• 2017 MCM Problem C “Cooperate and navigate” 题目及翻译 美国大学生数学建模 美赛 题目官网 https://www.comap.com/undergraduate/contests/mcm/contests/2017/problems/2017_MCM_Problem_C.pdf 题目 Problem C:...

# 2017 MCM Problem C “Cooperate and navigate” 题目及翻译 美国大学生数学建模 美赛

## 题目

#### Problem C: “Cooperate and navigate”

Traffic capacity is limited in many regions of the United States due to the number of lanes of roads. For example, in the Greater Seattle area drivers experience long delays during peak traffic hours because the volume of traffic exceeds the designed capacity of the road networks. This is particularly pronounced on Interstates 5, 90, and 405, as well as State Route 520, the roads of particular interest for this problem.

Self-driving, cooperating cars have been proposed as a solution to increase capacity of highways without increasing number of lanes or roads. The behavior of these cars interacting with the existing traffic flow and each other is not well understood at this point.

The Governor of the state of Washington has asked for analysis of the effects of allowing self-driving, cooperating cars on the roads listed above in Thurston, Pierce, King, and Snohomish counties. (See the provided map and Excel spreadsheet). In particular, how do the effects change as the percentage of self-driving cars increases from 10% to 50% to 90%? Do equilibria exist? Is there a tipping point where performance changes markedly? Under what conditions, if any, should lanes be dedicated to these cars? Does your analysis of your model suggest any other policy changes?

Your answer should include a model of the effects on traffic flow of the number of lanes, peak and/or average traffic volume, and percentage of vehicles using self-driving, cooperating systems. Your model should address cooperation between self-driving cars as well as the interaction between self-driving and non-self-driving vehicles. Your model should then be applied to the data for the roads of interest, provided in the attached Excel spreadsheet.

Your MCM submission should consist of a 1 page Summary Sheet, a 1-2 page letter to the Governor’s office, and your solution (not to exceed 20 pages) for a maximum of 23 pages. Note: The appendix and references do not count toward the 23 page limit.

Some useful background information:

• On average, 8% of the daily traffic volume occurs during peak travel hours.
• The nominal speed limit for all these roads is 60 miles per hour. Mileposts are numbered from south to north, and west to east. Lane widths are the standard 12 feet.
• Highway 90 is classified as a state route until it intersects Interstate 5.
• In case of any conflict between the data provided in this problem and any other source, use the data provided in this problem.

Definitions:
milepost: A marker on the road that measures distance in miles from either the start of the route or a state boundary.
average daily traffic: The average number of cars per day driving on the road.
interstate: A limited access highway, part of a national system.
state route: A state highway that may or may not be limited access.
route ID: The number of the highway.

## 翻译

#### 问题C：“合作和导航”

在美国的许多地区，由于车道数量有限，交通容量往往有限。例如，在大西雅图，由于交通流量常常超过道路网络的设计容量，司机在高峰时段常遭遇长时间延误。这种情况在州际5号、90号、405号及州际520号公路上特别明显，这些公路尤其值得注意。

在不增加车道或道路数量的情况下，自动驾驶、合作驾驶汽车已被提出作为增加高速公路容量的解决方案。这些汽车与现有交通流将如何相互作用到现在还没有得到很好的刻画。

华盛顿州州长要求分析允许自动驾驶、合作驾驶汽车在Thurston, Pierce, King, and Snohomish的道路上行驶的影响。(请查看附加地图和Excel表)。特别是，当自动驾驶汽车的比例从10%上升到50%到90%时，影响会如何变化?平衡存在吗?是否存在一个影响显著变化的临界点?若临界点存在，在什么情况下应为这些汽车开辟专用车道?您对您模型的分析是否暗示了其他的政策变化?

您的模型应该刻画出车道数、高峰(peak)和/或平均交通容量，以及使用自动驾驶、合作驾驶的车辆比例对交通流的影响。同时，该模型应处理自动驾驶汽车之间的合作及自动驾驶与非自动驾驶汽车间的互动。（相关道路的数据见附件中Excel表）

您的MCM提交内容应包括1页的摘要表，1-2页的致州长办公室的信函以及您的解决方案（不超过20页），最多23页。注意：附录和参考不计入23页的限制。

一些有用的背景信息：

• 平均每天有8％的流量是在高峰时段。
• 所有这些道路的标称速度限制为每小时60英里。
• 里程标从南到北，从西到东。
• 车道宽度是标准的12英尺。
• 直到90号州际公路与5号州际公路相交，才将其划分为州际公路。
• 如果此问题中提供的数据与任何其他来源之间存在冲突，请使用此问题中提供的数据。

定义：
里程碑：道路上的一个标记，用于测量距路线起点或州边界的距离（英里）。
平均每日交通流量：每天在道路上行驶的平均汽车数量。
州际公路：有限通行的高速公路，部分国家体系。
状态路线：可能会或可能不会受到限制的州道。
路线ID：高速公路的编号。
上升方向：N-S道路为北行，E-W道路为东行；
下降方向：N-S道路向南，E-W道路为西行。

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• （一） 第一周的第一批作业们。 　且不说一周之内要看完我们的300多页的教材，也不说需要在维基的大批量的文献中海底捞针，单是这个四则运算的生成程序就让我从假期的迷糊状态中幡然觉悟了：哦！...

（一）

第一周的第一批作业们。

且不说一周之内要看完我们的300多页的教材，也不说需要在维基的大批量的文献中海底捞针，单是这个四则运算的生成程序就让我从假期的迷糊状态中幡然觉悟了：哦！惊险刺激的新的学期开始了~！

第一周的作业是和自己合作的，或者说得明白一点就是和过去的自己合作，将自己以前的面对project的激情和动力重拾，将自己的以前的所学的知识和得到的技能重用，来为这学期的软件工程的项目好好做个热身。其实说实话，这个热身我觉得其实还是蛮充分的~

首先，来介绍一下本次作业里面的几个难点和要点吧~：

（1）需求中要求能支持分数的运算，即类似于1/7 + 5/6 = ?这种的式子。（针对这一点，我想大部分的人的代码中都要涉及到重载了吧）

（2）需求中要求实现括号参与运算的功能。（针对这一点，我想大部分的人的代码中都要涉及到中缀表达式，后缀表达式以及利用堆栈求解表达式的值了吧）

（3）需求中要求实现任意两个expression之间的相减不能有被减数小于减数的情况存在。（针对这一点，我想大部分的人的代码中都要涉及到边生成边计算的策略了吧）

（4）需求中要求任意生成的两个表达式不能相同，也不能经过有限次变换成为同样的表达式。（针对这一点，我想不同的人该有不同的策略了，但是无论如何都是要在这一点上费一些功夫了）

（5）接下来的难点应但属于选择C++作为开发语言的人群的了。（由于需求中的乘除法是中文的字符，于是编码的问题也成为了实现中的一个难点）

（二）丰满的理想和骨感的现实

丰满的理想

 PSP2.1 Personal Software Process Stages Time Planning 计划 · Estimate · 估计这个任务需要多少时间 40小时 Development 开发 · Analysis · 需求分析 (包括学习新技术) 6小时 · Design Spec · 生成设计文档 1小时 ·Design Review · 设计复审 (和同事审核设计文档) 0小时 ·Coding Standard · 代码规范 (为目前的开发制定合适的规范) 半小时 · Design · 具体设计 2小时 · Coding · 具体编码 18小时 · Code Review · 代码复审 2小时 · Test · 测试（自我测试，修改代码，提交修改） 10小时 Reporting 报告 · Test Report · 测试报告 1小时 · Size Measurement · 计算工作量 半小时 · Postmortem & Process Improvement Plan · 事后总结, 并提出过程改进计划 1小时 合计 42小时

骨感的现实

 PSP2.1 Personal Software Process Stages Time Planning 计划 · Estimate · 估计这个任务需要多少时间 40小时 Development 开发 · Analysis · 需求分析 (包括学习新技术) 8小时 · Design Spec · 生成设计文档 半小时 ·Design Review · 设计复审 (和同事审核设计文档) 0小时 ·Coding Standard · 代码规范 (为目前的开发制定合适的规范) 1小时 · Design · 具体设计 2小时 · Coding · 具体编码 20小时 · Code Review · 代码复审 1小时 · Test · 测试（自我测试，修改代码，提交修改） 12小时 Reporting 报告 · Test Report · 测试报告 半小时 · Size Measurement · 计算工作量 半小时 · Postmortem & Process Improvement Plan · 事后总结, 并提出过程改进计划 半小时 合计 47小时

程序性能分析

命令行运行时的状态

生成的答案算数表达式和相应的答案文件

待检测的算术表达式文件和待检测的答案文件以及检测的结果

转载于:https://www.cnblogs.com/whenever/p/4828988.html

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• 管理系统java sal源码 #培训笔记 spring 书籍的知识总结 单例模式 1.恶汉模式 `java public class SingleObject { //创建 SingleObject 的一个对象 private static SingleObject ...//禁止指令的重排优化
• <div><p>Ensure they release their locks before committing transaction. Also move remove super file operation into transaction. <p>Signed-off-by: Jake Smith jake....hpcc-systems/HPCC-Platform</p></div>
• package zhangphil.cache; import android.app.ListActivity; import android.graphics.Bitmap; import android.graphics.BitmapFactory; import android.support.annotation.NonNull;...import android.support.anno
package zhangphil.cache;

import android.app.ListActivity;
import android.graphics.Bitmap;
import android.graphics.BitmapFactory;
import android.support.annotation.NonNull;
import android.support.annotation.Nullable;
import android.os.Bundle;
import android.util.Log;
import android.util.LruCache;
import android.view.View;
import android.view.ViewGroup;
import android.widget.ImageView;

import java.io.ByteArrayOutputStream;
import java.io.InputStream;
import java.io.OutputStream;
import java.security.MessageDigest;

public class MainActivity extends ListActivity {
private LruCache<String, Bitmap> mLruCache;
private DiskLruCache mDiskLruCache;

@Override
protected void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
super.onCreate(savedInstanceState);

int CACHE_SIZE = 8 * 1024 * 1024;
mLruCache = new LruCache(CACHE_SIZE);
try {
mDiskLruCache = DiskLruCache.open(this.getCacheDir(), 1, 1, CACHE_SIZE * 10);
} catch (Exception e) {
e.printStackTrace();
}

@NonNull
@Override
public View getView(int position, @Nullable View convertView, @NonNull ViewGroup parent) {
ImageView image = new ImageView(getContext());
return image;
}

@Override
public int getCount() {
return 20;
}
};

}

private void load(int id, ImageView image) {
String key = null;

if (id == R.mipmap.ic_launcher) {
key = getMD5("R.mipmap.ic_launcher");
}

//首先查找LruCache中的缓存
Bitmap bmp = mLruCache.get(key);
if (bmp == null) {
Log.d("LruCache缓存", "没有，继续深入到DiskLruCache读取。");

if (bmp == null) {
Log.d("LruCache与DiskLruCache", "没有缓存，开始创建新数据资源并缓存之。");
bmp = BitmapFactory.decodeResource(getResources(), id);

//初次创建新资源，更新到DiskLruCache
writeToDiskLruCache(key, bmp);
} else {
image.setImageBitmap(bmp);
}

//更新到LruCache缓存中，以待下一次使用。
mLruCache.put(key, bmp);
Log.d("LruCache缓存", "写入完成。");
} else {
//命中缓存
Log.d("LruCache缓存", "已有，复用。");
image.setImageBitmap(bmp);
}
}

private void writeToDiskLruCache(String key, Bitmap bmp) {
try {
DiskLruCache.Editor editor = mDiskLruCache.edit(key);

//把Bitmap转化为byte数组存储
ByteArrayOutputStream baos = new ByteArrayOutputStream();
bmp.compress(Bitmap.CompressFormat.PNG, 100, baos);
byte[] bytes = baos.toByteArray();

//再次把Bitmap数组写进为DiskLruCache准备的输出流。
OutputStream os = editor.newOutputStream(0);
os.write(bytes);
os.flush();

//正式写入DiskLruCache
editor.commit();

Log.d("DiskLruCache缓存", "写入缓存资源完毕。");
} catch (Exception e) {
e.printStackTrace();
}
}

DiskLruCache.Snapshot snapShot = null;
try {
snapShot = mDiskLruCache.get(key);
} catch (Exception e) {
e.printStackTrace();
}

Bitmap bmp = null;
if (snapShot != null) {
Log.d("DiskLruCache缓存", "发现资源，复用。");
InputStream is = snapShot.getInputStream(0);
bmp = BitmapFactory.decodeStream(is);
} else {
Log.d("DiskLruCache缓存", "没有发现缓存资源。");
}

return bmp;
}

private String getMD5(String msg) {
MessageDigest md = null;

try {
md = MessageDigest.getInstance("MD5");
} catch (Exception e) {
e.printStackTrace();
}

md.reset();
md.update(msg.getBytes());

byte[] bytes = md.digest();

String result = "";
for (byte b : bytes) {
result += String.format("%02x", b);
}

return result;
}
}

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• Created by Jerry Wang, last modified on Nov 03, 2014 In customizing, we can select one element and maintain a rule for it in order to achieve that the element would only appear in the final document ...

In customizing, we can select one element and maintain a rule for it in order to achieve that the element would only appear in the final document once some condition meets. We could also maintain one or more variables to that element:

For example here we have assigned the variable "ZJERRY_TEST" to element ZCR_CD:

such variable has type CHAR10 and has default value "i042416".

In document template design time, we could drag the variable from right variable tree pane and drop them to the left word layout part:

In the document creation ui, we could input some data to the variable:

and in the runtime we could see the user input is merged to the final rendered document:

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• Multiagent environments where agents compete for resources are stepping stones on the path to AGI. Multiagent environments have two useful properties: first, there is a natural curriculum—the ...
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• On Monday this week, Ripple, a San Francisco-based financial technology company, said xRapid uses cryptocurrency XRP as a "bridge currency" for cross-border payments, reducing costs and ...
• package zhangphil.cache; import android.app.ListActivity; import android.graphics.Bitmap; import android.graphics.BitmapFactory; import andr...
• The POST action seems to have no effect on the .net core controller. If you put[IgnoreAntiforgeryToken] attribute on the server controller method, it works. But dont' leave it like that exposing vul....
• Israel's decision to cooperate with the panel comes two months after Ban first proposed it to Netanyahu, who delayed his answer for some time, first stating that he opposed the proposal and finally ...
• Cooperate and navigate” Traffic capacity is limited in many regions of the United States due to the number of lanes of roads. For example, in the Greater Seattle area drivers experience long ...
• PROBLEM C:“Cooperate and navigate”Traffic capacity is limited in many regions of the United States due to the number of lanes of roads.For example, in the Greater Seattle area drivers experience ...
• 对自己的粉丝发送私信被屏蔽，如何能完美处理 稍微了解到需要逆向分析 有没有大神来交流下 We can cooperate！ We can cooperate！ We can cooperate
• 这里需要注意的地方是：<...中action的值是网关+编码格式参数，即https://www.alipay.com/cooperate/gateway.do? _input_charset=utf-8，GBK的编码格式可以为：https://www.alipay.com/cooperate /gateway.do?。
• Cooperate with Nginx (Recommended) Cooperate with Apache Enable WebSocket server Listen events System events Customized asynchronous events Asynchronous task queue Millisecond cron job ...
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• Dynamic OD Estimation Where models should cooperate with the data Prof. Dr. Ing. Francesco Viti Transport Research Group - MobiLab Faculty of Science, Technology & Communication University of Luxembo
• http://www.gdzjdaily.com.cn/cooperate/jkkc/2014-09/24/content_7124705.htm http://www.gdzjdaily.com.cn/cooperate/jkkc/2014-09/24/content_7124761.htm http://www.gdzjdaily.com.cn/cooperate/jkkc/2014-09
• Reinforcement learning (RL) has shown great success in increasingly complex ...agents, each learning and acting independently to cooperate and compete with other agents. We used a tournament-style evalu
• 工作遇到个坑爹的项目 就是数据随时更新 且name字段不变 其他字段一直更新 但要取最近更新的那个数据 ...select * from cooperate where id in(select max(id) from cooperate GROUP BY cooperat...
• Apply Dynamic HTML5.3 应用动态HTML授课人朱锦秀 学校江苏省江都中学01040203复习导入Review Import体验分析Learn Analysis合作探究Cooperate Explore总结评价Summarize Evaluate复习导入Review Import 客户端脚本...
• 计划于2013年3月20日，支付宝将要停止商户接口访问（https://www.alipay.com/cooperate/gateway.do）。 现在，在此通知各位已经在使用支付宝接口的商户，建议您尽快切换您网站支付宝接口的通知网关。 依据我们提供的...
• Collaborative systems enable organizations to communicate, interact and cooperate with each other to achieve their business goals. Access control is an important security mechanism for organizations ...
• Developing software is now more than ever before a globally distributed activity: agile methodologies that worked well enough with co-... discuss, and cooperate in a more social way, even with GitHub.
• 1，业务需求有两个实体类，分别是Requirement和Cooperate，分别表示需求和对接。一个需求可以有多个对接。 需求和对接，都需要记录用户。简而言之，需要知道需求是谁发布的，对接的人是谁。所以Requirement和 ...
• In this study, the authors consider a coordinated target assignment problem where a group of unmanned flight vehicles cooperate with each other to combat with a set of target vehicles which may ...

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