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  • <div><p>I noticed that when using certain warp types that every time you click on the effect in the grid, the treatment reverts back to the constant option. Circle Reveal, Banded Swirl, Ripple and ...
  • treatment_effect 使用T Learner评估治疗效果
  • <div><p>I build a causal forest with the option clusters and I would like to compute the average partial effect for a given cluster. I run the command: average_partial_effect( cf , calibrate.weights...
  • <p>The average treatment effect for the treated and the overlap weighted treatment effects are all normal. Although the numbers differ slightly from the released branch as well. <p><strong>Steps to ...
  • <div><p>该提问来源于开源项目:grf-labs/grf</p></div>
  • Effect of the heat-treatment on the structure, spectral properties of (Yb0.05La0.10Y0.85)2O3 transparent ceramics is investigated. Laser grade ceramic samples are fabricated, and a diode-pumped laser...
  • As I mentioned, sometimes I will get an estimated treatment effect, other times the NaN will be returned. Should I increase the sample fraction? The min node size? <p>My thought is that there must ...
  • When I expand the range of true treatment effect (changed X.test[,1] to be a sequence between -2 and 4), the estimated Treatment effect is systematically below the truth when TE is >2. Any ...
  • In doping and post-treatment effect on holographic properties in In:Ce:Cu:LiNbO3 crystal,张涛,徐玉恒,A series of triply-doped In:Ce:Cu:LiNbO3 crystals with a varying level of In doping were grown ...
  • Sensitivity enhancement of Faraday effect based heterodyning fiber laser magnetic field sensor with the assistance of CO2-laser treatment
  • 肾上腺髓质素对坎地沙坦治疗急性心肌梗塞大鼠的联合作用,陈广亚,,目的:本研究旨在观察生物活性肽肾上腺髓质素(AM)对血管紧张素受体阻滞剂坎地沙坦治疗急性心肌梗塞(AMI)大鼠的叠加作用。方法:急性
  • 高温热处理对碳载镍酞菁氧还原催化活性的影响,丁蕾,乔锦丽,考察了不同热处理温度对碳载金属镍酞菁催化剂催化氧还原(ORR)活性的影响。结果表明:碳载镍酞菁催化剂催化氧还原的活性与热处理温�
  • 这篇文章考虑了一个新的causal inference设定:treatment不是简单的二元变量{0,1}\left\{0,1\right\}{0,1},而是二元变量的组合{0,1}k\left\{0,1\right\}^k{0,1}k。这个设定也比较好理解,还用医生治病的例子来说,...

    背景

    这篇文章考虑了一个新的causal inference设定:treatment不是简单的二元变量{0,1}\left\{0,1\right\},而是二元变量的组合{0,1}k\left\{0,1\right\}^k。这个设定也比较好理解,还用医生治病的例子来说,通常医生使用的是多种药的组合。如果总共涉及到三种药物,而病人使用了第一种和第三种,则对应的k=3k=3,treatment就是[1,0,1][1,0,1]

    挑战

    这个设定的挑战在于如何设计针对多个treatment的网络结构。在经典的TARnet和Dragonnet中,作者针对p(yt=0,x)p(y|t=0,x)p(yt=1,x)p(y|t=1,x)都设计了不同的网络,如果本文也沿用这个方法,就会出现网络结构冗余的问题。比如例子中涉及到3个treatment的组合,那就要相应设计23=82^3=8个网络,非常不高效,还会出现因为数据分布不均匀网络训练不准确的问题。

    方法

    整体的框架还是套用的CEVAE(可以参见笔者写的上一篇文章),创新之处在于引入了一个可学习的embedding matrix。

    Encoder

    网络结构如下图所示:
    在这里插入图片描述
    前向传播:首先输入xx会经过网络g1g_1得到q(tx)=i=1kBern(qt,i)q(t|x)=\prod_{i=1}^k Bern(q_{t,i}),然后从q(tx)q(t|x)中采样得到tt'(这里有个问题就是怎么反向传播?采样得到tt'没法反向传播吧),接下来tt'会和一个embedding matrix WW相乘得到新的表示τ=Wt\tau=W\cdot t'。新表示τ\tau经过网络g2g_2得到q(yt,x)=N(g2,1)q(y|t,x)=N(g_2,1),这里方差设为1也是为了简单防止过拟合吧,避免网络中要学习太多变量。之后,作者把τ,x,g2\tau, x, g_2concatenate到一起得到g3g_3g4g_4的输入,g3g_3g4g_4的输出恰好是q(zx,t,y)q(z|x,t,y)的均值和方差。

    Decoder

    网络结构如下图所示:
    在这里插入图片描述前向传播:这里作者没写清楚decoder的输入zz怎么来的(吐槽一句,作者有很多细节都没写清楚),我猜测就是从encoder的输出采样得到。接下来先看下面四个网络f1,f2,f3,f4f_1,f_2,f_3,f_4,其实是针对xx的三种可能情形:二元变量、目录变量、连续变量,这里只以连续变量为例进行说明。f1f_1f2f_2的输出分别是p(xz)p(x|z)的均值和方差。f5f_5的设计和g1g_1基本一致,输出就是p(tz)=i=1kBern(pt,i)p(t|z)=\prod_{i=1}^k Bern(p_{t,i}),然后继续采样得到t~\widetilde{t}t~\widetilde{t}再与embedding matrix相乘得到τ~=Wt~\widetilde{\tau}=W \cdot \widetilde{t}。之后作者在文章里说把τ~,x,z\widetilde{\tau},x,z concatanate到一起作为f6f_6的输入,但根据流程图似乎没有xx?(这个作者写作有点不认真啊,文章居然和图对不上)
    作者没具体写出训练的目标函数(很迷,这么重要的东西居然文章里没有明确写出来),只是说利用和VAE类似的变分推断的方法,估计是和CEVAE差不多,先验分布也是标准正态分布。

    总结

    文章的亮点在于提出了multiple treatment的范式和embedding的解决思路,缺点在于作者写作实在太不严谨了,很多细节没交代清楚(当然也可能是我读的还不够细),类似于采样tt怎么反向传播、目标函数之类的都没有具体写出来。

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  • FoxO1乙酰化修饰在组蛋白去乙酰化酶抑制剂depsipeptide诱导细胞凋亡激活Bim表达中的作用,杨洋,赵颖,组蛋白去乙酰化酶抑制剂能够诱导肿瘤细胞的凋亡。然而,其诱导肿瘤细胞凋亡的机制却不是十分明了。...
  • 纯镁的硬脂酸自组装膜表面改性工艺及其对腐蚀行为影响的研究,乔丽英,王勇,为了改善镁基金属在生理环境中的腐蚀行为和生物活性,本文在纯镁表面通过浸涂方式制备了硬脂酸(SA)自组装膜(SAMs)。...
  • 热处理对番木瓜果实炭疽病的防治效果及其对PG、PME活性,赵楠,李雪萍,研究热处理对番木瓜炭疽病的防治效果及其对PG、PME活性和PGIP基因表达的影响。番木瓜采后经54℃热水浸泡4 min后,贮藏期间的病情指数�
  • igf-1胶囊对一型、二型糖尿病小鼠的治疗作用及剂量关系,周轶,肖玉玲,在以往的研究中,武汉大学的杨代常教授通过转基因途径得到了igf-1(胰岛素样生长因子-1)高表达的大米并测试了igf-1大米的抗糖尿病活性�
  • m using the 1.0.1 version on trial data to identifiy subgroups with heterogenous treatment effect. The following codes show that different forest plots (shown below) are gernerated by different seed ...
  • <div><p>Both the reports GUI and the API are very unreliable with respect to treatment edits and deletions. When going to Reports -> Treatments and using the green pencil to edit or the red x to ...
  • <div><p>I have clustered data with a continuous treatment and I would like to compute the average partial effect at the cluster level. This is not possible with the current implementation of the grf ...
  • Photonics ... Immunotherapy, including the use of antibodies, vaccines, immunoadjuvants and cytokines, when combined with phototherapy, could bring a synergistic effect to stimulate a host imm
  • Add confidence intervals for heterogeneous treatment effects; growing more trees is now recommended", I am trying to get tau(X1) while holding other X at 0. I standardized X, so all X have mean 0....
  • Yet, when I run a causal forest analysis on this DV the predicted treatment effects do not indicate a significant, positive average treatment effect (see plot attached). <p><img alt="image" src=...
  • Placebo Effect(安慰剂效应)

    千次阅读 2016-01-07 15:09:58
    The placebo effect is the measurable, observable, or felt improvement in health or behavior not... attributable to a medication or invasive treatment that has been administered. The placebo effect is n



    The placebo effect is the measurable, observable, or felt improvement in health or behavior not attributable to a medication or invasive treatment that has been administered. The placebo effect is not mind over matter; it is not mind-body medicine. 'The placebo effect' has become a catchall term for a positive change in health not attributable to medication or treatment. As is explained below, the change can be due to many things, such as regression to the mean, spontaneous improvement, reduction of stress, misdiagnosis in the first place, subject expectancy, classical conditioning, etc.







    from: http://skepdic.com/placebo.html

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  • m interested in understanding the effect of treatment using a CoxPH model (or more generally a time-varying CoxPH model), is there a straightforward way for me to include a random effect for the group...
  • Combination of HPLC chromatogram and hypoglycemic effect identifies isoflavones as the principal active fraction of Belamcanda chinensis leaf extract in diabetes treatment.
  • In this Letter, we first validate that the ultra-low temperature and formaldehyde treatment have no effect on photoacoustic characteristics of the artery samples. Comparative experiments between the ...
  • Effect of the laser treatment on electroless Ni-P-SiC composite coatings was investigated. The microscopic structure, surface morphology, ingredient, and performance of the Ni-P-SiC composite coatings...
  • <p>identify_effect seem to always throw an error if the treatment does not have a direct edge to the cause. Why is this? <p>Error <pre><code>python KeyError Traceback (most recent call last) /usr/...
  • Although the Strong Acidic water has a good bactericidal effect, having an astringent and can be used for the disinfection of the restaurants, hotels, medical and other units ,we here not saying ...

    Although the Strong Acidic water has a good bactericidal effect, having an astringent and can be used for the disinfection of the restaurants, hotels, medical and other units ,we here not saying of these aspects, what we talk about is its industry application. The acid mine water is mainly formed   in air, precipitation, and bacteria in the process of oxidation by reducing the sulphide minerals in the mining, transport, mineral processing and waste rock discharge and tailings storage. As to the acidic mine water , the water amount is large,  the pH values is lower, contain high concentrations of sulfate and soluble metal ions, causing serious harm to the mining area surrounding environment and human health. Acid mine water, inorganic metal salt content is high, its composition and nature is different from domestic sewage, which is also different from the industrial waste water, so we can not take the conventional sewage treatment methods.
     
    The Alkaline neutralization method make the pH value increased, the metal ion precipitate. The method is directly to acidic water or acidic water pollution bodies of water plus an alkaline substance such as limestone production line is an application first, which is the more successful methods. The reaction mechanism of this method is relatively simple, mainly use the acid-base  to raise the pH of Fe3 and Fe2 precipitation, meanwhile, adsorption through precipitation to remove AJ3 'and Cu2 + Zn and other metal ions. In theory, under certain pH, lime or limestone = dfsaDSAcx can all make the metal deposition, but due to the acidic water to be dealt with by the various tailings may contain with the reagents or ion, the precipitation and the precipitation of completion is very different; at the same time,after processing, the calcium sulfate residue generated quantity is large,  so it is more likely to cause secondary pollution.    
    In China, acid mine water and France basically followed the milk of lime in France.In other countries, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency think the limestone and milk of lime series process of metal ions in acid mine water is the most economical method , which is more economical than the pure milk of lime and 30% reduction in processing costs. In Japan, the processing of acidic water often use limestone for neutralizing agents, pH is about 5, added neutralizer lime, the pH value continues to rise, that is handled through the so-called Sec and metal ions Acidic water. And France in Sec has been widely used in Japan's Mitsubishi metals, fine position in mining, it is widely used in the mining industry and the Kosaka mining region.   

    Cement plant : http://www.crusher-export.com/cement_mill.htm
    ore beneficiation : http://www.ore-mills.com/

    转载于:https://www.cnblogs.com/dvbcxb/archive/2012/08/15/2640294.html

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