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  • Talk about liposuction lose weight easy slim weight loss methodLiposuction is not a hard can easily thin weight loss method, thus obtained the favour of the person is not surprising amy. All the stran...

    Talk about liposuction lose weight easy slim weight loss method
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    转载于:https://www.cnblogs.com/gdhm2/archive/2011/08/08/2130919.html

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  • Timberline Vegetation on Mountains The transition from forest to treeless tundra on a mountain slope is often a dramatic one. Within a vertical distance of just a few tens of meters, trees disappe....

    Timberline Vegetation on Mountains

     

    The transition from forest to treeless tundra on a mountain slope is often a dramatic one. Within a vertical distance of just a few tens of meters, trees disappear as a life-form and are replaced by low shrubs, herbs, and grasses. This rapid zone of transition is called the upper timberline or tree line. In many semiarid areas there is also a lower timberline where the forest passes into steppe or desert at its lower edge, usually because of a lack of moisture.

     

    The upper timberline, like the snow line, is highest in the tropics and lowest in the Polar Regions. It ranges from sea level in the Polar Regions to 4,500 meters in the dry subtropics and 3,500-4,500 meters in the moist tropics. Timberline trees are normally evergreens, suggesting that these have some advantage over deciduous trees (those that lose their leaves) in the extreme environments of the upper timberline. There are some areas, however, where broadleaf deciduous trees form the timberline. Species of birch, for example, may occur at the timberline in parts of the Himalayas.

     

    At the upper timberline the trees begin to become twisted and deformed. This is particularly true for trees in the middle and upper latitudes, which tend to attain greater heights on ridges, whereas in the tropics the trees reach their greater heights in the valleys. This is because middle- and upper- latitude timberlines are strongly influenced by the duration and depth of the snow cover. As the snow is deeper and lasts longer in the valleys, trees tend to attain greater heights on the ridges, even though they are more exposed to high-velocity winds and poor, thin soils there. In the tropics, the valleys appear to be more favorable because they are less prone to dry out, they have less frost, and they have deeper soils.

     

    There is still no universally agreed-on explanation for why there should be such a dramatic cessation of tree growth at the upper timberline. Various environmental factors may play a role. Too much snow, for example, can smother trees, and avalanches and snow creep can damage or destroy them. Late-lying snow reduces the effective growing season to the point where seedlings cannot establish themselves. Wind velocity also increases with altitude and may cause serious stress for trees, as is made evident by the deformed shapes at high altitudes. Some scientists have proposed that the presence of increasing levels of ultraviolet light with elevation may play a role, while browsing and grazing animals like the ibex may be another contributing factor. Probably the most important environmental factor is temperature, for if the growing season is too short and temperatures are too low, tree shoots and buds cannot mature sufficiently to survive the winter months.

     

    Above the tree line there is a zone that is generally called alpine tundra. Immediately adjacent to the timberline, the tundra consists of a fairly complete cover of low-lying shrubs, herbs, and grasses, while higher up the number and diversity of species decrease until there is much bare ground with occasional mosses and lichens and some prostrate cushion plants. Some plants can even survive in favorable microhabitats above the snow line. The highest plants in the world occur at around 6,100 meters on Makalu in the Himalayas. At this great height, rocks, warmed by the sun, melt small snowdrifts.

     

    The most striking characteristic of the plants of the alpine zone is their low growth form. This enables them to avoid the worst rigors of high winds and permits them to make use of the higher temperatures immediately adjacent to the ground surface. In an area where low temperatures are limiting to life, the importance of the additional heat near the surface is crucial. The low growth form can also permit the plants to take advantage of the insulation provided by a winter snow cover. In the equatorial mountains the low growth form is less prevalent.

    转载于:https://www.cnblogs.com/techyu/p/10879267.html

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  • Redis supports persistence, so you don’t lose everything that’s in memory when the server restarts. Redis supports a rich set of data types (far beyond memcached’s simple key-value-pairs). Each...

    Key Disadvantages

    Redis requires that the whole dataset be loaded into main memory at all times. (Redis Virtual Memory, which we’ll discuss later, relaxes this requirement, but still needs all keys to always be in memory.). Guaranteed in-memory access to most of the dataset is Redis' main performance driver — and is also responsible for creating its main limitations.

    RAM

    RAM is the gold of cloud computing. (Cloud servers are primarily priced based on the amount of available RAM. By comparison, disk and CPU are cheap.)

    The amount of RAM that Redis needs is proportional to the size of the dataset. Large datasets in Redis are going to be fast, but expensive.

    Persistence

    Redis persistence is highly configurable but the implementation makes extremely heavy use of I/O resources. Furthermore, most save operations require additional memory to complete successfully, and, in some cases, asynchronous saves can block the server for lengthy periods of time. (These points are discussed in more detail, below; see thePersistence section.)

    Memory Bloat

    Redis' internal design typically trades off memory for speed. For some workloads, there can be an order of magnitude difference between the raw number of bytes handed off to Redis to store, and the amount of memory that Redis uses.

    Diving In

    String Keys

    Regardless of the data type, the data is always identified by a key, and the key is always a string.

    For example, using the string data type:

        redis> SET foo bar
        OK
        redis> GET foo
        "bar"
        redis> GET dne
        (nil)
    

    Expiry

    Keys can be marked for expiry. For example:

        redis> EXPIRE foo 2
        (integer) 1
    

    After waiting for 2 seconds:

        redis> GET foo
        (nil)
    

    Sidenote: memcached?

    So far, this looks quite similar to memcached (GET/SET API, in-memory storage, etc.). However, there are a few important things to note:

    1. Redis supports replication out of the box. Any sort of topology is possible, so you can create replication trees.
    2. Redis supports persistence, so you don’t lose everything that’s in memory when the server restarts.
    3. Redis supports a rich set of data types (far beyond memcached’s simple key-value-pairs).

    Each of these points will be addressed in more detail, below.

    Replication

    Redis' replication capabilities are powerful yet straightforward.

    A master can have any number of slaves, and each slave can have any number of their own slaves, and so on and so forth. Any topology is possible.

    To point a slave to a specific master, issue the SLAVEOF command on the slave. Slaves will block until the initial synchronization with the master is complete.

    This initial synchronization process consists of the master asynchronously snapshotting the current state of the database, then transferring the snapshot to the slave, and then subsequently streaming all commands received after initiating the snapshot.

    Persistence

    Redis has configurable persistence settings, enabling durability to be tweaked depending on the problem domain.

    Options

    If durability is not important:

    Redis can be configured in “snapshotting mode”. In this mode, Redis saves a binary dump of the contents of the database every x seconds or every y operations. If one of these criteria are met, Redis forks the process. The child process writes the dump file to disk while the master continues to service requests.

    This procedure can be memory-efficient due to the way that Copy-On-Write works when forking. (Here, a snapshot of the database is saved as it existed exactly at the time of forking; extra memory is required only to store the keys that change during the snapshot procedure. If every key changes in value over the course of the snapshot, then roughly 2x the amount of memory used by Redis before the save is required to complete the save operation. This is the upper bound on the memory usage required for saving.)

    Of course, in this mode, any data that is not written in the snapshot is immediately lost if the server is killed.

    If durability is important:

    Redis can be configured to use an Append-Only File (AOF). Here, every command is written to a file. To recover from a crash or other server restart, the append-only file is replayed. There are three modes:

    • fsync() on every new command
    • fsync() every second
    • Let the OS decide when to fysnc()

    Using the BGREWRITEAOF command, Redis will update the snapshot and re-write the Append-Only File to shorten it. Like snapshotting, this is done asynchronously, in the background.

    More advanced configurations:

    Persistence can be turned off completely. This is useful in a number of scenarios.

    For example, if performance is very critical and your application demands extremely tight control over RAM usage, the following configuration is possible:

    • One master, persistence off, and
    • One slave, persistence off, and
    • Periodic synchronous saves, issues against the slave only

    The advantage of this set-up is that it requires no extra memory to complete a save, regardless of the number and frequency of writes. In this way, you are trading off durability for extremely tight control over memory usage.

    No extra memory is required to complete the save because the SAVE command performs a synchronous save operation, thereby blocking the server that the command is issued against until the saving process completes. (Asynchronous saves, as discussed above, require extra memory proportional to the number of writes performed during the save.)

    Other variations on this theme are possible, for example AOF can be enabled on the slave only while persistence remains off on the master.

    Binary Dumps and In-Memory Representation

    The binary dumps (i.e. those produced by the snapshot operations) are stored in a very efficient manner on disk.

    Once a binary dump is loaded, Redis will use several factors more memory than the on-disk representation requires. The exact factor increase depends primarily on the data types that are in use. For example, Sorted Sets use significantly more memory than Sets, even though both data structures require similar amounts of space when serialized to disk.

    This is expected behaviour, given that Redis optimizes heavily both read and write performance.

    Note that optimizations are continually being made to reduce the amount of memory required to represent each of the data types in memory.

    Problems

    Redis exhibits the following issues with persistence:

    • Most save operations require additional memory to complete successfully (as previously discussed). Depending on the size of the dataset, the frequency of writes, and the amount of RAM you are comfortable reserving, this may or may not be an issue.

    • Redis persistence requires extremely heavy I/O usage. This is discussed in detailhere. Also see Salvatore’s response.

    • In some cases, asynchronous saves can block the server for lengthy periods of time. See this post on the mailing list for an interesting discussion.

    Although the issues with Redis persistence are hard problems to solve, the issues are beginning to be discussed at length. We should continue to see improvements in this area.

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  • Timberline Vegetation on Mountains The transition from forest to treeless tundra on a mountain slope is often a dramatic one. Within a vertical distance of just a few tens of meters, trees disappear a...

    Timberline Vegetation on Mountains

    The transition from forest to treeless tundra on a mountain slope is often a dramatic one. Within a vertical distance of just a few tens of meters, trees disappear as a life-form and are replaced by low shrubs, herbs, and grasses. This rapid zone of transition is called the upper timberline or tree line. In many semiarid areas there is also a lower timberline where the forest passes into steppe or desert at its lower edge, usually because of a lack of moisture.

    The upper timberline, like the snow line, is highest in the tropics and lowest in the Polar Regions. It ranges from sea level in the Polar Regions to 4,500 meters in the dry subtropics and 3,500-4,500 meters in the moist tropics. Timberline trees are normally evergreens, suggesting that these have some advantage over deciduous trees (those that lose their leaves) in the extreme environments of the upper timberline. There are some areas, however, where broadleaf deciduous trees form the timberline. Species of birch, for example, may occur at the timberline in parts of the Himalayas.

    At the upper timberline the trees begin to become twisted and deformed. This is particularly true for trees in the middle and upper latitudes, which tend to attain greater heights on ridges, whereas in the tropics the trees reach their greater heights in the valleys. This is because middle- and upper- latitude timberlines are strongly influenced by the duration and depth of the snow cover. As the snow is deeper and lasts longer in the valleys, trees tend to attain greater heights on the ridges, even though they are more exposed to high-velocity winds and poor, thin soils there. In the tropics, the valleys appear to be more favorable because they are less prone to dry out, they have less frost, and they have deeper soils.

    There is still no universally agreed-on explanation for why there should be such a dramatic cessation of tree growth at the upper timberline. Various environmental factors may play a role. Too much snow, for example, can smother trees, and avalanches and snow creep can damage or destroy them. Late-lying snow reduces the effective growing season to the point where seedlings cannot establish themselves. Wind velocity also increases with altitude and may cause serious stress for trees, as is made evident by the deformed shapes at high altitudes. Some scientists have proposed that the presence of increasing levels of ultraviolet light with elevation may play a role, while browsing and grazing animals like the ibex may be another contributing factor. Probably the most important environmental factor is temperature, for if the growing season is too short and temperatures are too low, tree shoots and buds cannot mature sufficiently to survive the winter months.

    Above the tree line there is a zone that is generally called alpine tundra. Immediately adjacent to the timberline, the tundra consists of a fairly complete cover of low-lying shrubs, herbs, and grasses, while higher up the number and diversity of species decrease until there is much bare ground with occasional mosses and lichens and some prostrate cushion plants. Some plants can even survive in favorable microhabitats above the snow line. The highest plants in the world occur at around 6,100 meters on Makalu in the Himalayas. At this great height, rocks, warmed by the sun, melt small snowdrifts.

    The most striking characteristic of the plants of the alpine zone is their low growth form. This enables them to avoid the worst rigors of high winds and permits them to make use of the higher temperatures immediately adjacent to the ground surface. In an area where low temperatures are limiting to life, the importance of the additional heat near the surface is crucial. The low growth form can also permit the plants to take advantage of the insulation provided by a winter snow cover. In the equatorial mountains the low growth form is less prevalent.

    展开全文
  • Thinking on May Day

    2009-05-04 20:00:22
    [b]Foreword[/b] For the brief holiday,I went home with one of my classmates. After three hours journey,I reached the downtown. Along with the river, we enjoyed ourselves...I took photos, run on the...
  • buy rs 07 gold on RSorder with fast delivery and 100% safe guarantee. He skips quickly down a grand staircase to the ground floor hallway, where a pretty young blonde perches giggli
  • Cognition math based on Factor Space Wang P Z1, Ouyang H2, Zhong Y X3, He H C4 1Intelligence Engineering and Math Institute, Liaoning Technical Univ. Fuxin, Liaoning, 123000, China 2Jie Macroelec....
  • 2013 ACM/ICPC Asia Regional Nanjing Online

    千次阅读 2013-09-21 17:54:04
    2013 ACM/ICPC Asia Regional Nanjing Online  Area Time Limit: 2000/1000 MS (Java/Others) Memory Limit: 32768/32768 K (Java/Others) Total Submission(s): 3 Accepted Submission(s): 0 Probl
  • A Story Happened on An Uninhabited IslandThe only survivor of a shipwreck was washed up on a small, uninhabited island. He prayed feverishly for God to rescue him, and every day he scanned the horiz
  • http://www.ralentz.com/old/space/feynman-report.html  Watch for falling links!...Feynman's Appendix to the Rogers Commission Report on the Space Shuttle Challenger Accident Personal ob
  • Well, to answer all those questions, we'll first need to unlearn everything about the classical OO approach and start from the ground up. But, trust me, it's worth it. The prototypical OO model brings...
  • As far as the mass of the people go, the extraordinary swings of opinion which occur nowadays, the emotions which can be turned on and off like a tap, are the result of newspaper and radio hypnosis....
  • 《Developing and maintaining clients’ trust through institutional mechanisms in online service markets for digital entrepreneurs: A process model》中英文对比翻译 引用:Dua W, Mao J Y. Developing and ...
  • ON HOLY WARS AND A PLEA FOR PEACE

    千次阅读 2009-08-16 21:50:00
    numbering system, the wide-end is on the left and the narrow-end is on the right. Hence, the above is a perfectly consistent view of the world as depicted by the Big-Endians. ...
  • in flight with a internal laser alignment system and by cosmicrays allowing to maintain the tracker alignment uncertainties at the fewmicrons level to reach in space the same performances verified on ...
  • Ext JS 4.1 RC2 Released发布

    千次阅读 2012-04-04 11:40:24
    原文:http://www.sencha.com/blog/ext-js-4-1-rc-2-released/Today we’re making available Ext JS 4.1 RC2, which contains bug fixes, enhancements and documentation improvements based on your feedback on ...
  • 出现 动词+名词 lose heart 灰心 lose patience 失去耐心 lose weight 减肥 make sense 讲得通 make the bed 整理床铺 make a bet 打赌 make a bow 鞠躬 make faces 扮鬼脸 take action 采取行动 take aim 瞄准 take...
  • First, pick your platform (click on your OS): Ubuntu Linux (Bionic)  | Mac Homebrew Download the textbook supplement git clone https://github.com/RussTedrake/underactuated.git and ...
  • Our main result is that on an English to French translation task from the WMT-14 dataset, the translations produced by the LSTM achieve a BLEU score of 34.8 on the entire test set, where the LSTM’s ...
  • Today we see ROS used not only on the PR2 and robots that are similar to the PR2, but also on wheeled robots of all sizes, legged humanoids, industrial arms, outdoor ground vehicles (including self-...
  • Vector人工智能机器人SDK使用笔记

    千次阅读 2019-02-03 07:16:55
    """Tell Vector to drive on and off the charger. """ import anki_vector def main(): args = anki_vector.util.parse_command_args() with anki_vector.Robot(args.serial) as robot: print("Drive Vector...
  • 推荐算法在之前的工作和学习中接触的很少,所以这一块自然也就成了我很大的一块弱项,在学校的时候还自己鼓捣过一些常见的推荐算法模型,比如:协同过滤、相似度推荐等等,随着实践应用的发展和进步,推荐算法演变...
  • 简单的软件测试规则

    2019-07-21 22:05:03
     The greatest benefit is the constant terminology and values, which can serve as common ground between stakeholders 科学成果:最大的好处是连续的术语和价值观,可以作为利益相关者之间的共同点 ...
  • intel_idle.max_cstate=1 required on baytrail to prevent crashes Status : NEEDINFO Alias: None Product: Power Management Component: intel_idle ( show other ...
  • Lisp的本质(The Nature of Lisp) ...简介 最初在web的某些角落偶然看到有人赞美Lisp时, 我那时已经是一个颇有经验的程序员。 在我的履历上, 掌握的语言范围相当广泛, 象C++, Java, C#主流语言等等都不在话下, 我觉得我...
  • 100个句子直刷7000单词

    千次阅读 2017-06-03 15:25:19
    Acids are chemical compounds that, in water solution, have a sharp taste, a corrosive action on metals, and the ability to turn certain blue vegetable dyes red. 酸是一种化合物,它在溶于水时具有...
  • gazebo_models:...附件-官网教程汇总-构建机器人模型-Build a RobotModel structure and requirements OverviewGazebo is able to dynamically load models into simulation either programmat
  • 二维纹理 Texture 2D

    千次阅读 2016-10-28 17:47:40
    Good for floor and ground textures, see below.  在一个过高角度看纹理时提高纹理质量。适用于地板与地面纹理,见下文。 Filter Mode  过滤模式 Selects how the Texture is filtered when it ...
  •  propose an online boosting method to update discriminative features and later in [8] a semi-online boosting algorithm is proposed to handle the drifting problem. Reference ...

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