• big endian
2021-02-02 19:59:02

简短的回答是NO，PDO准备不会保护您免受所有可能的SQL注入攻击。对于某些不起眼的边缘案例。

我正在调整这个答案来谈论PDO ......

答案很长并不容易。它基于此处演示的攻击。

攻击

那么，让我们从展示攻击开始......

$pdo->query('SET NAMES gbk');$var = "\xbf\x27 OR 1=1 /*";

$query = 'SELECT * FROM test WHERE name = ? LIMIT 1';$stmt = $pdo->prepare($query);

$stmt->execute(array($var));

在某些情况下，这将返回超过1行。让我们剖析一下这里发生了什么：选择一个字符集$pdo->query('SET NAMES gbk'); 为了使这种攻击起作用，我们需要服务器在连接上期望的编码既可以'用ASCII 进行编码，0x27 也可以有一些字符的最终字节是ASCII \即0x5c。事实证明，会默认在MySQL 5.6支持5个这样的编码：big5，cp932，gb2312，gbk和sjis。我们会gbk在这里选择。 现在，注意SET NAMES这里的使用非常重要。这会将字符集设置为“服务器”。还有另一种方法，但我们很快就会到达那里。 有效载荷 我们将用于此注入的有效负载从字节序列开始0xbf27。在gbk，这是一个无效的多字节字符; 在latin1，它是字符串¿'。请注意，在latin1 和中 gbk，0x27它本身就是一个文字'字符。 我们选择了这个有效载荷，因为，如果我们叫addslashes()上他，我们就插入一个ASCII \即0x5c，在之前'的字符。所以我们结束了0xbf5c27，这gbk是一个两个字符的序列：0xbf5c接下来0x27。或者换句话说，一个有效的字符后跟一个未转义的字符'。但我们没有使用addslashes()。那么下一步......$ stmt->的execute()

这里要认识到的重要一点是，默认情况下PDO 不会执行真正准备好的语句。它模仿它们(对于MySQL)。因此，PDO在内部构建查询字符串，mysql_real_escape_string()在每个绑定的字符串值上调用(MySQL C API函数)。

因此调用mysql_real_escape_string()插入反斜杠，我们'在“转义”内容中有一个自由悬挂的字符！事实上，如果我们看一下$var在gbk字符集，我们会看到：缞'或1 = 1 / * 这正是攻击所需要的。 查询 这部分只是一种形式，但这里是渲染的查询：SELECT * FROM test WHERE name = '縗' OR 1=1 /*' LIMIT 1 恭喜，您刚刚使用PDO准备语句成功攻击了一个程序...... 简单修复 现在，值得注意的是，您可以通过禁用模拟的预准备语句来防止这种情况：$pdo->setAttribute(PDO::ATTR_EMULATE_PREPARES, false);

这通常会导致真正准备好的语句(即数据在查询的单独数据包中发送)。但是，请注意，PDO将无声地回退到模拟MySQL本身无法准备的语句：可以在手册中列出的那些语句，但要注意选择适当的服务器版本)。

正确的修复

这里的问题是我们没有调用C API mysql_set_charset()而不是SET NAMES。如果我们这样做，我们会很好，只要我们从2006年开始使用MySQL版本。

如果您使用的是较早的MySQL版本，那么错误的mysql_real_escape_string()意思是无效的多字节字符，例如那些在我们的有效载荷被视为单字节转义的目的，即使客户端已正确通知连接编码的，因此这种攻击仍然成功。该错误是固定在MySQL 4.1.20，5.0.22和5.1.11。

但最糟糕的是，直到5.3.6 PDO才公开C API mysql_set_charset()，因此在以前的版本中，它无法阻止每次可能命令的攻击！它现在作为DSN参数公开，应该使用它代替 SET NAMES ...

拯救恩典

正如我们在开始时所说的，为了使这种攻击起作用，必须使用易受攻击的字符集对数据库连接进行编码。 utf8mb4是不容易，但可以支持所有的 Unicode字符：所以你可以选择使用的是代替，但它只是从MySQL 5.5.3可用。另一种选择是utf8，它也不易受攻击，可以支持整个Unicode 基本多语言平面。

或者，您可以启用NO_BACKSLASH_ESCAPESSQL模式，其中(除其他外)改变了操作mysql_real_escape_string()。启用此模式后，0x27将替换为0x2727而不是0x5c27因为转义进程无法在以前不存在的任何易受攻击的编码中创建有效字符(即0xbf27仍然是0xbf27等等) - 因此服务器仍将拒绝该字符串为无效。但是，请参阅@ eggyal的答案，了解使用此SQL模式可能产生的其他漏洞(尽管不使用PDO)。

安全的例子

以下示例是安全的：

mysql_query('SET NAMES utf8');

$var = mysql_real_escape_string("\xbf\x27 OR 1=1 /*"); mysql_query("SELECT * FROM test WHERE name = '$var' LIMIT 1");

因为服务器期待utf8......

mysql_set_charset('gbk');

$var = mysql_real_escape_string("\xbf\x27 OR 1=1 /*"); mysql_query("SELECT * FROM test WHERE name = '$var' LIMIT 1");

因为我们已正确设置字符集，因此客户端和服务器匹配。

$pdo->setAttribute(PDO::ATTR_EMULATE_PREPARES, false);$pdo->query('SET NAMES gbk');

$stmt =$pdo->prepare('SELECT * FROM test WHERE name = ? LIMIT 1');

$stmt->execute(array("\xbf\x27 OR 1=1 /*")); 因为我们已经关闭了模拟准备好的语句。$pdo = new PDO('mysql:host=localhost;dbname=testdb;charset=gbk', $user,$password);

$stmt =$pdo->prepare('SELECT * FROM test WHERE name = ? LIMIT 1');

$stmt->execute(array("\xbf\x27 OR 1=1 /*")); 因为我们已经正确设置了字符集。$mysqli->query('SET NAMES gbk');

$stmt =$mysqli->prepare('SELECT * FROM test WHERE name = ? LIMIT 1');

$param = "\xbf\x27 OR 1=1 /*";$stmt->bind_param('s', $param);$stmt->execute();

因为MySQLi一直都做真实的准备语句。

包起来

如果你：使用MySQL的现代版本(后期5.1，全部5.5,5.6等)和 PDO的DSN字符集参数(在PHP≥5.3.6中)

要么不要使用易受攻击的字符集进行连接编码(仅使用utf8/ latin1/ ascii/ etc)

要么启用NO_BACKSLASH_ESCAPESSQL模式

你100％安全。

否则，即使您正在使用PDO准备语句，您也很容易受到攻击......

附录

我一直在慢慢研究修补程序，将默认设置更改为不模拟未来版本的PHP。我遇到的问题是，当我这样做时，很多测试都会中断。一个问题是模拟的准备只会在执行时抛出语法错误，但真正的准备会在准备时抛出错误。这可能会导致问题(并且是测试的原因之一)。

更多相关内容
• There is a big party with many guests. They receive many gifts. This birthday even has a special name. All other birthdays are called “sing il”. The sixty-first birthday is called “huan gup” ...

## Unit 3B - The Young and the Old

The Young and the Old

Someone said to a man, "Travel and see the world." He answered, "Why should I? People are the same everywhere. They are born. They are babies. They are children. They are adults. They grow old. They die. While they are alive, they have the same emotions. They feel love and hate, happiness and sadness, security and fear, pride and shame, comfort and discomfort. That is why I do not want to travel. I can learn everything here. I'm going to stay home."

The man was right. He was also wrong. People are the same, but people are also different. They all have the same pattern of life — birth, youth, old age, death. But these stages of life have different values in different cultures. Also, while all people have the same emotions, the causes of these emotions are different. A situation that may bring happiness in one place may not bring happiness in another place.

For example, in many countries old age is a happy time. Young people in these countries show respect to the old people. Young people listen when old people speak because they believe that an old person is a wise person. In that kind of society old people receive honor, privilege and satisfaction. In Korea, old people are honored and respected. When they are too old to live alone, they live with a son, daughter, or other relatives. When they become sixty-one years old, it is a very happy and important event. There is a big party with many guests. They receive many gifts. This birthday even has a special name. All other birthdays are called “sing il”. The sixty-first birthday is called “huan gup” (beginning of new life). The sixty-first birthday has a special name because when people reach this time in life, the attitudes of their family and their community change toward them. The younger people call them "grandfather" or "grandmother", even if they are not related to them. Their position in life is good because they receive honors and respect. Everyone looks forward to this time.

In the United States, it is quite different for old people. Most old people do not live with their children or relatives. If they have enough money, they buy houses or apartments in places where other old people live. If they are not healthy and strong enough to live alone, they live in special homes for old people. There, strangers take care of them. For many North Americans, old age is not a happy time. Most North Americans want to stay young. They try to stay thin and they act like young people as long as possible. They even try to speak the language of the young. They do not like to grow old because they will not get honor or respect or attention. Also, businesses do not want old people to work for them. So, old people usually live alone and they do not have many things to do. Old age can be a sad and lonely time for them.

So we can see that the man who stayed home was wrong. People are different in their customs and their values. There are young people and there are old people in Korea and in North America, but it may be better to be young in North America and old in Korea.

### 参考译文——青年与老人

青年与老人

有人曾对一个男子说：“出去走走，开开眼界。”他回答说： “何必呢？人嘛，到处都一样。人总是呱呱落地，从婴儿长成儿童，再长大成人，然后逐渐变老，最后死去。人们活着的时候，有着同样的情感：有爱憎、哀乐之情，有安全、恐惧之感，有尊荣、羞辱之心，也能体察舒适与不适之变。这就是我不愿外出旅游的缘由。我待在家里可以知道天底下的各种事情。我就想一直待在家里。”

这人说的，既对又不对。人与人既相同又相异。他们都有着相同的生命模式——出生，青春，年迈，死亡，但人生的这些阶段，在不同的文化群体里却有着不同的价值。再者，虽然所有的人都有着相同的情感，但这些情感的起因却不尽相同。此地能带来快乐的景况，换了他处未必也能给人带来快乐。

举例来说，在许多国家老年时期是个颐养天年的快乐时期。这些国家的年轻人敬重老年人。老年人说话时年轻人洗耳恭听，因为他们相信老年人自有其智慧。在这种社会里，老年人受到尊重，享有优待，心满意足。在朝鲜，老年人就受到敬重与爱戴。当他们年迈无法独自生活时，便与儿女或别的亲人共同生活。年满61岁是件大喜事。照例要举行贺客满堂的盛大聚会。老人会收到各种礼物。 61岁生日甚至还有个特别的名字。所有别的生日都叫做sing il（出生之日），而61岁的生日则叫做huan gup（新生命的开始）。61岁生日之所以有个特别的名称，是因为当人们进入人生的这一阶段时，家庭和社会对他们的态度便有所变化。即使没有亲戚关系，年轻人也都要尊称他们为“爷爷”、“奶奶”。他们的生活处境相当不错，他们受到敬重与爱戴。人人都盼望这一时期的到来。

在美国，老年人的境遇则大不相同。大多数老年人都不与子女或亲戚同住。要是手头宽裕，他们就在老年人聚居的地方买幢住房或一套公寓房。如果他们的身体不够健壮，不能单独生活，那他们便住进特设的养老院。在那儿，陌生人照料他们。对许多北美人来说，并无幸福的晚年可言。大多数北美人都想要保持年轻。他们努力保持体形，尽可能地像年轻人那样行事，他们甚至试着使用年轻人的词汇。他们不愿进入老年，因为他们得不到荣誉、尊敬和关心。再说，各行各业都不愿雇用老年人。因此，老年人通常总是孤居独处，他们没有多少事可做。对他们来说，晚年凄凉而又孤独。

由此可见，那个闭门不出的人错了。人们的风俗习惯、价值观念因地而异。朝鲜和北美都有年轻人和老年人，但年轻时也许待在北美为好，老年时则待在朝鲜为好。

Key Words:

security   [si'kju:riti]

n. 安全，防护措施，保证，抵押，债券，证券

comfort  ['kʌmfət]

n. 舒适，安逸，安慰，慰藉

vt. 安慰，使

pride      [praid]

n. 自豪，骄傲，引以自豪的东西，自尊心

respected       [ri'spektid]

pattern   ['pætən]

n. 图案，式样，典范，模式，型

community    [kə'mju:niti]

n. 社区，社会，团体，共同体，公众，[生]群落

related    [ri'leitid]

discomfort     [dis'kʌmfət]

n. 不便之处，不适 vt. 使不适

satisfaction     [.sætis'fækʃən]

n. 赔偿，满意，妥善处理，乐事，确信

privilege ['privilidʒ]

n. 特权，特别恩典，基本人权，荣幸

参考资料：

1. http://www.kekenet.com/daxue/201605/44242shtml
展开全文
• Especially among women, there is an epidemic of feeling overwhelmed." The desire for a quick fix, then, isn't always neurotic, but when it comes to the big issues of health and financial security, ...

## Unit 5B - Hooked on the Quick Fix

Hooked on the Quick Fix

Mary Ellen Strote

Ten pounds down. Twenty-five to go. With the help of a personal trainer, former yo-yo dieter Nancy H. had been making steady progress toward a healthier weight. But when her trainer told her she needed more aerobic exercise and a better diet, Nancy, 31, hesitated. She didn't have the patience to wait a whole year to feel better about the way she looked. Instead, she paid the first of several visits to a cosmetic surgeon, where she signed up for a liposuction plus tummy tuck, then more on her thighs and torso, and hey, while she was at it, a breast reduction.

With Internet shopping and 30-minute pizza delivery, we've come to expect, even demand, instant gratification. If we can turn our work around in a flash with the help of laptops, pagers, cell phones, faxes and e-mail, why shouldn't we expect to turn ourselves around—physically, mentally or emotionally—with the same expedience? Well, because that is not the way self-improvement happens.

A Culture of Convenience

Those of us who succumbed to short cuts have centuries' worth of company. Two and a half millennia ago, Plato saw our tendency to seek the easy way out. "He noted that people would use cosmetics to make themselves look better rather than improve themselves with the efforts of gymnastics," says Elizabeth Asmis, PhD, a classics professor at the University of Chicago.

Not much has changed since, except that our opinions have multiplied. We can trace the American penchant for self-improvement at least partly to our unique history. Our continent was settled by people in a rush to reinvent themselves, and as self-betterment became a national preoccupation, entrepreneurs made fortunes by guaranteeing instant enhancements—often at the expense of their customers' health. Well into the 1930s, patent medicines promised youthful pep and vigor without noting that they contained cocaine; and beauty preparations guaranteed whiter complexions without mentioning that the active ingredients were poisonous lead, sulfur, arsenic or mercury. Today, government regulations try to protect our well-being, but the seductive claims still thrive: A New Body in One Day! Flatter Abs in Five Minutes! Face Lift in a Jar! Fast!! Easy!! Convenient!!

"The promise is that we can transform our lives by altering something simple, such as the way we smile or handshakes," says Paul Stolz, PhD, author of Adversity Quotient: Turning Obstacles into Opportunities (John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1997). The problem is that quick fixes don't last.

You can freshen an old house with paint, but unless you spend a week preparing the surface first, the paint cracks and peels.

You can put down sod for an instant lawn, but if you didn't cultivate the hard soil, the grass won't take root.

Fast Change, Woe Remains

No matter how predictable, each failure exacerbates the problem it was designed to solve, which in most cases is a lousy self-image. We look for someone to blame and find her/him in the mirror, says John Gray, PhD, author of Men Are From Mars, Women Are From Venus (Harper Collins, 1992)

"Think about all the romance you see in movies", he says. "Watching them, you are reminded over and over of what you don't have, and you think, 'There must be something wrong with me.' It always comes back to the attitude that you are not worthy." Trying to keep up with society's demands can give the most self-assured woman/man fits of insecurity. Attempting to play too many roles, we fall behind. "This is a time of great stress," Gray says. "The more conveniences we have, the more complex our lives become. Especially among women, there is an epidemic of feeling overwhelmed." The desire for a quick fix, then, isn't always neurotic, but when it comes to the big issues of health and financial security, self-acceptance and spiritual growth, we're better off with the slow solution.

Most of us hesitate to make any serious alteration in our lives, and with good reason. "Past experience has convinced us that change is risky and filled with uncertain outcomes," says motivational speaker Anthony Parinello, author of The Power of Will: Key Strategies to Unlock Your Inner-Strengths and Enjoy Success in All Aspects of Life (Chandler House, 1998).

When we finally make the move, our tendency is to get it over with in one fell swoop. "But real change is an ongoing process with a recognizable pattern," warns Parinello. "Anyone who manages it successfully has to take much the same steps."

Say you have been inactive for several years and now wanted to get fit. You'd need a plan of action, Parinello says. Maybe you'd start reviewing your successes: What has motivated you in the past? Which sport seems made for your body? Next, you'd study your options. You might consider a spa weekend as a jump-start, but you'd also check out the nearest aerobics classes, survey potential workout partners, locate the local hiking trail. Then you'd try those options one at a time avoiding the temptation to do everything in one great rush. Periodically, over the next weeks and months, you'd ask yourself how you are doing and adjust your plan accordingly.

Using a similar methodical, step-by-step technique can earn you more money, help you get better at your job, or even improve your relationships. If the process doesn't sound appealing or even possible, ask yourself why. "Change takes a commitment to yourself that's difficult for some people," says Ditta M. Oliker, PhD, a clinical psychologist in private practice in Los Angeles. "Maybe you don't trust that you have the discipline for self-improvement. Maybe you are afraid of success."

Or maybe you are addicted to the thrill of quick fix. "We are exposed to so many unreal images in the media that it's hard to visualize what real change actually requires," says Oliker. "Quick fixes lend themselves nicely to the fantasy of self-perfection. The fantasy is one of always becoming someone or something else rather than being who you are, and it keeps you in a constant state of excited anticipation. Meanwhile, it takes you away from your real life, which you could be using to make real change."

After her complete failure, Nancy had to face what she had done. She had altered her metabolism so drastically that even with strength training, aerobic exercise and limited calories, she needed a year to regain her normal body shape. That was only the beginning of her process of self-repair. While she worked on her physical self, she also quit a job she hated, entered therapy and started classes at massage school, where she learned for the first time how to offer and receive a healing touch.

And because she is no longer spending her life on the verge of sudden change, she takes much more pleasure in the present moment.

In our focus on getting somewhere fast, many of us deny ourselves the joy of learning and forget to enjoy the journey. Author and rock climber Paul Stolz, who sees his sport as a metaphor for life, notes that whatever your goal, there is no point in getting there fast, because the payoff isn't at the end. "The payoff is the awareness you get during the climb," he says. "It's the feeling of being intensely alive, with every sense heightened, of perceiving your bond with a rock and being humbled, grateful that the rock has granted you the privilege of climbing it that day."

### 参考译文——迷恋快速解决法

迷恋快速解决法

玛丽·埃伦·斯特罗特

已经减掉了10磅，还需要再减25磅。在私人教练的帮助下，原先节食减肥总是反弹的南希·H.的体重正稳步达到更健康的水平。但是当教练告诉她还需要做更多的有氧运动，并且进一步节食时，31岁的南希犹豫了。她还需要再这样坚持一整年的时间才能对自己的样子感觉更好，她没有这份耐心。于是南希拜访了一位整形医师，接下来还拜访了很多次。她在整容医师那里报名做了吸脂手术和收腹手术，然后又进行了美腿手术和美体手术。最后，嘿，一不做二不休，还进行了缩乳手术。

随着网上购物和披萨30分钟送上门这些事成为现实，我们开始期盼甚至要求即时的满足。 既然我们能够借助手提电脑、呼机、手机、传真和电子邮件很快地完成我们的工作，那么我们为什么不能期望我们的身心及情感靠同样的速效方法得到改善呢？那是因为那不是自我完善应该发生的方式。

便利文化

屈服于捷径的人自古有之。2500年前，柏拉图就看到了人类寻求捷径的趋势。“他指出，比起通过体育运动锻炼身体来，人们更愿意用化妆品去改善自己的相貌，”芝加哥大学的一位古典学教授伊丽莎白·阿斯米斯博士这样说。

从那时起，我们美国人除了思想变得多元化了以外，其他方面并没有发生多大的变化。我们可以把美国人对自我改善的喜好至少部分归因于我们独特的历史。定居在我们大陆上的人们急切渴望重塑自我。随着自我完善成为整个国家的关注点，企业通过保证即刻见效来牟利，而这种做法通常是以牺牲消费者的健康为代价的。进入20世纪30年代后，许诺使人永葆青春活力的专利药品出现了，但对药品中含有可卡因一事只字不提；同样，声称有美白效果的护肤霜也对其有效成分是铅、硫磺、砒霜或汞不作任何声明。如今，政府的规章制度试图来保护我们的健康，但是有诱惑力的声音依然叫得起劲：一天就让你的身材焕然一新！五分钟让腹部更平坦！一瓶即可提拉面部皮肤！！快速！！简单！！方便！！

“给出的承诺是我们可以通过改变一些简单的事情来彻底改变我们的生活，比如改变我们微笑或握手的方式，”《逆商：变障碍为机遇》（约翰·威立父子出版公司，1997年版）的作者保罗·斯托尔兹博士说。可问题是这种改变持续不了多长时间。

你可以用油漆使旧房子焕然一新，但除非你先花一周的时间清理好表面，否则粉刷上的油漆就会开裂、脱落。

你可以铺上草皮从而在短时间内拥有一块草坪，但如果不好好开垦坚硬的土壤，草是不会生根的。

变化快，痛犹在

不管失败多么容易被预测到，每次失败都会使本应该解决的问题更加严重，很多情况下这种问题是不佳的自我形象。《男人来自火星，女人来自金星》（哈珀柯林斯出版集团，1992年版）的作者约翰·格雷博士认为，我们失败的时候会找一个“替罪羊”，于是我们看到了镜中的自己。

他说：“想想你在电影中看到的所有浪漫剧情。看到那些就会使你一遍又一遍地想起你所没能拥有的，于是你就会想：‘我肯定是有什么问题’，并最终回到‘自己真没用’这个看法上。”努力满足社会的需求会让极度自信的人也产生阵阵不安全感。试图扮演多种角色会让我们落后。格雷说：“这是一个充满压力的时代。我们得到的便利越多，我们的生活就变得越复杂。尤其是女性，她们普遍感到压抑。”因此，渴望快捷之道并非总是神经质的表现，但是，当涉及健康、财务安全、自我接受和心理成长等这些重大问题时，我们用慢方案比较好。

慢而稳者操胜券

我们大多数人在生活中做出任何重大改变时都会犹豫不决。我们这样做有着充分的理由。“过去的经历让我们确信，改变都是有风险的，并且结果有着太多的不确定性，”励志演说家，《意志的力量：激发潜能，享受全方位成功》（Chandler House出版社，1998年版）一书的作者安东尼·帕里内洛如是说。

当我们最终决定行动的时候，我们往往希望一下子就完成。但帕里内洛警告说：“真正的改变是一个持续的过程，有明显的模式。要想成功地改变，任何人都必须采取几乎同样的步骤。”

你或许会从回顾你的成功经历开始：过去是什么一直激励着你？哪种运动适合你？下一步你要研究一下你的可选项。你可能会想到周末去泡一下温泉作为预热启动，同时也会查一下最近的有氧健身课程，找一起锻炼的伙伴，考察一下附近的徒步旅行路线。接下来你就要一次尝试一项，避免一下子做完所有项。在接下来的几周或几个月里，定期地问问自己进行得如何，然后根据情况调整计划。

用类似的井井有条、循序渐进的方法可以让你赚到更多的钱，有助于你把工作做得更好， 甚至能够改善你的人际关系。如果这个过程听起来不够吸引人，甚至不可能实现，自问一下原因。“改变需要你对自己作出承诺，这对一些人来说很困难。或许你不相信自己有自我提高所需的自制力，或许你惧怕成功。”洛杉矶一家私人诊所的临床心理学家迪塔·M.奥利克博士说。

或许你还沉溺于快速解决之道的兴奋中。奥利克指出，“我们通过媒体接触了太多脱离实际的意象，这使得我们很难认识到真正的改变究竟需要什么。快速解决之道有助于人们产生完美自我的幻想，这种幻想通常是成为某人、某物，而不是做你自己。这种幻想使你一直处于极度兴奋的期望之中。同时，它让你脱离了现实生活，而做出真正的改变是需要现实生活的。”

整形瘦身宣告彻底失败以后，南希不得不面对自己行为的后果。由于南希的新陈代谢系统发生了很大的变化，即使通过力量训练、有氧运动、减少卡路里的摄入等方法，她也需要一年的时间才能恢复正常的体形。这只是她自我修复过程的开始。在重塑自我形体的同时，南希辞掉了自己讨厌的那份工作，进入治疗行业，开始在一所按摩学校学习。在那里，南希第一次学习接受和给他人治疗抚触。

由于不再生活在突然转变的边缘，她从现在的时光中享受到了更多的乐趣。

当我们专注于快速抵达某地的时候，我们中的许多人放弃了学习的快乐，也忘记了享受整个旅程。作家保罗·斯托尔兹是一位攀岩爱好者，他把攀岩比喻成人生。他指出，不管你的目标是什么，快速地到达都是没有意义的，因为收获并不在终点。他说：“你的收获就是在攀爬过程中获得的认识。你的收获就是你感觉到充满活力，每种感官都增强，感知到你和岩石之间的联系，意识到自己有多渺小，并感激这块岩石让你在那天爬到它的上面去。”

Key Words:

reduction       [ri'dʌkʃən]

n. 减少，缩小，(化学)还原反应，(数学)约分

v. 使稳固

delivery  [di'livəri]

n. 递送，交付，分娩

gratification    [.grætifi'keiʃən]

n. 满足，喜悦

surgeon  ['sə:dʒən]

n. 外科医生

cell  [sel]

n. 细胞，电池，小组，小房间，单人牢房，(蜂房的)巢室

patience  ['peiʃəns]

n. 耐心，忍耐，毅力

poisonous     ['pɔizənəs]

patent     ['peitənt, 'pætənt]

n. 专利，特许

penchant       ['pentʃənt]

n. 喜好(倾向)

classics   ['klæsiks]

n. 古希腊、古罗马的文学著作 名词classic的复数

jar   [dʒɑ:]

n. 不和谐，刺耳声，震动，震惊，广口瓶

tendency ['tendənsi]

n. 趋势，倾向

except     [ik'sept]

vt. 除，除外

prep. & conj.

unique    [ju:'ni:k]

contained      [kən'teind]

protect    [prə'tekt]

vt. 保护，投保2

sod  [sɔd]

n. (一块)草皮，草地 n. 鸡奸者 vt. 用草皮覆

solve      [sɔlv]

v. 解决，解答

n. 不幸，灾难

transform      [træns'fɔ:m]

vt. 转换，变形

vi. 改变

predictable     [pri'diktəbl]

blame     [bleim]

n. 过失，责备

vt. 把 ... 归咎于，

cultivate  ['kʌltiveit]

vt. 培养，耕作，栽培，结交(朋友), 促进增长，教养

lawn        [lɔ:n]

n. 草地，草坪

security   [si'kju:riti]

n. 安全，防护措施，保证，抵押，债券，证券

spiritual  ['spiritjuəl]

solution  [sə'lu:ʃən]

n. 解答，解决办法，溶解，溶液

epidemic        [.epi'demik]

n. 传染病，流行病

complex  ['kɔmpleks]

n. 复合体

stress      [stres]

n. 紧张，压力

v. 强调，着重

insecurity       [,insi'kjuərəti]

n. 不安全；不牢靠；无把握；心神不定

convinced      [kən'vinst]

motivational   [,məuti'veiʃənəl]

recognizable  ['rekəgnaizəbl]

tendency        ['tendənsi]

n. 趋势，倾向

pattern   ['pætən]

n. 图案，式样，典范，模式，型

v. 以图案

v. 使稳固

uncertain              [ʌn'sə:tn]

motivated      ['məutiveitid]

potential        [pə'tenʃəl]

n. 潜力，潜能

inactive   [in'æktiv]

appealing      [ə'pi:liŋ]

locate     [ləu'keit]

vt. 把 ... 设置在，使坐落于，找出

methodical     [mə'θɔdikəl]

discipline        ['disiplin]

n. 训练，纪律，惩罚，学科

vt. 训练，惩

psychologist  [sai'kɔlədʒist]

n. 心理学家

technique      [tek'ni:k]

n. 技术，技巧，技能

clinical    ['klinikəl]

constant ['kɔnstənt]

n. 常数，恒量

healing   ['hi:liŋ]

altered    ['ɔ:ltəd]

anticipation    [æn.tisi'peiʃən]

n. 预期，预料

regain     [ri'gein]

v. 恢复，重回，复得

limited    ['limitid]

动词limit的过

exposed  [iks'pəuzd]

therapy   ['θerəpi]

n. 疗法，治疗

fantasy   ['fæntəsi]

n. 幻想

grateful   ['greitfəl]

privilege ['privilidʒ]

n. 特权，特别恩典，基本人权，荣幸

metaphor      ['metəfə]

n. 隐喻，暗喻

awareness     [ə'wɛənis]

n. 认识，意识，了解

bond      [bɔnd]

n. 债券，结合，粘结剂，粘合剂

vt. 使结

climber   ['klaimə]

n. 登山者；攀缘植物；尽力改善自己社会地位的人

参考资料：

现代大学英语精读(第2版)第二册:U5B Hooked on the Quick Fix(8)_大学教材听力 - 可可英语

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• Unit 16A - Twelve Angry Men Twelve Angry Men Reginald Rose Part One Characters Narrator Foreman (Juror No. 1) ...Jurors (No....Narrator: The scene is a jury room in a criminal court....

## Unit 16A - Twelve Angry Men

Twelve Angry Men

Reginald Rose

Part One

Characters

Narrator

Foreman (Juror No. 1)

Jurors (No. 2—No. 12)

Narrator: The scene is a jury room in a criminal court. Twelve men walk into the room. They are the jury for the trial of a boy charged with murdering his father.

Foreman: OK, gentlemen. Now, you fellows can handle this any way you want. We can discuss it first and then vote on it. That's one way. And we can vote on it right now...

No. 4: Oh, I think it's customary to take a preliminary vote.

No. 7: Yes, let's vote. Maybe we can all get out of here.

Foreman: OK... Of course we know that we have a first-degree murder charge here. And if we vote the accused guilty, we've got to send him to the chair. Anyone doesn't want to vote? OK, those voting guilty, please raise your hands... Nine... ten... eleven. OK. Not guilty? (No. 8 raises his hand.) One. OK, eleven guilty, and one not guilty. Now we know where we are.

No. 3: (To No. 8) You really think he's innocent?

No. 8: I don't know.

No. 3: Well, you sat in the court with the rest of us. You heard what we did. This kid is a dangerous killer.

No. 8: He's 18 years old.

No. 3: That's old enough. He stabbed his own father. Four inches into the chest. They proved it in a dozen different ways in court. Would you like me to list them for you?

No. 8: No.

No. 10: Then what DO you want?

No. 8: I just want to talk.

No. 10: May I ask you something? Do you believe his story?

No. 8: I don't know. Maybe I don't.

No. 7: Then how come you vote not guilty?

No. 8: There were eleven votes for guilty. It's not easy to send the boy off to die without talking about it first.

No. 7: Who says it's easy? What? Just because I voted fast? I honestly think the guy's guilty. Couldn't change my mind if you talked for a hundred years.

No. 8: I don't want to change your mind. I just want to talk for a while. Look, this kid's been kicked around all his life. You know, born in a slum, his mother dead since he was 9, lived a year and a half in an orphanage when his father was serving a jail term for forgery. He is a wild, angry kid. You know why? Because he's been hit on the head by somebody once a day, every day. I just think we owe him a few words. That's all.

No. 10: We don't owe him a thing. He got a fair trial, didn't he? What do you think that trial cost? He's lucky he got it. Listen, we are all grown-ups here. You're not going to tell me that we're supposed to believe this kid, knowing what he is! Listen, I've lived among them all my life. You can't believe a word they say.

No. 9: What a terrible thing for a man to believe. Since when is dishonesty a group characteristic?

No. 10: Now look here...

Foreman: Listen, we have a job to do. Let's do it. Now perhaps the gentleman down there who's disagreeing with us could let us know what he's thinking, and we might be able to show him where he's mixed up.

No. 12: Well, it seems to me that it's up to the group of us to convince this gentleman that he is wrong and we are right. Maybe, if we each of us talk for a couple of minutes just to... well, just a quick idea...

Foreman: No, no. That's a good one. Suppose we go once around the table. (Turns to No. 2) I guess you are the first.

No. 2: Well, eh... It's hard to put into words. I just think he's guilty. I mean nobody proved otherwise.

No. 8: Nobody has to prove otherwise. Innocent until proven guilty. The burden of proof is on the prosecution. The defendant doesn't have to open his mouth.

No. 2: Oh, sure, I know that. What I meant was... I just think he's guilty. I mean somebody saw him do it.

No. 3: OK, here's what I think. And I have no personal feelings about this. I just want to talk about facts. Number One: The old man who lives downstairs under the room where the killing took place. At ten minutes after twelve, he heard a loud noise. He said it sounded like a fight. Then he heard the kid yell out, "I'm going to kill you!" A second later, he heard the body hit the floor.

He ran to the door, opened it up, and saw the kid running down the stairs and out of the house. He called the police. They came and found the old man dead with a knife in his chest. The coroner fixed the time of death at around midnight. Now these are facts. You can't refute facts. The kid's guilty. I'm just as sentimental as the next fellow. I know he's only eighteen. But he's still got to pay for what he did.

No. 4: It's obvious to me, anyway, that the boy's story was flimsy. He claimed that he was at the movies during the time of the killing. But only one hour later, he couldn't remember the names of the films he saw or who played in them.

No. 10: And listen, what about the woman across the street? If her testimony don't prove he's guilty, then nothing does.

No. 11: That's right. She was the one who actually saw the killing take place.

No. 10: Wait a minute. Here's the woman, who's lying in bed. She can't sleep. She looks out of the window. And right across the street, she sees the kid stick his knife into his father's chest. Look, she's known the kid all his life. And she swore she saw him do it.

No. 8: Through the windows of a passing El train.

No. 10: They proved in court that at night if you look through the windows of an El train when the lights are out, you can see what's happening on the other side.

No. 8: I'd like to ask you something. You don't believe the boy's story. How come you believe the woman's? She's one of THEM, too, isn't she?

No. 10: (Walking towards No. 8 threateningly) You're a pretty smart fellow, aren't you? (Voices of people trying to stop them from fighting.)

Foreman: Now, take it easy, gentlemen. We're not getting anywhere fighting. Whose turn is it?

No. 6: (To No. 5) It's your turn.

No. 5: Can I pass it?

No. 6: Oh, well, I don't know. I started to be convinced early on in the case... You see, I was looking for a motive. If you don't have a motive, you don't have a case, right? Anyway, that testimony from those people across the hall was very powerful. They said something about a fight and an argument between the old man and the son at around 7 o'clock that night.

No. 9: I think it was 8 o'clock.

No 8: That's right. They heard an argument. Then they heard the father hit the boy twice. Then they saw the boy run out of the house. What did that prove?

No. 6: Well, it doesn't exactly prove anything. It's just part of the picture.

No. 8: You said you are looking for a motive. I don't think it was a very strong motive. This boy has been hit so many times that violence is practically a normal state of affairs with him. I just can't see two slaps in the face would have provoked him into committing murder.

No. 4: It may have been two too many. Everyone has a breaking point.

Foreman: (To No. 7) OK. How about you?

No. 7: I think we're wasting our time. Now look at the kid's record? At 10, he was in children's court. At 15, he was in reform school. He's been arrested for mugging, picked up for knife-fighting. This is a real fine boy.

No. 8: Ever since he was 5 years old, his father beat him up regularly with his fist.

No. 7: So would I. A kid like that!

No. 4: I think we're missing the point here. This boy—let's say he's the product of a broken home and a filthy neighborhood. We can't help that. We're here to decide if he's innocent or guilty, and not the reason why he grew up the way he did. He was born in the slums. And all slums are breeding-grounds of criminals. I know that. And so do you. It is no secret children from slum backgrounds are potential menaces to society.

No. 10: Now you can say that again. Kids brought up in these backgrounds are real trash. I don't want any part of them.

No. 5: Now listen. I've lived in a slum all my life. I played in a backyard that was filled with garbage. Maybe you can still smell it on me...

No. 10: Now listen, sonny...

No. 12: Come on, he didn't mean you. Let's stop being so sensitive.

Foreman: OK. Let's stop arguing. (He turns to No. 8.) It's your turn.

No. 8: It's all right. I don't have anything brilliant. I only know as much as you do. According to the testimony, the boy looks guilty. Maybe he is. I sat in court for six days, listening while the evidence spilled out. I began to get a feeling that the defense counselor wasn't conducting a thorough enough cross-examination. He let too many things go by, little things.

No. 10: What little things? Listen, when these fellows don't ask those questions, it's because they know the answers already.

No. 8: Maybe. But it's also possible for a lawyer to be just plain stupid, isn't it? I kept putting myself in the kid's place. I'd ask for another lawyer, I think. If I was on trial for my life, I'd want my lawyer to tear the prosecutor's evidence to shreds. Look, there was one alleged eyewitness to this killing. And someone else claimed that he heard the killer run out of the room afterwards. Supposing they were wrong?

No. 12: What do you mean? "Supposing they were wrong." You can suppose there were no witnesses at all.

No. 8: Could they be wrong? They are only people. People make mistakes.

No. 12: Come on. This is not an exact science.

No. 8: That's right. It isn't.

No. 3: OK, let's get to the point. What about that switch blade they found in the old guy's chest, the knife this fine boy admitted buying on the night of the killing. Let's talk about it.

No. 8: All right, let's talk about it. Let's get it in here. I'd like to see it again. Mr. Foreman? (The Foreman tells the guard to bring in the knife.)

No. 4: The knife was pretty strong evidence, don't you think?

No. 8: I do.

No. 4: Good! Now suppose we take these facts one at a time. One, the boy admitted going out of the house at 8 o'clock at the night of the murder, after being hit several times by his father. Two, he went directly to a neighborhood junk shop and bought one of those switch knives. Three, he met some friends of his in front of the tavern at around 8:45. Am I right so far?

No. 8: Yes, you are.

No. 4: He talked to his friends for about an hour, leaving at 9:45. During this time, they saw the switch knife. Four, they identified the death weapon in court as that very knife. Five, he arrived home at about 10 o'clock. Now this is where the stories offered by the state and the boy begin to diverge slightly. He claimed that he went to a movie at about 11:30, returning home at 3:10 to find his father dead and himself arrested. Now what happened to the switch knife? He claimed that it fell through a hole in his pocket on his way to the movie theater sometime between 11:30 and 3:30. Now these are the details, gentlemen.

I think it's clear that the boy never went to the movies that night. No one in the house saw him leave after 11:30. No one at the theater identified him. He couldn't even remember the names of the movies he saw. What actually happened is this: the boy stayed home, had another fight with his father, stabbed him to death, and left the house at 10 minutes after 12. Now, are you going to tell me that this knife fell through a hole in the boy's pocket, someone picked it up off the street, went to the boy's home, stabbed his father with it?

No. 8: I'm just saying that it's possible that the boy lost the knife, and somebody else killed his father with a similar knife.

No. 4: Take a look at that knife. It's a very unusual knife. I've never seen one like it. Aren't you asking us to accept a pretty incredible coincidence?

(No. 8 calmly pulls out a switch knife out of his pocket, flicks it open, and jams it into the table right next to the first one. Everyone is amazed because the two knives look exactly the same.)

No. 4: Where did you get it?

No. 8: I bought that in a little pawnshop just two blocks from the boy's house.

No. 3: You pulled a real bright trick. Now suppose you tell me what it proves. Maybe there are 10 knives like that. So what? The discovery of the age or something?

Foreman: OK, fellows, let's take our seats. There's no point standing.

No. 3: There are still 11 of us here who think he's guilty.

No. 10: Right. What do you think you're going to accomplish? You're not going to change anybody's mind. So if you want to hang this jury, go ahead. The kid will be tried again and still be found guilty, sure as he was born.

No. 8: You are probably right.

No. 7: So what are you going to do? You know we could be here all night.

No. 9: It's only one night. A boy may die.

No. 3: (To No. 8) What about it? You are the only one.

No. 8: I've got a proposition to make to all of you. I want to call for a vote. I want you 11 people to vote by secret written ballot. I'll abstain. If there are still 11 votes for guilty, I won't stand alone. We'll take the guilty verdict to the judge right now. But if anyone votes not guilty, we'll stay here and talk it out.

(All the other jurors agree. The Foreman passes ballots to them. They write on them and pass them back to the Foreman.)

Foreman: (He begins to read.) Guilty. Guilty. Guilty. Guilty. Guilty. Guilty. Guilty. Guilty. (He pauses.) Not guilty. Guilty. Guilty.

No. 10: Boy, how do you like that? All right, who was it? I want to know.

No. 11: Excuse me, it was supposed to be a secret ballot.

No. 3: Secret! What do you mean? There are no secrets in a jury room. I know who it was. (To No. 5) Brother, you are really something. You sat here and voted guilty like the rest of us. And then some golden-voiced preacher started to tear your poor heart out about a poor kid, and so you changed your vote. This is the most sickening... Why don't you drop a quarter in the collection-box?!

No. 5: Now listen! You can't talk to me like that. Who do you think you are?

No. 4: Now calm down. It doesn't matter. He's very excitable. Sit down.

No. 3: Excitable! You bet I'm excitable. We're trying to put a guilty man in the chair where he belongs!

No. 9: He didn't change his vote. I did. This gentleman chose to stand alone against us. It takes a lot of courage to stand alone. He gambled for support. And I gave it to him. I respect his motives. Now the boy probably is guilty. But I want to hear more.

No. 3: OK. (To No. 8) You down there. The old man who lived downstairs said he heard the kid yell out, "I'm going to kill you." A second later, he heard the body hit the floor. He ran to the door and saw the kid running down the stairs. What does that mean to you?

No. 8: I was wondering how clearly he could have heard the boy's voice through the ceiling.

No. 10: He didn't hear it through the ceiling. The window was open, remember?

No. 4: The woman across the street looked right through the open window into the apartment and saw the boy stab his father. Isn't that enough for you?

No. 8: No, it isn't.

No. 7: Oh boy. How do you like this guy? It's like talking to a dead phone.

No. 4: She said she saw the killing through the windows of the moving El train. After 6 cars of the train she saw the killing in the last two cars. She remembered the most insignificant details. I don't see how you can argue with that!

No. 8: Has anybody any idea how long it takes an elevated train going at normal speed to pass a given point?

No. 5: Maybe 10 or 12 seconds?

No. 4: All right, 10 seconds. What are you getting at?

No. 8: This. It takes a 6-car El train 10 seconds to pass a given point. Now let's say the given point is the open window of the room where the killing took place. Now, has anyone here ever lived near an El track? I have. When the window was open and the train went by, the noise was almost unbearable. You couldn't hear yourself think.

No. 3: So you couldn't hear yourself think. Why don't you get to the point!

No. 8: An EL takes ten seconds to pass a given point, or two seconds per car. That EL had been going by the old man's window for at least six seconds before the body fell according to the woman. The old man would have had to hear the boy say, "I'm going to kill you," while the train was roaring by the old man's window. No, it was not possible that he could have heard it.

No. 3: Don't talk about matters of seconds! Nobody can be that accurate.

No. 8: And I think a testimony that can put a boy in the chair should be that accurate!

No. 5: (Whispers to No. 6) I don't think he could have heard it.

No. 3: Why should he lie? What has he got to gain?

No. 9: Attention, maybe. I looked at him for a very long time. It seemed that his jacket was split. I didn't notice that... I mean, to come into the court like that. He was a very old man with a torn jacket. He walked very slowly to the stand. He was dragging his left leg, and tried to hide it, because he was ashamed. This is a quiet, frightened, insignificant, old man who's been nothing all his life, who's never had any recognition, whose name never has appeared in the newspapers. Nobody knows him 75 years. Gentlemen, that's a very sad thing to be nothing. A Man like that needs to be recognized, to be listened to, to be quoted just once. Very important to him...

No. 7: Are you trying to tell us that he lied just so he could be important once?

No. 9: No, he wouldn't really lie. But perhaps he made himself believe he heard those words and recognized the boy's voice.

No. 10: That's the most fantastic story I've ever heard. How can you make up a thing like that? What do you know about it?

No. 9: (Low but firm) I speak from experience.

No. 7: What!

No. 9: I've done it myself.

Part Two

Foreman: Is there anything else?

No. 8: Yes. I think we proved that the old man couldn't have heard the boy yell, "I'm going to kill you." But supposing he really did hear this phrase, how many times have all of you used it? Probably thousands. We say it every day. This doesn't mean we're going to kill somebody.

No. 3: What are you trying to give us here? The kid yelled it out at the top of his lungs. Anybody says a thing like that, the way he did, he means it!

No. 8: Do you really think the boy would shout out a thing like this so the whole neighborhood could hear it? He's much too bright for that.

No. 10: Bright! He's a common ignorant slob. He don't even speak good English.

No. 11: (Correcting him) He DOESN'T speak good English.

No. 5: Mr. Foreman, I'd like to change my vote to not guilty.

Foreman: The vote is now nine to three in favor of guilty.

No. 11: I would like to say something. It seems to me that this man has some very good points to make. And from what was presented at the trial, the boy looks guilty on the surface. But if we look deeper... There is a question I would like to ask. Let us assume that the boy really did commit the murder. This happened at 10 after twelve. Now, how was he caught by the police? He came back home at 3 o'clock or so, and he was captured by two detectives in the hallway of his house.

Now, my question is: If he really had killed his father, why did he come back home three hours later? Wouldn't he be afraid of being caught?

No. 12: To get his knife. It wasn't very nice to have it sticking out of some people's chests.

No. 7: Especially relatives'.

No. 4: I don't see anything funny about it. The boy knew that the knife could be identified as the one he had just bought. He wanted to get it before the police did.

No. 11: If he knew the knife could be identified, why did he leave it there in the first place?

No. 4: We can assume that the boy ran out in a state of panic, having just killed his father. After he calmed down, he found he had left his knife there.

No. 11: Ah, this then would depend on your definition of panic. He would have to be calm enough to see to it that there were no fingerprints left on the knife. Now, where did the panic start and where did it end?

No. 12: Well, if I were the boy and had stabbed my father, I would take a chance and go back for the knife. I think he figured that no one had seen him running out, and the body wouldn't be discovered till the next day.

No. 8: Maybe the boy did kill his father, did run out in a panic, did calm down three hours after the killing to come back to get the knife, risking being caught. Maybe all those things happened. But maybe they didn't.

I think there's enough doubt that we can wonder if he was there at all during the time the killing took place.

No. 6: I'd like to change my vote to not guilty.

Foreman: The vote is eight to four.

No. 3: Come on, we are all going crazy!

No. 7: (To No. 8) Look, what about the old man? Are we supposed to believe that he didn't get up and run to the door and see the kid beat it downstairs 15 seconds after the killing? He's just saying so to be important, right?

No. 5: Did the old man say he RAN to the door?

No. 7: Ran, walked. What's the difference? Anyway he got there!

No. 6: Now wait a minute. He said "ran."

No. 5: I don't remember what he said, but I don't see how he could have run to the door.

No. 8: Mr. Foreman, I'd like to see the diagram of the apartment. I'd like to find out if an old man who drags one foot when he walks could get from his bedroom to the front door in 15 seconds.

No. 3: He said 20 seconds.

No. 8: He said 15.

No. 3: How does he know how long 15 seconds is!

No. 9: He said 15. He was very positive about that.

No. 3: He was an old man. Half the time, he was confused. How could he be positive about anything? (He tries to cover his blunder. But it is too late.)

No. 4: I don't see what you are going to prove here. The man said that he saw the boy running out. (The guard brings the diagram to the Foreman, who passes it to No. 8.)

No. 8: Well, let's see if the details bear him out. All right, here's the apartment where the killing took place. Here's the El tracks, the bedroom, living room. Here's the hall. Here's the stairs. The old man was in the room right here. He said he crossed to the door, walked down the hall, opened the door, just in time to see the boy running down the stairs. The hall is 43 feet. He would have to walk 12 feet, open the bedroom door, walk 43 feet down and open the front door all in 15 seconds. Do you think he could have done it?

No. 7: Sure he could have done it!

No. 11: He can only walk very slowly. They had to help him into the witness chair.

(No. 8 begins to move chairs.)

No. 10: What are you doing?

No. 8: (To No. 6) Pass that chair, will you? Let's say the chair is the old man's bed. I'm going to pace off 12 feet.

No. 7: That's crazy. You can't recreate a scene like that.

No. 8: (To another juror) Would you stand there to mark the front door? It was chain-locked according to the testimony, remember? Has anybody got a watch with a second hand?

No. 2: I have.

No. 8: When you want me to start, stamp your foot. That will be the body falling. You can time me from there. (He begins to walk.)... lock, door, stop! What's the time?

No. 2: Exactly 41 seconds.

No. 8: I think the old man was trying to get to the door. He heard someone running down the stairs and assumed it was the boy.

No. 3: Assumed! Brother, I've seen all kinds of dishonesty in my day, but this little display takes the cake. (He turns to all the rest.) What's the matter with you guys? You all know he's guilty. He's got to burn and you let him slip through your fingers!

No. 8: "Slip through our fingers." Are you the executioner?

No. 3: I'm one of them!

No. 8: Maybe you'd like to pull the switch.

No. 3: For this kid? You bet I would.

No. 8: I feel sorry for you. What it must feel like to want to pull the switch. You are a sadist!

No. 3: (Lunges at No. 8, but is stopped by the others.) Phew, I'll kill him! I'll kill him!

No. 8: (calmly) You don't really mean you'd kill me, do you?

(The commotion finally quiets down.)

No. 6: Maybe we should take another vote.

Foreman: That's OK with me. I'll call out the juror numbers. (He calls out the numbers one by one.) The vote is now six to six.

No. 10: Six to six! Some of you here must be out of your mind. A kid like that...

No. 9: I don't think the kind of boy he is has anything to do with it. The facts of the case are supposed to determine the case.

No. 10: Don't give me that! I'm sick and tired of facts. You can think any way you like.

No. 9: That's exactly the point this gentleman here is making.

No. 3: I'm ready to declare a hung jury. There's no point in going on anymore.

No. 7: I go for that too. Let the kid take his chances with twelve other guys.

No. 11: You still don't think there's room for reasonable doubt?

No. 7: No, I don't.

No. 11: Maybe you don't understand the term "reasonable doubt"?

No. 7: What do you mean I don't understand? (To the others) How do you like this guy? He comes here running for his life. And now, before he can take a deep breath, he's telling us how to run the show. The arrogance of this guy.

Foreman: All right, let's stop arguing. Now who's got something constructive to say?

No. 8: I'd like to say something if you gentlemen don't mind. An important point with the prosecution was the fact that after the boy claimed he had been at the movies during the hours in which the killing took place, he couldn't remember the names of the movies and the stars. The gentleman here brought it up several times.

No. 4: That's correct. It was the only alibi the boy offered.

No. 8: According to the testimony, the boy was questioned by two detectives in the kitchen of his apartment when the body of his father was lying on the floor of his bedroom. Put yourself in the boy's place. Do you think he could have remembered the details under those circumstances?

No. 4: I do.

No. 8: Under great emotional stress?

No. 4: Under great emotional stress.

No. 8: I'd like to ask you a personal question. Where were you last night?

No. 4: I was home.

No. 8: How about the night before that?

No. 4: I left the office at 8:30, went straight home and went to bed.

No. 8: The night before that?

No. 4: Tuesday night? The night... of our bridge club. I played bridge.

No. 8: Monday night?

No. 4: Monday night? ... Monday night... my wife and I went to the movies.

No. 8: What did you see?

No. 4: The... I'll tell you in a minute... The Remarkable Mrs. Benwidge.

No. 2: I saw that. It was called The Amazing Mrs. Benwidge.

No. 4: Ah yes, The Amazing Mrs. Benwidge.

No. 8: Who was in The Amazing Mrs. Benwidge?

No. 4: Barbara—Long, I think... dark, pretty girl... It was a very inexpensive feature...

No. 8: And you weren't under great emotional stress, were you?

No. 4: No. (He wipes off the sweat on his face.)

No. 9: I think the point is made.

No. 10: Big point!

Foreman: Who's got something to say?

No. 2: Something's been bothering me a little. This whole business about the stab wound and how it was made. The downward angle of it, you know.

No. 3: Don't tell me we're going to start with that again. They went over and over that in court.

No. 2: I know that. But I don't go along with it.

Now the boy was 5 feet 7 inches tall. His father was six two. That's a difference of 7 inches. It's very hard to stab down into the chest of someone who's half a foot taller than you are.

No. 3: (Pointing to the knife) Give me that. I'm going to give you a demonstration. Somebody get up.

(He sees No. 8 standing there. So he goes to him. He holds the knife up and then stabs downward towards No. 8's chest. He stops just before the blade reaches his chest. Many jurors find this gesture disgusting.)

No. 3: Nobody's hurt, right?

No. 8: Right, nobody's hurt.

No. 3: Ah! This is the way I stabbed a man who was taller than I was. Now tell me I'm wrong.

No. 5: Give me that knife. Has anybody here seen knife fights? No? I have. Switch blades came with the neighborhood where I lived. Funny I didn't think of it before. You never use it like this. (He demonstrates.) It takes too much time to switch your hand. Here's how. Underhand. Anyone who's used a switch knife wouldn't handle it any other way.

No. 8: You sure?

No. 5: Yes, I'm sure.

No. 7: I'm getting sick and tired of this yakking, yakking. So I guess I'll have to break the tie. I'm gonna change my vote to not guilty.

No. 3: You what?

No. 7: You heard me. I've had enough.

No. 3: What do you mean you had enough? That's no answer.

No. 11: He's right. That's no answer. What kind of a man are you? Who tells you that you have the right to play like this with a man's life?

No. 7: Wait a minute. You can't talk like that to me.

No. 11: I CAN talk like that to you! If you want to vote not guilty, then do it because you're convinced the man's not guilty, and not because you've had enough. Well...

No. 7: Now listen.

No. 11: Guilty or not guilty?

No. 7: I told you, not guilty.

No. 11: Why?

No. 7: I... I... just don't think he's guilty.

No. 8: I want another vote.

Foreman: OK. Another vote's called for. The quickest way is by a show of hands. Anyone object? OK, all those voting not guilty raise your hands. (He counts. All raise their hands except Numbers 3,4 and 10.) Now the vote is 9 to 3 in favor of acquittal.

No. 10: I don't understand you people. I mean, all these petty little things you keep bringing up. They don't mean nothing. You know how these people lie. It's born in them. I don't have to tell you. They don't know what the truth is. And let me tell you. They don't need any real big reason to kill someone, either. No sir! That's the way they are. By nature. Violent!

(Most jurors find his views so disgusting that they begin to leave the table in protest.) Where are you going? What's going on here? You people are making a big mistake. The kid's a liar. I know it. I know all about them. Listen to me...

No. 4: We have. Now sit down and don't open your mouth again.

(No. 10 sits down, completely crushed.)

No. 8: (Facing all the jurors) It's always difficult to keep personal prejudice out of a thing like this. Whenever you run into it, it always obscures the truth. Now nine of us feel that the defendant is innocent. We are just gambling on probabilities. But we have a reasonable doubt. That's something very valuable in our system. No jury can declare a man guilty unless it's sure. We nine can't understand why you three are still so sure. (To No. 4) Maybe you can tell us.

No. 4: I'll try: You made some excellent points. But I still believe the boy's guilty of murder. And I have two reasons. One, the evidence given by the woman across the street who actually saw the murder committed. And two, the fact that she described the stabbing by saying that she saw the boy raise his hand and stab down into his father's chest. She saw him do it, the wrong way.

No. 3: You are absolutely right.

No. 4: Let's talk about this woman for a moment. She said she went to bed at about 11 o'clock that night. She tossed and turned for over an hour, unable to sleep. Finally she turned towards the windows of the passing El train. She said the lights went out after the killing. But she got a good look at the boy in the act of stabbing his father. As far as I'm concerned that is unshakable testimony. (Rubbing his nose)

No. 9: Don't you feel well?

No. 4: I feel perfectly well, thank you. I was saying...

No. 9: The reason I asked about that was because you rubbed your nose like that. I'm sorry for interrupting. But you made a gesture that reminded me of something.

No. 4: I'm trying to settle something. Do you mind?

No. 9: But I think it is important. Thank you. Now then, I'm sure you'll pardon me for this, but I was wondering why you rubbed your nose like this?

No. 4: If it's any of your business, I was rubbing it because it bothered me a little.

No. 9: I'm sorry. Is it because of your eyeglasses?

No. 4: It is. Now, can we get on to something else?

No. 9: Your eyeglasses made two deep impressions beside your nose. I haven't noticed it before. It must be very annoying.

No. 4: Very annoying.

No. 9: I wouldn't know about that. I've never worn glasses. Twenty-twenty.

No. 7: Will you come to the point?

No. 9: The woman who testified that she saw the killing had those same marks on the sides of her nose.

No. 5: Yes, right!

No. 9: Please let me finish. She kept rubbing them in court. This woman was about 45 years old. But she was making a tremendous effort to look 35 for her public appearance. Heavy makeup. Dyed hair. Brand-new clothes that should be worn by a younger woman.

No. 5: That's right. She did do that a lot. She had those marks. I saw them.

Foreman: Hey listen. He's right. I saw them too.

No. 3: What point are you making here?

No. 9: Could these marks be made by anything other than eyeglasses?

No. 4: No, they couldn't.

No. 3: I didn't see any marks.

No. 4: I did. Strange I didn't think about it before.

No. 3: OK, she had marks on her nose, from glasses, right? She didn't want to wear them out of the house so people would think that she was gorgeous. But when she saw the kid kill his father, she was in the house, alone!

No. 8: (To No. 4) Do you wear eyeglasses to bed?

No. 4: No, I don't. No one wears eyeglasses to bed.

No. 8: So, it's logical to assume that she wasn't wearing them when she was in bed, tossing and turning, trying to fall asleep.

No. 3: How do you know?

No. 8: I don't know. I'm guessing. I'm also guessing that maybe she honestly thought she saw the boy kill his father. I say she only saw a blur.

No. 3: How do you know what she saw? (To others) How do you know what kind of glasses she wore? Maybe they were sunglasses. Maybe she was far-sighted. What do you know about it?

No. 8: I only know the woman's eyesight is in question now.

No. 11: She had to be able to identify a person 60 feet away at night without eyeglasses.

No. 2: You can't send someone off to die on evidence like that!

No. 8: (To No. 3) Don't you think the woman might have made a mistake?

No. 3: No, I don't.

No. 8: (To No. 4) Do you still think he's guilty?

No. 4: No, I'm convinced. Not guilty.

No. 8: (To No. 10) Do you?

(No. 10 slowly shakes his head.)

No. 2: Eleven to one.

No. 8: (To No. 3) You are alone.

No. 3: I don't care whether I'm alone or not. It's my right.

No. 3: What do you want? I say he's guilty.

No. 8: We want to hear your arguments.

No. 3: I gave you my arguments.

No. 8: We're not convinced. We want to hear them again.

No. 3: Everything. Every single thing that took place in the courtroom says he's guilty. What do you think? I'm an idiot or something? Why don't you talk about the old man? The old man heard everything. What about the switch knife? And what about the business of the El train? And the movies. I'm telling you. Everything has been twisted and turned. This business about her glasses. How do you know she didn't have them on? I say, that's the whole case... (No one speaks. They just keep staring at him.) Well'say something! You lousy bunch of bleeding hearts. You're not going to intimidate me. I'm entitled to my opinion... (He breaks down.) No, no, no, no, no... not guilty... not guilty.

(The jurors leave the jury room one by one. No. 8 goes to No. 3 and helps him get into his coat.)

### 参考译文——十二怒汉

十二怒汉

雷金纳德·罗斯

第一部分

人物：

讲述者

陪审长（1号陪审员）

陪审员（2号至12号陪审员）

讲述者：故事发生在某刑事法庭陪审团室里。12个人走进屋子，他们在一起儿子谋杀生父的案件中担任陪审员。

陪审长：好了，先生们。现在你们可以任选一种你们喜欢的方式来处理这个案子。我们可以先讨论，然后再投票。这是一种方法。或者我们也可以现在就投票……

4号陪审员：我想，按照惯例，我们应当先进行预投票。

7号陪审员：是啊，我们投票吧。也许就都能离开这里了。

陪审长：好吧……当然大家应该很明白，这是一起一级谋杀案。如果我们投票裁定被告人罪名成立，我们就等于把他送上了电椅。有不愿意投票的吗？好吧，认为他有罪的请举手。……9……10……11。好，认为无罪的？（8号举起了手）一票。好了，11票有罪，1票无罪。现在我们知道结果如何了。

3号陪审员：（对着8号）你真的认为他是无辜的？

8号陪审员：我不知道。

3号陪审员：噢，你和我们一起坐在法庭上，你听到的话和我们听到的也一样。这个孩子是一个危险的杀人犯。

8号陪审员：他才18岁。

3号陪审员：18岁已经不小了。他捅死了他的父亲。胸部的刀口有4英寸深。他们在法庭上已从不同角度多次证实了这件事。你想让我给你罗列一下他的罪证吗？

8号陪审员：不必了。

10号陪审员：那你想怎样？

8号陪审员：我只是想谈一谈。

10号陪审员：我可以问你个问题吗？你相信那个孩子的说词吗？

8号陪审员：我不知道。也许不相信。

7号陪审员：那你怎么投了无罪？

8号陪审员：已经有11票有罪了，不加讨论就让一个孩子去死，我真的很难就这么举起手。

7号陪审员：谁说容易了？怎么？就因为我表决得快了？我确实认为这家伙有罪。就算你再说上100年也不会改变我的看法。

8号陪审员：我没想改变你的看法。我只是想讨论一下。要知道这孩子受尽了欺负。他生在贫民窟，九岁时他的妈妈就去世了，父亲因伪造罪服刑一年半，期间他住在孤儿院里。他确实是一个充满愤怒的野孩子。你知道为什么吗？因为他每天都会遭受一顿拳打脚踢，每天如此。我只是觉得我们应该为他说上几句话，仅此而已。

10号陪审员：我们不欠他什么。他已经得到了一次公正的审判，不是吗？你以为审判不用花钱啊？有这样的机会他已经很幸运了。听着，我们都是成年人了。你不会告诉我，明知这个孩子是什么样的人我们还应该相信他吧。我一生都和这样的人生活在一起，他们的话一句都不能信。

9号陪审员：要是认为住在贫民窟的人只说假话，那才可怕呢。什么时候不诚实竟然成为一个群体特征？

10号陪审员：我说……

陪审长：听着，我们现在还有任务要完成。别把时间耗在这里。或许，坐在那边与我们意见相反的先生可以让我们知道他的想法，而我们或许可以给他指出他搞错了的地方。

12号陪审员：好，看来得由我们这组人来说服这位先生他是错的，而我们是对的。或许，我们每人花几分钟时间说几句，就算为了……算了，这只是我一时的想法……

陪审长：不，不，这主意不错。我们就按顺序来吧。（转向2号）从你开始。

2号陪审员：那么，嗯……我不知道该怎么说。我只是认为他有罪，我是说没有人能证明他是无罪的。

8号陪审员：没有人必须去证明他无罪。在没有充分证据判定他有罪之前，他就是无罪的。举证的义务在控方，被告根本用不着开口。

2号陪审员：噢，当然，我知道这个。我的意思是……我只是觉得他有罪。我的意思是有人看到他杀死了他的父亲。

3号陪审员：好了，谈谈我的看法吧。对于此案，我丝毫没有掺杂个人感情。我只讲事实。第一就是住在案发现场楼下的那个老头。12点10分，他听到了很大的响声。他说听起来像是在打架，接着他听到那孩子大声叫嚷我要杀了你！”一秒钟后，他便听到了有人倒地的声音。

他跑到自家门前，把门打开，看见那孩子跑下楼梯，冲出门外。于是他就叫了警察。警察到达后发现那男孩的父亲已经死了，胸前还插了把刀。法医推测出的死亡时间大约是午夜。这就是事实。事实是无可辩驳的。这孩子是有罪的。我跟那位先生一样伤感，我知道这孩子只有18岁，但他仍要为自己所做的事情付出代价。

4号陪审员：依我看，很明显，无论怎么说那孩子编造的故事都站不住脚。他声称案发时他在看电影，可一个小时之后，他却连看的是什么片子以及片中的演员的名字都记不清楚了。

10陪审员：对啊，还有马路对面那个女人呢？如果她的证词还不能证明他有罪，那再没有什么证据能证明的了。

11号陪审员：说得对，她目击了整个案发过程。

10号陪审员：等一下。这个女人，她躺在床上睡不着，于是就向窗外望去，看到就在街的对面，这孩子用刀剌向他父亲的胸膛。要知道，她是看着这个孩子长大的。她发誓亲眼看见他拿刀刺向他父亲了。

8号陪审员：透过一辆经过的高架列车的车窗？

10号陪审员：他们已经在庭上证明了，夜里如果高架列车里的灯熄了，透过高架列车的车窗，你是可以看到对面发生的一切的。

8号陪审员：我想问你一个问题，你不相信那个男孩说的话，那你为什么相信那个女人的话呢？她也是“那样的人”中的一员，不是吗？

10号陪审员（挑衅地走向8号）你以为自己很聪明，是吗？（众人劝架的声音。）

陪审长：好了，沉住气，先生们。争斗解决不了问题，下面该谁了·

6号陪审员：（对着5号）该你了。

5号陪审员：我可以弃权吗？

陪审长：那是你的权利。下一位呢？

6号陪审员：噢，嗯，这个我也不大清楚。我打从一开始就深信不疑他有罪……是这样，我一直在寻找他的作案动机。如果没有动机，案子就不成立，对吗？不管怎么说，走廊对面那些人的证词是非常有力的。他们谈到，那天晚上七点左右，那个男孩与他父亲发生过争执，还有打斗。

9号陪审员：我想是八点才对。

8号陪审员：没错，他们听到了争吵声。然后他们听到父亲打了孩子两下。接着他们看见孩子跑出了家门。这能证明什么呢？

6号陪审员：嗯，这并不能确切地证明什么，这只是事实的一部分。

8号陪审员：你说过你一直在寻找动机，可我觉得这并不能构成强烈的动机。这个孩子挨过不少打，对他来说，暴力已经是家常便饭了。我不觉得挨了两巴掌就会使他气得杀人。

4号陪审员：也许是他有太多挨巴掌的经历吧。人的忍耐总是有极限的。

陪审长：（对着7号）好吧，你怎么看？

7号陪审员：我认为我们是在浪费时间。看看这孩子的档案吧？10岁他就上了儿童法庭，15岁又进了管教所，还曾因抢劫和持刀械斗而被逮捕。他可真是个好孩子。

8号陪审员：从5岁起，他的父亲就经常对他拳打脚踢。

7号陪审员：有个这样的孩子，换了我也会那样。

4号陪审员：我想我们搞错了重点。这个男孩——就算他是一个破碎家庭的受害者，生活在肮脏的社区。这是我们无法改变的。我们在这儿是要判定他是否有罪，而不是谈他为什么成了这个样子。他生在贫民窟，而贫民窟则是滋生犯罪的地方。我知道这一点，你们也一样。这不是什么秘密，贫民窟的孩子对社会是一种潜在的威胁。

10号陪审员：你说得对。在这种环境里长大的孩子是真正的垃圾。他们身上没有一样是我喜欢的。

5号陪审员：听着，我就一直住在贫民窟，我过去常在堆满垃圾的后院玩。没准儿，你从我身上还能闻到那股味儿……

10号陪审员：听着，伙计……

12号陪审员：算了，他不是在说你。咱们不要这么敏感。

陪审长：好吧，不要再争了。（他转向8号）该你了。

8号陪审员：那好吧。我没什么特别好的想法。我跟你们知道的一样多。根据证词，这孩子像是有罪的。也许他确实有罪。我出庭6天，也听到了很多证词。但我开始有一种很奇怪的感觉——被告律师并没有进行彻底的交叉讯问。他忽略了太多问题——太多细节问题。

10号陪审员：什么细节问题？听着，这些人不问问题，一定是因为他们已经知道了答案。

8号陪审员：也许吧。但也有可能是律师太愚蠢了，不是吗？我总是把自己放在这个男孩的位置上，我觉得如果我是他我会再请一位律师。如果将被裁决的是我的命运，我会希望我的律师把原告提出的证据驳斥得体无完肤。请注意，该案件有一位自称目击了整个谋杀过程的目击者，还有一个人声称听到凶手事后跑出房间。假设他们都错了呢？

12号陪审员：你什么意思？“假设他们都错了。”你干脆假设根本就没有证人好了。

8号陪审员：他们不能错吗？他们也只是人，而人难免会犯错。

12号陪审员：得了吧，这又不是一个精确的科学问题。

8号陪审员：没错，它不是。

3号陪审员：好吧，让我们切入正题，来说说他们发现的插在老人胸口上的那把弹簧刀吧，这个好孩子已经承认了那把刀是他在案发当晚买的。我们来讨论一下这个问题吧。

8号陪审员：好啊，我们就来谈谈。把刀拿到这儿来吧。陪审长先生，我能再看看那把刀吗？（陪审长让法警把刀子拿进来。）

4号陪审员：这把刀就是铁证，你不这样认为吗？

8号陪审员：对，没错。

4号陪审员：好极了！现在让我们将这些事实逐一展开。一、这个男孩承认在案发当晚被父亲打了几下后，在八点左右离开家。二、他径直走到附近一家旧货店并在那里买了一把这种弹簧刀。三、大约在晚上8点45分左右，这个男孩在小酒馆前遇到了几位朋友。我说得都对吧？

8号陪审员：是的，没错。

4号陪审员：他跟这几位朋友聊了大约一小时，然后在9点45分离开了那里。期间，他的朋友们都看到了这把弹簧刀。四、他们在法庭上指认了那件凶器就是他们看到的那把刀。五、他在大概10点钟回到了家。从这里开始，控方所与这个男孩的说法开始有轻微的出入。他声称他在大约11点30分去了电影院，3点10分回到家时发现父亲已经死亡，随即自己便被拘捕起来。那么那把弹簧刀呢？他说在11点30分到3点30分之间的某个时间，在去电影院的路上，刀从衣服口袋的洞里掉了。先生们，这就是具体细节。

我认为很明显，那天晚上这孩子根本就没有去电影院。11点30分以后，公寓里没有人看见他离开家。电影院也没有人见过他。他甚至不记得自己看过的电影的名字。真正发生的事情是这样的：这男孩一直待在家里，跟他父亲又吵了一架，然后刺死了他，并且在12点10分离开了家。现在，你是不是还想告诉我这把刀是从男孩衣服口袋的洞里滑出去的，某个人在街边捡到了并拿着它跑到男孩的家，并用这把刀杀死了他的父亲？

8号陪审员：我只是想说有可能是这孩子丢了这把刀，而有人又用相似的刀杀了他的父亲。

4号陪审员：看看这把刀吧。这是一把非常特别的刀。我之前从没见过这样的刀。你不是想让我们接受这样一个令人难以置信的巧合吧？

（8号从容地从口袋里掏出一把弹簧刀，弹开它，把它放在桌子上，使其刚好与前一把刀并排。每个人都觉得惊奇，因为这两把刀看起来真的一模一样。）

4号陪审员：你是从哪儿弄来的？

8号陪审员：我在离那男孩家只有两条街的一个小当铺里买到的。

3号陪审员：你耍了一个非常聪明的花招。那么请你告诉我这又能证明什么。或许有10把那样的刀子，那又能怎样？这算什么历史性的突破吗？

陪审长：好了，伙计们，我们都坐下，大家没必要站着说话。

3号陪审员：我们还是有11个人认为这孩子有罪。

10号陪审员：对，你认为你能做什么？你不会改变任何人的想法。所以如果你想使陪审团无法作出判决的话，那你就尽管那样做吧。这孩子会再次接受审讯，然后仍会被判有罪，正如其出生不可改变一样。

8号陪审员：或许你是对的。

7号陪审员：那你要干什么？要知道，我们可能整个晚上都得在这儿耗着。

9号陪审员：只是一个晚上。可是那个男孩可能会没命的。

3号陪审员：（对着8号）那又怎么样呢？只有你一个人反对。

8号陪审员：我有一个提议。我想再举行一次投票。我请你们11个人进行无记名投票。我弃权。如果仍有11个人投有罪，我就不再坚持我的立场，我们就可以马上将判男孩有罪的裁决交给法官。但如果有任何一个人投票认为他无罪，我们就得待在这儿，把事情弄清楚。

（其他陪审员一致同意。陪审长把票发给他们。陪审员写完票后，把它交回给陪审长。）

陪审长：（他开始读票。）有罪，有罪，有罪，有罪，有罪，有罪，有罪，有罪，（他停了一下）无罪，有罪，有罪。

10号陪审员：嘿，你们觉得怎样？好吧，谁干的？我想知道。

11号陪审员：对不起，这是无记名投票，我们已经说好了。

3号陪审员：秘密！你什么意思？在陪审团室里没有任何秘密。我知道这是谁干的。（对着5号）兄弟，你可真了不起。你先前坐在这儿跟我们一起投了有罪票。然后某位巧舌如簧的说教者开始令你对一个可怜的孩子产生了怜悯之心，于是你就改变了投票。这是最令人恶心的……你干吗不往募捐箱里投点硬帀呢？

5号陪审员：嗨！你不能那样对我说话，你以为自己是谁？

4号陪审员：别动怒。没关系，他这人太容易激动，坐下吧。

3号陪审员：容易激动！我当然容易激动。我们正在争取让一个罪犯得到应有的惩罚。

4号陪审员：（对着5号）是什么使你改变了投票？

9号陪审员：他没有改变投票，是我。这位先生选择了与我们对立的孤立的立场，这需要很大的勇气。但他竟敢孤掷一注寻求支持，所以我给予了他支持。我敬佩他的用心，这孩子很可能是有罪的，但我想了解更多的情况。

3号陪审员：好。（对着8号）你听着。住在楼下的老头说他听到这孩子的叫喊我要杀了你。”一秒钟后，他听到有人倒地的声音。他跑到门口，看到那孩子冲下楼梯。这一切对你来说意味着什么？

8号陪审员：我想知道隔着天花板他是怎么清楚地听到那个男孩的声音的。

10号陪审员：他不是隔着天花板听到的。窗户是开着的，记得吗？

4号陪审员：街对面的那个女人正好从开着的窗户看到了对面屋里的情况，看到那个男孩刺了自己的父亲。在你看来，这还不够吗？

8号陪审员：不够。

7号陪审员：哦，天哪！你这个人到底想怎样？简直是对牛弹琴。

4号陪审员：她说她是隔着那列正在驶过的高架列车的车窗看到凶案发生的。过去了6节车厢后，她通过最后两节车厢的车窗目击了凶杀案。她还记得那些最不起眼的细节。我看不出还有什么可讨论的。

8号陪审员：谁知道高架列车以常速经过一个固定的点需要多长时间？

5号陪审员：可能10或12秒吧？

4号陪审员：好吧！就算是10秒。你想说什么？

8号陪审员：是这样。一辆6节车厢的高架列车需要用10秒经过一个固定的点，现在我们假设这个固定的点就是发生凶案的现场开着的窗户。我想问问你们中有人曾在高架铁路附近住过吗？我住过。列车经过时，如果窗户开着，那噪音大得简直让人无法忍受，它会吵得你晕头转向。

3号陪审员：所以你就晕头转向了。请你说重点！

8号陪审员：列车经过某一固定点需要10秒钟，也就是说每节车厢要2秒钟。按照那个女人的证词，在尸体倒地之前，列车已用了至少6秒钟驶过那个老头的窗子。

所以，当老人听到那男孩说我要杀了你。”时列车正轰隆隆地驶过他的窗前，不，他不可能听得到。

3号陪审员：这是在几秒间发生的事情！没人能够那么精确。

8号陪审员：而我认为能将一个男孩送上电椅的证词就应该那么精确！

5号陪审员：（低声对6号说）我认为那个老头听不到。

3号陪审员：那他为什么要说谎？他想得到什么？

9号陪审员：或许是想引起人们的注意。我观察了他很久。他的夹克衫好像都裂开了。我之前没有注意到这一点……我是说，他是那样走进法庭的。他老态龙钟，穿着破旧的夹克衫。他慢慢走向证人席，努力拖着他的左腿，他竭力想掩饰这一缺陷，因为他对此感到羞愧。他是个沉默寡言、胆小如鼠、微不足道的人，一生无所作为。没有人认识他，他的名字也从未在报纸上出现过。75年来谁都不知道他。先生们，无所作为确实是件很可悲的事情。像他这样的人需要别人的认可、倾听，需要别人引用他的话，哪怕只有一次，对他来说，都很重要……

7号陪审员：你是想告诉我们他说谎只是为了得到一次重视吗？

9号陪审员：不，也许他不是真的说谎，但是，或许他让自己相信他听到了那些话，并且辨出了那孩子的声音。

10号陪审员：这是我听到的最离奇的故事了。你怎么会编出这么一个故事来呢？你怎么知道他是这么想的？

9号陪审员：（声音很小但很坚定）我是经验之谈。

7号陪审员：什么？

9号陪审员：我就这样干过。

第二部分

陪审长：大家还有什么要补充的吗？

8号陪审员：是的。我想我们已经证明了那个老人不可能听到那孩子的那句喊声——“我要杀了你。”就算他真的听到了，我们大家说过多少次这样的话？很可能几千次了吧。我们每天都在说。这并不意味着我们就真的要去杀掉某个人。

3号陪审员：你这是想告诉我们什么？那孩子是高声喊出来的。凡是像他那样子说过这种话的人就会说到做到。

8号陪审员：你真的认为那孩子会那样高声喊出来，以便让所有的街坊邻居都听到？他这样做也聪明过头了吧。

10号陪审员：聪明！他是个普通的无知的大傻瓜。他甚至连英语都说不好。

11号陪审员：（纠正10号）他英语说得“不好”。

5号陪审员：陪审长先生，我想改投无罪票。

陪审长：现在的结果是9票赞成有罪，3票赞成无罪。

11号陪审员：我想说几句。在我看来，这位先生提出的一些观点很有道理。从审讯时证人们的证词看，这个孩子表面上是有罪的。但如果我们深入分析一下的话，……我有个问题要问。让我们假设这个男孩真的犯了杀人罪，凶杀案发生在12点10分，那么警察又是怎样逮着他的？他在3点左右回到家中，然后在自家的门厅里被两位警探抓住。

我的问题是：如果他真的杀死了他的父亲，那他为什么3个小时后又回到了家中？他不怕被抓吗？

12号陪审员：他是来取刀子的。让刀子插在一个人的胸口上毕竟不是什么好事。

7号陪审员：尤其是在亲人的胸口上。

4号陪审员：我看不出这有什么滑稽可笑的。那男孩知道刀子会被认出是自己刚刚买的那把。他想赶在警察之前把刀拿走。

11号陪审员：如果他知道人们会认出那把刀，为什么他一开始要把它留在那里？

4号陪审员：我们可以假定，那个男孩在杀死父亲之后，便惊慌失措地逃跑了。当他冷静下来之后，却发现刀子遗落在家里了。

11号陪审员：啊，这就要看你是怎样定义“惊慌失措”的。他本应保持足够的冷静，保证刀子上没有留下指纹。那么他何时变得惊慌失措，何时又恢复了常态？

12号陪审员：好吧，如果我是这个男孩，而且还杀了自己的父亲，我会冒险回去拿走刀子。我想他以为没有人看见他跑出家门，而且人们可能第二天才会发现尸体。

8号陪审员：或许这个男孩真的杀死了自己的父亲，确实是惊慌失措地跑出家门，而凶杀案发生3小时后又冷静下来，并冒着被抓的危险回到家中取刀。也许所有这些都发生过，但也许都没有。

我认为有足够的疑点让我们怀疑发生凶杀案时他是否在场。

6号陪审员：我想改投无罪票。

陪审长：现在是8比4。

3号陪审员：天啊，我们都快疯了！

7号陪审员：（对着8号）那么，还有那个老头呢？难道我们应该相信，那个老头没有起床，没有跑到门口，也没有看到那个孩子在案发15秒后跑到楼下吗？他这么说只是为了得到人们的重视，是吗？

5号陪审员：那个老头说过他是“跑”到门口的吗？

7号陪审员：跑过去和走过去，这有什么不同？无论怎样，他确实过去了啊！

6号陪审员：请等一下。他说的是“跑”。

5号陪审员：我不记得他是怎么说的了，但我不明白他怎么能够跑到门口。

8号陪审员：陪审长先生，我想看看公寓的平面图。我想弄明白一个拖着一只脚走路的老头能否在15秒钟之内从卧室走到前门。

3号陪审员：他说的是20秒。

8号陪审员：他说的是15秒。

3号陪审员：他怎么知道15秒钟有多长？

9号陪审员：他说的是15秒。他对此非常肯定。

3号陪审员：他上了年纪，肯定经常犯糊涂，他怎么能对所有的事都那么肯定？（他试图掩饰自己的错误，但为时已晚。）

4号陪审员：我看不出你能证明什么，那个老头说他看见那个孩子跑出去了。

（法警拿来了图纸交给陪审长，陪审长又把它递给了8号。）

8号陪审员：好吧，让咱们看看这些细节能否证明他所说的一切。不错，这就是凶杀案现场所在的那间房子。这是高架列车的轨道，这是卧室，这是起居室，这是门厅，这是楼梯。那个老头就在这个房间。他说，他走到卧室门口，穿过门厅，然后将前门打开，这时正好看见那个孩子跑下楼梯。门厅43英尺，他必须在15秒钟之内步行12英尺，打开卧室门，接着走43英尺，再打开前门。你认为他做得到吗？

7号陪审员：他当然做得到！

11号陪审员：他只能慢慢走路。他上证人席的时候都需要有人搀扶！

（8号开始移动椅子）

10号陪审员：你要干什么？

8号陪审员：（对着6号）请将那把椅子递给我，好吗？我们假设这把椅子就是那个老头的床，我要用步子量出12英尺。

7号陪审员：你疯了。你这样重现不了当时的情景。

8号陪审员：（对着另一位陪审员）请你站在那里标示前门好吗？根据证词，门是上了链锁的，记得吗？这里谁的表带秒针？

2号陪审员：我有。

8号陪审员：你跺一下脚我就开始。这就是尸体倒地的时间，你就从那时起给我计时。（他开始走。）……开锁，开门，停！多少秒？

2号陪审员：正好41秒。

8号陪审员：我认为那个老头正打算走到门口，听到有人下楼，就以为是那个男孩。

3号陪审员：以为！兄弟，我一生中见过各种各样的骗术，但你这套把戏可算是登峰造极。（转向其余所有人）你们这些人怎么回事？你们都知道这孩子有罪，他应被处以电刑，可你们却让他从你们的手中溜走了！

8号陪审员：“从我们手中溜走。”你是刽子手吗？

3号陪审员：我是其中的一个。

8号陪审员：也许你很想去拉那个电闸吧。

3号陪审员：为这孩子？我当然愿意。

8号陪审员：我为你感到遗憾。想拉电闸，这究竟是什么感觉！你就是个虐待狂。

3号陪审员：（冲向8号，但是被其他人在在。）咳，我要杀了他！我要杀了他！

8号陪审员：（平静地）你并不是真的要杀了我，是吗？

（骚乱最后平静下来。）

6号陪审员：也许我们应该再投一次票。

陪审长：我没意见。我来叫你们陪审员的编号。（他依次叫号。）现在的投票结果是各6票。

10号陪审员：6对6。你们当中的一些人肯定是疯了，像那样的孩子……

9号陪审员：我想他是什么样的孩子与案件本身无关。只有事实才能裁定案子。

10号陪审员：不要对我说这些！我讨厌事实，你爱怎么想就怎么想。

9号陪审员：这位先生现在表达的正是这个观点。

3号陪审员：我想说的是，不如告诉法官我们无法做出裁决吧，我们没有必要再继续讨论下去了。

7号陪审员：我也是这么想的。把他交给另外12个人，看看他的运气如何。

11号陪审员：你仍然认为这案子中不存在“合理怀疑”吗？

7号陪审员：是的，我认为没有。

11号陪审员：或许你不明白“合理怀疑”这个术语吧？

7号陪审员：你说我不明白是什么意思？（对着真他人说）你们认为这个家伙怎么回事？他是为了活命逃到这个国家来的。现在，他还没来得站稳脚跟，就在这儿对我们指手画脚了。真是个傲慢的家伙。

陪审长：好了，不要吵了。现在有谁能够说点有建设性的意见？

8号陪审员：如果各位先生不介意的话，我想说两句。控方证词中很重要的一点是，那个男孩声称案发时他在看电影，然而此后他却不记得看过什么影片以及片中的影星是谁。这个问题这位先生已经提及好几次了。

4号陪审员：没错。这是那个男孩提供的不在现场的唯一抗辩事实。

8号陪审员：根据证词，这个孩子是在自家公寓的厨房内被两位警探盘问的。当时，他父亲的尸体就躺在他卧室的地板上。假如你处在这个男孩的位置上，你觉得在这种情况下，他还能记得住细节吗？

4号陪审员：我认为可以。

8号陪审员：在巨大的精神压力下？

4号陪审员：在巨大的精神压力下。

8号陪审员：我想问你一个私人问题，你昨晚在哪？

4号陪审员：我在家

8号陪审员：前天夜里呢？

4号陪审员：我8点30离开办公室，直接回到家，然后就上床睡觉了。

8号陪审员：那再前一天呢？

4号暗审员：周二晚上？那天晚上……在桥牌俱乐部，我在打牌。

8号陪审员：周一晚上呢？

4号陪审员：周一晚上？……周一晚上……我和妻子去看电影了。

8号陪审员：看的什么电影？

4号陪审员：是……我想想……《了不起的本维奇夫人》。

2号陪审员：我看过那部片子，片名是《非凡的本维奇夫人》。

4号陪审员：哦，对了，是《非凡的本维奇夫人》。

8号陪审员：谁主演的？

4号陪审员：我想是芭芭拉-郎，我想……黑皮肤，很漂亮的一个女孩……那是一部廉价的片子……

8号陪审员：你的情绪并不紧张，对吗？

4号陪审员：对。（他擦去脸上的汗水。）

9号陪审员：我想这一点已经很清楚了。

10号陪审员：很重要的一点！

陪审长：还有谁要说点什么？

2号陪审员：有件事一直使我疑惑不解，就是有关刀伤的事以及刀伤是怎么造成的。你们知道，这个刀伤的角度是向下的。

3号陪审员：别告诉我我们还要讨论这个问题。他们已经在法庭上分析了无数遍了。

2号陪审员：我知道，不过我不同意他们的看法。

这个男孩身高5英尺7英寸，他父亲是6英尺2英寸，两人相差7英寸。你很难把刀由上向下剌进比你高出半英尺的人的胸膛。

3号陪审员：（指着那把刀）把刀给我。我给你们做个示范。请谁站起来。

（他看到8号站在那边，于是就走过去。他举起刀子，然后朝下刺向八号的胸口。在刀刃到达胸口前他刚好停下来。许多陪审员都觉得他这一举动令人厌恶。）

3号陪审员：没有人受伤，对吗？

8号陪审员：是的，没有人伤着。

3号陪审员：嗯，这就是剌伤一个个子比我高的人的方法。现在，你们来证明我错了吧。

5号陪审员：给我那把刀。你们有谁见过持刀械斗的吗？没有？我见过。我住的地方有不少人使用这种弹簧刀。奇怪的是我以前竟从未想过这件事。你绝不会这么用刀（他演示着。）那样换手太慢了。应该这样用刀，由下往上。任何一个用过弹簧刀的人都不会用别的手法。

8号陪审员：你确定吗？

5号陪审员：是的，我确定。

7号陪审员：我对这样冗长又无聊的讨论厌倦透了。我认为我不得不打破这种僵局。我要改投无罪票。

3号陪审员：你说什么？

7号陪审员：你听到我说的了，我已经受够了。

3号陪审员：你说已经受够了，这是什么意思？那不是理由。

11号陪审员：他说得对。那不是理由。你这人怎么回事啊？谁告诉你你有权力拿一个人的生命这样当儿戏的？

7号陪审员：等一下，你不能这样对我说话。

11号陪审员：我当然可以这样对你说话！如果你想要投无罪票，就必须是因为相信这个人无罪，而不是因为你不想再讨论了。

7号陪审员：听着。

11号陪审员：有罪还是无罪？

7号陪审员：我告诉你了，无罪。

11号陪审员：为什么？

7号陪审员：我……我……我只是不认为他是有罪的。

8号陪审员：我请求再进行一次表决。

陪审长：好吧，有人要求再进行一次表决。最快的方式是举手表决，有人反对吗？好吧，投无罪票的举手。（他数了数。除3号、4号和10号外，其他人亦举手了。）现在的票数是9比3，多数赞成他无罪。

10号陪审员：我真不明白你们这些人。我是说，你们不断提出这些细枝末节，但它们一点意义都没有。你们知道这些人是怎么撒谎的，他们生来就这样。我不得不告诉你们。他们不知道什么叫实话。而且，他们不需要什么光明正大的理由就可以杀掉一个人，根本不需要。真的，先生！他们就是这样子，天生就这样，暴力！

（许多陪审员觉得他的观点令人厌恶，纷纷离开会议肩以承灰议。）你们去哪儿？这是做什么？你们都犯了一个大错误。那个孩子是个骗子，我了解，我了解他们所有人。听我说……

4号陪审员：我们一直在听着。现在请你坐下不要再张嘴了。

（10号坐下，无言以对。）

8号陪审员：（面对所有陪审员）在这样的事情上，要想完全摆脱个人偏见总是很不容易的。每当你遇到这样的情况，偏见就会掩盖真相。现在我们中有9个人觉得被告是清白的，我们只是大胆假设有这样的可能性。但是我们有合理的怀疑。这是我们司法体制中非常重要的一个原则。除非证据确凿，否则任何陪审团都不能判定一个人有罪。我们9个人不明白，你们三位为什么仍然这么确定被告有罪。（对着4号）也许你能告诉我们为什么。

4号陪审员：我试试看吧。你刚才讲的那几点很有道理，不过我还是相信这个孩子犯有谋杀罪。我有两个理由。第一就是住在街对面的女人的证词，她确实看到了谋杀的过程。第二就是她说她看到男孩举起刀，向下刺向他的父亲，她是这样描述剌杀的过程的。她说她看见他用刀刺死他的父亲，不过用的是错误的姿势。

3号陪审员：你说的完全正确。

4号陪审员：咱们再说说这个女人。她说那晚她大约在11点钟上床睡觉，辗转反侧了将近一个小时，但还是睡不着。最后她转向有高架火车经过的窗子。她说，凶杀案过后灯光熄灭了。但是她清楚地看到了男孩刺杀父亲的过程。依我看，这就是确凿的证据。（揉了揉鼻子）

9号陪审员：你不舒服吗？

4号陪审员：我感觉很好，谢谢。我刚才是说……

9号陪审员：因为你那样揉鼻子，所以我才这样问。很抱歉打断你的话，不过你刚才的那个动作使我想起了些什么。

4号陪审员：我想把事情说完。你不介意吧？

9号陪审员：不过我认为这点很重要，谢谢。现在，我肯定你会原谅我这么做，但我想知道你为什么那样揉鼻子？

4号陪审员：这关你什么事。我揉鼻子是因为我的鼻子有点不舒服。

9号陪审员：对不起，那是因为你戴眼镜的缘故吗？

4号陪审员：是的。现在，我们能谈点儿别的了吗？

9号陪审员：因为戴眼镜，你的鼻梁两侧出现了很深的压痕。之前我没注意到，这一定很烦人吧。

4号陪审员：非常烦人。

9号陪审员：过去我不了解这个。我从未戴过眼镜，我两眼视力都是2.0。

7号陪审员：可以言归正传吗？

9号陪审员：那个作证说看到案发过程的女人的鼻子上也有相同的压痕。

5号陪审员：是啊，对！

9号陪审员：请让我把话说完。她在法庭上不停地揉鼻子两侧。这个女人大概有45岁，但她在公众场合还是努力地想让自己看上去只有35岁。浓妆艳抹，染过头发，穿着年轻女子才穿的崭新衣服。

5号陪审员：对，她确实一直在揉鼻子。她鼻子上有压痕，我也看见了。

陪审长：嗨，听着。他说得对，我也看见了。

3号陪审员：你这是想说明什么？

9号陪审员：除了眼镜，还会有别的东西能造成这样的压痕吗？

4号陪审员：不，没有。

3号陪审员：我没看见什么压痕。

4号陪审员：我看见了，奇怪的是我竟然没想到这点。

3号陪审员：行了，她鼻子上的压痕，是眼镜造成的，对吧？她外出时不戴眼镜，好让人们觉得她漂亮。但当她看到那孩子刺杀他父亲的时候，她正待在家里，独自一人。

8号陪审员：（对着4号）你会戴眼镜睡觉吗？

4号陪审员：不，我不会。没有人会戴眼镜睡觉。

8号陪审员：因此，这种假设合乎逻辑，那就是她躺在床上，辗转反侧，试图入睡，而当时她并没有戴眼镜。

3号陪审员：你怎么知道？

8号陪审员：我不知道，我是猜的。我还猜想，或许她确实认为自己看到了那个男孩杀死了他的父亲。我是说，她看到的只能是模糊的身影。

3号陪审员：你怎么知道她看到了什么？（对着其他人）你们怎么知道她戴的是哪种眼镜？也许是太阳镜呢？或者远视镜？你们怎么知道她戴的是哪种呢？

8号陪审员：我现在只知道这个女人的视力有问题。

11号陪审员：她必须能够在不戴眼镜的情况下在夜间辨认出60英尺以外的人。

2号陪审员：我们不能根据这样的证词就轻易地把某个人送去处死。

8号陪审员：（对着3号）你不认为那个女人可能会弄错吗？

3号陪审员：不，我不这么认为。

8号陪审员：（对着4号）你仍然认为那男孩有罪？

4号陪审员：不，我现在相信，他是无罪的。

8号陪审员：（对着10号）你呢？

（10号慢慢地摇了摇头。）

2号陪审员：11比1。

8号陪审员：（对着3号）就剩你自己了。

3号陪审员：我不在乎是不是只剩下我自己。这是我的权利。

8号陪审员：这确实是你的权利。

3号陪审员：你想怎么样？我说他有罪。

8号陪审员：我们想听听你的论证。

3号陪审员：我已经跟你们讲过了。

8号陪审员：但你没有说服我们，我们想再听一遍。

3号陪审员：每件事情。今天在法庭上发生的每件事情都表明他有罪。你们是怎么想的？你们觉得我是个白痴还是什么？为什么你们不说说那个老头？那个老头听到了一切。那把弹簧刀呢？还有那辆高架火车又是怎么回事？还有电影。我告诉你，一切都被歪曲混淆了。比如说关于她的眼镜。你们怎么知道她那时没戴眼镜？我说，这才是整个案子……（没有人说话，他们只是目不转睛地盯着他。）喂！说点什么吧，你们这帮可恶的软心肠的家伙。你们威胁不了我，我有权坚持自己的意见……（他终于挺不下去了）没……没……没……没……没……无罪……无罪。

（陪审员们一一离开了陪审团室。8号走向3号，帮他穿上了外套。）

Key Words:

customary     ['kʌstəməri]

scene      [si:n]

n. 场，景，情景

jury ['dʒuəri]

n. 陪审团，评委会

voting     ['vəutiŋ]

n. 投票 动词vote的现在分词形式

innocent ['inəsnt]

guilty      ['gilti]

trial  ['traiəl]

n. 尝试，努力

narrator  [næ'reitə]

n. 叙述者，讲解员

criminal  ['kriminl]

n. 罪犯

handle    ['hændl]

n. 柄，把手

guilty      ['gilti]

jail   [dʒeil]

n. 监牢，监狱，拘留所

vt. 监禁，下狱

trial  ['traiəl]

n. 尝试，努力

forgery   ['fɔ:dʒəri]

n. 伪造，伪造罪，伪造物

guilty      ['gilti]

prosecution   [.prɔsi'kju:ʃən]

n. 实行，经营，起诉

yell  [jel]

v. 大叫

n. 大喊

defendant      [di'fendənt]

n. 被告

dishonesty     [dis'ɔnisti]

n. 不诚实；不正直；欺诈

convince [kən'vins]

vt. 使确信，使信服，说服

innocent ['inəsnt]

characteristic  [.kæriktə'ristik]

n. 特性，特征，特

minutes  ['minits]

n. 会议记录，(复数)分钟

obvious  ['ɔbviəs]

stick [stik]

n. 枝，杆，手杖

vt. 插于，刺入，竖起<

sentimental    [.senti'mentl]

flimsy     ['flimzi]

testimony      ['testiməni]

n. 证明，证据

refute     [ri'fju:t]

vt. 驳斥，反驳，证明

guilty      ['gilti]

violence  ['vaiələns]

n. 暴力，猛烈，强暴，暴行

convinced      [kən'vinst]

privilege ['privilidʒ]

n. 特权，特别恩典，基本人权，荣幸

smart      [smɑ:t]

motive    ['məutiv]

testimony      ['testiməni]

n. 证明，证据

guilty      ['gilti]

sensitive ['sensitiv]

potential [pə'tenʃəl]

n. 潜力，潜能

reform    [ri'fɔ:m]

v. 改革，改造，革新

n. 改革，改良

innocent ['inəsnt]

beat [bi:t]

v. 打败，战胜，打，敲打，跳动

eyewitness     ['ai'witnis]

n. 目击者，见证人

thorough       ['θʌrə]

plain       [plein]

n. 平原，草原

trial  ['traiəl]

n. 尝试，努力

n. 刀锋，刀口

tear [tiə]

n. 眼泪，（撕破的）洞或裂缝，撕扯

brilliant   ['briljənt]

n. 宝石

counselor      ['kaunsələ]

n. 顾问，参事，法律顾问 =counsellor

guilty      ['gilti]

defense  [di'fens]

n. 防卫，防卫物，辩护

slightly    ['slaitli]

junk [dʒʌŋk]

n. 垃圾，废旧杂物，中国平底帆船

vt. 丢

identified

evidence ['evidəns]

n. 根据，证据

v. 证实，证明

diverge   [dai'və:dʒ]

v. 分歧

switch     [switʃ]

n. 开关，转换，鞭子

verdict    ['və:dikt]

n. 裁定，定论

proposition    [.prɔpə'ziʃən]

n. 建议，命题，主张

vt. 向 ... 提

jury ['dʒuəri]

n. 陪审团，评委会

abstain   [əb'stein]

v. 自制，戒绝

accomplish    [ə'kɔmpliʃ]

vt. 完成

guilty      ['gilti]

yell  [jel]

v. 大叫

n. 大喊

tear [tiə]

n. 眼泪，（撕破的）洞或裂缝，撕扯

ceiling     ['si:liŋ]

n. 天花板，上限

excitable [ik'saitəbl]

guilty      ['gilti]

参考资料：

现代大学英语精读(第2版)第三册:U16A Twelve Angry Men(26)_大学教材听力 - 可可英语

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