动词ing形式做定语的用法总结2020-10-24 19:51:36动词ing形式做定语的用法总结 文章目录动词ing形式做定语的用法总结●-ing形式做定语通常从以下四个方面考查1)说明被修饰词的性质，特征或用途。2)与被修饰词为主动关系且表示正在进行的动作。3)有些-ing形式已经...
- 4)-ing形式与被修饰词是被动关系，就用它的被动式，即being done.being doing通常表示正在被做，常做后置定语。
1.He is an attacking player.他是一个攻击型的运动员。
2.He asked an embarrassing question.他提了一个令人难堪的问题。
1.A young man writing novels came to speak to us yesterday.
→A young man who writes novels came to speak to us yesterday.
2.The girl sitting next to me was my cousin.
→The girl who was sitting next to me was my cousin.坐在我旁边的姑娘是我表妹。
3.A little child learning to walk often falls.
→A little child who learns to walk often falls.学走路的小孩常常跌跤。
4.Do you know the number of people coming to the party?
→Do you know the number of people who come to the party?你知道来参加晚会的人数吗?
1.They set up an operating table in a small temple.他们将手术台架设在一座小庙里。
2.He may be in the reading room，for all I know.他说不定在阅览室里。
3.Ladies and gentlemen，please go and wait in the meeting room.女士们先生们，请去会议室等待。
1.There were about 200 children studying in the art school.有大约二百个孩子在这所艺术学校学习。
2.Who is the woman talking to our English teacher?
1.That must have been a terrifying experience.那准时一段可怕的经历。
2.The experiment was an amazing success.那项试验是一个惊人的成功。
3.There is a page missing from this book.这本书缺了一页。
1.The tall building being built now is our new school.正在被建的高楼是我们的新学校。
2.The question being discussed was presented by the headmaster.正在被讨论的问题是被校长提出的。
who isdressing a sexy skirt is my girl friend.
->The girl dressing a sexy skirt is my girl friend.
who wasrunning is my teacher.
->The man running is my teacher.
1.I lived in a room
->I lived in a room facing south.
who wishto join the club should sign here.
->Those wishing to join the club should sign here.
who hadbeen disturbed so badly, almost lost his memory.
->The man,having been disturbed so badly, almost lost his memory.
who hadfinished his assignment quickly, almost lost his memory.
->The man,having finished his assignment quickly, almost lost his memory.
07 【动词的形式】verb & structure，动词的位置，动词的使用，及物动词和不及物动词，使役动词，感官动词...2020-08-10 13:08:2007 【动词的形式】verb & structure 1，确认动词的位置 不需要修饰语：介词，连词，to不定词，副词 例如）you should not access the storage room (without a permit) ...只能加上V-ing的主动形式 ...
07 【动词的形式】verb & structure
例如）you should not access the storage room (without a permit)
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状态说明：be, stay, remain, look/seem/appear
变化说明：become, get, grow
- 未来：不定词 to,
- 进行：介词短语，On/under 干什么 之中，out of 进行中断
及物动词 – 3形式
及物动词 – 4形式
Give， grant, award, forward, assign, offer
Advise, ,notify, inform, convince, assure, remind + somebody(间接宾语) + something（直接冰与）
比如）announced you X announced 后要加介词才能加宾语
Informed you √
及物动词 – 5形式
A, 使~，让~， 劝告，希望，要求，命令，预想等动作为基础 主要以 人 为宾语
Make have let help + Somebody(人) + 动词原型，但是 help to do / help do 都okay!!
例句）Makes me read the sentences.
C, 状态/判断 动词
状态动词：leave keep make have let
判断动词：consider find deem
例句）the board of directors found the marketing strategy too impractical.
Feel see watch hear + Somebody + 动词原形或者分词
例句）we saw a lot of students bravely marching through the street
【···ところです】前面接动词不同形式2016-09-21 00:42:53依据前面所接动词的形式而表示不同意思。 1、动词基本形+ところです 表示动作尚未结束，“即将~”，“to do”。 ご飯を食べるところです。 田中さんに電話をかけるところです。 2、动词“て形”+いるところです ...
动词2020-08-12 00:21:26动词 Verbs are used to indicate the actions, processes, conditions, or states of beings of people or things. Verbs play an integral role to the structure of a sentence. They constitute the root of the...
Verbs are used to indicate the actions, processes, conditions, or states of beings of people or things. Verbs play an integral role to the structure of a sentence. They constitute the root of the predicate, which, along with the subject (the “doer” of the verb’s action), forms a full clause or sentence—we cannot have a sentence without a verb. When we discuss verbs’ role in the predicate, we usually divide them into two fundamental categories: finite and non-finite verbs
The predicate requires at least one finite verb to be considered complete. A finite verb has a direct relationship to the subject of a sentence or clause, and does not require another verb in the sentence in order to be grammatically correct. For example: • “I swim every day.” • “She reads many books.” • “He talked for several hours.” Each of the above is a finite verb, expressing an action that is directly related to the subject of the sentence. Non-finite verbs, on the other hand, do not express that relationship directly. The only verbs that can be considered finite are those in their base form (the infinitive form without the particle to), their past tense form, or their third-person singular form. Verb forms that are never considered finite are gerunds, 【动名词】 infinitives, 【不定式】 and participles 【分词】 (both past and present). Let’s look at an example containing both a finite and non-finite verb: • “We are learning about the American Revolution in school.” However, learning is a present participle, which is considered a non-finite verb; the finite verb of the sentence is actually just the auxiliary verb are. It is an inflection of the verb be used for a first person plural subject (we). We can see the difference if we use each verb in isolation with the subject: • “We are” • “We learning” We can see that the first verb is finite because it expresses a direct relationship with the subject, and it can go on to form any number of complete sentences. For example: ✔ “We are tired.” The second verb, the present participle learning, cannot make such sentences, and so is not finite. The following examples all require a finite verb to be correct: ✖ “We learning math.”
【及物，不及物】 Every verb is classed as being either transitive or intransitive. Transitive verbs describe an action that is happening to someone or something. This person or thing is known as the direct object of the verb. For example: • “He’s reading a book.” (The action of reading is happening to the book.) • “The people watched the game from the bleachers.” (The action of watched is happening to the game.) • “I was eating a delicious steak for dinner last night.” (The action of eating is happening to a delicious steak.) Transitive verbs can also take indirect objects, which are the people or things receiving the direct object. For instance: • “I sent my brother a letter.” (My brother receives the letter through the action of sent.) Conversely, intransitive verbs do not have objects—their action is not happening to anyone or anything. For example: • “I can’t believe our dog 【ran away】.” (There is no object receiving the action of ran away.) • “There was a lot of dust in the air, which made me 【sneeze】.” (There is no object receiving the action of sneeze.) • “Don’t be too loud while the baby 【sleeps】.” (There is no object receiving the action of sleeps.)
Just as every verb is either transitive or intransitive, each one is considered to be either regular or irregular Most verbs are regular verbs, which means that “-d” or “-ed” can be added to their base form (the infinitive of the verb without to) to conjugate both the past simple tense and past participle forms. For example:
Irregular verbs, on the other hand, have past tense and past participle forms that do not (or do not seem to) adhere to a distinct or predictable pattern, and they are usually completely different from one another. Unfortunately, this means that there is generally no way of determining how to conjugate irregular verbs—we just have to learn each one individually. There are many irregular verbs, but here are a few common ones:
Uniquely, the verb be is considered highly irregular, having three different present tense forms (is, am, are) and two past tense forms (was, were), in addition to its base form and its past and present participles (been, being).
All verbs are either finite or non-finite and transitive or intransitive in a given sentence, depending on their form and function. There are many different forms and categories of verbs that we’ll be looking at in this chapter, and we’ll give a brief summary of the different kinds of verbs below. You can continue on to their individual sections to learn more.
Auxiliary or “helping” verbs are verbs that are used to complete the meaning of other primary or “main” verbs in a sentence. In the example we looked at above, are is an auxiliary to the main verb, learning. The three primary auxiliary verbs— be, have, and do—are used to create different tenses, to form negatives, or to ask questions. For example: • “I am working on my project.” (present continuous tense) • “She does not work here anymore.” (negative sentence) • “Have you seen my keys?” (question) There are also modal auxiliary verbs (often just called modal verbs), which are used to express modality— that is, possibility, likelihood, ability, permission, obligation, or future intention. These are can, could, will, would, shall, should, must, may, and might. They are distinguished by the fact that they are unable to conjugate into different forms, and they are only followed by a verb in its base form. For example: • “I will be there tonight.” (future intention) • “She can write very well.” (ability) • “May I be excused from the table?” (permission) • “We must finish this today.” (obligation)
Infinitives are the most basic construction of a verb. When we talk of a verb as a general concept, we usually use the infinitive form, which is the uninflected base form of the verb plus the particle to. For instance: to run to walk to read to be to learn to act Infinitives can be used as nouns, adjectives, or adverbs in a sentence, but they do not actually function as verbs— they are used to express an action as a concept, rather than what is being done or performed by the subject of a clause. For example: • “I love to run.” (functions as a noun) • “I wish I had something to do.” (functions as an adjective) • “I run a lot to stay healthy.” (functions as an adverb)
Participles are forms of verbs that either function with auxiliary verbs to create the continuous and perfect verb tenses, or as adjectives to modify nouns. Every verb (except the modal auxiliary verbs) has two participle forms: a present participle and a past participle. The present participle is always the base form of the verb + “-ing.” Although the spelling of some verbs changes very slightly to accommodate this suffix, every verb takes “-ing” for the present participle. We use present participles with the auxiliary be to form continuous tenses, as in: • “Can’t you see that I am reading?” (present continuous tense) • “I was watching that.” (past continuous tense) • “They will be arriving soon.” (future continuous tense) The past participle is usually the same as a verb’s simple past tense form, which is made by adding “-d” or “-ed” to the end of the verb. However, many verbs are irregular, meaning they do not follow this spelling pattern, and they have different past tense and past participle forms. (We’ll look at regular and irregular verbs later on.) The past participle is used with the auxiliary have to form the perfect tenses: • “You have worked long enough.” (present perfect tense) • “We had seen too much.” (past perfect tense) • “They’ll have arrived before we get there.” (future perfect tense) We can also use participles as adjectives to add description to nouns. Though they still relate to action, they are not functioning as verbs when used this way. For example: • “The mother looked down at her smiling child.” • “I could tell by the exhausted look on his face that he needed sleep.”
Action verbs (also known as dynamic verbs) describe an active process that results in an effect. For example: • “I ran to school.” • “She read a book.”
In contrast to action verbs, stative verbs describe states of being of a subject. These include linking verbs, such as be and verbs of the senses, which are used to describe or rename a subject using a predicative adjective or noun. For example: • “I am hungry.” • “You sound tired.” • “He seems like a bully.” Other stative verbs are those that express emotions, possession, cognition, and states or qualities. For example: • “She likes old movies.” • “They own three cars.”
Light verbs do not carry unique meaning on their own, but instead rely on another word or words that follow them to become meaningful. Common examples include do, have, an take, as in: • “Do your homework!” • “Why don’t we have something to eat?” • “I took a shower before breakfast.” In many cases, the same light verb will have different meanings, depending on the word or words it is paired with. For instance: • “Please don’t make a mess.” • “Please make your bed.”
Phrasal verbs are verbs that pair with prepositions or particles to create unique, specific meanings. • “I can’t believe that you’re 【giving up】!” • “The plane 【took off】 an hour late.” • “He has been 【looking after】 his mother.” • “Stop 【picking on】 your brother!”
The term conditional verbs refers to verb constructions that are used in conditional sentences, which describe a hypothetical outcome that is reliant upon another conditional situation being true. These sentences most often use the conjunction if with one of the verbs to express the conditional situation, and often use modal auxiliary verbs to describe the hypothetical outcome. For example: • “The leaves will fall if the wind blows.” • “If you had done your chores, you could have had an ice cream cone.” • “You would get better grades if you studied harder.”
Causative verbs are used to indicate that a person or thing is causing another action or an event to happen. They are generally followed by a noun or pronouns and an infinitive verb that is not causative, which describes the action that was caused to happen. For example: • “He let his dog run through the field.” • “The bigger house enabled the family to have more room for their belongings.” • “The new dress code forced the students to wear different shoes.” • “The law requires a person to obtain a permit before hunting on public land.”
Factitive verbs are used to indicate a condition or state of a person, place, or thing that results from the action of the verb. For example: • “She was appointed commissioner by the mayor.” • “The committee elected Mr. Fuller chairman of the board.” • “The jury judged the defendant not guilty.”
Reflexive verbs have subjects that are also their direct objects—that is, the action of the verb is both committed and received by the same person or thing. The objects of transitive reflexive verbs are usually reflexive pronouns. For example: • “I accidentally burned myself with the hairdryer.” • “The problem seems to have worked itself out in the end.” • “This car doesn’t drive properly anymore.” (intransitive—no direct object)
When we discuss verbs, we usually must touch upon conjugation. This is the inflection (changing of form) of verbs to create new meaning in specific contexts. We generally refer to tense (which we looked at briefly above) when we talk about conjugation, but verbs experience a large amount of inflection depending on how they are being used in a sentence. For more information, go to the chapter on Conjugation in the part of this guide called Inflection (Accidence).
1.Finite verbs Finite verbs are verbs that have subjects and indicate grammatical tense, person, and number. These verbs describe the action of a person, place, or thing in the sentence. Unlike other types of verbs, finite verbs do not require another verb in the sentence in order to be grammatically correct. Here are some examples of finite verbs: • “They went to the mall today.” • “The outfielder leaped for the baseball.” • “Many people travel to the ocean in the summer.” • “The sailboat glides over the water.” • “The lion is the king of the jungle.” 2. Difference from non-finite verbs Non-finite verbs are verbs that do not have tenses or subjects that they correspond to. Instead, these verbs are usually infinitives, gerunds, or participles. Gerunds and present participles end in “-ing,” while past participles usually end in “-ed,” “-d,” or “-t.” Let’s have a look at how infinitives, gerunds, and participles function in a sentence in contrast to finite verbs. - Infinitives If an infinitive is used in its full form (to + base form of the verb), it can function as a noun, adjective, or adverb in the sentence. Bare infinitives (base form of the verb without to) of non-finite verbs are used in conjunction with modal auxiliary verbs, which are considered the finite verb(s) of the sentence. For example: • “To run is often tiresome.” (The infinitive to run functions as a noun, while is functions as the finite verb.) • “It takes a while to learn to ride a bicycle.” (The infinitive phrase to learn to ride a bicycle functions as an adjective, modifying “a while.”) • “I can’t swim yet.” (The bare infinitive swim relies on the finite auxiliary verb can to be complete.) - Gerunds Gerunds are “-ing” forms of a verb that function as nouns in a sentence. Because they do not have the grammatical function of a verb, gerunds are always non-finite. • “Seeing the ocean for the first time is incredible.” • “Reading books is often very enjoyable.” - Present Participles Present participles have the same form as gerunds, ending in “-ing.” However, they function in a sentence as either part of a continuous tense, relying on an auxiliary verb to be complete; as an adjunct to a finite verb, indicating a secondary action; or as an attributive or predicative adjective, modifying a noun. • “My daughter is watching me work.” (Watching is used with is to form the present continuous tense.) • “The car sat rusting in the driveway for over a year.” (Rusting is used in conjunction with the finite verb sat to indicate a parallel activity.) • “I read a very engaging book last week.” (Engaging functions as an attributive adjective of book.) •“This book is engaging.” (Engaging functions as a predicative adjective, following the finite linking verb is and modifying book.) - Past Participles Past participles of verbs are used to create non-continuous perfect verb tenses ( past perfect, present perfect, and future perfect), or else function as adjectives modifying nouns (again, either attributively or predicatively). They are also used when forming the passive voice. It is important to note that non-finite past participles and finite past tense verbs often both end in “-d” or “-ed.” If the word directly describes the action of a subject, then it is a finite verb. However, if the word is being used as an adjective or requires another verb to be complete, then it is a non-finite verb. • “I had already walked for many miles.” (Walked is a past participle that depends on the auxiliary verb have to create the past perfect tense.) • “Those clothes are washed.” (Washed is a past participle acting as an predicative adjective to the noun clothes, following the finite linking verb are.) • “She carried the washed clothes upstairs.” (Carried is a past tense verb describing the action of the subject, she; washed is a past participle acting as an attributive adjective to the noun clothes.)
Sentences need a finite verb in order to be complete. Without a finite verb, a sentence would simply be a subject, or a subject and other parts of speech that do not express action and are not linked together properly. In other words, sentences do not function correctly without finite verbs. To illustrate this point, consider the following examples: • “The car.” • “The car on the road.“ • “The car on the road through the mountains.” In the above examples, car is the subject. In order to make complete sentences, a finite verb must be used to describe the action of the car, as well as show how the other parts of the sentence relate to it. In the following examples, a finite verb is used to form complete sentences: • “The car drove.” • “The car drove on the road.” • “The car drove on the road through the mountains.” Simply adding the finite verb drove makes all three of these sentences complete. This is because it lets the reader know what the car is doing, and it connects the subject to the other parts of the sentence. We can also see how a using a non-finite verb instead of a finite one would render the sentence incomplete again. For example: • “The car driving on the road through the mountains.” Because we used the present participle driving, the sentence is now disjointed—the action is not fully expressed by the sentence. We would need to add a finite verb to complete it, as in: • “The car was driving on the road through the mountains.”
Due to the fact that multiple types of verbs can often exist in the same sentence, it is helpful to know some common instances of finite verbs that can help you identify them.
Any verb that has an “-s” ending for the third person singular present form is a finite verb. Non-finite verbs do not have tense, and thus never switch their endings to “-s” in the third person singular present form. (The exceptions to this are modal auxiliary verbs: can, could, will, would, shall, should, may, might, and must. Modal verbs also cannot take an “-s” ending for third person singular present; however, they are always finite. They come directly after the subject and before main verbs, and help to determine aspect, tense, and mood.) Here are some examples of finite verbs in the third person singular present form with “-s” endings: • “He runs to the store every morning.” • “The woman swims in the ocean.” • “The boy kicks the soccer ball at the goal.” • “She has three cars in her driveway.”
Verbs that are functioning in the past tense (not past participles) are inherently finite. As we noted above, the majority of verbs have the same form for both past tense and past participle. These are known as regular verbs. To determine if a regular verb is in the past tense or is a past participle (and thus finite or non-finite), we have to examine how it is functioning in the sentence. However, some verbs are irregular, and they have a past tense form that is separate from their past participle form. Here are a few examples of sentences using irregular verbs: Be • “She was feeling unwell.” (past tense – finite) • “She has been feeling unwell.” (past participle – non-finite) Go • “I went to the store.” (past tense – finite) • “I had gone to the store.” (past participle – non-finite) Fly • “They flew to San Diego already.” (past tense – finite) • “They have flown to San Diego already.” (past participle – non-finite) There are quite a few irregular verbs, and there is no rule to how they are conjugated (which is why they are irregular). To learn more, go to the section about Regular and Irregular Verbs.
Finite verbs often directly follow the subjects whose actions they are describing. This location allows for a clear connection between the subject and the verb— it makes it easy for the reader or listener to understand that the verb is describing the action of the subject and not another word in the sentence. Here are some examples of finite verbs appearing directly after subjects in sentences: • “Everyone listened to the music.” • “Elephants travel together in herds to find water.” • “Across the field, the trees swayed in the wind.” Non-finite verbs however, generally do not appear directly after the subject. This is because they are often not directly describing the action of the subject, but are instead serving another grammatical purpose in the sentence.
English verbs are split into two major categories depending on how they function in a sentence: transitive and intransitive. Transitive verbs take one or more objects in a sentence, while intransitive verbs take no objects in a sentence.
Put simply, a transitive verb describes an action that is happening to something or someone, which is known as the verb’s direct object. For instance, in the sentence “I am reading a book,” book is the direct object, which the action reading is happening to. To put it another way, the verb is transitive if a word or words in the sentence answer the question “Who or what did the action of the verb happen to?” • “The people watched the game from the bleachers.” (The game is what the people watched.) • “I was eating a delicious steak for dinner last night.” (A delicious steak is what I was eating.) • “They met your brother at the airport in Dubai.” (Your brother is who they met.)
An intransitive verb, on the other hand, describes an action that does not happen to something or someone. For example, in the sentence “I arrived late,” arrived is describing an action, but there is nothing and no one for that action to happen to— the action is complete on its own. The verb is intransitive if we cannot answer the question “Who or what did the action of the verb happen to?” • “I can’t believe our dog ran away.” (What did the dog run away? Nothing, there is no object receiving the action of ran away.) • “There was a lot of dust in the air, which made me sneeze.” (What did I sneeze? Nothing, there is no object receiving the action of sneeze.) • “Don’t be too loud while the baby sleeps.” (What did the baby sleep? Nothing, there is no object receiving the action of sleeps.)
When intransitive verbs are modified by prepositional phrases, they can often look like they are transitive because the preposition has its own object; however, this is not the case. Take, for example, the following sentences: • “I can’t believe our dog ran away from home.” • “I sneezed from the dust.” • “The baby is sleeping in our room.” It may seem like home, dust and our room are all objects of the verbs in these sentences, but they’re actually objects of the prepositions, which together form prepositional phrases that modify the verbs. The verbs remain intransitive, regardless of the objects in prepositional phrases.
One way to remember the difference between the two is to think about their names: Transitive verbs transition or transfer an action to a person or thing that receives it. In- means not in this case, so intransitive verbs do not transition/transfer an action to a person or thing that receives it.
Some action verbs can be both transitive and intransitive, depending on the context of the sentence or what information the speaker wishes to include. These are sometimes known as ambitransitive or ergative verbs. For example: • “She eats before going to work.” (Intransitive—no direct object receiving the action of the verb eats.) • “She eats breakfast before going to work.” (Transitive—has a direct object (breakfast) receiving the action of the verb eats.) Here are some other examples of verbs that function both transitively and intransitively. • “I’ve been trying to read more.” (intransitive) • “I’ve been trying to read more novels.” (transitive) • “I’m still cooking, so I’m going to be a little late.” (intransitive) • “I’m still cooking dinner, so I’m going to be a little late.” (transitive) • “I’ve been exercising every day this month.” (intransitive) • “I’ve been exercising my arms every day this month.” (transitive)
As we’ve seen, a transitive verb is by definition a verb that takes an object. Most verbs are monotransitive, meaning they only take one object. However, some verbs, known as ditransitive verbs, can take two objects in a sentence, while others, known as tritransitive verbs, can take (or seem to take) three objects. - Monotransitive Verbs A verb that acts upon a single object in a sentence is referred to as monotransitive (monomeaning one). This single object is called its direct object. All of the examples we’ve seen so far have been monotransitive verbs; here’s a few more: • “I rode my bike to get here.” • “Jim just told a funny joke.” • “I’m making lasagna for dinner.” • “I heard she’s writing a novel.” - Ditransitive Verbs There are some verbs in English that take two objects: a direct object and an indirect object. These are known as ditransitive verbs. The direct object relates to the person or thing that directly receives the action of the verb, while the indirect object relates to the person or thing that indirectly receives or benefits from the action as a result. The indirect object in a ditransitive verb can either come immediately before the direct object in a sentence, or it can form the object of a prepositional phrase using to or for that follows and modifies the direct object. For example: • “He gave Mary a pen.” ( The indirect object, Mary immediately follows the direct object, pen.) or • “He gave a pen to Mary.” ( The indirect object, Mary, forms the object of the prepositional phrase to Mary, which follows and modifies the direct object, pen.) Here are some other examples: • “She teaches the students mathematics.” • “She teaches mathematics to the students.” • “I sent my brother a letter.” • “I sent a letter to my brother.” • “My father baked our class a batch of cupcakes.” • “My father baked a batch of cupcakes for our class.” - Factitive Verbs Factitive verbs are or appear to be ditransitive as well. Instead of having a direct object that impacts on an indirect object, factitive verbs describe a status, category, quality, or result that the direct object is becoming due to the action of the verb. This secondary element can be either an object or object complement of the verb. For example: • “The American people elected her the president of the United States.” • “He was appointed Supreme Court justice.” • “The committee selected Mrs. Fuller chairman of the board.” • “The group designated Marshall the leader from then on.” • “The coach made Linda point guard.” • “We painted the ceiling white.” See the section on factitive verbs to learn more. - “Tritransitive” verbs An unofficial third type of transitive verb is what’s sometimes known as a tritransitive verb, meaning that it takes three objects. This third “object” is formed from a prepositional phrase or clause that appears to receive the action of the verb by way of the indirect object. For example: • “We will make you CEO for $300,000.” • “I’d trade you that sandwich for an ice cream cone.” • “I bet you 50 bucks (that) our team will win the championship.” There is some dispute among linguists, however, as to whether these kinds of verbs truly have three objects, or whether the third piece of information is merely considered an adjunct, as the sentence would be grammatically sound without it.
All English verbs are either regular or irregular, depending on how they are conjugated. The majority are regular verbs, which means that “-d” or “-ed” is added to their base form (the infinitive of the verb without to) to create both the past simple tense and past participle. The past simple tense and past participles of irregular verbs, on the other hand, have many different forms that do not adhere to a distinct or predictable pattern. Much of the time, their past tense and past participle forms are completely different from one another. Unfortunately, this means that there is no way of determining how to conjugate irregular verbs— we just have to learn each one individually.
In some cases, though, we have to modify the verb slightly further in order to be able to add “-d” or “-ed.” For instance, with verbs that end in a “short” vowel followed by a consonant, we double the final consonant in addition to adding “-ed”;* when a verb ends in a consonant + “y,” we replace the “y” with “i” and add “-ied”; and when a verb ends in “-ic,” we add the letter “k” in addition to “-ed.”
Usage Note: An exception to this rule occurs for words that end in a soft vowel and the consonant “l” (as in travel, cancel, fuel, label, etc.). In this case, we merely add “-ed” to form the past simple and the past participle (as in traveled, canceled, fueled, labeled, etc.)— we do not double the consonant. Note, however, that this exception only occurs in American English; in other varieties of English, such as British or Australian English, the consonant is still doubled • “I walk around the park each evening.” (base form) • “I walked around the park in the afternoon.” (past simple tense) • “I have walked around the park a few times this morning.” (past participle) • “I’m going to chop some vegetables for the salad.” (base form) • “He chopped some vegetables for the salad before dinner.” (past simple tense) • “He had already chopped some vegetables for the salad.” (past participle) • “Don’t copy other students’ answers or you will get an F.” (base form) • “I think he copied my answers.” (past simple tense) • “The only answers he got right were the ones he had copied.” (past participle) • “Your father’s fine, don’t panic!” (base form) • “I panicked when I heard he was in the hospital.” (past simple tense) • “I wish hadn’t panicked like that.” (past participle)
• “I am excited that college is starting.” (base form) • “I was sad to leave home, though.” (past simple tense) • “I have been making a lot of new friends already.” (past participle) • “I drive to work every morning.” (base form) • “I drove for nearly an hour yesterday.” (past simple tense) • “I had already driven halfway to the office when I realized I forgot my briefcase.” (past participle) • “I would love to grow vegetables in my garden.” (base form) • “I grew some juicy tomatoes last summer.” (past simple tense) • “He has grown a lot of different vegetables already.” (past participle) • “I think I would like to get a dog.” (base form) • “She thought a dog would provide some good company.” (past simple tense) • “She hadn’t thought about how much work they are.” (past participle)
Auxiliary verbs (also called helping verbs) are verbs that add functional meaning to other “main” or “full” verbs in a clause. They are used to create different tenses or aspects, to form negatives and interrogatives, or to add emphasis to a sentence. However, they do not have semantic meaning unto themselves.
- be -do - have - can - could - will - would - shall - should - must - may - might - ought to - used to - need - dare The primary auxiliary verbs are be, do, and have, and they are the most commonly occurring auxiliaries in English. Each can also be used as a main verb in a clause, and each is able to conjugate to reflect plurality, tense, or aspect. The verbs can, could, will, would, shall, should, must, may, and might are known as modal auxiliary verbs. These are distinguished by the fact that they are unable to conjugate into different forms, and they are only followed by a verb in its base form. The remaining verbs— ought to, used to, need, and dare— are known as semi-modal verbs, since they do not share all the characteristics of the modal verbs above and only function as auxiliary verbs in certain ways.
One of the most common uses of auxiliary verbs is to create the continuous and perfect continuous verb tenses (as well as the future simple tense).
The future tense is structured as will + the main verb, or is/am/are + going to + the main verb: • “I will arrive in New York at 10 PM.” or: • “I am going to arrive in New York at 10 PM.”
The present continuous tense is structured as am/is/are + the present participle of the main verb: • “I am working tomorrow.” • “She is living in New York.” • “They are trying to save some money.”
The past continuous tense is structured as was/were + the present participle of the main verb: • “I was cooking breakfast when she called.” • “We were talking on the phone at the time.”
he future continuous tense is structured as will be + the present participle of the main verb, or am/is/are + going to be + the present participle of the verb: • “I will be leaving in the morning.” or: • “I am going to be leaving in the morning.”
The present perfect tense is structured as have/has + the past participle of the main verb: • “I have lived here all my life.” • “She has studied for this exam for weeks.” • “They have tried to find a solution to the problem.”
The past perfect tense is structured as had + the past participle of the main verb: • “I had already made my fortune when I was your age.” • “We had seen that the results were constant.”
The future perfect tense is usually structured as will have + the past participle of the main verb: • “I will have finished by that time.” • “She will have sung with a professional orchestra before the tour begins.”
The present perfect continuous tense is structured as have been + the present participle of the main verb: • “I have been trying to reach you for over an hour.”
The past perfect continuous tense is structured as had been + the present participle of the main verb: • “We had been working through the night.”
The future perfect continuous tense is structured as will have been + the present participle of the main verb, or am/is/are + going to + have been + the present participle of the verb: • “She will have been living here for most of her life.” • “I am going to have been working here for 10 years next week.”
Auxiliary verbs can be identified by two main criteria: whether the verb is capable of inversion with the subject, and whether it can take the negating adverb not as a postdependent modifier.
Inversion refers to the reversal of the normal position of the subject and the auxiliary verb of a clause. While it is technically possible for a main verb to invert with its subject, it is much less likely than having an auxiliary verb cause an inversion, due to the fact that subject-auxiliary inversion is commonly used to create interrogative sentences. Additionally, subject-auxiliary inversion can be used to create conditional sentences, as well as for emphasis in negative sentences when negating phrases are used.
When a sentence is in the present simple tense or past simple tense, we use the auxiliary verb do to form it into a question word. Do is inverted with the subject, coming before it in the sentence. For example: • “John works across town.” (declarative sentence) • “Does John work across town?” (interrogative sentence) If the verb is in a continuous tense (present, past, or future) or the future simple tense, then the auxiliary verb used to create the tense is inverted with the subject; if the verb is in a perfect continuous tense (present, past, or future), then the first of the two auxiliary verbs is inverted. For example: Present continuous tense: • “John is working across town.” (declarative) • “Is John working across town?” (interrogative) Past continuous tense: • “John was working across town.” (declarative) • “Was John working across town?” (interrogative) Present perfect continuous tense: • “John has been working across town.” (declarative) • “Has John been working across town?” (interrogative) Past perfect continuous tense: • “John had been working across town.” (declarative) • “Had John been working across town?” (interrogative) Future simple tense: • “John will work across town.” (declarative) • “Will John work across town?” (interrogative) or: • “John is going to work across town.” (declarative) • “Is John going to work across town?” (interrogative) Future continuous tense: • “John will be working across town.” (declarative) • “Will John be working across town?” (interrogative) or: • “John is going to be working across town.” (declarative) • “Is John going to be working across town?” (interrogative) Future perfect continuous tense: • “John will have been working across town.” (declarative) • “Will John have been working across town?” (interrogative) or: • “John is going to have been working across town.” (declarative) • “Is John going to have been working across town?” (interrogative)
This inversion holds true even when a question word is used, as in: • “Where will John be working across town?” • “Why had John been working across town?” • “When was John working across town?” Modal auxiliary verbs can also be used to create questions with specific meanings, as in: • “Can you work a forklift?” (question of ability) • “May I watch television for an hour?” (question of permission) • “Must we sit through another boring play?” (question of obligation)
Finally, as we mentioned earlier, be is able to invert when it functions as a linking verb (meaning it is a main verb) as well as when it functions as an auxiliary. For example: • “I am cold.” • “Are you cold?” • “They were all present.” • “Were they all present?”
Conditional sentences are most often formed using the conjunction if to create a condition clause. For example: • “If I were to move to Florida, I would be warm all year round.” • “If they had trained a little harder, they would have won.” We can also achieve conditional clauses by using subject-auxiliary inversion, although the sentence sounds a bit more formal as a result: • “Were I to move to Florida, I would be warm all year round.” • “Had they trained a little harder, they would have won.”
Negative phrases are sometimes used to provide extra emphasis in a negative sentence. Because the main verb remains affirmative, the negative phrase appears ahead of the subject and the main verb, which means that an auxiliary verb must come between it and the subject. If the negative phrase were to come after the main verb of the sentence (as adverbial phrases often do), the sentence would become unclear because the verb would shift from an affirmative position to a negative one. For example: ✖ “You are spending the night there under no circumstances.” (No inversion—the sentence is unclear and/or lacks emphasis.) ✔ “Under no circumstances are you spending the night there.” (Subject-auxiliary inversion —the sentence is now clear with proper emphasis on the negative phrase.) ✖ “They told us what the problem was at no point.” (no inversion) ✔ “At no point did they tell us what the problem was.” (subject-auxiliary inversion)
The most common way to make a verb negative is to use the adverb not. However, main verbs usually do not take not on their own— they require an auxiliary verb to accomplish this. For example: • “I work in a law firm downtown.” (affirmative sentence) ✖ “I work not in a law firm downtown.” (incorrect negative sentence) ✔ “I do not work in a law firm downtown.” (correct negative sentence) As with subject-verb inversion, be as a main verb is an exception to this rule. For instance: ✔ “He is very warm.” (affirmative) ✔ “He is not very warm.” (negative) Finally, it must be noted that in older, formal, and more literary English, main verbs were able to take not without an auxiliary. For example: • “I know not where the problems lie.” • “Betray not your kin.” However, this type of negative formation is rarely used in modern speech or writing.
The “primary” auxiliary verbs are be, have, and do— they occur most commonly in English. They are also some of the trickiest to master, because each can also be used as a main verb in a clause, and each is able to conjugate to reflect plurality and tense as a result. Be and have are used as auxiliaries to conjugate the continuous, perfect, and perfect continuous tenses. Do is used to make main verbs negative or to form interrogative sentences; it can also be used to add emphasis to a sentence. We will begin by examining these different conjugations, and then we’ll look more closely at how these verbs function as auxiliaries.
Because be, have, and do are able to function as main verbs, they must also be able to inflect for plurality and tense; it is important to know these conjugations, as they must be used correctly when the verbs function as auxiliaries. Do conjugates as did (past tense), does (third-person singular present tense), done (past participle), and doing (present participle); have conjugates as had (past tense/participle), has (third-person singular present tense), and having (present participle). Be, meanwhile, has seven conjugations: am (first-person singular present tense); are ( firstperson plural present tense, second-person singular/plural present tense, third-person plural present tense); is (third-person singular present tense); was ( first-person singular past tense, third-person singular past tense); were (first-person plural past tense, second-person singular/plural past tense, third-person plural past tense); been (past participle); and being (present participle). The following tables will help illustrate these different conjugations. Note that only conjugations used in an auxiliary capacity have been included:
The verbs be and have are used as auxiliary verbs to form different tenses of main verbs. Be is used on its own to form the continuous tenses, while have is used to form the perfect tenses. Both have and been (the past participle of be) are used together to form the perfect continuous tenses. As we saw above, be and have both have multiple conjugations, all of which must be used correctly when they function as auxiliaries
The present continuous tense is structured as am/is/are + the present participle of the main verb: • “I am working tomorrow.” • “She is living in New York.” • “They are trying to save some money.”
The past continuous tense is structured as was/were + the present participle of the main verb: • “I was cooking breakfast when she called.” • “We were talking on the phone at the time.”
The future continuous tense is structured as will be + the present participle of the main verb OR am/is/are + going to be + the present participle of the verb: • “I will be leaving in the morning.” • “I am going to be meeting with my professor later.” • “He is going to be studying abroad next year.”
The present continuous tense is structured as have/has + the past participle of main verb: • “I have lived here all my life.” • “She has studied for this exam for weeks.” • “They have tried to find a solution to the problem.”
The past continuous tense is structured as had + the past participle of the main verb: • “I had already made my fortune when I was your age.” • “We had seen that the results were constant.”
The future continuous tense is usually structured as will have + the past participle of the main verb: • “I will have finished by that time.” • “She will have sung with a professional orchestra before the tour begins.” (Notice that have does not conjugate for the third-person singular in this tense.)
The past perfect continuous tense is structured as had been + the present participle of the main verb: • “We had been working through the night.”
The future perfect continuous tense is structured as will have been + the present participle of the main verb: • “I will have been working here for 10 years next week.” (Notice that have does not conjugate for the third-person singular in this tense.) You may have noticed that the future tenses also use the auxiliary verb will. This is one of the modal auxiliary verbs, which will be covered in a separate section.
The most common way to make a verb negative is to use the adverb not. However, main verbs cannot take not on their own—they require an auxiliary verb to do this - Using do If a verb does not already use an auxiliary verb (i.e., to form one of the tenses above), we use the auxiliary verb do/does to accomplish this. For example: • “I work on the weekends.” (affirmative sentence) ✖ “I work not on the weekends.” (incorrect negative sentence) ✔ “I do not work on the weekends.” (correct negative sentence) • “She lives in the city.” (affirmative) ✖ “She lives not in the city.” (incorrect negative sentence) ✔ “She does not live in the city.” (correct negative sentence) Notice that because the auxiliary verb do conjugates to reflect the third-person singular, the main verb of the sentence reverts back to its base form. Likewise, if a sentence is in the past simple tense, do conjugates to did, and the main verb remains in the present-tense base form. For instance: • “He studied in Europe.” (affirmative simple past tense) ✖ “He studied not in Europe.” (incorrect negative past tense) ✔ “He did not study in Europe.” (correct negative past tense) - Using not with other tenses If a verb is already using one or more auxiliary verbs to create a perfect, continuous, or perfect continuous tense, then it is the auxiliary closest to the subject that takes the word not. For example: • “I am working later.” (affirmative present continuous tense) • “I am not working later.” (negative present continuous tense) • “She had been living there for a month.” (affirmative past perfect continuous tense) • “She hadn’t been living there for a month.” (negative past perfect continuous tense) • “They will have been writing their dissertations for almost a year.” (affirmative future perfect continuous tense) • “They will not have been writing their dissertations for almost a year.” (negative future perfect continuous tense) - Errors with have not A frequent error is to make the verb have negative in the present simple tense. We need to always remember that the present simple negative is do not (contracted as don’t) or, in third person singular, does not (contracted as doesn’t). For example: ✖ “I haven’t a dog.” (incorrect) ✔ “I don’t have a dog.” (correct) ✖ “She hasn’t a cat.” (incorrect) ✔ “She doesn’t have a cat.” (correct) If we say “I haven’t a dog,” we are using have as an auxiliary rather than as a main verb meaning “to possess”—in doing so, the main verb is now missing. And just as in the present simple negative, we need an auxiliary verb when using the past simple negative: ✖ “I hadn’t a car.” (incorrect) ✔ “I didn’t have a car.” (correct)
Have, when used as a main verb meaning “to possess,” means the same thing as the less formal have got. They can usually be used interchangeably, though not in every case. In have got, have is acting as an auxiliary verb for got. Because of this, have is now able to take not in the negative present simple tense, usually contracted as haven’t (or hasn’t in the third-person singular): • “He has got an idea about what happened.” (affirmative present simple tense) • “He hasn’t got an idea about what happened.” (negative present simple tense) • “They’ve got a plan to increase sales.” (affirmative present simple tense) • “They haven’t got a plan to increase sales.” (negative present simple tense)
Inversion refers to the reversal of the normal position of the subject and the auxiliary verb of a clause. We cannot use subject-verb inversion with main verbs to create interrogative sentences— we have to either add the auxiliary verb do, or else invert an existing auxiliary verb. - Inversion with auxiliary do When a sentence is in the present simple tense or past simple tense, we use the auxiliary verb do to form it into a question word. This is inverted with the subject, coming before it in the sentence. For example: • “John works across town.” (present simple tense declarative sentence) • “Does John work across town?” (present simple tense interrogative sentence) • “They lived in an apartment.” (past simple tense declarative sentence) • “Did they live in an apartment?” (past simple tense interrogative sentence) - Inversion with other auxiliary verbs As we saw already, be and have are used to create the continuous, perfect, and perfect continuous verb tenses. In these cases, the auxiliary verb used to create the tense is inverted with the subject to create a question; if the verb is in a perfect continuous tense (and thus has two auxiliaries), then the first of the two auxiliary verbs is inverted. For example: - Present continuous tense: • “John is working across town.” (declarative) • “Is John working across town?” (interrogative) Past continuous tense: • “John was working across town.” (declarative) • “Was John working across town?” (interrogative) Present perfect tense: • “John has worked across town for a long time.” (declarative) • “Has John worked across town for a long time?” (interrogative) Past perfect tense: • “John had worked across town for a long time.” (declarative) • “Had John worked across town for a long time?” (interrogative) Present perfect continuous tense: • “John has been working across town for a long time.” (declarative) • “Has John been working across town for a long time?” (interrogative) Past perfect continuous tense: • “John had been working across town for a long time.” (declarative) • “Had John been working across town for a long time?” (interrogative)
As we saw when forming the negative with not, we often run into errors when have is functioning as a main verb and the sentence is made into a question. Just like any other main verb (with the exception of be), have cannot invert with the subject to form a question— it must take the auxiliary verb do to accomplish this, like we saw above. For example: • “You had a car when you lived in London.” (declarative) ✖ “Had you a car when you lived in London?” (incorrect interrogative) ✔ “Did you have a car when you lived in London?” (correct interrogative)
The rules of inversion that we’ve seen above hold true even when a question word is used. For example: • “Where is John working?” • “Why has John been working across town?” • “When did John work across town?”
It is important to remember that we do not use do, does or did when be is a main verb. As we mentioned earlier, be is able to invert when it is functioning as a linking verb (meaning it is a main verb) as well as an auxiliary. For example: • “I am cold.” (declarative) ✖ “Do you be cold?” (incorrect interrogative) ✔ “Are you cold?” (correct interrogative) • “They were all present.” (declarative) ✖ “Did they be all present?” (incorrect interrogative) ✔ “Were they all present?” (correct interrogative) The inversion of be also holds true when there is a question word, as in: • “Why are you cold?” • “When were they all present?” • “Who is attending the party?
In addition to making interrogative sentences, do is also used as an auxiliary to create emphatic sentences. This is sometimes referred to as the emphatic mood, one of the grammatical moods in English. Its purpose in this case is not to add any new meaning to the sentence, but rather to emphasize the fact that something happened or someone did something. Emphatic do comes before the main verb in a sentence. As is the case when do is used to create interrogative sentences, it takes the conjugation for tense or plurality, leaving the main verb in the base form. For example: • “I washed the dishes.” (no emphasis) • “I did wash the dishes.” (emphasizes the fact that the speaker washed the dishes) • “He looks like an honest man.” (no emphasis) • “He does look like an honest man.” (emphasizes the way the man looks) As with interrogative sentences, however, we cannot use do when be is the main verb of the sentence: • “I am cold.” (no emphasis) ✖ “I do be cold.” (incorrect emphasis)
We can also use emphatic do in imperative sentences to add emphasis to a command, instruction, or request, though this usually adds a more formal or old-fashioned tone to the sentence. Unlike in declarative sentences, we can use emphatic do when be is a main verb of an imperative sentence. For example: • “Do be careful!” • “Do try to be quiet.” • “Please do avoid walking on the grass.”
A modal auxiliary verb, often simply called a modal verb or even just a modal, is used to change the meaning of other verbs (commonly known as main verbs) by expressing modality— that is, asserting (or denying) possibility, likelihood, ability, permission, obligation, or future intention. Modal verbs are defined by their inability to conjugate for tense and the third person singular (i.e., they do not take an “-s” at the end when he, she, or it is the subject), and they cannot form infinitives, past participles, or present participles. All modal auxiliary verbs are followed by a main verb in its base form (the infinitive without to); they can never be followed by other modal verbs, lone auxiliary verbs, or nouns. As with the primary auxiliary verbs, modal verbs can be used with not to create negative sentences, and they can all invert with the subject to create interrogative sentences.
There are nine “true” modal auxiliary verbs: will, shall, would, should, can, could, may, might, and must. The verbs dare, need, used to, and ought to can also be used in the same way as modal verbs, but they do not share all the same characteristics; for this reason, they are referred to as semi-modal auxiliary verbs, which are discussed in a separate section. - Will As a modal auxiliary verb, will is particularly versatile, having several different functions and meanings. It is used to form future tenses, to express willingness or ability, to make requests or offers, to complete conditional sentences, to express likelihood in the immediate present, or to issue commands. - Shall The modal auxiliary verb shall is used in many of the same ways as will: to form future tenses, to make requests or offers, to complete conditional sentences, or to issue maxims or commands. Although will is generally preferred in modern English, using shall adds an additional degree of politeness or formality to the sentence that will sometimes lacks. Generally, shall is only used when I or we is the subject, though this is not a strict rule (and does not apply at all when issuing commands, as we’ll see). - Would The modal auxiliary verb would has a variety of functions and uses. It is used in place of will for things that happened or began in the past, and, like shall, it is sometimes used in place of will to create more formal or polite sentences. It is also used to express requests and preferences, to describe hypothetical situations, and to politely offer or ask for advice or an opinion - Should express obligations or duties to ask for or issue advice, suggestions, and recommendations; to describe an expectation; to create conditional sentences; and to express surprise. - Can express a person or thing’s ability to do something express or ask for permission to do something describe the possibility that something can happen, and to issue requests and offers. - Could as a past-tense version of can it can also be used instead of can as a more polite way of making a request or asking for permission Could is also used to express a slight or uncertain possibility, as well as for making a suggestion or offer. - May to request, grant, or describe permission politely offer to do something for someone express the possibility of something happening or occurring express a wish or desire that something will be the case in the future a rhetorical device to express or introduce an opinion or sentiment about something - Might often used to express an unlikely or uncertain possibility very formal and polite way to ask for permission as the past-tense form of may when asking permission in reported speech. to suggest an action, or to introduce two differing possibilities. - Must often used to express necessity to indicate that something is certain or very likely to happen or be true.
to uniquely shift the meaning of the main verb they modify, expressing things such as possibility, likelihood, ability, permission, obligation, or intention
This can occur when a sentence is in response to another one, or when the clause with the modal verb occurs later in a sentence in which the main verb was already stated
often we use adverbs after a modal verb When a modal verb is made negative, though, it is sometimes the case that an adverb must go before the modal verb.
only used before a main verb sometimes before be or have when they are used to create a verb tense not use a modal verb before auxiliary do, or in front of other modal verbs
✔ “He swims well.” (present simple tense) ✖ “He cans swim well.” (incorrect) ✖ “He can swims well.” (incorrect) ✔ “He can swim well.” (correct—indicates ability)
we cannot use modal verbs with main verbs that are in a past-tense form either use certain modal verbs that have past-tense meanings of their own or auxiliary have to create a construction that has a specific past-tense meaning
It is wrong all modal auxiliary verbs must be followed by the base form of a the main verb.
to form future tenses, to express willingness or ability, to make requests or offers, to complete conditional sentences, to express likelihood in the immediate present, or to issue commands.
future simple tense and the future continuous tense. future perfect tense and the future perfect continuous tense a scenario that began in the past and will either finish in or continue into the future make any of the future tenses negative, we use not between will and the main verb or the next occurring auxiliary verb contract will and not into won’t.
express or inquire about a person or thing’s ability or willingness to do something similar to the future tense, but is used for more immediate actions
create interrogative sentences using will to make requests or polite offers
In present-tense conditional sentences formed using if, express an expected hypothetical outcome
express the likelihood or certainty that something is the case in the immediate present
issue commands, orders, or maxims.
we can use the word shall in place of will in to express polite invitations. Similarly, would can also be substituted for will in requests to make them more polite.
in place of will for things that happened or began in the past, place of will to create more formal or polite sentences. express requests and preferences describe hypothetical situations politely offer or ask for advice or an opinion.
expresses a future possibility, expectation, intention, or inevitability that began in the past, we use would instead of will.
something was the case in the immediate past
adds a level of politeness to the question
would with the main verb like to express or inquire about a person’s desire to do something use the main verb care for more formal or polite sentences express or ask about a desire to have something using like as the main verb, it can simply be followed by a noun or noun phrase; using care, it must be followed by the preposition for
to introduce a that clause to indicate some hypothetical or hopeful situation that one wishes were true
use would with the adverbs rather and sooner to express or inquire about a person’s preference for something
in the past tense are called second conditionals the second conditional to talk about things that cannot or are unlikely to happen. To create the second conditional, we use the past simple tense after the if clause, followed by would + the bare infinitive[不带to的不定式] for the result of the condition.
discuss hypothetical or possible situations
use would with opinion verbs (such as think or expect) to dampen the forcefulness of an assertion, making it sound more formal and polite: ask for someone else’s opinion with would by pairing it with a question word in an interrogative sentence
often follow it with would to ask the reason something happened or is true use I or we as the subject of the question, it is often used rhetorically to suggest that a question or accusation is groundless or false,
use would in the first person to politely offer advice about something. can also use would in the second and third person to offer advice
would to form the second conditional(definitely do) can also use could for what we would be able to do, as well as might for what it is possible (but unlikely) we would do In British English, should is often used in place of would in many constructions to add politeness or formality.
to form future tenses, to make requests or offers, to complete conditional sentences, or to issue maxims or commands using shall adds an additional degree of politeness or formality
should in place of shall when issuing a command that is not mandatory, but rather is a guideline or recommendation. express that the command or maxim is an absolute requirement, we can use must
politely express obligations or duties ask for or issue advice, suggestions, and recommendations describe an expectation create conditional sentences express surprise
must or will (and even shall) make the sentence into a strict command should is used to create a more polite form that is more like a guideline than a rule.
follow the question word why with should
affirmative (non-negative) sentences
can use be supposed to or be meant to in place of should for something that is expected or required to happen can also use these three variations interchangeably when asking the reason why something is the case expressing an obligation or duty, we can only replace should with be supposed to or be meant to when it is in the negative In affirmative sentences • “I think she should pay for half the meal.” (obligation) • “I think she is supposed to pay for half the meal.” (expectation) • “I think she is meant to pay for half the meal.” (expectation) • “He is supposed to be one of the best lawyers in town.” (general belief) • “He is meant to be one of the best lawyers in town.” (general belief) • “He should be one of the best lawyers in town.” (obligation)
alongside if to create the conditional clause should on its own to set up this condition, in which case we invert it with the subject.
phrasing the surprising information as a question using a question word like who or what and often inverting should with the subject. “question” part of the sentence is introduced by the word when with the “answer” introduced by the word but
- Polite advice should/would in the first person to politely offer advice about something. - Expressing desires either should or would with the main verb like/care in the first person to express or inquire about a person’s desire to do something. - Asking the reason why • “Why should/would my brother lie to me?” • “Why should/would they expect you to know that?” - To show purpose • “I brought a book so that I shouldn’t/wouldn’t be bored on the train ride home.” - After other words and phrases - To express an opinion or feeling
for fear (that), in case (that), and (less commonly) lest (that) to demonstrate the possible conditional circumstances
express a person or thing’s ability to do something. express or ask for permission to do something describe the possibility that something can happen issue requests and offers
express when a person or thing is physically, mentally, or functionally able to do something
In response to a request or an instruction use the idiomatic phrase “can do.” • Speaker A: “I need you to fix this tire when you have a chance.” • Speaker B: “Can do!” used as a modifier before a noun to denote an optimistic, confident, and enthusiastic characteristic • “His can-do spirit is infectious in the office.” this phrase negative, but we use the word no at the beginning of the phrase rather than using the adverb not after can
politely introduce or emphasize an opinion or sentiment about something in which case we invert can with the subject • “Can we be clear that our firm will not be involved in such a dubious a plan.” Note that we can accomplish the same thing by using the verbs let or allow instead, as in:
must to express certainty or high probability generally use can’t (or, less commonly, cannot) to express negative certainty, extremely low likelihood or a disbelief that something might be true.
could or would to create more polite constructions,
more polite or add formality to the offer, we can use may instead
often used as a past-tense version of can - indicating what someone or something was able to do in the past used instead of can as a more polite way of making a request or asking for permission also used to express a slight or uncertain possibility make a suggestion or offer
also use could instead of can when describing an ability that is desired or wished for.
Conditional sentences in the past tense are called second conditionals to talk about things that cannot or are unlikely to actually happen we usually use the past simple tense after the if clause, followed by would + a bare infinitive to describe what would be the expected (if unreal) result of the condition. to describe what we would be able to do under a certain condition, we can use could instead. use could in what’s known as a mixed conditional, which occurs when the tense in one part of a conditional sentence does not match the other half.
more polite to asking for permission when stating or granting permission, we can only use can (or, more politely, may).
more polite when Making a request can also do this with the modal verb would:
politely introduce or emphasize an opinion or sentiment about something in which case we invert could with the subject • “Could I add that your time with us has been greatly appreciated.” can accomplish the same thing by using the verbs let or allow instead
this usage is not restricted to the past tense.
to suggest a possible course of action.
informally in sarcastic［讽刺］ or rhetorical questions highlight a behavior someone finds irritating, unacceptable, or inappropriate
used to ask, grant, or describe permission to politely offer to do something for someone express the possibility of something happening or occurring express a wish or desire that something will be the case in the future as a rhetorical device to express or introduce an opinion about something
most polite and formally correct way to do so
more polite, formal
express the possibility that something will happen or occur in the near future, especially when that possibility is uncertain.
may is inverted with the subject
politely introduce or emphasize an opinion or sentiment about something, in which case we invert may with the subject. can accomplish the same thing by using the verbs let or allow instead[let/allow+宾语]
very rare in modern English
express an unlikely or uncertain possibility. very formally or politely ask for permission as the pasttense form of may when asking permission in reported speech used to suggest an action, or to introduce two differing possibilities.
a very weak certainty or likelihood
express a possibility as a hypothetical outcome in a conditional sentence.
add even more politeness or formality to the question. rather old-fashioned It more commonly occurs in indirect questions— i.e., declarative sentences that are worded in such a way as to express an inquiry
reported speech • “He asked if he might use the car for his date tonight.” it is increasingly common to see verbs remain in their original tense even when being reported.
less direct and forceful than using should it expresses a suggestion of a possible course of action rather than asserting what is correct or right to do.
This can be used as a means of highlighting two different possible outcomes, scenarios, or courses of action.
politely introduce or emphasize an opinion or sentiment about something invert might with the subject. can accomplish the same thing by using the verbs let or allow instead
express necessity indicate a strong intention to do something in the future emphasize something positive that we believe someone should do rhetorically introduce or emphasize an opinion or sentiment indicate that something is certain or very likely to happen or be true.
indicate something we have a very strong intention of doing in the future
politely introduce or emphasize an opinion or sentiment about something
certain or extremely likely or probable to happen, occur, or be the case do not use the negative of must (must not or mustn’t) to express a negative certainty or strong disbelief. Instead, we use cannot
shall in place of will to form the future tense, but only when the subject is in the first person (I or we). very formal, in polite invitations.
Can is the least formal of the four, Could is more polite and a bit more formal than can May is more formal than either can or could, and it is commonly used as the standard modal verb to express or request permission Might is the most formal of them all; only be used to request permission (not to state that someone has permission)
Could is also used to indicate ability but as the past tense of can
they generally indicate the same 50 percent chance of likelihood. Both may and might are also used to indicate a possible outcome or set of circumstances might tends to express less certainty or a lower likelihood than may, although the difference is slight
used to offer to do something for someone
Will most direct – least polite Can slightly less direct – slightly more polite Could less direct – more polite Would least direct – most polite
expressing an obligation to do something, we often use must, also be used in direct commands or directives, find shall being used to express obligations in contracts or legal documents; as a more polite and formal construction than must. obligation in more conversational English, we tend to use should instead, which is less formal than either shall or must. It is also less forceful than either, but it is even more forceful than must and is less commonly used; it is generally reserved for strong commands or directives,
Dare and need are considered semi-modal because they can also function as main verbs, able to take nouns and infinitives as objects and to conjugate for person, tense, and number. Ought to and used to, while unable to be main verbs, are considered semi-modal because they are always followed by infinitives (compared to “true” modals, which can never be followed by infinitives). conjunction with “main” verbs to create a complete verb expression do not conjugate for third-person singular subjects; they do not have a simple past tense; and they cannot form infinitives, present participles, or past participles
the use of dare as a modal verb has become rare in modern English.
When it functions as a main verb, however, it is able to conjugate for person and tense, and it can be followed by a verb in either its base or infinitive form (the to becomes optional). used as a main verb, it must take the auxiliary verb do to form questions or be made negative it is do, rather than the main verb, that conjugates for tense, person, and number in this case Dare can also mean “to challenge someone to (do) something that require courage, boldness, or recklessness,” in which case it must take a noun, pronoun, or infinitive as a direct object.
Need as a semi-modal verb is almost always used in negative sentences to express a lack of obligation or necessity, either taking the adverb not (usually contracted as needn’t) or paired with a negative word or phrase, such as never, no one, nothing form interrogative sentences by inverting with the subject,
This means it conjugates for person (becoming needs in the third-person singular) or tense (becoming needed), and it uses auxiliary did to form negatives and questions.
a past habit, condition, or fact that is no longer the case form the question and negative of used to the same way as for main verbs in the past tense—that is, by using the auxiliary did for the question and did not for the negative • “Did you use to live in Manchester?” • “I didn’t use to like coffee.” • “She didn’t use to go to the gym every day.”
two similarly structured main verbs — be used to and get used to
When we use be used to with a noun, noun phrase, or the gerund of a verb, it means “to be accustomed to something.” To form the negative of be used to, we add not after the auxiliary verb be, which can be contracted to isn’t, aren’t, wasn’t, or weren’t. To form interrogative sentences, we invert be with the subject.
get here means become. In fact, in more formal English, it is considered preferable to say become used to instead
It is commonly compared to should because it expresses that something is viewed as correct, preferable, or necessary— or as probable, likely, or expected. It can also be used to ask for or offer advice about something. ought to is made negative, not comes between ought (sometimes contracted as oughtn’t) and to; it is common to omit to when ought to is used with not. form questions by inverting ought with the subject; this is not very common, though. Again, to is sometimes omitted in this form.
Instead, infinitives function as nouns, adjectives, or adverbs to describe actions as ideas. Infinitives are distinct from a similar construction known as bare infinitives or the base forms of verbs, which are simply infinitives without the particle to
Infinitives are used to express an action as a concept, In this way, they can function as nouns, adjectives, or adverbs— that is, nearly any role in a sentence except that of a main verb. Infinitives can stand on their own to complete these functions, or they can work together with their own predicates (any additional information that modifies or completes them) to form infinitive phrases Infinitive phrases function as a nouns, adjectives, or adverbs as a single, holistic unit.
To make an infinitive or infinitive phrase negative, we use the word not before the infinitive. We can also put greater emphasis on not by placing it after to.
they can be the subject of a clause, the direct object of a verb, or a predicate noun.
A direct object is a person or thing that directly receives the action of the verb in a clause Remember that intransitive verbs do not take direct objects, so you will only find infinitives used as the objects of transitive verbs.
When we use reported speech, often use infinitives as the direct object of a “reporting verb” to express what was said or asked in the past
Certain verbs do not make sense with only a direct object, especially when that direct object is a person. More information is required about the object’s relationship with the verb to form a complete thought. This extra information is known as the object complement An infinitive can also act as an object complement, which is word or group of words that describe, rename, or complete the direct object of the verb We often use infinitives as object complements in reported speech to express what someone said to or asked of someone.
Certain verbs can take either gerunds or infinitives as direct objects. In some cases, this results in no difference in meaning. For example: In other instances, however, the meaning of the clause is significantly changed as a result
Predicate nouns are a subset of a larger category known as subject complements (including predicate pronouns and predicative adjectives) which rename or re-identify the subject after a linking verb • “All I want is to be left alone.”
When infinitives are used as adjectives, they function in a similar way to relative clauses (also known as adjective clauses), providing more information about a noun or pronoun that they appear directly after.
We can also use infinitives as adverbs to modify the main verb in a sentence, describing a reason why an action is, was, or will be done. Infinitives used in this way are often known as infinitives of purpose. We can also use the phrases in order and so as to add formal emphasis to an infinitive of purpose Note that we do not use the preposition for before the infinitive; we only use for with a noun or noun phrase to create a prepositional phrase that modifies the verb to describe its purpose.
We can also use infinitives in this way as isolated responses to questions asking why something is done or is the case part of the sentence has been omitted because it is implied.
like an infinitive, it is uninflected for tense and person An infinitive can be used in a sentence as a noun, an adverb, or an adjective, but it cannot act as a true verb that expresses the action of a subject. The base form of a verb, on the other hand, can be used in conjunction with the auxiliary verb do to become negative or to form questions. They are also used with modal auxiliary verbs to express things like possibility, necessity, obligation and permission, as well as to create the simple future tense.
The base form is also used after the direct object of certain action verbs, such as let, help,and make, as well as after verbs of the senses, such as hear, see, and feel
which acts like the modal verb should to suggest a required or desirable action
• “Why study when I already know the material by heart?” • “Why watch TV when we could play outside?” • “Why should I study when I already know the material by heart?” • “Why would we watch TV when we could play outside?”
Participles are words formed from verbs that can function as adjectives or gerunds or can be used to form the continuous tenses and the perfect tenses of verbs.
The present participle is the “-ing” form of a verb.
the past participle form changes depending on the verb. The past participle of regular verbs ends in “-ed,” and is generally the same as the simple past tense of the verb.
used as adjectives or as part of a participle phrase Participles allow us to condense two sentences into one
imply action on the part of the noun being modified form an adjective using the past participle, on the other hand, Instead, we describe a characteristic of that noun.
groups of words that contain a participle and function as adjective phrases
the noun being modified is the agent of the action • “Singing in the shower, I was oblivious to the doorbell ringing.” (I was singing.)
the noun being modified is either given a passive role in the action, or else is being described.
emphasize that one event happened before another, • “Having seen the movie before, I wouldn’t want to see it again.”
usually separated from the rest of the sentence by a comma
When the participle or phrase occurs in the middle position, and is not essential to the meaning of the sentence, it should be set apart from the rest of the sentence by two commas. if it occurs in the middle position and is essential to the meaning of the sentence, it should not be set apart by commas
occurs in the final position immediately after the noun that it modifies, it doesn’t need a comma. when it occurs in final position but not immediately after the noun that it modifies, it does need a comma • “My sister cried as she packed up her belongings, saddened at the idea of moving out of her childhood home.”
When we use participles as adjectives, it’s important that the noun modified is clearly stated and that the participle appears as close to it as possible
can occur when there is more than one noun in the sentence If we don’t place the participle close enough to the noun that it modifies, it may seem that it modifies another noun.
A dangling modifier occurs when we don’t clearly state the noun that is supposed to be modified by the participle.
The present participle is also used to create gerunds. A gerund is a form of a verb that can be used as a noun, functioning as a subject, complement, or object of a sentence.
present and past participles are used along with auxiliary verbs to form multi-part verb tenses.
The present participle is used to form the past, present, and future continuous tenses
used for stating an action that is taking place at the moment of speaking, or an action that will take place in the near future. formed using the present tense of the auxiliary verb be + the present participle of the main verb
primarily used to describe an action that took place over a period of time in the past, especially if interrupted by another action formed using was (the past tense of the auxiliary verb be) + the present participle of the main verb
mainly used to describe an action that has recently taken place and still has an effect on the present places the emphasis on the duration of the action rather than the result. formed using have/has + been + the present participle form of the main verb
used to describe an action that began in the past, and continued until another point in the past formed using had + been + the present participle form of the main verb. ［过去完成进行时，和现在完成进行时， 一般有时间副词． 时间副词表示现在， 而主句动作从过去开始，到时间副词的现在时刻仍然继续，用现在完成进行时． 时间副词表示一般过去， 而主句动作从过去的过去开始，到时间副词的过去时刻仍然继续，用过去完成进行时．］
used to describe an action that will be in progress at a certain point in the future formed using will + be + the present participle form of the main verb ［会有一个未来基准时间，表示动作在此基准时间正在发生，用未来进行时］
used to describe an action that will continue up until a certain point in the future emphasizes the duration of the action, and is formed using will + have + been + the present participle form of the main verb. ［将来完成进行时 一般有时间副词． 时间副词表示将来某个时刻， 而主句动作从将来某个时刻之前开始，到时间副词的将来时刻仍然继续，用将来完成进行时．］
The past participle is used in forming the present, past, and future simple perfect tenses.
used to describe an action or experience in the recent past that still has an effect on the present present perfect continuous, but instead of placing the emphasis on the duration of the action, it subtly emphasizes the result. formed using have/has + the past participle form of the main verb ［从过去开始，到现在结束．且对现在有所影响，和现在有关联］
used to describe an action that was completed in the past, prior to another past action formed using had + the past participle form of the main verb. ［会有一个时间基准：过去某时刻， 动作在过去基准前发生，到基准时已经结束，用过去完成时］
used to describe an action that will be completed at a certain point in the future formed using will + have + the past participle form of the main verb ［会有一个时间基准：将来某时刻， 动作在将来基准前发生，到基准时已经结束，用将来完成时］
used to explain what the subject of a sentence is actively doing. For example, ran, swim, jump, move, look, and catch are all action verbs
• “The train is on the track.” they use the stative verb be to describe the conditions or states of being of the subjects. However, adding action verbs helps to identify what the subject of the sentence is actively doing: • “The train raced along the track.” They not only say what the subject is doing, but can also demonstrate the manner in which the subject is doing it. • “Susie sat on the couch at the end of her work day.” • “Susie collapsed onto her couch at the end of the work day.” by changing the action verb, we have significantly changed the sentence’s meaning.
require a verb to be complete, but it does not have to be an action verb: there are also stative verbs, linking verbs, and auxiliary verbs.
stative verbs indicate the state or condition of the subject, such as thoughts or opinions (agree, recognize, doubt), possession (own, possess, belong, have), emotion (love, hate, like, fear, enjoy), or senses (seem, look, hear, taste, feel) We can see how no action is being described by these verbs some of the stative verbs can function as action verbs in certain contexts. In this case, a simplified rule for identifying if a verb is stative or active is to conjugate the verb into one of the continuous tenses (by using its present participle) and see if the sentence still makes sense. ✔ “I own 10 cars.” ✖ “I am owning 10 cars.” (incorrect—stative verb) ✔ “I see your point.” ✖ “I am seeing your point.” (incorrect—stative verb) However: ✔ “I am seeing a movie later.” (correct—action verb)
are a subset of the stative verbs we looked at above— they also describe condition or state as opposed to an action used to connect a subject to an adjective or phrase that describes it.
precede stative, linking, or action verbs to help complete their meaning. • “They [should] run faster.” • “You [can] see the lake from the porch on the lake house.” • “I [have been] thinking about a new method for the project.”
describe a static condition, situation, or state of being can be in the present, past, or future tense; cannot be used when forming the continuous or progressive forms of verb tenses However, some stative verbs can be used in a continuous tense in certain situations, as when describing a temporary state that has begun and will end.
Linking verbs are usually used as stative verbs; these include the verb be and the verbs of the senses. Other verbs that are considered stative are those that express emotions, possession, cognition, and states or qualities.
used for describing general characterizations, sensations, measurements, location, or to rename the subject
the linking verb be can function as an action verb when it is used to mean “to behave.” We can test whether be is acting as a stative or action verb by putting it into one of the continuous tenses. ✔ “The children are being too noisy.” (Correct—it is an action verb.) ✖ “The children are being outside.” (Incorrect—it is a stative verb.)
used to indicate perceptions based on physical or mental sensations. － taste － smell － sound － seem － feel － look － appear sense verbs are used as linking verbs, We pair them with predicative adjectives.
that some of the sense verbs can take the continuous tense to describe a temporary state in some contexts • “You are looking great, Suzy!” The sense verb feel is unique, though, in that it is very often used in the continuous form when talking about one’s or someone else’s health, Certain sense verbs also function as action verbs in other contexts, and these can take the continuous form
emotions about something are also considered stative These transitive verbs take nouns, noun phrases, gerunds, and sometimes infinitives as their objects a verb of emotion can take either a gerund or an infinitive with little to no difference in meaning. However, an infinitive sometimes refers to a potential activity, while a gerund refers to an activity in general. Other verbs of emotion, such as enjoy or don’t mind, can’t take the infinitive at all
describe an ongoing but temporary sensation. However, such uses are generally quite informal enjoy is a verb of emotion, it is often used in the continuous form and is not considered informal. However, there are still some verbs of emotion that generally do not take a continuous form
Verbs that refer to ownership are considered stative and do not take the continuous form
often find some of these verbs used in the continuous forms, but their meanings are different and they are functioning as action verbs instead
Verbs of mental cognition, such as understand, know, recognize,, or think, are generally used as stative verbs and do not take continuous forms.
Some verbs of cognition can be stative or dynamic, depending on the context. If they can correctly be used in a continuous form, they are expressing a dynamic action The stative verb understand, however, has some informal uses in which the continuous form is often considered acceptable
Besides the linking verb be and the verbs of the senses, we can use other verbs, such as weigh, depend, involve, owe, or consist, to describe the state or qualities of something
Some of these verbs can be dynamic or stative, depending on the context and the way they are used. When the verb is describing an attribute of the subject, it functions as stative verb (as we saw above). When the verb describes an action taken by the subject, though, it is functioning as an action verb The phrasal verb depend on, however, is always stative, but we often find it being used in the continuous form, especially when its subject is a person
The continuous (or progressive) forms refer to six specific verb tenses: present continuous tense, present perfect continuous tense, past continuous tense, past perfect continuous tense, future continuous tense, and future perfect continuous tense. These all use the present participles of verbs to express an action that is continuously (or progressively) happening. Generally speaking, only action verbs can take the continuous forms. Gerunds, on the other hand, refer to the “-ing” form of the verb when it is used as a noun When a gerund takes additional information as part of its predicate, the entire phrase (known as a gerund phrase) functions as a noun However, just remember that if the verb and its constituent parts are functioning as a noun would in a sentence, then it is a gerund; if it is describing an action that the subject is performing, then it is a present participle used to create a continuous tense.
Linking verbs (also known as copulas or copular verbs) are used to describe the state of being of the subject of a clause they connect the subject to the predicate of the clause without expressing any action.
The verb to be is the most common linking verb. be has eight different conjugations: be, am, is, are, was, were, been, and being It can link the subject to an adjective (known as a predicative adjective) that describes it, or to a noun, noun phrase, or pronoun that renames it. These are collectively known as subject complements.
We can use nearly any adjective after be to describe the subject.
Be is very often used to describe a sensation belonging to the subject. These can be physical Be can also describe emotional sensations:
－ Age － Height － Weight
A linking verb can also be followed by a prepositional phrase that acts as an adjective to describe the subject. • “John is in the other room.”
follow the linking verb be with a predicate noun, noun phrase, or pronoun that renames or re-identifies the subject • “They are a lost cause.”
When it is used as an auxiliary, be is no longer an independent verb describing the subject of the sentence. Instead, it helps other verbs to create the continuous tenses or to change the voice of the writing.
frequently functions as an auxiliary verb by combining with the present participle of a verb to form one of the continuous tenses “I am listening to you.”
• “The hospitals were built in 1805.”
• taste • smell • sound • seem • feel • look • appear functioning as linking verbs (rather than action verbs) and we pair them with predicative adjectives. If any of these verbs were used as action verbs, they could no longer be followed by an adjective—they would instead be modified by an adverb.
Verbs that show progression, growth, or development are also often used as linking verbs • get • grow • prove • remain • turn these can be followed by an adjective that describes the subject can sometimes be followed by nouns, noun phrases, or pronouns that rename or re-identify the subject, • “The leader became a dictator after so many years in power.”
be, seem, and become are always used as linking verbs [ be sometime is an auxiliary verb] the other linking verbs all have the capacity to behave as action verbs in a sentence
The predicate of a linking verb is, by definition, an adjective, noun, noun phrase, or pronoun that directly describes, renames, or re-identifies the subject of the clause.
作a linking verb时，用be的正确形式替换动词，有意义 作行为动词时，用be替换后，句子无意义
In most instances, good is an attributive adjective directly describing a noun, while well is an adverb describing a verb, adjective, or other adverb. However, well can also function as a predicative adjective, where it usually means “healthy” or “not ill.” We use it in this sense after linking verbs such as be, get, or the sense verbs we looked above: Good can be used as a predicative adjective as well, meaning “of a high or satisfactory quality.” This can be used after linking verbs to talk about an opinion of something, an emotional state, or general well-being (as opposed to physical health, specifically).
are verbs that do not carry unique meaning on their own, but instead rely on another word or words that follow them to become meaningful. light verbs can have a great variety of meanings, depending on the word(s) with which they are paired Common examples of light verbs include do, have, make, get, take, and give, though there are others that can work the same way
Light verbs function by pairing with a word or words (usually, but not always, a noun or noun phrase) to achieve their meaning. • “Do your homework!” • “We did some jumping jacks to warm up.” • “Why don’t we have something to eat?” • “I get so many emails every day.” • “Let’s try to get warm by the fire.” • “Stop making such a fuss! • “Be sure to make your bed after you get up in the morning.”
we can even use different light verbs to achieve the same or very similar meaning; • “I’m going to have a shower.” • “I’m going to take a shower.” • “Did you get some breakfast?” • “Did you have some breakfast?”
Most verbs carry a unique semantic meaning of their own, and they do not rely on any additional predicate information to make sense. known as full verbs or heavy verbs Auxiliary verbs, meanwhile, are similar to light verbs in that they do not carry meaning on their own; however, unlike light verbs, these work with other verbs to create a complete, unique meaning. used to create different verb tenses, to make a verb negative, or to express modality—that is, to assert (or deny) possibility, likelihood, ability, permission, obligation, or future intention. Certain light verbs function as full verbs depending on how they are used; likewise, do and have can function as either auxiliary verbs or light verbs. • “Let’s take some lunch to a park.” (full verb, meaning “bring to a place”) • “Let’s all take a break.” (light verb, reliant on break for meaning) • “Did you see the game last night?” (auxiliary verb, serves to modify the verb see to create an interrogative sentence) • “John did a few jobs for me this summer.” (light verb, dependent on the noun jobs for meaning) • “She had heard the rumors already.” (auxiliary verb, serves to modify the verb heard to create the past perfect tense) • “She had a snooze after lunch.” (light verb, dependent on the noun snooze for meaning)
do, make, get, and take
Do is used for general actions; these actions are dictated by the word or words that follow do
As a light verb, make carries the general meaning of “create” or “assemble”; the specific meaning comes from what accompanies the verb.
it can mean any of the following depending on the context: fetch, obtain, understand, answer, receive, hit, be, become, hear, understand, earn, buy, win, secure, reach/arrive at, cause, convince, open, or succeed.
As a light verb, take broadly means have, obtain, or use, but it has some other specific meanings in certain circumstances: • “Let’s all take a break.” (have a brief rest) • “Would you like to take a walk?” (engage in a walk) • “He’s taking an exam in the morning.” (complete an exam)
Phrasal verbs are verb phrases that have idiomatic meanings—that is, their meaning is not obvious from the individual words that make up the phrase. Because of this, we have to learn what they mean by understanding them in context.
Phrasal verbs are made up of a verb + a preposition or an adverbial particle, and their meaning is uniquely tied to each particular combination. A particle is very similar to a preposition—in fact, they are almost always identical in appearance. (There are a few words that will only function as particles in verb phrases: away, back, out, backward, forward, upward, and downward.) However, particles are used more like adverbs, modifying and uniquely expanding the meaning of the verbs they are paired with. For this reason, particles are sometimes referred to as adverbial particles, or even just adverbs The key difference between particles and prepositions, however, is that particles do not (and cannot) introduce a prepositional phrase, while the preposition in a phrasal verb always will. Below, we’ll look at some examples of phrasal verbs that use particles, prepositions, and combinations of both.
Takes up is made up of the verb take + up. Up changes the meaning of the verb, but it does not introduce a prepositional phrase expressing direction, location, time, or possession— therefore, it is functioning as a particle. Again, the particle over is changing the meaning of the verb look, but it is not introducing a prepositional phrase. giving up allow for die down took off making up give up • “She is always making up excuses.” (She is always inventing excuses that are not true.) • “When I am on the bus, I always give up my seat to the elderly.” (I vacate my seat and give it to an older passenger.)
a phrasal verb can be formed from a preposition when that preposition acts as the head of a prepositional phrase, followed immediately by its object • “He has been looking after his mother.” (He has been caring for his mother.) • “I came across that old watch of mine when I was cleaning out the drawers.” (I found my old watch unexpectedly.) the phrasal verb is comprised of a verb + a preposition—the preposition always forms a prepositional phrase with the object of the phrasal verb.
Some phrasal verbs have both a particle and a preposition These are sometimes known as particle-prepositional phrasal verbs. All three elements—verb, particle, and preposition— act together to form a unique meaning. • “She [comes across as] a really confident person.” (She gives the impression of being confident by the way she acts.) In this context, across functions as a particle, while as functions as a preposition, introducing the prepositional phrase as a really confident person. • “You’re going too fast, so I can’t keep up with you.” • “I’ll make sure that she doesn’t get away with her plan.” (I’ll make sure she is caught and/or punished.) • “A substitute teacher has been filling in for Mr. Davis all week.” (The substitute teacher is taking the place of Mr. Davis.) • “I’ve been trying to cut back on junk food lately.” (I’m trying not to eat as much junk food as I had been before.)
Because a preposition in a phrasal verb must always form a prepositional phrase, the phrasal verb must be transitive because it requires a direct object. Therefore, if a phrasal verb is intransitive, we can assume that it is formed from a verb and a particle. • “Please don’t give up.” • “I know you want me to lie, but I just wasn’t brought up that way.” • “I hope that my idea came across well.” None of the above phrasal verbs has a direct object, and so each one is intransitive and a particle phrasal verb.
When phrasal verbs are transitive, they always take direct objects This can make it difficult to tell whether a particle or prepositional phrasal verb is being used First, we substitute a personal pronoun for the object of the phrasal verb. If it can be arranged before the particle/preposition and still make sense, then a particle is being used; if it has to come after to make sense, then a preposition is being used. Phrasal verbs that can be divided by objects are commonly referred to as being separable; those that cannot be divided are known as being inseparable. • “Please look over the proposal and let me know what you think.” It might seem as though over does in fact introduce a prepositional phrase: over the proposal. However, if we substitute the personal pronoun it for the proposal, we can see that the object can come immediately after the verb: • “Please look it over and let me know what you think.” Therefore, look over is a particle phrasal verb and is considered separable. let’s look at another example to see when this can’t be done: • “He has been looking after his mother.” Using the personal pronoun her instead of his mother, the sentence now reads: • “He has been looking after her.” Now let’s try rearranging it in the sentence: ✖ “He has been looking her after.” (incorrect) We can see that the sentence no longer makes sense: the object, her, must follow the phrasal verb and form a prepositional phrase to be logically complete. Therefore, look after is a prepositional phrasal verb and is inseparable.
Finally, some phrasal verbs can be both transitive and intransitive, depending on which idiomatic meaning is being used. • “I was a bit of a skinny kid, but I filled out nicely during high school.” (Intransitive, meaning “to become larger or fuller in one’s figure.”) • “Make sure that you fill out the form correctly.” (Transitive, meaning “to complete (a document) by providing the required information.”)
Sometimes, a prepositional verb may be mistaken for a phrasal verb. Although both combinations appear to be very similar, you can differentiate them by examining their meaning. Prepositional verbs use the literal meanings of verbs, whereas phrasal verbs tend to be idiomatic. For example, the meaning of the verb ask doesn’t change when combined with the preposition for; however, it changes dramatically when combined with the particle out: • “They sailed through the waters with plenty of time to spare.” • “They sailed through their exams with plenty of time to spare.”
As we saw when we looked at how phrasal verbs are formed, their meanings tend to be completely idiomatic—you cannot guess what they mean simply by looking at their individual components. phrasal verbs often have several completely unrelated meanings. Phrasal verbs with be
The word if is commonly used with one of the verbs to denote such a condition in conditional sentences. • “The leaves will fall if the wind blows.” • “You can get a good grade if you study very hard.”
Modal auxiliary verbs (such as can, will, would, shall, should, and could) are often used to help indicate the tense and intention of the verbs in the conditional or resulting clause(s). • “If you see the desert, it could mean that you have gone too far. • “If I could be anyone in history, I would be Leonardo da Vinci.”
Conditional verbs can be in the past, present, or future tense.
when the sentence refers to an action or event that might have happened in the past depending on a hypothetical past condition • “She would have succeeded if she had tried harder.”
• “The television turns on if you press the power button.”
• “If our team wins the World Series, it will be amazing.”
the “if clause” and the main clause both contain conditional verbs that are in the simple present tense. It is used to talk about facts that are always true.
contain a conditional verb in the simple present tense in the “if clause,” and a future tense verb preceded by the auxiliary verb will in the main clause. First conditional sentences explain a hypothetical result in the future depending on a non-real condition in the present.
include a simple past tense verb in the “if clause” and a future tense verb in the main clause, preceded by the auxiliary verb would. These sentences refer to things that would happen in the future if something else happens.
Third conditional sentences have a past perfect verb in the “if clause” and have a past participle verb in the main clause, preceded by the auxiliary verbs would have. Third conditional sentences describe a hypothetical situation or condition in the past that might have led to a different outcome in the present.
Causative verbs indicate that a person, place, or thing is causing an action or an event to happen. Causative verbs are followed by a noun or pronoun and a non-causative verb in either the infinitive or base form; these non-causative verbs describe the action that the subject has caused to happen. enable, cause, have, force, let, keep, hold, got and require.
Causative verbs can take the past, present, or future tense
the non-causative verbs that follow causative verbs explain the action that is being caused in the sentence. Depending on the causative verb that’s used, these non-causative verbs will either be in the infinitive or base form of the verb, or, in certain circumstances, the past participle form. － Infinitives － Base form have, make, and let when we use the passive voice with make, it will take the infinitive rather than the base form • “I’m sorry, but I was made to report my suspicions to police.”
the causative verbs have and get are also able to take the past participle of noncausative verbs if they themselves are in the past tense. • “John’s drinking problem finally got him fired.”
elect, appoint, make, choose, deem, assign, name, select, judge, and designate. • “The populace elected him president of the United States.”
✔ “The organization named Brad Ryan chief executive officer.” (factitive)
appear, seem, and become, as well as various forms of be • “She appears cold.” • “He is a very tall man.”
Enable, cause, have, force, let, keep, hold, and require
Reflexive verbs are verbs whose subjects are also their direct objects
• “I accidentally burned myself with the hairdryer.” (Myself refers to the subject, I.) • “The baby is smiling at herself in the mirror.” (Herself refers to the subject, the baby.)
• “My father is shaving in the bathroom.” (with the reflexive pronoun himself implied) • “She always stretches before doing yoga.” (with the reflexive pronoun herself implied)
• “My sister’s lunch is cooking on the stove.” (Cook is an intransitive verb indicating what is being cooked.) • “This car doesn’t drive smoothly anymore.” (Drive is an intransitive verb indicating what is being driven.) • “Her engagement ring broke in half.” (Break is an intransitive verb indicating what is being broken.) subjects of these examples (my sister’s lunch, this car, and her engagement ring) are also the recipients of the action in each sentence, even though the verbs are intransitive and do not take direct objects.
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