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Quantum communication2019-01-29 22:50:09Quantum communication 电子科技大学 格拉斯哥学院 2017级 岳彦辰 Abstract This paper introduces the quantum communication generated and started to be applied based on the principle of quantum ...
电子科技大学 格拉斯哥学院 2017级 岳彦辰
This paper introduces the quantum communication generated and started to be applied based on the principle of quantum entanglement. This article will introduce what is quantum communication, and the differences and advantages and disadvantages between quantum
communication and traditional communication, as well as the application examples of quantum communication.
Quantum communication,Quantum entanglement,spooky action in a
The so-called quantum communication refers to a new type of communication method that uses quantum entanglement effect to transmit information. It is a new type of interdisciplinary subject developed in the past two decades. It is a new research field combining quantum theory and information theory. Quantum communication is characterized by high efficiency and absolute security, and is currently a research hotspot in international quantum physics and information
science.Quantum communication is a communication method in which information is carried by a quantum state. It uses a quantum entanglement principle of elementary particles such as photons to implement a secure communication process.
2. PART A
The so-called quantum is the most basic unit of matter, and it is the smallest unit of physical
quantity such as energy and momentum, which is indivisible. Elementary particles such as
electrons and photons are collectively referred to as quantum.In addition to indivisibility, quantum also has non-cloning (replication). Because cloning an object first measures the state of
the thing, but the quantum is usually in an extremely fragile “superimposed state”, and once it is
measured, it changes state immediately, no longer the original quantum.
In quantum mechanics, when several particles interact with each other, since the properties
possessed by each particle have been integrated into a whole nature, the properties of each
particle cannot be described separately, and only the properties of the overall system can be
described. Tangled or quantum entanglement. The hypothesis of Schrödinger’s cat can also be
understood as the state of the particles in the box includes living and dying.In 1982, French
physicist Alain Aspect and his team successfully completed an experiment, confirming that the
phenomenon of microscopic particle “quantum entanglement” does exist. It has had a major
impact on the mainstream worldview of Western science.Quantum entanglement confirms the
existence of Espstein’s ghost, the spooky action in a distance, which confirms that any two
substances, regardless of their distance, may interact with each other and are not affected by
four-dimensional space-time. Constraints are nonlocal, and the universe has deep internal
connections in the dark.
There are two main ways of quantum communication. One is to use quantum unclonable
properties to generate quantum cryptography. It is binary and can encrypt classical binary
information. This communication method is called “quantum key distribution”.The second is the
use of quantum entanglement to transmit the most basic unit of quantum information - quantum
bits. Two particles A and B in entangled state, no matter how far apart they are, we measure one
of the particles (A) together with the particles © carrying the qubits we want to transmit, and
the qubits of C disappear immediately, but B immediately carries the qubits carried before C. We
call this process “quantum teleportation”.
3. PART B
3.1Traditional communication security
For example, with cable communication and fiber-optic communication, they have two
problems:1. Simple eavesdropping 2. Eavesdroppers cannot be detected. In addition, with the
development of supercomputers and quantum computers, we cannot guarantee that all
encryption methods will not be cracked. 3.2quantum teleportation security
Quantum key distribution can create an unbreakable quantum cipher for our current
communications, fundamentally guaranteeing the security of our communications. Quantum key
distribution uses a single photon as a carrier. By randomly measuring these photons by the
transmitting and receiving parties and selecting those measurements of the common
measurement method, a set of quantum keys is formed. If someone is eavesdropping in the
middle, the measurement errors of both the sender and the receiver will rise in an instant, and
the presence of eavesdropping will be detected immediately. So a set of successfully generated
quantum keys must be an absolutely secure key that excludes all eavesdropping, and the
information encrypted with it is unbreakable.
4. PART C
4.1quantum teleportation application
Quantum communication has the absolute security features that traditional communication
methods do not have. It not only has great application value and prospects in the field of
information security such as national security and finance, but also gradually enters people’s
daily life. At the end of 2008, Pan Jianwei’s research team successfully developed a prototype optical fiber
quantum communication system based on decoy state. He successfully established the world’s
first 3-node chain photo quantum telephone network in Hefei, becoming an absolutely safe and
practical quantum communication network reported internationally. One of the two teams in the
experimental study (the other group is the European joint experimental team).
In September 2009, Pan Jianwei’s research team built the world’s first all-pass quantum
communication network based on the 3-node chain-like quantum telephone network. For the
first time, real-time speech quantum secure communication was realized. This achievement ranks
among the international advanced level among similar products, which indicates that China has
reached the industrialization requirements in the key technologies of metro quantum networks. According to Xinhua News Agency, Hefei, December 21st, the team of Academician Guo
Guangcan of the University of Science and Technology of China recently made new progress in
the quantum entanglement test. Team members Li Chuanfeng, Chen Geng, Zhang Wenhao and
others under the condition of “untrustworthy” measurement equipment, experiment The
fidelity of the unknown quantum entangled state is known, and the self-test of the quantum
entangled state is realized for the first time in the world. The internationally authoritative
academic journal “Physical Review Letter” recently published the results. 5. Conclusion
Quantum communication brings people the hope of absolutely safe information transmission. His
uncertainty and high efficiency are not available in traditional communication methods. Quantum communication will also be used more as a research hotspot in the future.