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  • 动词ing用法归类总结好.doc
  • 动词ing形式用法.ppt

    2021-10-13 03:26:02
    动词ing形式用法.ppt
  • 动词ing形式用法及练习题经典.ppt
  • 动词ing形式的用法及练习题经典.ppt
  • 动词ing形式做定语的用法总结

    千次阅读 2020-10-24 19:51:36
    动词ing形式做定语的用法总结 文章目录动词ing形式做定语的用法总结●-ing形式做定语通常从以下四个方面考查1)说明被修饰词的性质,特征或用途。2)与被修饰词为主动关系且表示正在进行的动作。3)有些-ing形式已经...

    动词ing形式做定语的用法总结

    动词的-ing形式既包括动名词又包括现在分词,在英语中使用极其广泛,下面就动词的-ing形式在句中做定语总结如下:

    动词的-ing形式做定语在句中通常有两个位置,如果是单个的动词的-ing形式做定语,常放在被修饰词前做前置定语;如果是动词的-ing形式的短语做定语,常放在被修饰词后做后置定语。

    单个的动词的-ing形式做定语,常放在被修饰词前做前置定语,如:

    1.He is an attacking player.他是一个攻击型的运动员。

    2.He asked an embarrassing question.他提了一个令人难堪的问题。

    注意:当-ing形式做后置定语时,可以相当于相应的定语从句,如:

    1.A young man writing novels came to speak to us yesterday.

    →A young man who writes novels came to speak to us yesterday.

    一位写小说的青年昨天来向我们作报告。

    2.The girl sitting next to me was my cousin.

    →The girl who was sitting next to me was my cousin.坐在我旁边的姑娘是我表妹。

    ​  3.A little child learning to walk often falls.

    ​ →A little child who learns to walk often falls.学走路的小孩常常跌跤。

    4.Do you know the number of people coming to the party?

    ​ →Do you know the number of people who come to the party?你知道来参加晚会的人数吗?


    ●-ing形式做定语通常从以下四个方面考查

    1)说明被修饰词的性质,特征或用途。

    如:

    1.They set up an operating table in a small temple.他们将手术台架设在一座小庙里。

    2.He may be in the reading room,for all I know.他说不定在阅览室里。

    3.Ladies and gentlemen,please go and wait in the meeting room.女士们先生们,请去会议室等待。

    2)与被修饰词为主动关系且表示正在进行的动作。

    如:

    1.There were about 200 children studying in the art school.有大约二百个孩子在这所艺术学校学习。

    2.Who is the woman talking to our English teacher?

    正在和我们英语老师谈话的那位妇女是谁?

    3)有些-ing形式已经转化成形容词,常做定语用来修饰物,表示“令人……”。

    常用的此类词有:exciting,amusing,amazing,astonishing,shocking,puzzling,confusing,disappointing,discouraging,pleasing,striking,boring,tiring,touching,moving,interesting,satisfying,terrifying,frightening等。

    如:

    1.That must have been a terrifying experience.那准时一段可怕的经历。

    2.The experiment was an amazing success.那项试验是一个惊人的成功。

    3.There is a page missing from this book.这本书缺了一页。

    4)-ing形式与被修饰词是被动关系,就用它的被动式,即being done.being doing通常表示正在被做,常做后置定语。

    如:

    1.The tall building being built now is our new school.正在被建的高楼是我们的新学校。

    2.The question being discussed was presented by the headmaster.正在被讨论的问题是被校长提出的。

    ●如何把不同的从句转换成-ing形式做后置定语的用法

    1)含进行时从句:删除“关系代词+be动词”,保留动词ing形式即可。

    1.The girl who is dressing a sexy skirt is my girl friend.

    ->The girl dressing a sexy skirt is my girl friend.

    2.The man who was running is my teacher.

    ->The man running is my teacher.

    2)含过去一般时(主动语态)从句:删除“关系代词”,将动词由一般过去式转换为ing形式即可。

    1.I lived in a room which faced south.

    ->I lived in a room facing south.

    3)含一般现在时(主动语态)从句:删除“关系代词”,将动词由一般现在式转换为ing形式即可。

    1.Those who wish to join the club should sign here.

    ->Those wishing to join the club should sign here.

    4)含过去完成时/过去完成的被动语态从句:将had变成having即可。

    1.The man,who had been disturbed so badly, almost lost his memory.

    ->The man,having been disturbed so badly, almost lost his memory.

    2.The man,who had finished his assignment quickly, almost lost his memory.

    ->The man,having finished his assignment quickly, almost lost his memory.

    展开全文
  • 正在进行时动词结尾加ing,还有动名词 I'm missing you... 严格意义上说是现在进行时 现在进行时的基本用法: a. 表示现在( 指说话人说话时) 正在发生的事情。 We are waiting for you. b. 习惯进行:表示长期的或...
    正在进行时动词结尾加ing,还有动名词 
    I'm missing you...
    严格意义上说是现在进行时

    现在进行时的基本用法:
    a. 表示现在( 指说话人说话时) 正在发生的事情。
    We are waiting for you.
    b. 习惯进行:表示长期的或重复性的动作,说话时动作未必正在进行。
    Mr. Green is writing another novel.
    (说话时并未在写,只处于写作的状态。)
    She is learning piano under Mr. Smith.
    c. 表示渐变的动词有:get, grow, become, turn, run, go, begin等。
    The leaves are turning red.
    It's getting warmer and warmer.
    d. 与always, constantly, forever 等词连用,表示反复发生的动作或持续存在的状态,往往带有说话人的主观色彩。
    You are always changing your mind.

    动词后加-ing的规则
    1.英语动词加-ing,通常是在原形词尾直接加-ing构成:cough—coughing,climb—climbing,stand—standing,fight—fighting
    2.以-e结尾的动词
    (1)如果动词原形以一辅音加一不发音的-e结尾,一般应去掉e再加ing:
    write—writing,hope—hoping,care—caring,stare—staring,plane—planing,have—having,save—saving, produce—producing, breathe—breathing
    (2)以-ie结尾的动词应先将e去掉,将i变成y然后再加-ing:
    die—dying,tie—tying,vie—vying,lie—lying
    (3)以-ee,-oe,-ye结尾的动词加-ing时应保留词尾e:
    see—seeing,flee—fleeing,free—freeing,agree—agreeing,hoe—hoeing, dye—dyeing,eye—eyeing
    (4)以-ue结尾的动词大多应先去e再加-ing:
    sue—suing,imbue—imbuing,construe—construing,pursue—pursuing,
    rue—ruing

    有时,词尾e可去掉也可保留:
    glue—gluing或 glueing,cue—cuing或 cueing, blue—blueing或 bluing,
    true—truing或trueing,clue—clueing或cluing
    3.以一元音加一辅音结尾的动词
    (1)如果动词最后一音节为重读闭音节,最后一个字母需要重复:
    run—running, stop—stopping, hop—hopping, plan—planning,star—starring, control—controlling但辅音x是个例外,无需重复(x其实起着两个辅音的作用):
    tax—taxing,relax—relaxing
    (2)如果动词最后一个音节为次重读音节,最后一个字母有时也重复:
    kidnap—kidnapping或kidnaping,program—programming或programing
    (3)如果动词最后一个音节为非重读音节,最后一个字母大多无需重复:
    open—opening,offer—offering,audit—auditing但在有些动词中,重复或不重复均可:
    worship—worshiping或 worshipping,focus—focusing或 focussing,cancel—canceling或cancelling,travel—traveling或travelling
    以非重读的-el结尾的动词加-ing时,英国英语习惯于重复词尾l,而美国英语则习惯于不重复1。
    4.若动词以一元音加一半元音(y或w)结尾,可直接加-ing:
    pay—paying, throw—throwing,follow—following, draw—drawing, employ—employing
    5.以-ic结尾的动词应先在字母c后加一字母k再加-ing:
    frolic—frolicking,panic—panicking,mimic—mimicking,picnic—picnicking,traffic—trafficking
    这主要是为在动词后加-ing之后保留/k/这个音。若不在字母c后加字母k而直接加-ing,字母 c的发音就不再是/k/,而是/s/:
    其实,保持发音不变是英语中的一条一般规则。再如,在-ing前面无论是增加、保留还是去掉一个字母,都倾向于保留原先的长元音或短元音的发音:
    hoping与hopping staring与starring playing与planning

    转载于:https://www.cnblogs.com/baul/articles/1627007.html

    展开全文
  • 非谓语动词ING分词及不定式用法的区别.doc
  • 2020_2021学年高中英语Unit3AtasteofEnglishhumourSectionⅣGrammar_动词_ing形式作表语定语和宾补的用法课时作业含解析新人教版必修420210128240
  • 动词和情态动词

    千次阅读 2019-08-08 11:50:07
    文章目录助动词定义分类be类助动词have类助动词will类助动词情态动词定义 助动词 定义 协助主要动词构成谓语的词叫助动词,也叫辅助动词。被协助的动词被称作主要动词。助动词用来构成时态和语态。助动词具有语法...

    助动词

    定义

    协助主要动词构成谓语的词叫助动词,也叫辅助动词。被协助的动词被称作主要动词。助动词用来构成时态和语态。助动词具有语法意义,但没有词汇意义,不可单独作谓语。
    助动词

    分类

    be类助动词

    be类助动词:be, am, is, are, was, were, been, being。这类助动词与现在分词构成进行时态,与过去分词构成被动语态。例如:
    They were watching TV when we got there.(构成过去进行时)
    【翻译】当我们到那儿时他们正在看电视。
    We are doing our lessons now.(构成现在进行时)
    【翻译】我们正在做功课。
    The project was finished last month.(构成被动语态)
    【翻译】工程上个月已完工了。
    The trees are being planted now.(构成被动语态)
    【翻译】人们正在植树。

    have类助动词

    have类助动词:have, has, had, having。这类助动词与过去分词构成完成时态。
    My uncle has come back home.(构成现在完成时)
    【翻译】我叔叔已到家了。
    They haven’t finished their match yet.(构成现在完成时)
    【翻译】他们还没有结束比赛。
    Before we went home, we had had a little rest.(构成过去完成时)
    【翻译】在回家之前我们休息了一会。
    Having done the work, we had a bath.(构成现在分词的完成时)
    【翻译】干完活后,我们洗了个澡。

    补充说明
    have done 和 have been done 都表示的是现在完成时,having done 和 having been done 都是动词ing 的完成形式,在句子中作状语,起到补充说明的作用。
    这里要注意的是,having 所接的动词发生的时间在主句中谓语动词发生的时间之前。比如:Having driven all day,we were so tired. 这个例子中,having driven表示“我们”的状态,“开了一天的车”,并且,drive 的动作发生在 be tired的之前。了解了上面的概念,再来解释having done 和 having been done的区别,前者having done表示的是主动,后者having been done表示的是被动。例:
    1、Having driven all day,we were so tired.
    【翻译】我们开了一天的车,现在都很累了。

    having driven表示的是主动,是“我们开了一天的车”

    2、Having been criticized today, he was so sad.
    【翻译】今天被批评了,他很难过。

    是"he"被批评,而这个原因状语又是修饰"he",所以要用被动,have been done。还有一种情况,having been doing,理解了之前两种用法,那么也会很清楚,这个用法也是动词ing的完成进行时,表主动。

    will类助动词

    will类助动词:will, would, shall, should。这类助动词与行为动词原形连用构成将来时。例如:
    She will invite her good friends to her new house.(构成一般将来时)
    【翻译】她将邀请她的好朋友到她的新房子里。
    He said that he would go shopping tomorrow if possible.(构成过去将来时)
    【翻译】他说如果可能的话他明天将会去购物。

    do类助动词

    do类助动词:do, does, did。这类助动词与其它行为动词一起构成否定句和疑问句。例如:
    Do you enjoy living in China?(构成一般疑问句)
    【翻译】你喜欢住在中国吗?
    Does your sister like playing computer games?(构成一般疑问句)
    【翻译】你的姐姐喜欢打电子游戏吗?
    He didn’t watch TV last night.(构成否定句)
    【翻译】他昨天晚上没看电视。
    I don’t get up early in the morning.(构成否定句)
    【翻译】我早上起床不早。

    情态动词

    定义

    情态动词本身有词义,但不能独立构成谓语,用来表明特定的感情和态度。情态动词没有人称和数的变化,其后必须跟动词原型。

    分类

    只做情态动词:can, could, may, might, must, had better, be able to
    可做情态动词又可做实义动词:need, dare
    具有情态动词特征:have(has, had) to, used to, ought to
    可做情态动词又可作助动词:shall(should),will(would)

    常见情态动词

    原型过去式词义相近短语
    cancould能够,可能be able to
    maymight可以,可能
    mustmust必须have(has, had) to
    willwould愿意
    shallshould应该,必须ought to
    had betterhad better最好
    needneeded需要
    daredared敢于
    ought to
    be able to
    used to过去经常做……

    情态动词用法要点

    1. 动词原型跟后面,说话语气较委婉
      can 表 “能力”
      may 表 “许可”
      must 表 “责任”或“义务”,否定回答needn’t换
      need 表 “需要”
      dare 表 “敢”
      should 表 “应该”
      would 表 “愿”
      have to 表 “被迫”,表客观。
    2. 对must构成的一般疑问句作否定回答只能用needn’t
    3. dare和need一般在疑问句或否定句中才算情态动词,而肯定句中作行为动词。

    情态动词用法

    表示征求对方意见或许可

    情态动词:must, can, could, may, might, shall。例如
    Must I hand in my homework today?
    Yes, you must.\Yes, you have to.
    No, you needn’t.\No, you don’t have to.

    Can I come in and have a good look at your house with my girlfriend now?(比较口语化)
    Could I use your mobile phone as mine is power off?(语气委婉)
    Yes, you can.(回答不能用could)

    May \ Might I use your bicycle?(比较正式,用might语气更委婉)

    Shall I open the window to let in some fresh air?(shall此用法只用于第一和第三人称)
    Shall he come to sit in this seat and listen to your speech?(同上)

    表示邀请或请求

    情态动词:can, will, would, could, 一般用于第二人称;用would和could表示语气更加委婉。如
    Can \ Could you lend me some money to buy some books and dictionaries?

    Will \ Would you please tell us a story or joke for pleasure?

    表示允许或许可

    情态动词:can, may。如:
    You can sit here and do your homework because the seat is not occupied.

    You may go to bed and get up as late as you like; nobody cares about that.

    表示禁止

    情态动词:can’t, mustn’t, shan’t, shan’t多表按照某规定“不能”。如
    They can’t wear whatever they like when they are at school.

    Anybody mustn’t take books out of the library without permission.

    You shan’t hand in your papers ahead of time in the examinations according to the regulations.

    表示建议或劝告

    情态动词:ought to, should, had better, need。如
    Parents ought to take care of their children when they are young and children ought to look after their parents when they are old.(ought to表示义务,为别人做某事)

    You should do a lot of exercise regularly to improve your health.(should表建议,多指为自己做某事)

    You had better put more clothes in case it is cold on the mountain.(多用于上级对下级,长辈对晚辈之间)

    In order to learn English well, you need practice speaking English more often besides reading.(比较口语化)

    表示能力

    情态动词:can, could, be able to,can表示现在的能力,could表示过去的能力,be able to用来填充can,could没有的时态,但was\were able to除了表示过去的能力以外还表示“过去设法做成某事”,等于managed to do something或succeeded in doing something 。如
    When I was in China I couldn’t speak English, but now in USA I can speak it fluently.

    I am sure that this promising young man will be able to support his family in the future.

    They charged 20 thousand dollars for the car but I was able to bring the price down.(managed to\succeeded in)

    表示推测

    情态动词:may, might, must, can, could, should, ought to,must表推测语气最强,但只用于肯定句,否定式中用can’t或couldn’t代替;must\may\might\can’t\could\couldn’t\couldn’t + have done表示对过去发生事情的推测;should,ought to表示"按理说应该"。如
    It may be the headmaster’s office. I am not sure.(把握性不大)

    He was careless, He might have won the first place otherwise.(过去的可能性很小)

    Who can it be?(can 代替 must)
    It must be our manager.
    No, It can’t be him. He is in Japan at the moment.(must 不能用于否定句,由can’t代替)

    Was it in the street that he played football yesterday?
    It could be in the street, but I am not sure.(可能性不大)

    There were five men in your car during the long journey. It must have been uncomfortable.(= It couldn’t have been comfortable.可能性很大)

    He was with me in the class at that time yesterday. He couldn’t have played basketball on the playground yesterday.(动词是过去式时用couldn’t have done,不用can’t have done)

    He should be over fifteen years old, because he is a student in the 11th grade.

    She ought to turn up at any moment, for she is always on time for work.

    表示轻微埋怨、责备或后悔

    情态动词:should\ought to\needn’t\could\might + have done,如
    The movie star has died. You should \ ought to have come here earlier.(过去该做而没做)

    She is unhappy now. I shouldn’t \ oughtn’t to have told her the bad news.(过去不该做而做了)

    I needn’t have carried so much cash. All my bank cards could be available actually.(做了没必要做的事)

    You could have married me at that time. I loved and love you but he doesn’t.(过去本可以做但没做)

    She was out of mind. She might have passed the exam otherwise.(过去也许会但没有)

    表示警告、允诺、命令或威胁

    情态动词:shall,常用于第二、三人称,如
    You shall take the book to read as long as I finish it before Friday.

    All the candidates shall remain at their seats until the bell rings announcing the end of the exam.

    表示偏执

    情态动词:must,如
    If you must want to know my age, which is a privacy, let me tell you unwillingly.

    Must you smoke at a no-smoking area? You will be punished seriously.

    表示怀疑

    情态动词:should(竟然), dare, can’t,如
    Such a high official should be so rude to that little girl. What a shame!

    How dare you say that I treated you unfairly? Actually I did it right.

    Why can’t you know my telephone number and email address? We are good friends.

    表示习惯性

    情态动词:will,would,will表示现在反复,would表示过去反复,如
    After work he will go to the cafe to have a cup of coffee every day.

    Whenever and wherever he met him, he would stop the soldier and ask the same questions again and again in the army.

    情态动词用法区别

    1. must & have to。must表示主观上“必须”,have to表示客观逼迫“不得不”,如
      We must study English very hard, which I like very much.
      I have to study English very hard, because I have to pass the exam in the next.
    2. would, used to, be used to doing & be used to do something。would表示过去反复的动作,而used to则侧重“过去如此,现在已经不是那样了”以及“过去存在的状态”;be used to doing是表示“习惯于做某事”,其中be有时态和人称的变化,后跟动名词;be used to do something表示“某东西被用来做某事”,如
      When he was in that factory, he would go to that coffee shop at the corner after work every day.
      He used to smoke and drink a lot, but now he doesn’t.
      There used to be a big temple where there is a school now.(过去的状态)
      He has been used to working in such bad conditions.
      Wood can be used to make desks and chairs as well houses.
    3. didn’t need to do & needn’t have done。didn’t need to do表示“过去没必要做也没做”,而needn’t have done表示“过去没必要做但已经做了”,如
      It was raining yesterday, I didn’t need to work in the fields, so I stayed at home.(没去工作)
      It was Sunday yesterday, I needn’t have gone to school. But I forgot it and went as usual.(去学校了)
    4. need & dare。这两个词既可用作情态动词,又可用作实义动词,一般来说,情态动词多用于否定和疑问句;实义动词用于各种句式,后跟动词不定式,I dare say是固定短语,意为“ 我认为、我相信”,如
      Need I finish my report by six o’clock today?(情态动词)
      Yes, you must \ you have to.
      No, you needn’t \ you don’t have to.
      As a Chinese high school student, I need to work at lest 10 hours a day.(实义动词)
      My cat need repairing \ to be repaired thoroughly.(实义动词,后跟动名词主动表被动)
      Tom darn’t go out alone when it is dark at night.(情态动词)
      Dare you go home to face your parents when you haven’t done well in the exam?(情态动词)
      I don’t dare to feel the snake even if it is dead.(实义动词)
    5. can’t have done & couldn’t have done \ could have done。can’t have done 和 couldn’t have done均可表示must的否定推测,强调从现在角度出发推测过去某事“不可能”;但当主句的谓语动词是过去式时,就必须用couldn’t have done;could have done表示“过去有能力或有可能做某事但没有做”,有惋惜、遗憾、批评、责备等意思,如
      His jacket is till here, so he can’t(couldn’t) have gone home.(must的否定式)
      My sister met him at the Grand theatre yesterday, so he couldn’t have attended your lecture.(过去不可能)
      You could have walked here instead of taking a taxi; it is so near.
    6. would like to do & would like to have done。would like to do表示现在或将来“想做某事”,而would like to have done表示过去“想做某事但没做成”。如
      I would like to go to the concert tonight, but my parents don’t allow me to.
      I would like to have gone to the concert last night but I had to review lessons for the exams.

    参考:https://www.ixueshu.com/document/9fce56a574be9f97318947a18e7f9386.html
    https://www.ixueshu.com/document/aa451c49bc16d15f318947a18e7f9386.html
    https://baike.baidu.com/item/情态动词/3443430?fr=aladdin

    展开全文
  • 动词 摘录

    2018-06-24 22:59:27
    非谓语动词/谓语动词及物动词:在使用时,其后必须跟宾语。如:afford、allow、bring等不及物动词使用时,后面不能跟宾语。如:hesitate、lie、occur等有些不表示动作而表示状态(如感受、状况等)的动词,称为...
    

    动词:

    1. 动词的概述:句子的必备,充当谓语部分。根据不同的用途划分为:及物动词/不及物动词;实义动词/情态动词/系动词/助动词;非谓语动词/谓语动词

    1. 及物动词:在使用时,其后必须跟宾语。如:affordallowbring

    2. 不及物动词:使用时,后面不能跟宾语。如:hesitatelieoccur

    3. 有些不表示动作而表示状态(如感受、状况等)的动词,称为状态动词。Likelovethinkunderstandseembelongownappear等。状态动词在使用时,一般不用进行时态。

       

    1. 助动词:助动词本身没有意义,不能单独作谓语,主要为了帮助动词完成语法功能的动词。它们可以在句中与使实义动词一起构成疑问句、否定句;进行时、完成时和将来时;助动词一般包括am/is/are/were/has/have/haddo/does/didwill/wouldshall/should等。

    1. 助动词be的用法:和过去分词一起构成被动语态,可以是现在时、过去时或将来时。例如:The city is attacked. The city was attacked. The city will be attacked.

    2. be+过去分词,这种结构可以表示动作,也可以表示状态。

      例如:The glass was broken by a boy. (动作) The glass was (had been) broken. (状态)

    3. be和动词的-ing形式构成进行时态,表示某时正在进行的动作。

      例如:He is singing. He was singing. He will be singing.

    4. be和不定式一起构成谓语,表示安排,打算:

      例如:We are to start this afternoon. It was decided that Jack was to marry Jenny.

    5. be和动词不定式用在条件从句中,表示将来的假想情况(只有were能这样用)

      例如:If i were to do it, I should fail. (I know I shall not do it). She could do nothing if she were to run the farm. (I know she will not run it.)

    6. 助动词have的用法:

    1. 构成完成时,表示某事已完成(可表示现在已完成,过去某时完成,将来某时前完成):例如:She has written a letter. I had written a letter. I shall have got up when you call on me at six.

    2. 构成完成进行时,表示一直持续的动作(可表示直到现在,直到过去,到将来某时)I have been writing a letter for an hour. He had been practising music till midnight. I shall have been learning France for six years by 2016.

    3. 构成虚拟语气,表示未实现的愿望或打算。I should have met him.(But I did not meet him.) He intended to have come.(But he did not come)

    1. 助动词do的用法:最主要的用法有两个:a) 与动词原形搭配构成一般现在时或一般过去时的疑问句或否定句;b) 用在实义动词前起强调作用。

      例如:Do you do the shopping once a week?(疑问) He did not know when to set off.(否定)

      The farmer did drive the cattle into the field.(表示强调)

       

    1. 情态动词: 一般用于描述委婉、礼貌、客气、强令等特殊语气,达到表现说话人复杂心理及情感的目的。情态动词包括:can/could, may/might, will/would, shall/should, must, ought to(ought to must没有过去时),另外,needdare既可以作实义动词也可以作情态动词。

    1. can/could主要指“能力”。如: I can speak France.

    2. may主要指“允诺”。如:You may borrow my car this afternoon.

    3. will指“预告,将要”。如:It will rain soon.

    4. should/ought to主要指“不可推卸的义务或责任”。如:You should/ought to do as youre told.

    5. must主要表示“强令”或“不可推卸的责任”。如:You must be quiet.

    6. neednt指“没有义务”,即可做可不做。如:You neednt help me. I can do it myself.

    7. 情态动词也称为情态助动词,它像助动词be, do, have一样可以直接在后面加not构成否定句或放在句首构成疑问句。如:You mustnt move this table(否定句). May I ask you some questions?(疑问句). Cant you see the picture(否定疑问句)

    8. 情态动词每次只能用一个

    9. 情态动词的时态和语态:

    1. 情态动词在形式上没有实义动词的各种变化,只有could, would, had to, was to/were to 等几个过去式,mustought to等的过去式与现在式同形。情态动词的现在时和将来时没有区别,它通过自身的时间状语和上下文来说明的。(情态动词+动词原形构成现在时或将来时/情态动词+be+现在分词构成进行时)

    2. would, could, might, should在形式上都可以说是will, can, may, shall的过去式,但与它们的用法和意义却没有多大关系,一般来说情态动词的过去式往往可以表示更加委婉、客气等含义。当情态动词用于表示过去的状态或动作时,则使用它们的过去时态。如:He say you can/will/may leave early. He said you could/would/might leave early.

    3. 情态动词should, ought to, could, must后接动词的完成时态时,往往表示一些特殊的含义。如:Jack was with me then, so he could not have been there.(表示对过去情况的推测)

    1. 用情态动词表示推测:对所发生的事情进行描述的时候,一般有肯定、可能和推测三种情况。

    1. 如果说话人对所描述事实确信无疑,就可以用be或任意的实义动词直接描述。如:Jack is at home.(表示确定的事实)

    2. 如果说话人指的是可能发生的事,就可以用may/might/could+动词原形”结构表示。如:Jack may/might be at home.

    3. must+动词原形”一般表示有根据而且近乎肯定的推测;must一般用于肯定句,否定句和疑问句则通常用“can/cant+动词”。在表示有根据但是不太肯定的情况时则常常用“may/might+动词的原形或完成时表示。如:Judays light is on. She must be at home. 如:He cant be out. He is very busy. He might/may be working today.

    4. 表示推测时,其附加问句是通过情态动词后的动词形式来处理句尾的附加问句。“情态动词+动词的完成时”表示对过去事实的推测,所以有明确的时间状语时,附加问句部分动词一般应用过去时的助动词;如果没有明确的时间状语,则可以采用have/hasdid/was/were两种形式中的任意一种。如:I saw Jenny in the park this moring. She cant have been in the theater then. She cant have been in the theater then, was she? He might have left, hasnt/didnt he?(前两个为有时间状语,后一个没有)

    1. Would/used to

    1. 情态动词would/used to可以表示“习惯”或“过去常常”如:When we were students, we would often stay up all night. Jenny used to make her own dresses.

    2. used to强调“过去常常......而现在已经不......了”。如: I used to smoke, but I dont smoke any more.

    3. used to be()/have()可以描述过去的状态。如:I used to be a writer a long time age. Im a teacher now.

       

    1. 非谓语动词:非谓语动词包括不定式、现在分词、过去分词和动名词。非谓语动词不能直接充当谓语。在句子中,一般相当于形容词,副词或动名词的作为。

    1. 不定式:

    1. 不定式是非谓语动词中比较常用的一种。它通常用to+动词原形”构成,如: to wait, to ask, to do等。有些情况下to可以省略。动词不定式的用法相当多,既可以像名词那样在句子中充当主语、宾语或表语。也可以像形容词那样充当定语,还可以像副词那样充当状语,主要作目的状语和结果状语。如:Its easy to say. (不定式作真正的主语)Were waiting here to see the sunsine.(目的状语)We have decided to use the post office(宾语)She seems to be fond of this song.(表语)We have a lot of things to deal with today.(定语)We hurried to the station only to find that the train had left.(结果状语).

    2. 当不定式作let, havemake(这些词都当“让”将)的补语时,不定式to可以省略。如:Lets take a taxi; Dont let/have the children annoy you; I want to have her paint the wall; The teather made Jack stay in after school.

    3. “动词+宾语”作宾语补足语:feel, hear, listen to, look at, notice, observe,perceive(察觉), see, smell, watch等动词后经常跟不带to的不定式或现在分词作补语。如:1I watch Jack figured out this mathematical problem. 2You can stand on the platform and watch the workers building in progress.(这些词后接不带to的不定式时1,一般表示动作的全过程,其后的补语动作往往是一些短暂性的动词;而当其后跟的是动词的现在分词形式时2,则通常强调动作正在进行中,尚未结束).

    4. to的不定式:不定式的一般用法是作句子的目的状语,而且经常用in order to so as to等词组来表示目的。如: I moved to New York to/in order to/ so as to learn English.

    5. It is/was + 形容词+of+名词/代词+to的不定式。(it作为形式主语的用法比作人称主语的用法更为常见)。如:Its very kind of you to help us. 在这个结构中,有时形容词之后的介词of也可以用for。使用of时,该形容词往往指介词of之后的名词或代词表示的意思,具有所属关系;当没有所属关系是则应使用介词for。如:It was silly of us to believe him.(有所属关系,silly of us, we are silly...); It is importmant for you to learn a foreign language.(没有所属关系)

       

    1. 动词的ing形式

    1. 动词的ing形式可以分为两种形式:一、动名词,具有名词的性质,在句子中充充当主语、宾语或表语。二、现在分词,具有形容词或副词的性质,在句子中充当定语、状语或补语。如:Seeing is believing.(均为动名词,前者作主语,后者作宾语)This is a running stream.(现在分词作定语)

    2. 动名词和现在分词虽同形,但作用完全不一样,动名词具有名词的性质,常常作主语或宾语,而且由动词变化而来,所以后面可以跟自己的宾语。如:Washing the car seems to be his main job.

    1. 过去分词

    1. 过去分词和现在分词一样,具有形容词或副词的功能,在句子中一般充当状语、定语、表语或补语。如:Seen from the plane, the houses look like some toy boxes.(方式状语)Pay attention to the broken glasses.(定语)Astonished by the strange sound, all the children hid themselves under the bed.(原因状语)Destroyed during the war, the city has now been completely rebuild.(时间状语)

    2. 现在分词和过去分词的区别:一般来说,现在分词表示与其被修饰词之间是“主动”的关系,同时强调其动作“正在发生”;而过去分词截然相反,它一般表示其与修饰词之间是“被动”的关系,且强调动作为“已经完成了的”。如:Grandma was sitting in an armchair,telling stories.(telling为现在分词作was sitting的伴随状语,强调动作“正在发生”,且与逻辑主语grandma之间是主动关系)Guided by the local farmer, we succeeded in climbing the mountain.(guided为过去分词,充当状语,与逻辑主语之间是被动关系)

    1. 独立主格结构:由“名词/代词(逻辑主语部分)+逻辑谓语部分”组成,其逻辑谓语部分可以是现在分词、过去分词、不定式或介词短语。独立主格结构一般用于逻辑主语与句子的真正主语不同的句子中。如:Seeing the red traffic light turning on, the driver stopped his car.(不是独立主格结构,因为逻辑主语与句子中真正的主语一致)The red traffic light turning on, the driver stopped his car.(构成独立主格结构)

       

    展开全文
  • 完全不及物动词的判断方法 我...他(主动) 他被我...(被动) 任意放入一个英语动词,翻译后意思若无毛病,就是及物动词,否则就是不及物动词。 有些动词有两个或两个以上的意思,套用上述方法,可以判断出有些...
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    2019-07-20 21:52:07
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  • 祈使句 情态动词.docx

    2021-06-23 15:04:24
    老师要补充no v-ing句式的标志中的用法。如我们在表示Don’t park the car.的时候习惯用No parking来代替。 4.Future designer 老师把四张地图分别分给各组,先要求各组讨论各个场所的规则或标语,然后把代表这些...
  • 英语学习(五)动词

    2020-07-28 13:02:29
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  • 语法之动词

    2011-12-06 12:22:01
     系动词与实义动词是同级别的分类,所以划分上系动词与及物动词和不及物动词是不同的概念,没有必要也不能区分系动词到底是否为及物动词。 2 实义动词和系动词  实义动词又按动词后可否直接跟宾语,分为及物...
  • 非谓语动词作后置定语

    万次阅读 2017-12-06 18:04:14
    非谓语动词动词的非谓语形式,一般包括动名词、不定式、现在分词、过去分词。 后置定语:形容词等表示修饰的成分放在名词后面,成为后置定语。 1.doing:正在进行的动作 并且/或者 是名词的主动语态。 单个-...
  • 用法(3种): 及物动词,后边可接宾语,翻译为“使/让...怎么样” 后加ed变形容词,修饰人 后加ing变形容词,修饰物,翻译为“令人...” 常用的使动词: 关于上述使动词有两点需要说明: (1)upset的...
  • 英语中的系动词

    2015-01-24 16:20:00
    英语中的系动词 实义动词和系动词和助动词都非常难分 系动词编辑 系动词,亦称连系动词(Link Verb),是用来帮助说明主语的动词。作为系动词,它本身有词义,但不能单独用作谓语,后边必须跟表语,,...
  • 英语语法之动词时态

    千次阅读 2011-11-29 12:49:33
    动词时态   时态部分:所谓的"时态",就是时间+状态。谓语动词的时态一般有: -----------------------------------------------------------------------------   1.主动形式    过去 现在 将来 ...
  • 以下介绍几个常用的使役动词用法。 1 make make用作使役动词表示 “使;使成为” 时,可跟复合结构,即“make+宾语+宾语补足语”,其中的宾语补足语可以是不带to的不定式、过去分词、形容词或名词。现将make的复合...
  • 半助动词在功能上介于主动词和助动词之间的一类结构,称为半助动词。 (1) 半助动词充当情态动词。协助主动词。后接动词原型。 (2) 半助动词充当主动词。具有时态和语态,每一个半助动词只能表示一种时态,一种语态...
  • 动词(网摘)

    2011-08-08 14:44:29
    动词,亦称连系动词(Link Verb)。 它本身有词义,但不能单独用作谓语,后边必须跟表语,亦称补语(大多是形容词),构成系表结构,说明主语的状况、性质、特征等情况。 ...基本用法:   ...
  • 第十章 动词概说

    千次阅读 2007-08-24 14:46:00
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  • 联系动词动词的分类`状态系动词``感官系动词``变化系动词``持续系动词`终止系动词既是系动词又是实义动词2.1.3 助动词动词的分类基本助动词`be(is、am、are、was、were)``have,has,had``do,does,did`will,woul...
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