Name = "Operator"
    #radius_auth_req_attr=126:s:Operator
    # Service-Type = Framed (2)
    #radius_auth_req_attr=6:d:2
    # Connect-Info = "testing" (this overrides the automatically generated value)
    #radius_auth_req_attr=77:s:testing
    # Same Connect-Info value set as a hexdump
    #radius_auth_req_attr=77:x:74657374696e67
    
    #
    # Additional Accounting-Request attributes
    # radius_acct_req_attr=<attr_id>[:<syntax:value>]
    # Examples:
    # Operator-Name = "Operator"
    #radius_acct_req_attr=126:s:Operator
    
    # Dynamic Authorization Extensions (RFC 5176)
    # This mechanism can be used to allow dynamic changes to user session based on
    # commands from a RADIUS server (or some other disconnect client that has the
    # needed session information). For example, Disconnect message can be used to
    # request an associated station to be disconnected.
    #
    # This is disabled by default. Set radius_das_port to non-zero UDP port
    # number to enable.
    #radius_das_port=3799
    #
    # DAS client (the host that can send Disconnect/CoA requests) and shared secret
    # Format: <IP address> <shared secret>
    # IP address 0.0.0.0 can be used to allow requests from any address.
    #radius_das_client=192.168.1.123 shared secret here
    #
    # DAS Event-Timestamp time window in seconds
    #radius_das_time_window=300
    #
    # DAS require Event-Timestamp
    #radius_das_require_event_timestamp=1
    #
    # DAS require Message-Authenticator
    #radius_das_require_message_authenticator=1
    
    ##### RADIUS authentication server configuration ##############################
    
    # hostapd can be used as a RADIUS authentication server for other hosts. This
    # requires that the integrated EAP server is also enabled and both
    # authentication services are sharing the same configuration.
    
    # File name of the RADIUS clients configuration for the RADIUS server. If this
    # commented out, RADIUS server is disabled.
    #radius_server_clients=/etc/hostapd.radius_clients
    
    # The UDP port number for the RADIUS authentication server
    #radius_server_auth_port=1812
    
    # The UDP port number for the RADIUS accounting server
    # Commenting this out or setting this to 0 can be used to disable RADIUS
    # accounting while still enabling RADIUS authentication.
    #radius_server_acct_port=1813
    
    # Use IPv6 with RADIUS server (IPv4 will also be supported using IPv6 API)
    #radius_server_ipv6=1
    
    
    ##### WPA/IEEE 802.11i configuration ##########################################
    
    # Enable WPA. Setting this variable configures the AP to require WPA (either
    # WPA-PSK or WPA-RADIUS/EAP based on other configuration). For WPA-PSK, either
    # wpa_psk or wpa_passphrase must be set and wpa_key_mgmt must include WPA-PSK.
    # Instead of wpa_psk / wpa_passphrase, wpa_psk_radius might suffice.
    # For WPA-RADIUS/EAP, ieee8021x must be set (but without dynamic WEP keys),
    # RADIUS authentication server must be configured, and WPA-EAP must be included
    # in wpa_key_mgmt.
    # This field is a bit field that can be used to enable WPA (IEEE 802.11i/D3.0)
    # and/or WPA2 (full IEEE 802.11i/RSN):
    # bit0 = WPA
    # bit1 = IEEE 802.11i/RSN (WPA2) (dot11RSNAEnabled)
    # Note that WPA3 is also configured with bit1 since it uses RSN just like WPA2.
    # In other words, for WPA3, wpa=2 is used the configuration (and
    # wpa_key_mgmt=SAE for WPA3-Personal instead of wpa_key_mgmt=WPA-PSK).
    #wpa=2
    
    # WPA pre-shared keys for WPA-PSK. This can be either entered as a 256-bit
    # secret in hex format (64 hex digits), wpa_psk, or as an ASCII passphrase
    # (8..63 characters) that will be converted to PSK. This conversion uses SSID
    # so the PSK changes when ASCII passphrase is used and the SSID is changed.
    # wpa_psk (dot11RSNAConfigPSKValue)
    # wpa_passphrase (dot11RSNAConfigPSKPassPhrase)
    #wpa_psk=0123456789abcdef0123456789abcdef0123456789abcdef0123456789abcdef
    #wpa_passphrase=secret passphrase
    
    # Optionally, WPA PSKs can be read from a separate text file (containing list
    # of (PSK,MAC address) pairs. This allows more than one PSK to be configured.
    # Use absolute path name to make sure that the files can be read on SIGHUP
    # configuration reloads.
    #wpa_psk_file=/etc/hostapd.wpa_psk
    
    # Optionally, WPA passphrase can be received from RADIUS authentication server
    # This requires macaddr_acl to be set to 2 (RADIUS)
    # 0 = disabled (default)
    # 1 = optional; use default passphrase/psk if RADIUS server does not include
    #	Tunnel-Password
    # 2 = required; reject authentication if RADIUS server does not include
    #	Tunnel-Password
    #wpa_psk_radius=0
    
    # Set of accepted key management algorithms (WPA-PSK, WPA-EAP, or both). The
    # entries are separated with a space. WPA-PSK-SHA256 and WPA-EAP-SHA256 can be
    # added to enable SHA256-based stronger algorithms.
    # WPA-PSK = WPA-Personal / WPA2-Personal
    # WPA-PSK-SHA256 = WPA2-Personal using SHA256
    # WPA-EAP = WPA-Enterprise / WPA2-Enterprise
    # WPA-EAP-SHA256 = WPA2-Enterprise using SHA256
    # SAE = SAE (WPA3-Personal)
    # WPA-EAP-SUITE-B-192 = WPA3-Enterprise with 192-bit security/CNSA suite
    # FT-PSK = FT with passphrase/PSK
    # FT-EAP = FT with EAP
    # FT-EAP-SHA384 = FT with EAP using SHA384
    # FT-SAE = FT with SAE
    # FILS-SHA256 = Fast Initial Link Setup with SHA256
    # FILS-SHA384 = Fast Initial Link Setup with SHA384
    # FT-FILS-SHA256 = FT and Fast Initial Link Setup with SHA256
    # FT-FILS-SHA384 = FT and Fast Initial Link Setup with SHA384
    # OWE = Opportunistic Wireless Encryption (a.k.a. Enhanced Open)
    # DPP = Device Provisioning Protocol
    # OSEN = Hotspot 2.0 online signup with encryption
    # (dot11RSNAConfigAuthenticationSuitesTable)
    #wpa_key_mgmt=WPA-PSK WPA-EAP
    
    # Set of accepted cipher suites (encryption algorithms) for pairwise keys
    # (unicast packets). This is a space separated list of algorithms:
    # CCMP = AES in Counter mode with CBC-MAC (CCMP-128)
    # TKIP = Temporal Key Integrity Protocol
    # CCMP-256 = AES in Counter mode with CBC-MAC with 256-bit key
    # GCMP = Galois/counter mode protocol (GCMP-128)
    # GCMP-256 = Galois/counter mode protocol with 256-bit key
    # Group cipher suite (encryption algorithm for broadcast and multicast frames)
    # is automatically selected based on this configuration. If only CCMP is
    # allowed as the pairwise cipher, group cipher will also be CCMP. Otherwise,
    # TKIP will be used as the group cipher. The optional group_cipher parameter can
    # be used to override this automatic selection.
    #
    # (dot11RSNAConfigPairwiseCiphersTable)
    # Pairwise cipher for WPA (v1) (default: TKIP)
    #wpa_pairwise=TKIP CCMP
    # Pairwise cipher for RSN/WPA2 (default: use wpa_pairwise value)
    #rsn_pairwise=CCMP
    
    # Optional override for automatic group cipher selection
    # This can be used to select a specific group cipher regardless of which
    # pairwise ciphers were enabled for WPA and RSN. It should be noted that
    # overriding the group cipher with an unexpected value can result in
    # interoperability issues and in general, this parameter is mainly used for
    # testing purposes.
    #group_cipher=CCMP
    
    # Time interval for rekeying GTK (broadcast/multicast encryption keys) in
    # seconds. (dot11RSNAConfigGroupRekeyTime)
    # This defaults to 86400 seconds (once per day) when using CCMP/GCMP as the
    # group cipher and 600 seconds (once per 10 minutes) when using TKIP as the
    # group cipher.
    #wpa_group_rekey=86400
    
    # Rekey GTK when any STA that possesses the current GTK is leaving the BSS.
    # (dot11RSNAConfigGroupRekeyStrict)
    #wpa_strict_rekey=1
    
    # The number of times EAPOL-Key Message 1/2 in the RSN Group Key Handshake is
    #retried per GTK Handshake attempt. (dot11RSNAConfigGroupUpdateCount)
    # This value should only be increased when stations are constantly
    # deauthenticated during GTK rekeying with the log message
    # "group key handshake failed...".
    # You should consider to also increase wpa_pairwise_update_count then.
    # Range 1..4294967295; default: 4
    #wpa_group_update_count=4
    
    # Time interval for rekeying GMK (master key used internally to generate GTKs
    # (in seconds).
    #wpa_gmk_rekey=86400
    
    # Maximum lifetime for PTK in seconds. This can be used to enforce rekeying of
    # PTK to mitigate some attacks against TKIP deficiencies.
    #wpa_ptk_rekey=600
    
    # The number of times EAPOL-Key Message 1/4 and Message 3/4 in the RSN 4-Way
    # Handshake are retried per 4-Way Handshake attempt.
    # (dot11RSNAConfigPairwiseUpdateCount)
    # Range 1..4294967295; default: 4
    #wpa_pairwise_update_count=4
    
    # Workaround for key reinstallation attacks
    #
    # This parameter can be used to disable retransmission of EAPOL-Key frames that
    # are used to install keys (EAPOL-Key message 3/4 and group message 1/2). This
    # is similar to setting wpa_group_update_count=1 and
    # wpa_pairwise_update_count=1, but with no impact to message 1/4 and with
    # extended timeout on the response to avoid causing issues with stations that
    # may use aggressive power saving have very long time in replying to the
    # EAPOL-Key messages.
    #
    # This option can be used to work around key reinstallation attacks on the
    # station (supplicant) side in cases those station devices cannot be updated
    # for some reason. By removing the retransmissions the attacker cannot cause
    # key reinstallation with a delayed frame transmission. This is related to the
    # station side vulnerabilities CVE-2017-13077, CVE-2017-13078, CVE-2017-13079,
    # CVE-2017-13080, and CVE-2017-13081.
    #
    # This workaround might cause interoperability issues and reduced robustness of
    # key negotiation especially in environments with heavy traffic load due to the
    # number of attempts to perform the key exchange is reduced significantly. As
    # such, this workaround is disabled by default (unless overridden in build
    # configuration). To enable this, set the parameter to 1.
    #wpa_disable_eapol_key_retries=1
    
    # Enable IEEE 802.11i/RSN/WPA2 pre-authentication. This is used to speed up
    # roaming be pre-authenticating IEEE 802.1X/EAP part of the full RSN
    # authentication and key handshake before actually associating with a new AP.
    # (dot11RSNAPreauthenticationEnabled)
    #rsn_preauth=1
    #
    # Space separated list of interfaces from which pre-authentication frames are
    # accepted (e.g., 'eth0' or 'eth0 wlan0wds0'. This list should include all
    # interface that are used for connections to other APs. This could include
    # wired interfaces and WDS links. The normal wireless data interface towards
    # associated stations (e.g., wlan0) should not be added, since
    # pre-authentication is only used with APs other than the currently associated
    # one.
    #rsn_preauth_interfaces=eth0
    
    # ieee80211w: Whether management frame protection (MFP) is enabled
    # 0 = disabled (default)
    # 1 = optional
    # 2 = required
    #ieee80211w=0
    
    # Group management cipher suite
    # Default: AES-128-CMAC (BIP)
    # Other options (depending on driver support):
    # BIP-GMAC-128
    # BIP-GMAC-256
    # BIP-CMAC-256
    # Note: All the stations connecting to the BSS will also need to support the
    # selected cipher. The default AES-128-CMAC is the only option that is commonly
    # available in deployed devices.
    #group_mgmt_cipher=AES-128-CMAC
    
    # Association SA Query maximum timeout (in TU = 1.024 ms; for MFP)
    # (maximum time to wait for a SA Query response)
    # dot11AssociationSAQueryMaximumTimeout, 1...4294967295
    #assoc_sa_query_max_timeout=1000
    
    # Association SA Query retry timeout (in TU = 1.024 ms; for MFP)
    # (time between two subsequent SA Query requests)
    # dot11AssociationSAQueryRetryTimeout, 1...4294967295
    #assoc_sa_query_retry_timeout=201
    
    # ocv: Operating Channel Validation
    # This is a countermeasure against multi-channel man-in-the-middle attacks.
    # Enabling this automatically also enables ieee80211w, if not yet enabled.
    # 0 = disabled (default)
    # 1 = enabled
    #ocv=1
    
    # disable_pmksa_caching: Disable PMKSA caching
    # This parameter can be used to disable caching of PMKSA created through EAP
    # authentication. RSN preauthentication may still end up using PMKSA caching if
    # it is enabled (rsn_preauth=1).
    # 0 = PMKSA caching enabled (default)
    # 1 = PMKSA caching disabled
    #disable_pmksa_caching=0
    
    # okc: Opportunistic Key Caching (aka Proactive Key Caching)
    # Allow PMK cache to be shared opportunistically among configured interfaces
    # and BSSes (i.e., all configurations within a single hostapd process).
    # 0 = disabled (default)
    # 1 = enabled
    #okc=1
    
    # SAE password
    # This parameter can be used to set passwords for SAE. By default, the
    # wpa_passphrase value is used if this separate parameter is not used, but
    # wpa_passphrase follows the WPA-PSK constraints (8..63 characters) even though
    # SAE passwords do not have such constraints. If the BSS enabled both SAE and
    # WPA-PSK and both values are set, SAE uses the sae_password values and WPA-PSK
    # uses the wpa_passphrase value.
    #
    # Each sae_password entry is added to a list of available passwords. This
    # corresponds to the dot11RSNAConfigPasswordValueEntry. sae_password value
    # starts with the password (dot11RSNAConfigPasswordCredential). That value can
    # be followed by optional peer MAC address (dot11RSNAConfigPasswordPeerMac) and
    # by optional password identifier (dot11RSNAConfigPasswordIdentifier). In
    # addition, an optional VLAN ID specification can be used to bind the station
    # to the specified VLAN whenver the specific SAE password entry is used.
    #
    # If the peer MAC address is not included or is set to the wildcard address
    # (ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff), the entry is available for any station to use. If a
    # specific peer MAC address is included, only a station with that MAC address
    # is allowed to use the entry.
    #
    # If the password identifier (with non-zero length) is included, the entry is
    # limited to be used only with that specified identifier.
    
    # The last matching (based on peer MAC address and identifier) entry is used to
    # select which password to use. Setting sae_password to an empty string has a
    # special meaning of removing all previously added entries.
    #
    # sae_password uses the following encoding:
    #<password/credential>[|mac=<peer mac>][|vlanid=<VLAN ID>][|id=<identifier>]
    # Examples:
    #sae_password=secret
    #sae_password=really secret|mac=ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
    #sae_password=example secret|mac=02:03:04:05:06:07|id=pw identifier
    #sae_password=example secret|vlanid=3|id=pw identifier
    
    # SAE threshold for anti-clogging mechanism (dot11RSNASAEAntiCloggingThreshold)
    # This parameter defines how many open SAE instances can be in progress at the
    # same time before the anti-clogging mechanism is taken into use.
    #sae_anti_clogging_threshold=5
    
    # Maximum number of SAE synchronization errors (dot11RSNASAESync)
    # The offending SAe peer will be disconnected if more than this many
    # synchronization errors happen.
    #sae_sync=5
    
    # Enabled SAE finite cyclic groups
    # SAE implementation are required to support group 19 (ECC group defined over a
    # 256-bit prime order field). This configuration parameter can be used to
    # specify a set of allowed groups. If not included, only the mandatory group 19
    # is enabled.
    # The group values are listed in the IANA registry:
    # http://www.iana.org/assignments/ipsec-registry/ipsec-registry.xml#ipsec-registry-9
    # Note that groups 1, 2, 5, 22, 23, and 24 should not be used in production
    # purposes due limited security (see RFC 8247). Groups that are not as strong as
    # group 19 (ECC, NIST P-256) are unlikely to be useful for production use cases
    # since all implementations are required to support group 19.
    #sae_groups=19 20 21
    
    # Require MFP for all associations using SAE
    # This parameter can be used to enforce negotiation of MFP for all associations
    # that negotiate use of SAE. This is used in cases where SAE-capable devices are
    # known to be MFP-capable and the BSS is configured with optional MFP
    # (ieee80211w=1) for legacy support. The non-SAE stations can connect without
    # MFP while SAE stations are required to negotiate MFP if sae_require_mfp=1.
    #sae_require_mfp=0
    
    # FILS Cache Identifier (16-bit value in hexdump format)
    #fils_cache_id=0011
    
    # FILS Realm Information
    # One or more FILS realms need to be configured when FILS is enabled. This list
    # of realms is used to define which realms (used in keyName-NAI by the client)
    # can be used with FILS shared key authentication for ERP.
    #fils_realm=example.com
    #fils_realm=example.org
    
    # FILS DH Group for PFS
    # 0 = PFS disabled with FILS shared key authentication (default)
    # 1-65535 DH Group to use for FILS PFS
    #fils_dh_group=0
    
    # OWE DH groups
    # OWE implementations are required to support group 19 (NIST P-256). All groups
    # that are supported by the implementation (e.g., groups 19, 20, and 21 when
    # using OpenSSL) are enabled by default. This configuration parameter can be
    # used to specify a limited set of allowed groups. The group values are listed
    # in the IANA registry:
    # http://www.iana.org/assignments/ipsec-registry/ipsec-registry.xml#ipsec-registry-10
    #owe_groups=19 20 21
    
    # OWE transition mode configuration
    # Pointer to the matching open/OWE BSS
    #owe_transition_bssid=<bssid>
    # SSID in same format as ssid2 described above.
    #owe_transition_ssid=<SSID>
    # Alternatively, OWE transition mode BSSID/SSID can be configured with a
    # reference to a BSS operated by this hostapd process.
    #owe_transition_ifname=<ifname>
    
    # DHCP server for FILS HLP
    # If configured, hostapd will act as a DHCP relay for all FILS HLP requests
    # that include a DHCPDISCOVER message and send them to the specific DHCP
    # server for processing. hostapd will then wait for a response from that server
    # before replying with (Re)Association Response frame that encapsulates this
    # DHCP response. own_ip_addr is used as the local address for the communication
    # with the DHCP server.
    #dhcp_server=127.0.0.1
    
    # DHCP server UDP port
    # Default: 67
    #dhcp_server_port=67
    
    # DHCP relay UDP port on the local device
    # Default: 67; 0 means not to bind any specific port
    #dhcp_relay_port=67
    
    # DHCP rapid commit proxy
    # If set to 1, this enables hostapd to act as a DHCP rapid commit proxy to
    # allow the rapid commit options (two message DHCP exchange) to be used with a
    # server that supports only the four message DHCP exchange. This is disabled by
    # default (= 0) and can be enabled by setting this to 1.
    #dhcp_rapid_commit_proxy=0
    
    # Wait time for FILS HLP (dot11HLPWaitTime) in TUs
    # default: 30 TUs (= 30.72 milliseconds)
    #fils_hlp_wait_time=30
    
    ##### IEEE 802.11r configuration ##############################################
    
    # Mobility Domain identifier (dot11FTMobilityDomainID, MDID)
    # MDID is used to indicate a group of APs (within an ESS, i.e., sharing the
    # same SSID) between which a STA can use Fast BSS Transition.
    # 2-octet identifier as a hex string.
    #mobility_domain=a1b2
    
    # PMK-R0 Key Holder identifier (dot11FTR0KeyHolderID)
    # 1 to 48 octet identifier.
    # This is configured with nas_identifier (see RADIUS client section above).
    
    # Default lifetime of the PMK-R0 in seconds; range 60..4294967295
    # (default: 14 days / 1209600 seconds; 0 = disable timeout)
    # (dot11FTR0KeyLifetime)
    #ft_r0_key_lifetime=1209600
    
    # Maximum lifetime for PMK-R1; applied only if not zero
    # PMK-R1 is removed at latest after this limit.
    # Removing any PMK-R1 for expiry can be disabled by setting this to -1.
    # (default: 0)
    #r1_max_key_lifetime=0
    
    # PMK-R1 Key Holder identifier (dot11FTR1KeyHolderID)
    # 6-octet identifier as a hex string.
    # Defaults to BSSID.
    #r1_key_holder=000102030405
    
    # Reassociation deadline in time units (TUs / 1.024 ms; range 1000..65535)
    # (dot11FTReassociationDeadline)
    #reassociation_deadline=1000
    
    # List of R0KHs in the same Mobility Domain
    # format: <MAC address> <NAS Identifier> <256-bit key as hex string>
    # This list is used to map R0KH-ID (NAS Identifier) to a destination MAC
    # address when requesting PMK-R1 key from the R0KH that the STA used during the
    # Initial Mobility Domain Association.
    #r0kh=02:01:02:03:04:05 r0kh-1.example.com 000102030405060708090a0b0c0d0e0f000102030405060708090a0b0c0d0e0f
    #r0kh=02:01:02:03:04:06 r0kh-2.example.com 00112233445566778899aabbccddeeff00112233445566778899aabbccddeeff
    # And so on.. One line per R0KH.
    # Wildcard entry:
    # Upon receiving a response from R0KH, it will be added to this list, so
    # subsequent requests won't be broadcast. If R0KH does not reply, it will be
    # blacklisted.
    #r0kh=ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff * 00112233445566778899aabbccddeeff
    
    # List of R1KHs in the same Mobility Domain
    # format: <MAC address> <R1KH-ID> <256-bit key as hex string>
    # This list is used to map R1KH-ID to a destination MAC address when sending
    # PMK-R1 key from the R0KH. This is also the list of authorized R1KHs in the MD
    # that can request PMK-R1 keys.
    #r1kh=02:01:02:03:04:05 02:11:22:33:44:55 000102030405060708090a0b0c0d0e0f000102030405060708090a0b0c0d0e0f
    #r1kh=02:01:02:03:04:06 02:11:22:33:44:66 00112233445566778899aabbccddeeff00112233445566778899aabbccddeeff
    # And so on.. One line per R1KH.
    # Wildcard entry:
    # Upon receiving a request from an R1KH not yet known, it will be added to this
    # list and thus will receive push notifications.
    #r1kh=00:00:00:00:00:00 00:00:00:00:00:00 00112233445566778899aabbccddeeff
    
    # Timeout (seconds) for newly discovered R0KH/R1KH (see wildcard entries above)
    # Special values: 0 -> do not expire
    # Warning: do not cache implies no sequence number validation with wildcards
    #rkh_pos_timeout=86400 (default = 1 day)
    
    # Timeout (milliseconds) for requesting PMK-R1 from R0KH using PULL request
    # and number of retries.
    #rkh_pull_timeout=1000 (default = 1 second)
    #rkh_pull_retries=4 (default)
    
    # Timeout (seconds) for non replying R0KH (see wildcard entries above)
    # Special values: 0 -> do not cache
    # default: 60 seconds
    #rkh_neg_timeout=60
    
    # Note: The R0KH/R1KH keys used to be 128-bit in length before the message
    # format was changed. That shorter key length is still supported for backwards
    # compatibility of the configuration files. If such a shorter key is used, a
    # 256-bit key is derived from it. For new deployments, configuring the 256-bit
    # key is recommended.
    
    # Whether PMK-R1 push is enabled at R0KH
    # 0 = do not push PMK-R1 to all configured R1KHs (default)
    # 1 = push PMK-R1 to all configured R1KHs whenever a new PMK-R0 is derived
    #pmk_r1_push=1
    
    # Whether to enable FT-over-DS
    # 0 = FT-over-DS disabled
    # 1 = FT-over-DS enabled (default)
    #ft_over_ds=1
    
    # Whether to generate FT response locally for PSK networks
    # This avoids use of PMK-R1 push/pull from other APs with FT-PSK networks as
    # the required information (PSK and other session data) is already locally
    # available.
    # 0 = disabled (default)
    # 1 = enabled
    #ft_psk_generate_local=0
    
    ##### Neighbor table ##########################################################
    # Maximum number of entries kept in AP table (either for neigbor table or for
    # detecting Overlapping Legacy BSS Condition). The oldest entry will be
    # removed when adding a new entry that would make the list grow over this
    # limit. Note! WFA certification for IEEE 802.11g requires that OLBC is
    # enabled, so this field should not be set to 0 when using IEEE 802.11g.
    # default: 255
    #ap_table_max_size=255
    
    # Number of seconds of no frames received after which entries may be deleted
    # from the AP table. Since passive scanning is not usually performed frequently
    # this should not be set to very small value. In addition, there is no
    # guarantee that every scan cycle will receive beacon frames from the
    # neighboring APs.
    # default: 60
    #ap_table_expiration_time=3600
    
    # Maximum number of stations to track on the operating channel
    # This can be used to detect dualband capable stations before they have
    # associated, e.g., to provide guidance on which colocated BSS to use.
    # Default: 0 (disabled)
    #track_sta_max_num=100
    
    # Maximum age of a station tracking entry in seconds
    # Default: 180
    #track_sta_max_age=180
    
    # Do not reply to group-addressed Probe Request from a station that was seen on
    # another radio.
    # Default: Disabled
    #
    # This can be used with enabled track_sta_max_num configuration on another
    # interface controlled by the same hostapd process to restrict Probe Request
    # frame handling from replying to group-addressed Probe Request frames from a
    # station that has been detected to be capable of operating on another band,
    # e.g., to try to reduce likelihood of the station selecting a 2.4 GHz BSS when
    # the AP operates both a 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz BSS concurrently.
    #
    # Note: Enabling this can cause connectivity issues and increase latency for
    # discovering the AP.
    #no_probe_resp_if_seen_on=wlan1
    
    # Reject authentication from a station that was seen on another radio.
    # Default: Disabled
    #
    # This can be used with enabled track_sta_max_num configuration on another
    # interface controlled by the same hostapd process to reject authentication
    # attempts from a station that has been detected to be capable of operating on
    # another band, e.g., to try to reduce likelihood of the station selecting a
    # 2.4 GHz BSS when the AP operates both a 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz BSS concurrently.
    #
    # Note: Enabling this can cause connectivity issues and increase latency for
    # connecting with the AP.
    #no_auth_if_seen_on=wlan1
    
    ##### Wi-Fi Protected Setup (WPS) #############################################
    
    # WPS state
    # 0 = WPS disabled (default)
    # 1 = WPS enabled, not configured
    # 2 = WPS enabled, configured
    #wps_state=2
    
    # Whether to manage this interface independently from other WPS interfaces
    # By default, a single hostapd process applies WPS operations to all configured
    # interfaces. This parameter can be used to disable that behavior for a subset
    # of interfaces. If this is set to non-zero for an interface, WPS commands
    # issued on that interface do not apply to other interfaces and WPS operations
    # performed on other interfaces do not affect this interface.
    #wps_independent=0
    
    # AP can be configured into a locked state where new WPS Registrar are not
    # accepted, but previously authorized Registrars (including the internal one)
    # can continue to add new Enrollees.
    #ap_setup_locked=1
    
    # Universally Unique IDentifier (UUID; see RFC 4122) of the device
    # This value is used as the UUID for the internal WPS Registrar. If the AP
    # is also using UPnP, this value should be set to the device's UPnP UUID.
    # If not configured, UUID will be generated based on the local MAC address.
    #uuid=12345678-9abc-def0-1234-56789abcdef0
    
    # Note: If wpa_psk_file is set, WPS is used to generate random, per-device PSKs
    # that will be appended to the wpa_psk_file. If wpa_psk_file is not set, the
    # default PSK (wpa_psk/wpa_passphrase) will be delivered to Enrollees. Use of
    # per-device PSKs is recommended as the more secure option (i.e., make sure to
    # set wpa_psk_file when using WPS with WPA-PSK).
    
    # When an Enrollee requests access to the network with PIN method, the Enrollee
    # PIN will need to be entered for the Registrar. PIN request notifications are
    # sent to hostapd ctrl_iface monitor. In addition, they can be written to a
    # text file that could be used, e.g., to populate the AP administration UI with
    # pending PIN requests. If the following variable is set, the PIN requests will
    # be written to the configured file.
    #wps_pin_requests=/var/run/hostapd_wps_pin_requests
    
    # Device Name
    # User-friendly description of device; up to 32 octets encoded in UTF-8
    #device_name=Wireless AP
    
    # Manufacturer
    # The manufacturer of the device (up to 64 ASCII characters)
    #manufacturer=Company
    
    # Model Name
    # Model of the device (up to 32 ASCII characters)
    #model_name=WAP
    
    # Model Number
    # Additional device description (up to 32 ASCII characters)
    #model_number=123
    
    # Serial Number
    # Serial number of the device (up to 32 characters)
    #serial_number=12345
    
    # Primary Device Type
    # Used format: <categ>-<OUI>-<subcateg>
    # categ = Category as an integer value
    # OUI = OUI and type octet as a 4-octet hex-encoded value; 0050F204 for
    #       default WPS OUI
    # subcateg = OUI-specific Sub Category as an integer value
    # Examples:
    #   1-0050F204-1 (Computer / PC)
    #   1-0050F204-2 (Computer / Server)
    #   5-0050F204-1 (Storage / NAS)
    #   6-0050F204-1 (Network Infrastructure / AP)
    #device_type=6-0050F204-1
    
    # OS Version
    # 4-octet operating system version number (hex string)
    #os_version=01020300
    
    # Config Methods
    # List of the supported configuration methods
    # Available methods: usba ethernet label display ext_nfc_token int_nfc_token
    #	nfc_interface push_button keypad virtual_display physical_display
    #	virtual_push_button physical_push_button
    #config_methods=label virtual_display virtual_push_button keypad
    
    # WPS capability discovery workaround for PBC with Windows 7
    # Windows 7 uses incorrect way of figuring out AP's WPS capabilities by acting
    # as a Registrar and using M1 from the AP. The config methods attribute in that
    # message is supposed to indicate only the configuration method supported by
    # the AP in Enrollee role, i.e., to add an external Registrar. For that case,
    # PBC shall not be used and as such, the PushButton config method is removed
    # from M1 by default. If pbc_in_m1=1 is included in the configuration file,
    # the PushButton config method is left in M1 (if included in config_methods
    # parameter) to allow Windows 7 to use PBC instead of PIN (e.g., from a label
    # in the AP).
    #pbc_in_m1=1
    
    # Static access point PIN for initial configuration and adding Registrars
    # If not set, hostapd will not allow external WPS Registrars to control the
    # access point. The AP PIN can also be set at runtime with hostapd_cli
    # wps_ap_pin command. Use of temporary (enabled by user action) and random
    # AP PIN is much more secure than configuring a static AP PIN here. As such,
    # use of the ap_pin parameter is not recommended if the AP device has means for
    # displaying a random PIN.
    #ap_pin=12345670
    
    # Skip building of automatic WPS credential
    # This can be used to allow the automatically generated Credential attribute to
    # be replaced with pre-configured Credential(s).
    #skip_cred_build=1
    
    # Additional Credential attribute(s)
    # This option can be used to add pre-configured Credential attributes into M8
    # message when acting as a Registrar. If skip_cred_build=1, this data will also
    # be able to override the Credential attribute that would have otherwise been
    # automatically generated based on network configuration. This configuration
    # option points to an external file that much contain the WPS Credential
    # attribute(s) as binary data.
    #extra_cred=hostapd.cred
    
    # Credential processing
    #   0 = process received credentials internally (default)
    #   1 = do not process received credentials; just pass them over ctrl_iface to
    #	external program(s)
    #   2 = process received credentials internally and pass them over ctrl_iface
    #	to external program(s)
    # Note: With wps_cred_processing=1, skip_cred_build should be set to 1 and
    # extra_cred be used to provide the Credential data for Enrollees.
    #
    # wps_cred_processing=1 will disabled automatic updates of hostapd.conf file
    # both for Credential processing and for marking AP Setup Locked based on
    # validation failures of AP PIN. An external program is responsible on updating
    # the configuration appropriately in this case.
    #wps_cred_processing=0
    
    # Whether to enable SAE (WPA3-Personal transition mode) automatically for
    # WPA2-PSK credentials received using WPS.
    # 0 = only add the explicitly listed WPA2-PSK configuration (default)
    # 1 = add both the WPA2-PSK and SAE configuration and enable PMF so that the
    #     AP gets configured in WPA3-Personal transition mode (supports both
    #     WPA2-Personal (PSK) and WPA3-Personal (SAE) clients).
    #wps_cred_add_sae=0
    
    # AP Settings Attributes for M7
    # By default, hostapd generates the AP Settings Attributes for M7 based on the
    # current configuration. It is possible to override this by providing a file
    # with pre-configured attributes. This is similar to extra_cred file format,
    # but the AP Settings attributes are not encapsulated in a Credential
    # attribute.
    #ap_settings=hostapd.ap_settings
    
    # Multi-AP backhaul BSS config
    # Used in WPS when multi_ap=2 or 3. Defines "backhaul BSS" credentials.
    # These are passed in WPS M8 instead of the normal (fronthaul) credentials
    # if the Enrollee has the Multi-AP subelement set. Backhaul SSID is formatted
    # like ssid2. The key is set like wpa_psk or wpa_passphrase.
    #multi_ap_backhaul_ssid="backhaul"
    #multi_ap_backhaul_wpa_psk=0123456789abcdef0123456789abcdef0123456789abcdef0123456789abcdef
    #multi_ap_backhaul_wpa_passphrase=secret passphrase
    
    # WPS UPnP interface
    # If set, support for external Registrars is enabled.
    #upnp_iface=br0
    
    # Friendly Name (required for UPnP)
    # Short description for end use. Should be less than 64 characters.
    #friendly_name=WPS Access Point
    
    # Manufacturer URL (optional for UPnP)
    #manufacturer_url=http://www.example.com/
    
    # Model Description (recommended for UPnP)
    # Long description for end user. Should be less than 128 characters.
    #model_description=Wireless Access Point
    
    # Model URL (optional for UPnP)
    #model_url=http://www.example.com/model/
    
    # Universal Product Code (optional for UPnP)
    # 12-digit, all-numeric code that identifies the consumer package.
    #upc=123456789012
    
    # WPS RF Bands (a = 5G, b = 2.4G, g = 2.4G, ag = dual band, ad = 60 GHz)
    # This value should be set according to RF band(s) supported by the AP if
    # hw_mode is not set. For dual band dual concurrent devices, this needs to be
    # set to ag to allow both RF bands to be advertized.
    #wps_rf_bands=ag
    
    # NFC password token for WPS
    # These parameters can be used to configure a fixed NFC password token for the
    # AP. This can be generated, e.g., with nfc_pw_token from wpa_supplicant. When
    # these parameters are used, the AP is assumed to be deployed with a NFC tag
    # that includes the matching NFC password token (e.g., written based on the
    # NDEF record from nfc_pw_token).
    #
    #wps_nfc_dev_pw_id: Device Password ID (16..65535)
    #wps_nfc_dh_pubkey: Hexdump of DH Public Key
    #wps_nfc_dh_privkey: Hexdump of DH Private Key
    #wps_nfc_dev_pw: Hexdump of Device Password
    
    ##### Wi-Fi Direct (P2P) ######################################################
    
    # Enable P2P Device management
    #manage_p2p=1
    
    # Allow cross connection
    #allow_cross_connection=1
    
    #### TDLS (IEEE 802.11z-2010) #################################################
    
    # Prohibit use of TDLS in this BSS
    #tdls_prohibit=1
    
    # Prohibit use of TDLS Channel Switching in this BSS
    #tdls_prohibit_chan_switch=1
    
    ##### IEEE 802.11v-2011 #######################################################
    
    # Time advertisement
    # 0 = disabled (default)
    # 2 = UTC time at which the TSF timer is 0
    #time_advertisement=2
    
    # Local time zone as specified in 8.3 of IEEE Std 1003.1-2004:
    # stdoffset[dst[offset][,start[/time],end[/time]]]
    #time_zone=EST5
    
    # WNM-Sleep Mode (extended sleep mode for stations)
    # 0 = disabled (default)
    # 1 = enabled (allow stations to use WNM-Sleep Mode)
    #wnm_sleep_mode=1
    
    # WNM-Sleep Mode GTK/IGTK workaround
    # Normally, WNM-Sleep Mode exit with management frame protection negotiated
    # would result in the current GTK/IGTK getting added into the WNM-Sleep Mode
    # Response frame. Some station implementations may have a vulnerability that
    # results in GTK/IGTK reinstallation based on this frame being replayed. This
    # configuration parameter can be used to disable that behavior and use EAPOL-Key
    # frames for GTK/IGTK update instead. This would likely be only used with
    # wpa_disable_eapol_key_retries=1 that enables a workaround for similar issues
    # with EAPOL-Key. This is related to station side vulnerabilities CVE-2017-13087
    # and CVE-2017-13088. To enable this AP-side workaround, set the parameter to 1.
    #wnm_sleep_mode_no_keys=0
    
    # BSS Transition Management
    # 0 = disabled (default)
    # 1 = enabled
    #bss_transition=1
    
    # Proxy ARP
    # 0 = disabled (default)
    # 1 = enabled
    #proxy_arp=1
    
    # IPv6 Neighbor Advertisement multicast-to-unicast conversion
    # This can be used with Proxy ARP to allow multicast NAs to be forwarded to
    # associated STAs using link layer unicast delivery.
    # 0 = disabled (default)
    # 1 = enabled
    #na_mcast_to_ucast=0
    
    ##### IEEE 802.11u-2011 #######################################################
    
    # Enable Interworking service
    #interworking=1
    
    # Access Network Type
    # 0 = Private network
    # 1 = Private network with guest access
    # 2 = Chargeable public network
    # 3 = Free public network
    # 4 = Personal device network
    # 5 = Emergency services only network
    # 14 = Test or experimental
    # 15 = Wildcard
    #access_network_type=0
    
    # Whether the network provides connectivity to the Internet
    # 0 = Unspecified
    # 1 = Network provides connectivity to the Internet
    #internet=1
    
    # Additional Step Required for Access
    # Note: This is only used with open network, i.e., ASRA shall ne set to 0 if
    # RSN is used.
    #asra=0
    
    # Emergency services reachable
    #esr=0
    
    # Unauthenticated emergency service accessible
    #uesa=0
    
    # Venue Info (optional)
    # The available values are defined in IEEE Std 802.11u-2011, 7.3.1.34.
    # Example values (group,type):
    # 0,0 = Unspecified
    # 1,7 = Convention Center
    # 1,13 = Coffee Shop
    # 2,0 = Unspecified Business
    # 7,1  Private Residence
    #venue_group=7
    #venue_type=1
    
    # Homogeneous ESS identifier (optional; dot11HESSID)
    # If set, this shall be identifical to one of the BSSIDs in the homogeneous
    # ESS and this shall be set to the same value across all BSSs in homogeneous
    # ESS.
    #hessid=02:03:04:05:06:07
    
    # Roaming Consortium List
    # Arbitrary number of Roaming Consortium OIs can be configured with each line
    # adding a new OI to the list. The first three entries are available through
    # Beacon and Probe Response frames. Any additional entry will be available only
    # through ANQP queries. Each OI is between 3 and 15 octets and is configured as
    # a hexstring.
    #roaming_consortium=021122
    #roaming_consortium=2233445566
    
    # Venue Name information
    # This parameter can be used to configure one or more Venue Name Duples for
    # Venue Name ANQP information. Each entry has a two or three character language
    # code (ISO-639) separated by colon from the venue name string.
    # Note that venue_group and venue_type have to be set for Venue Name
    # information to be complete.
    #venue_name=eng:Example venue
    #venue_name=fin:Esimerkkipaikka
    # Alternative format for language:value strings:
    # (double quoted string, printf-escaped string)
    #venue_name=P"eng:Example\nvenue"
    
    # Venue URL information
    # This parameter can be used to configure one or more Venue URL Duples to
    # provide additional information corresponding to Venue Name information.
    # Each entry has a Venue Number value separated by colon from the Venue URL
    # string. Venue Number indicates the corresponding venue_name entry (1 = 1st
    # venue_name, 2 = 2nd venue_name, and so on; 0 = no matching venue_name)
    #venue_url=1:http://www.example.com/info-eng
    #venue_url=2:http://www.example.com/info-fin
    
    # Network Authentication Type
    # This parameter indicates what type of network authentication is used in the
    # network.
    # format: <network auth type indicator (1-octet hex str)> [redirect URL]
    # Network Authentication Type Indicator values:
    # 00 = Acceptance of terms and conditions
    # 01 = On-line enrollment supported
    # 02 = http/https redirection
    # 03 = DNS redirection
    #network_auth_type=00
    #network_auth_type=02http://www.example.com/redirect/me/here/
    
    # IP Address Type Availability
    # format: <1-octet encoded value as hex str>
    # (ipv4_type & 0x3f) << 2 | (ipv6_type & 0x3)
    # ipv4_type:
    # 0 = Address type not available
    # 1 = Public IPv4 address available
    # 2 = Port-restricted IPv4 address available
    # 3 = Single NATed private IPv4 address available
    # 4 = Double NATed private IPv4 address available
    # 5 = Port-restricted IPv4 address and single NATed IPv4 address available
    # 6 = Port-restricted IPv4 address and double NATed IPv4 address available
    # 7 = Availability of the address type is not known
    # ipv6_type:
    # 0 = Address type not available
    # 1 = Address type available
    # 2 = Availability of the address type not known
    #ipaddr_type_availability=14
    
    # Domain Name
    # format: <variable-octet str>[,<variable-octet str>]
    #domain_name=example.com,another.example.com,yet-another.example.com
    
    # 3GPP Cellular Network information
    # format: <MCC1,MNC1>[;<MCC2,MNC2>][;...]
    #anqp_3gpp_cell_net=244,91;310,026;234,56
    
    # NAI Realm information
    # One or more realm can be advertised. Each nai_realm line adds a new realm to
    # the set. These parameters provide information for stations using Interworking
    # network selection to allow automatic connection to a network based on
    # credentials.
    # format: <encoding>,<NAI Realm(s)>[,<EAP Method 1>][,<EAP Method 2>][,...]
    # encoding:
    #	0 = Realm formatted in accordance with IETF RFC 4282
    #	1 = UTF-8 formatted character string that is not formatted in
    #	    accordance with IETF RFC 4282
    # NAI Realm(s): Semi-colon delimited NAI Realm(s)
    # EAP Method: <EAP Method>[:<[AuthParam1:Val1]>][<[AuthParam2:Val2]>][...]
    # EAP Method types, see:
    # http://www.iana.org/assignments/eap-numbers/eap-numbers.xhtml#eap-numbers-4
    # AuthParam (Table 8-188 in IEEE Std 802.11-2012):
    # ID 2 = Non-EAP Inner Authentication Type
    #	1 = PAP, 2 = CHAP, 3 = MSCHAP, 4 = MSCHAPV2
    # ID 3 = Inner authentication EAP Method Type
    # ID 5 = Credential Type
    #	1 = SIM, 2 = USIM, 3 = NFC Secure Element, 4 = Hardware Token,
    #	5 = Softoken, 6 = Certificate, 7 = username/password, 9 = Anonymous,
    #	10 = Vendor Specific
    #nai_realm=0,example.com;example.net
    # EAP methods EAP-TLS with certificate and EAP-TTLS/MSCHAPv2 with
    # username/password
    #nai_realm=0,example.org,13[5:6],21[2:4][5:7]
    
    # Arbitrary ANQP-element configuration
    # Additional ANQP-elements with arbitrary values can be defined by specifying
    # their contents in raw format as a hexdump of the payload. Note that these
    # values will override ANQP-element contents that may have been specified in the
    # more higher layer configuration parameters listed above.
    # format: anqp_elem=<InfoID>:<hexdump of payload>
    # For example, AP Geospatial Location ANQP-element with unknown location:
    #anqp_elem=265:0000
    # For example, AP Civic Location ANQP-element with unknown location:
    #anqp_elem=266:000000
    
    # GAS Address 3 behavior
    # 0 = P2P specification (Address3 = AP BSSID) workaround enabled by default
    #     based on GAS request Address3
    # 1 = IEEE 802.11 standard compliant regardless of GAS request Address3
    # 2 = Force non-compliant behavior (Address3 = AP BSSID for all cases)
    #gas_address3=0
    
    # QoS Map Set configuration
    #
    # Comma delimited QoS Map Set in decimal values
    # (see IEEE Std 802.11-2012, 8.4.2.97)
    #
    # format:
    # [<DSCP Exceptions[DSCP,UP]>,]<UP 0 range[low,high]>,...<UP 7 range[low,high]>
    #
    # There can be up to 21 optional DSCP Exceptions which are pairs of DSCP Value
    # (0..63 or 255) and User Priority (0..7). This is followed by eight DSCP Range
    # descriptions with DSCP Low Value and DSCP High Value pairs (0..63 or 255) for
    # each UP starting from 0. If both low and high value are set to 255, the
    # corresponding UP is not used.
    #
    # default: not set
    #qos_map_set=53,2,22,6,8,15,0,7,255,255,16,31,32,39,255,255,40,47,255,255
    
    ##### Hotspot 2.0 #############################################################
    
    # Enable Hotspot 2.0 support
    #hs20=1
    
    # Disable Downstream Group-Addressed Forwarding (DGAF)
    # This can be used to configure a network where no group-addressed frames are
    # allowed. The AP will not forward any group-address frames to the stations and
    # random GTKs are issued for each station to prevent associated stations from
    # forging such frames to other stations in the BSS.
    #disable_dgaf=1
    
    # OSU Server-Only Authenticated L2 Encryption Network
    #osen=1
    
    # ANQP Domain ID (0..65535)
    # An identifier for a set of APs in an ESS that share the same common ANQP
    # information. 0 = Some of the ANQP information is unique to this AP (default).
    #anqp_domain_id=1234
    
    # Deauthentication request timeout
    # If the RADIUS server indicates that the station is not allowed to connect to
    # the BSS/ESS, the AP can allow the station some time to download a
    # notification page (URL included in the message). This parameter sets that
    # timeout in seconds.
    #hs20_deauth_req_timeout=60
    
    # Operator Friendly Name
    # This parameter can be used to configure one or more Operator Friendly Name
    # Duples. Each entry has a two or three character language code (ISO-639)
    # separated by colon from the operator friendly name string.
    #hs20_oper_friendly_name=eng:Example operator
    #hs20_oper_friendly_name=fin:Esimerkkioperaattori
    
    # Connection Capability
    # This can be used to advertise what type of IP traffic can be sent through the
    # hotspot (e.g., due to firewall allowing/blocking protocols/ports).
    # format: <IP Protocol>:<Port Number>:<Status>
    # IP Protocol: 1 = ICMP, 6 = TCP, 17 = UDP
    # Port Number: 0..65535
    # Status: 0 = Closed, 1 = Open, 2 = Unknown
    # Each hs20_conn_capab line is added to the list of advertised tuples.
    #hs20_conn_capab=1:0:2
    #hs20_conn_capab=6:22:1
    #hs20_conn_capab=17:5060:0
    
    # WAN Metrics
    # format: <WAN Info>:<DL Speed>:<UL Speed>:<DL Load>:<UL Load>:<LMD>
    # WAN Info: B0-B1: Link Status, B2: Symmetric Link, B3: At Capabity
    #    (encoded as two hex digits)
    #    Link Status: 1 = Link up, 2 = Link down, 3 = Link in test state
    # Downlink Speed: Estimate of WAN backhaul link current downlink speed in kbps;
    #	1..4294967295; 0 = unknown
    # Uplink Speed: Estimate of WAN backhaul link current uplink speed in kbps
    #	1..4294967295; 0 = unknown
    # Downlink Load: Current load of downlink WAN connection (scaled to 255 = 100%)
    # Uplink Load: Current load of uplink WAN connection (scaled to 255 = 100%)
    # Load Measurement Duration: Duration for measuring downlink/uplink load in
    # tenths of a second (1..65535); 0 if load cannot be determined
    #hs20_wan_metrics=01:8000:1000:80:240:3000
    
    # Operating Class Indication
    # List of operating classes the BSSes in this ESS use. The Global operating
    # classes in Table E-4 of IEEE Std 802.11-2012 Annex E define the values that
    # can be used in this.
    # format: hexdump of operating class octets
    # for example, operating classes 81 (2.4 GHz channels 1-13) and 115 (5 GHz
    # channels 36-48):
    #hs20_operating_class=5173
    
    # Terms and Conditions information
    #
    # hs20_t_c_filename contains the Terms and Conditions filename that the AP
    # indicates in RADIUS Access-Request messages.
    #hs20_t_c_filename=terms-and-conditions
    #
    # hs20_t_c_timestamp contains the Terms and Conditions timestamp that the AP
    # indicates in RADIUS Access-Request messages. Usually, this contains the number
    # of seconds since January 1, 1970 00:00 UTC showing the time when the file was
    # last modified.
    #hs20_t_c_timestamp=1234567
    #
    # hs20_t_c_server_url contains a template for the Terms and Conditions server
    # URL. This template is used to generate the URL for a STA that needs to
    # acknowledge Terms and Conditions. Unlike the other hs20_t_c_* parameters, this
    # parameter is used on the authentication server, not the AP.
    # Macros:
    # @1@ = MAC address of the STA (colon separated hex octets)
    #hs20_t_c_server_url=https://example.com/t_and_c?addr=@1@&ap=123
    
    # OSU and Operator icons
    # <Icon Width>:<Icon Height>:<Language code>:<Icon Type>:<Name>:<file path>
    #hs20_icon=32:32:eng:image/png:icon32:/tmp/icon32.png
    #hs20_icon=64:64:eng:image/png:icon64:/tmp/icon64.png
    
    # OSU SSID (see ssid2 for format description)
    # This is the SSID used for all OSU connections to all the listed OSU Providers.
    #osu_ssid="example"
    
    # OSU Providers
    # One or more sets of following parameter. Each OSU provider is started by the
    # mandatory osu_server_uri item. The other parameters add information for the
    # last added OSU provider. osu_nai specifies the OSU_NAI value for OSEN
    # authentication when using a standalone OSU BSS. osu_nai2 specifies the OSU_NAI
    # value for OSEN authentication when using a shared BSS (Single SSID) for OSU.
    #
    #osu_server_uri=https://example.com/osu/
    #osu_friendly_name=eng:Example operator
    #osu_friendly_name=fin:Esimerkkipalveluntarjoaja
    #osu_nai=anonymous@example.com
    #osu_nai2=anonymous@example.com
    #osu_method_list=1 0
    #osu_icon=icon32
    #osu_icon=icon64
    #osu_service_desc=eng:Example services
    #osu_service_desc=fin:Esimerkkipalveluja
    #
    #osu_server_uri=...
    
    # Operator Icons
    # Operator icons are specified using references to the hs20_icon entries
    # (Name subfield). This information, if present, is advertsised in the
    # Operator Icon Metadata ANQO-element.
    #operator_icon=icon32
    #operator_icon=icon64
    
    ##### Multiband Operation (MBO) ###############################################
    #
    # MBO enabled
    # 0 = disabled (default)
    # 1 = enabled
    #mbo=1
    #
    # Cellular data connection preference
    # 0 = Excluded - AP does not want STA to use the cellular data connection
    # 1 = AP prefers the STA not to use cellular data connection
    # 255 = AP prefers the STA to use cellular data connection
    #mbo_cell_data_conn_pref=1
    
    ##### Optimized Connectivity Experience (OCE) #################################
    #
    # Enable OCE specific features (bitmap)
    # BIT(0) - Reserved
    # Set BIT(1) (= 2) to enable OCE in STA-CFON mode
    # Set BIT(2) (= 4) to enable OCE in AP mode
    # Default is 0 = OCE disabled
    #oce=0
    
    # RSSI-based assocition rejection
    #
    # Reject STA association if RSSI is below given threshold (in dBm)
    # Allowed range: -60 to -90 dBm; default = 0 (rejection disabled)
    # Note: This rejection happens based on a signal strength detected while
    # receiving a single frame and as such, there is significant risk of the value
    # not being accurate and this resulting in valid stations being rejected. As
    # such, this functionality is not recommended to be used for purposes other than
    # testing.
    #rssi_reject_assoc_rssi=-75
    #
    # Association retry delay in seconds allowed by the STA if RSSI has not met the
    # threshold (range: 0..255, default=30).
    #rssi_reject_assoc_timeout=30
    
    ##### Fast Session Transfer (FST) support #####################################
    #
    # The options in this section are only available when the build configuration
    # option CONFIG_FST is set while compiling hostapd. They allow this interface
    # to be a part of FST setup.
    #
    # FST is the transfer of a session from a channel to another channel, in the
    # same or different frequency bands.
    #
    # For detals, see IEEE Std 802.11ad-2012.
    
    # Identifier of an FST Group the interface belongs to.
    #fst_group_id=bond0
    
    # Interface priority within the FST Group.
    # Announcing a higher priority for an interface means declaring it more
    # preferable for FST switch.
    # fst_priority is in 1..255 range with 1 being the lowest priority.
    #fst_priority=100
    
    # Default LLT value for this interface in milliseconds. The value used in case
    # no value provided during session setup. Default is 50 ms.
    # fst_llt is in 1..4294967 range (due to spec limitation, see 10.32.2.2
    # Transitioning between states).
    #fst_llt=100
    
    ##### Radio measurements / location ###########################################
    
    # The content of a LCI measurement subelement
    #lci=<Hexdump of binary data of the LCI report>
    
    # The content of a location civic measurement subelement
    #civic=<Hexdump of binary data of the location civic report>
    
    # Enable neighbor report via radio measurements
    #rrm_neighbor_report=1
    
    # Enable beacon report via radio measurements
    #rrm_beacon_report=1
    
    # Publish fine timing measurement (FTM) responder functionality
    # This parameter only controls publishing via Extended Capabilities element.
    # Actual functionality is managed outside hostapd.
    #ftm_responder=0
    
    # Publish fine timing measurement (FTM) initiator functionality
    # This parameter only controls publishing via Extended Capabilities element.
    # Actual functionality is managed outside hostapd.
    #ftm_initiator=0
    #
    # Stationary AP config indicates that the AP doesn't move hence location data
    # can be considered as always up to date. If configured, LCI data will be sent
    # as a radio measurement even if the request doesn't contain a max age element
    # that allows sending of such data. Default: 0.
    #stationary_ap=0
    
    ##### Airtime policy configuration ###########################################
    
    # Set the airtime policy operating mode:
    # 0 = disabled (default)
    # 1 = static config
    # 2 = per-BSS dynamic config
    # 3 = per-BSS limit mode
    #airtime_mode=0
    
    # Interval (in milliseconds) to poll the kernel for updated station activity in
    # dynamic and limit modes
    #airtime_update_interval=200
    
    # Static configuration of station weights (when airtime_mode=1). Kernel default
    # weight is 256; set higher for larger airtime share, lower for smaller share.
    # Each entry is a MAC address followed by a weight.
    #airtime_sta_weight=02:01:02:03:04:05 256
    #airtime_sta_weight=02:01:02:03:04:06 512
    
    # Per-BSS airtime weight. In multi-BSS mode, set for each BSS and hostapd will
    # configure station weights to enforce the correct ratio between BSS weights
    # depending on the number of active stations. The *ratios* between different
    # BSSes is what's important, not the absolute numbers.
    # Must be set for all BSSes if airtime_mode=2 or 3, has no effect otherwise.
    #airtime_bss_weight=1
    
    # Whether the current BSS should be limited (when airtime_mode=3).
    #
    # If set, the BSS weight ratio will be applied in the case where the current BSS
    # would exceed the share defined by the BSS weight ratio. E.g., if two BSSes are
    # set to the same weights, and one is set to limited, the limited BSS will get
    # no more than half the available airtime, but if the non-limited BSS has more
    # stations active, that *will* be allowed to exceed its half of the available
    # airtime.
    #airtime_bss_limit=1
    
    ##### TESTING OPTIONS #########################################################
    #
    # The options in this section are only available when the build configuration
    # option CONFIG_TESTING_OPTIONS is set while compiling hostapd. They allow
    # testing some scenarios that are otherwise difficult to reproduce.
    #
    # Ignore probe requests sent to hostapd with the given probability, must be a
    # floating point number in the range [0, 1).
    #ignore_probe_probability=0.0
    #
    # Ignore authentication frames with the given probability
    #ignore_auth_probability=0.0
    #
    # Ignore association requests with the given probability
    #ignore_assoc_probability=0.0
    #
    # Ignore reassociation requests with the given probability
    #ignore_reassoc_probability=0.0
    #
    # Corrupt Key MIC in GTK rekey EAPOL-Key frames with the given probability
    #corrupt_gtk_rekey_mic_probability=0.0
    #
    # Include only ECSA IE without CSA IE where possible
    # (channel switch operating class is needed)
    #ecsa_ie_only=0
    
    ##### Multiple BSSID support ##################################################
    #
    # Above configuration is using the default interface (wlan#, or multi-SSID VLAN
    # interfaces). Other BSSIDs can be added by using separator 'bss' with
    # default interface name to be allocated for the data packets of the new BSS.
    #
    # hostapd will generate BSSID mask based on the BSSIDs that are
    # configured. hostapd will verify that dev_addr & MASK == dev_addr. If this is
    # not the case, the MAC address of the radio must be changed before starting
    # hostapd (ifconfig wlan0 hw ether <MAC addr>). If a BSSID is configured for
    # every secondary BSS, this limitation is not applied at hostapd and other
    # masks may be used if the driver supports them (e.g., swap the locally
    # administered bit)
    #
    # BSSIDs are assigned in order to each BSS, unless an explicit BSSID is
    # specified using the 'bssid' parameter.
    # If an explicit BSSID is specified, it must be chosen such that it:
    # - results in a valid MASK that covers it and the dev_addr
    # - is not the same as the MAC address of the radio
    # - is not the same as any other explicitly specified BSSID
    #
    # Alternatively, the 'use_driver_iface_addr' parameter can be used to request
    # hostapd to use the driver auto-generated interface address (e.g., to use the
    # exact MAC addresses allocated to the device).
    #
    # Not all drivers support multiple BSSes. The exact mechanism for determining
    # the driver capabilities is driver specific. With the current (i.e., a recent
    # kernel) drivers using nl80211, this information can be checked with "iw list"
    # (search for "valid interface combinations").
    #
    # Please note that hostapd uses some of the values configured for the first BSS
    # as the defaults for the following BSSes. However, it is recommended that all
    # BSSes include explicit configuration of all relevant configuration items.
    #
    #bss=wlan0_0
    #ssid=test2
    # most of the above items can be used here (apart from radio interface specific
    # items, like channel)
    
    #bss=wlan0_1
    #bssid=00:13:10:95:fe:0b
    # ...
    
    展开全文
  • hostapd.conf 解析

    千次阅读 2019-11-28 14:00:14
    hostpad应用用于创建无线热点,其配置文件一般位于 /etc/hostapd/hostapd.conf。 建立一个wpa2加密方式的热点配置如下: driver=nl80211 ssid= hw_mode=g channel=6 interface=wlan0 wpa=2 wpa_passphrase= wpa_...

    hostpad应用用于创建无线热点,其配置文件一般位于 /etc/hostapd/hostapd.conf。

    建立一个wpa2加密方式的热点配置如下:

    driver=nl80211
    ssid=
    hw_mode=g
    channel=6
    interface=wlan0
    wpa=2
    wpa_passphrase=
    wpa_key_mgmt=WPA-PSK
    rsn_pairwise=CCMP
    

    其中ssid不能缺省,wpa=0为非加密,其后后面跟的密码配置无效;wpa=1为wpa,其后的key_mgmt和rsn_pairwise需要坐对应修改,wpa=2为wpa2,上面配置即可。

    hostapd开启WiFi后,设备通过认证连接上,会发现没有分配ip地址,这是因为我们仅仅是开放了热点,没有一个server分配ip,这时候我们就需要启用dhcpd来负责IP的分配。

    如果需要访问该设备其余网卡上的应用,则需要bridge建立桥接或者开启路由转发或者NAT功能。

    bridge桥接可参考:

    Linux虚拟网络设备之bridge
    GNU Linux(Debian)桥接的创建与配置

    使用如下五条命令开启路由转发和NAT

    sudo sysctl  -w net.ipv4.ip_forward=1
    
    加上如下几条规则:
    sudo iptables -P FORWARD DROP
    sudo iptables -t nat -A POSTROUTING -o eth0 -j MASQUERADE
    sudo iptables -A FORWARD -i eth0 -o wlan0 -m state --state STABLISHED,RELATED -j ACCEPT
    sudo iptables -A FORWARD -i wlan0 -o eth0 -j ACCEPT
    
    也可直接只使用一条:
    sudo iptables -t nat -A POSTROUTING -s 10.5.5.1/24 -o eth0 -j MASQUERADE

    详情参考:

    linux通过无线网卡建立无线AP

    linux 下wifi 功能的实现

     

    hostapd.conf详细含义如下:

    取自:https://blog.51cto.com/laoding/1697015

    interface=wlp2s0
    #bridge=br0
    driver=nl80211
    logger_syslog=-1
    logger_syslog_level=2
    logger_stdout=-1
    logger_stdout_level=2
    #ctrl_interface=/var/run/hostapd
    #ctrl_interface_group=wheel
    #ctrl_interface_group=0
    ##### IEEE 802.11 related configuration #######################################
    ssid=test
    #ssid2=mytest
    #ssid2=P"hello\nthere"
    utf8_ssid=1
    # ISO/IEC 3166-1 标准的国家代码,用于设置监管域。根据需要设置,按照哪个国家来操作设备。
    # 这可以限制可用的频道和发射功率。
    #country_code=CN
    # 是否启用 IEEE 802.11d,0 禁用(默认),1 启用。
    # 需要正确设置 country_code 才能使 IEEE 802.11d 正常工作。
    #ieee80211d=1
    # 是否启用 IEEE 802.11h,0 禁用(默认),1 启用。
    # 这将启用雷达探测和 DFS 支持,如果可用话。
    #ieee80211h=1
    # 添加 Power Constraint element 到 Beacon 和 Probe Response frames 中去。
    #local_pwr_constraint=5
    # 该选项仅在 ieee80211h=1 选项并且已经配置 local_pwr_constraint 选项时可用。
    #spectrum_mgmt_required=1
    # 设置无线模式需要硬件支持,a = IEEE 802.11a, b = IEEE 802.11b, g = IEEE 802.11g, ad = IEEE 802.11ad (60 GHz)
    # hw_mode=a 或 hw_mode=g 选项也与 IEEE 802.11n 一起使用来设置波段。
    # 当使用 ACS 时(看下文 channel parameter ),可以使用特殊的选项值 hw_mode=any ,说明可以使用任何可用的波段,该值当前仅在驱动使用了 offloaded ACS 的情况下有效。
    # 默认: hw_mode=b
    hw_mode=g
    # 注意有些设备不使用这个选项,而是需要在 iwconfig 中另外配置。
    # 如果编译的时候启用了 CONFIG_ACS 选项。通过设置 channel=acs_survey 或 channel=0,这样 hostapd 可以在运行时基于 ACS survey 算法自动选择合适的信道。
    # 有些设备仅支持最大为11频道,有些支持最大为13频道,可以通过iw list 查看。
    # 另外启用 ht_capab 将影响可用的频道数
    channel=6
    # ACS tuning - 信道自动选择
    # 参考:http://wireless.kernel.org/en/users/Documentation/acs
    # 信道自动选择,有助于选择更好的信道,但是会增加启动时间,一般不需要修改。
    # 可以通过设置下面选项自定义 ACS survey 算法。
    # 默认:acs_num_scans=5  acs_chan_bias=1:0.8 6:0.8 11:0.8
    #acs_num_scans=40
    #acs_chan_bias=1:0.8 6:0.8 11:0.8
    # 默认允许所有信道
    #chanlist=100 104 108 112 116
    #chanlist=1 6 11-13
    # beacon 间隔  (默认: 100; 范围 15到65535)
    #beacon_int=100
    #dtim_period=1
    # 默认且最大值为2007个列表
    #max_num_sta=255
    #rts_threshold=2347
    #fragm_threshold=2346
    #supported_rates=10 20 55 110 60 90 120 180 240 360 480 540
    #basic_rates=10 20
    #basic_rates=10 20 55 110
    #basic_rates=60 120 240
    # 用命令:iw list 查看无线网卡是否有“short preamble supported”。
    # 0 禁用,1 启用,无线网卡支持的话可以启用以改善网络性能。
    #preamble=1
    # 无线MAC地址过滤
    # 此选项要求 driver=hostap 或 driver=nl80211
    # 0 = 接受所有连接,仅拒绝 deny 列表中的连接
    # 1 = 拒绝所有连接,仅接受 accept 列表中的连接
    # 2 = 使用外部 RADIUS 服务器 (还是会优先查找 accept/deny 列表)
    # 简单一点的话,可以将两个列表设置为同一个文件,仅由 macaddr_acl 来控制允许或拒绝
    macaddr_acl=0
    accept_mac_file=/etc/hostapd/hostapd.accept
    deny_mac_file=/etc/hostapd/hostapd.deny
    # 身份验证算法,1 开放系统认证,2 共享密钥认证(需要 WEP),3 两者
    auth_algs=3
    # 是否广播,0 广播SSID,1 不广播SSID(发送空SSID,即长度为0的SSID),
    # 2 忽略广播 SSID 的探测请求,跟1类似,但是兼容某些不支持空SSID的设备
    #ignore_broadcast_ssid=0
    #vendor_elements=dd0411223301
    # 启用WMM
    wmm_enabled=1
    #
    # WMM-PS Unscheduled Automatic Power Save Delivery [U-APSD]
    # Enable this flag if U-APSD supported outside hostapd (eg., Firmware/driver)
    #uapsd_advertisement_enabled=1
    #
    # Low priority / AC_BK = background
    #wmm_ac_bk_cwmin=4
    #wmm_ac_bk_cwmax=10
    #wmm_ac_bk_aifs=7
    #wmm_ac_bk_txop_limit=0
    #wmm_ac_bk_acm=0
    # Note: for IEEE 802.11b mode: cWmin=5 cWmax=10
    #
    # Normal priority / AC_BE = best effort
    #wmm_ac_be_aifs=3
    #wmm_ac_be_cwmin=4
    #wmm_ac_be_cwmax=10
    #wmm_ac_be_txop_limit=0
    #wmm_ac_be_acm=0
    # Note: for IEEE 802.11b mode: cWmin=5 cWmax=7
    #
    # High priority / AC_VI = video
    #wmm_ac_vi_aifs=2
    #wmm_ac_vi_cwmin=3
    #wmm_ac_vi_cwmax=4
    #wmm_ac_vi_txop_limit=94
    #wmm_ac_vi_acm=0
    # Note: for IEEE 802.11b mode: cWmin=4 cWmax=5 txop_limit=188
    #
    # Highest priority / AC_VO = voice
    #wmm_ac_vo_aifs=2
    #wmm_ac_vo_cwmin=2
    #wmm_ac_vo_cwmax=3
    #wmm_ac_vo_txop_limit=47
    #wmm_ac_vo_acm=0
    # Note: for IEEE 802.11b mode: cWmin=3 cWmax=4 burst=102
    # 检测客户端不活动超时,是否在线间隔时间,默认每5分钟检测客户端是否在线
    # 站点不活动限制,默认5分钟
    #ap_max_inactivity=300
    # 默认禁用,设置为1,说明只要客户在5分钟内没有活动就断线,即使客户端仍然在AP信号的范围内,如果客户端过多可以启用来提高带机量。
    #skip_inactivity_poll=0
    # 对于过度的传输失败或其他连接丢失的情况下,断开连接,这并不适合所有设备
    #disassoc_low_ack=1
    # 最大允许侦听间隔,默认65535,即不限制 (how many Beacon periods STAs are allowed to remain asleep)
    #max_listen_interval=100
    # WDS(4-address frame)模式,仅在 driver=nl80211 的情况下支持
    #wds_sta=1
    # 仅在设置了bridge= 时有效,默认情况下,例如当设置了bridge=br0,那么wds_bridge=br0。
    # 当然也可以手动指定为wds_bridge=XXXXX。
    #wds_bridge=wds-br0
    # Start the AP with beaconing disabled by default.没明白是什么意思。
    #start_disabled=0
    # AP隔离,1启用,0禁用。默认不隔离。
    #ap_isolate=1
    #bss_load_update_period=50
    # 用于测试的
    #bss_load_test=12:80:20000
    ##### IEEE 802.11n related configuration ######################################
    # 启用80211n,你也将需要启用WMM来使用全部HT功能。
    ieee80211n=1
    # [HT40-]或[HT40+]没有设置的话将只工作在20MHz,
    # [HT40-]对应可使用的频道为5-13
    # [HT40+]对应可使用的频道为1-7(欧洲标准为1-9)
    # 当多径效应不是很严重时,用户可以将该间隔配置为[SHORT-GI-20][SHORT-GI-40]
    # 个人理解,如果不上天馈系统的话可以启用[SHORT-GI-20][SHORT-GI-40],前提是硬件支持。
    #ht_capab=[LDPC][HT40-][HT40+][SHORT-GI-20][SHORT-GI-40][SMPS-DYNAMIC][GF][TX-STBC][RX-STBC123][DELAYED-BA][MAX-AMSDU-7935][DSSS_CCK-40][40-INTOLERANT][LSIG-TXOP-PROT]
    # intel Wireless-N 105 (rev c4) 网卡支持的选项
    ht_capab=[HT40-][SHORT-GI-20][SHORT-GI-40][DSSS_CCK-40][40-INTOLERANT][GF]
    # Atheros AR9271 网卡支持的选项
    #ht_capab=[HT40-][SHORT-GI-20][SHORT-GI-40][DSSS_CCK-40][40-INTOLERANT][RX-STBC1]
    #ht_capab=[HT40-][SHORT-GI-20][SHORT-GI-40][DSSS_CCK-40]
    #ht_capab=[HT40-][SHORT-GI-20][SHORT-GI-40]
    #ht_capab=[HT40+][DSSS_CCK-40][40-INTOLERANT]
    # 强制要求客户端使用HT PHY,不使用就拒绝。
    #require_ht=0
    # 间隔时间(秒)
    #obss_interval=5
    ##### WPA/IEEE 802.11i configuration ##########################################
    # 1 wpa,2 wpa2, 3 两者。 新的设备可以设置为2,仅使用wpa2版本。
    wpa=2
    # 指定密码,ASCII码或密码字符。
    #wpa_psk=0123456789abcdef0123456789abcdef0123456789abcdef0123456789abcdef
    #wpa_passphrase=12345678
    # 使用密码文件,可以跟客户端MAC地址绑定设置不同的密码,比较实用。
    wpa_psk_file=/etc/hostapd/hostapd.wpa_psk
    # 是否使用验证服务器,0 禁用(默认),1 可用,2 强制使用(其他方式将拒绝)
    #wpa_psk_radius=0
    # 设置密钥管理算法WPA-PSK WPA-EAP或两者
    wpa_key_mgmt=WPA-PSK
    # 设置加密算法,CCMP就是AES,不推荐使用TKIP,除非设备不支持。
    wpa_pairwise=CCMP
    # 默认情况下rsn_pairwise自动设置为wpa_pairwise的值,当然也可以手动指定。
    #rsn_pairwise=CCMP
    #wpa_group_rekey=600
    #wpa_strict_rekey=1
    #wpa_gmk_rekey=86400
    #wpa_ptk_rekey=600
    # 预认证
    #rsn_preauth=1
    #rsn_preauth_interfaces=wlp2s0 br0 enp3s0
    #peerkey=1
    # 80211w支持,0 禁用(默认),1 可选,2 强制使用(其他方式将拒绝) 有些网卡不支持
    #ieee80211w=1
    # AES-128-CMAC(默认) BIP-GMAC-128 BIP-GMAC-256 BIP-CMAC-256 四种
    # 一般通用设备都支持AES-128-CMAC,其他的不一定
    #group_mgmt_cipher=AES-128-CMAC
    #assoc_sa_query_max_timeout=1000
    #assoc_sa_query_retry_timeout=201
    #disable_pmksa_caching=0
    #okc=1
    #sae_anti_clogging_threshold=5
    #sae_groups=19 20 21 25 26
    ##### IEEE 802.11r configuration ##############################################
    # Wi-Fi无线漫游标准
    #mobility_domain=a1b2
    #r0_key_lifetime=10000
    #r1_key_holder=000102030405
    #reassociation_deadline=1000
    #pmk_r1_push=1
    ##### Neighbor table ##########################################################
    #ap_table_max_size=255
    #ap_table_expiration_time=3600
    ##### IEEE 802.11v-2011 #######################################################
    # Wi-Fi节能版 
    #time_advertisement=2
    #time_zone=CST8
    # 下面三项有些网卡不支持
    #wnm_sleep_mode=1
    #bss_transition=1
    #proxy_arp=1
     
    #bss=wifi0
    #bssid=00:13:10:95:fe:0d
    #interface=wifi0
    #ssid=test2
    #bridge=br0
    #driver=nl80211
    #auth_algs=1
    #ignore_broadcast_ssid=0
    #wpa=2
    #wpa_passphrase=12345678

     

    展开全文
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    2021-06-25 13:56:56
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    热门讨论 2010-11-04 18:03:06
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    2019-11-15 20:38:26
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