流利说 Level 4 全文2019-05-22 10:52:40Level 4 Unit 1 1/4 Listening Lesson 1 Visiting a Friend 1-2 Lesson2 Vocabulary Lesson 3 Pains and Sickness Lesson 4 Landforms Dialogue Lesson 5 Eating Out ...Lesson 1 A Trip to...
Christina is on a two week vocation.
This is the first vocation she has had for a long time.
The last vocation she took was more than two years ago.
Now she is visiting a friend in San Francisco.
Her friend and her husband are living near the center of the city.
He works for a start-up company in Silicon Valley.
While he is working, she works part-time at a department store.
-How long has it been since her last vocation? –It’s been more than 2 years.
-What kind of company does her friend’s husband work for? –A start-up company.
Christina hasn’t seen her friend for a longtime.
The last time they saw each other was three years ago.
At that time, they were both working at a department store.
Then Christina quitted her job and started her own business.
She designs women’s clothing.
She has two employees now and her company is slowly growing.
-How long has it been since Christina last saw her friend? –It has been 3 years.
-Where were Christina and her friend working before she started her own business? –They were working at a department store.
-How long has it been since Christina started her own business? –It’s been 3 years.
Christina has come to San Francisco by herself.
Her husband didn’t come, because he has to work.
He tried to start a company two years ago, but it didn’t work out.
His company failed after only a few months.
So now he is working at another company and saving money.
Once he saves enough money, he plans to start another company. He doesn’t want to give up.
-Why hasn’t Christina’s husband come with her? –He has to work.
-Why is Christina’s husband saving money? –He wants to start a new company.
This is the second time Christina has been to San Francisco.
The first time was when she was a high school student.
That was more than ten years ago.
During that trip, she was only in San Francisco for a few days.
After that, she went to Los Angeles and New York.
This time she and her friend plan to relax and have fun.
-How many times has Christina been to San Francisco? –She has been to San Francisco twice.
-How long did she stay in San Francisco on her first trip? –A few days.
Christina arrived two days ago, the day before yesterday.
Her friend met her at the airport, and drove her to her apartment.
Her apartment is just north of the airport, about 20 minutes from San Francisco.
It’s a small apartment, but it’s on a hill, and it has a great view.
Yesterday they went downtown, and rode the cable cars.
Christina was surprised by how steep the hills are.
Then they walked along the ocean, and ate lunch at a sea food restaurant.
From the restaurant, they could see the Golden Gate Bridge.
-How long has she been here? –For two days.
Tomorrow they are planning to drive to Yosemite National Park.
By car, it’s about four hours away.
Christina has never been there before, so she is excited.
She has heard that the park is very beautiful.
Her friend has been to Yosemite several times.
She says it’s one of the most beautiful places in the world.
Christina just hopes that her friend is a good driver.
-How many times has she been to the Yosemite? –Never.
Headaches can be very painful, and can last for a long time.
If you have a headache, your head hurts.
A sprained ankle can be so painful that you can’t walk.
Someone with a sprained ankle may need to use crutches to walk.
If you have a sore throat, it may be painful to swallow.
A sore throat can be caused by viruses or bacteria.
A burn is an injury to the skin caused by fire or heat.
If you get to close to a fire, you will be burned.
An earache is a sharp, dull or burning pain in the ear.
Common causes of an earache include an infection, a changing air pressure, or water in the ear.
Mountains are land forms higher than 2000 feet or about 600 meters above sea level.
Hills are like mountains but not as tall.
Mountains are formed by forces deep within the Earth, and are made of different types of rocks.
Rivers are streams of water that usually begin in mountains and flow into the sea.
Many early cities were built alongside rivers.
Most of the world’s water is in the oceans, which are large bodies of salt water.
The oceans are also an important source of oxygen.
Deserts are areas of land that receive little or no rainfall.
The amount of rainfall in some deserts is so low that only a few plants can survive.
A valley is a low relatively flat area between hills or mountains, often with a river running through it.
Some valleys are formed by flowing water, and others are formed by glaciers.
The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest ocean, covering more area than all the continents put together.
Desert temperatures can range from cold at night to very hot during the daytime, often above 120 degrees F.
M: Have you eaten yet?
W: No, I haven’t, and I’m hungry.
M: Me too. Let’s go out for dinner.
W: Where to?
M: What about Joe’s Italian?
W: How many times have you eaten there?
M: I eat there a lot. It’s one of my favorite places.
-Why is she hungry? –She hasn’t eaten yet.
W: I went there two weeks ago, and the service was terrible.
M: Really? Then let’s go someplace else.
-Why doesn’t she want to go to Joe’s Italian? –She went there two weeks ago and the service was terrible.
M: What do you suggest?
W: How about the Royal Indian? It’s not far from here.
M: I’ve never heard of it. Is it good?
W: Yes, I’ve been there several times, and I’ve never been disappointed.
-What’s one reason she suggests Royal Indian? –It’s not far away.
-Has she been to the Royal Indian before? –Yes, she has.
M: OK, let’s try it. I haven’t eaten Indian food for a long time.
W: You won’t be disappointed, and the prices are reasonable.
M: Ah, so you mean I’m going to pay.
W: Well, that would certainly be nice.
-How expensive is the restaurant? –It’s reasonably priced.
M: What about reservations?
W: If we get there early enough, we won’t need them.
M: I hope you are right.
W: Don’t worry, if we have to wait, I’ll pay the bill.
-What would happen if they don’t get there early enough? –They may have to wait.
When she went there two weeks ago, the service was awful.
She has been there several times.
Today Christina and her friend are enjoying themselves.
This morning they got up very early and drove out of San Francisco.
They crossed the Bay Bridge before the early morning commute and drove south.
Because it was so early, there were almost no cars.
-How heavy was the traffic? –There were almost no cars.
After driving for an hour and a half, they stopped and had breakfast.
They ordered pancakes and coffee.
They also had some fresh fruit.
When they finished eating, it was seven o’clock.
Then they got back into the car, and drove south.
Christina wanted to listen to music, so they turned on the radio.
An hour later, they stopped for gas.
They noticed that there was also a charging station for electric cars.
-How did they order for breakfast? –They ordered pancakes and coffee.
-What did they do after they finished eating? –They got back into the car and drove south.
It’s now 1:15 (one fifteen), and they are in Yosemite Park.
They have been there for two hours, since 11:15(eleven fifteen).
They are looking at Yosemite falls, which is the highest waterfall in the park.
The water drops a total of 740 meters from the top of the upper fall to the base of the lower fall.
-When did they arrive at the park? –They got there at 11:15.
In another fifteen minutes, they planned to eat lunch at a magnificent old hotel in the park.
It was built in 1927 and has a great view.
They wanted to stay there but they couldn’t get reservations.
To get a room at that hotel, you usually need to make reservations several months in advance.
-When do you need to make reservations? –You need to make reservations several months in advance.
-Why couldn’t they get reservations? –They didn’t reserve early enough.
They planned to stay in the park until around four o’clock.
By then, they will have been in the park for nearly five hours.
Then they will get back into the car and drive back to San Francisco.
They plan to eat dinner somewhere along the way.
If the traffic isn’t too bad, they should be back in San Francisco by ten o’clock.
-When do they expect to be back in San Francisco? –They expect to be back by 10 o’clock.
-How long would they have been in the park if they leave as scheduled? –For nearly 5 hours.
Early tomorrow morning, they are going to cross the Golden Gate Bridge and go north along the coast.
From some places you can look out on the ocean and see whales and other sea life.
Christina has never seen a whale before, so she is looking forward to it.
And tomorrow night they have something special planned.
They are going to watch a baseball game.
Christina has never seen a baseball game, but she has heard that it is very popular in the US.
And the San Francisco baseball team is one of the best.
-What does she hope to see from the coast? –She hopes to see whales.
-What are they going to do tomorrow morning? –They are going to cross the Golden Gate Bridge.
A force is a push or a pull on an object.
A force changes the motion of a moving object.
A force can be strong or weak and it always has a direction.
The Earth is a planet that goes around the sun in a circular orbit.
The speed of its motion doesn’t change, but the direction of its motion does.
The Earth has a layer of gas above its surface which helps to support life.
Atoms are the building blocks of matter.
At the center of an atom is its nucleus which has a positive electric charge.
Outside the nucleus are electrons which have a negative charge.
Asteroids and comets are objects that obey our sun, but are smaller than planets.
Asteroids that pass close to the Earth are called near-earth objects.
The layer of gases just above the Earth’s surface is our atmosphere.
The atmosphere is made of gases such as oxygen and nitrogen.
Without an atmosphere there would be no life on Earth.
If they collide with Earth they could cause an extinction event.
A force can increase or decrease the speed of an object, and it can change the direction of motion.
The electric force between the nucleus and the electrons holds the atom together.
The two lines on the left intersect each other at a right angle which is 90 degrees.
The two lines on the right are parallel which means they never cross.
The adjacent sides of a rectangle are perpendicular which means they meet a 90-degree angle.
The opposite sides of a rectangle are equal and parallel which means they never cross.
The area of a rectangle is the length times the width.
A circle is a two dimensional figure with a radius and a circumference which is the distance around the circle.
The area of a circle is Pi R squared, where R is the radius and Pi is the ratio of the circle circumference to its diameter.
A sphere is a three dimensional figure with a radius and a volume which is four thirds Pi R cubed.
All points on the surface of a sphere are equidistant from its center.
A right triangle is a two dimensional figure with three side, two of which are perpendicular.
To find its area, multiply the length of the two perpendicular sides a and b and divide by 2, A equals 1 half ab.
A rectangle is a 2 dimensional figure with 4 sides.
M: Have you finished eating yet?
W: No, I haven’t. Why are you in such a hurry?
M: I’m sorry, but you are such a slow eater.
W: A slow eater? Well, I try to enjoy my food. You just eat and swallow.
I don’t see how you can even taste it.
M: OK, I’m sorry. Do you mind if I get another glass of wine?
W: No, go ahead. I don’t want you to sit there putting pressure on me.
I thought we were going to have a relaxing evening.
-What does she allow him to do? –She allows him to get another glass of wine. A relaxing evening is the opposite of a high-pressure evening.
M: Yes, you are right. I’d like to relax, but I have a lot on my mind.
W: Work related?
M: Yes, it is. I’ve been getting some strange emails from my boss.
He wants me to cut down on my expenses. Maybe he wants to fire me.
His boss wants him to spend less.
-What is he afraid of? –He may lose his job.
W: Is business bad?
M: Yes, it is. But I don’t want to talk about it.
W: OK, but I’m a good listener. You can tell me if you’d like to.
-What doesn’t he want to talk about? –He doesn’t want to talk about his business.
M: Thanks. Maybe some other time.
I’ll try to stop thinking about it until when it’s tomorrow.
W: Good idea. You need to take a break from work. Your healthy is important, and so am I.
M: Yes, you are. I don’t know what I would do without you.
To deal with something means to do something about it.
Harry is an American businessman.
His job requires him to do a lot of travelling.
He takes nine or ten trips a year.
In the past six months, he has made five trips.
Three were to Asia, and two were to Europe.
The purpose of his trips is to attend meetings and make presentations.
-What does his job require him to do? –Travel a lot.
-What is the purpose of his trips? –Attend meetings and make presentations. His job requires him to attend meetings in many countries.
Harry loves to travel and he’s travelled to many countries.
Most of his trips are for one or two weeks.
His first international trip was 15 years ago when he was 20 years old.
He really wanted to see Asia, so he and his friend flew to Tokyo, Japan.
-How long are most of his trips? –for one or two weeks.
From Tokyo, they travelled around Japan for 2 weeks.
The people they met were very nice, but most of them didn’t speak English.
Harry tried to speak a little Japanese, but it was difficult.
He didn’t do very well.
When he spoke to people, most of them just looked at him.
They didn’t understand what he was trying to say.
-What language did he try to use when he was in Japan? –He tried to speak Japanese.
He has made 5 trips in the last 6 months.
From Japan, they went to Korea for a week, and then they went to China.
In China, they visited the Great Wall near Beijing.
They stayed in Beijing for a few days, and then boarded a train for Shanghai.
It was an overnight train, with sleeping cars.
-What kind of train did they take to Shanghai? –It was an overnight train.
-How long did they stay in Beijing? –for a few days.
During the journey, they enjoyed looking out the window at the countryside.
The view from the train was wonderful.
Harry will never forget watching the sun go down in the evening. It was a beautiful sunset.
-What did they enjoy doing during the journey? –looking out the window at the countryside.
-What won’t Harry ever forget? –Watching the beautiful sunset.
The journey to Shanghai took many hours, but it was an unforgettable experience.
On the train, they met a Chinese professor who spoke English.
He was a middle-aged man, whose hair was turning grey.
He told them about how things were changing in China.
It was wonderful to watch him as he was speaking.
His eyes were full of energy and excitement.
-Who did they meet on the train? –a Chinese professor.
-What did the professor talk about? –He talked about the many changes China was experiencing.
They only stayed in Shanghai a couple of days.
Then they returned to the US and went back to school.
They had one more year to finish their studies.
-Why did they return to the US? –They went back to finish their studies.
Harry’s next few trips were to different part of the world.
He went to Europe twice, each time to different countries.
On one trip, he travelled through the UK and France.
On the next trip, he went to Italy and Greece.
-How many times did he go to Europe? –He went to Europe twice.
After Europe, he travelled to Mexico and South America.
In South America he went to Argentina and Brazil.
He enjoyed watching some great soccer matches.
-What countries did he visit in South America? –Both Argentina and Brazil.
Then he decided to go back to Asia.
But this time he went to Southeast Asia.
He visited Vietnam, Thailand and Singapore.
Each country had a charm of its own.
-Where did he go after he went to South America? –He went to Southeast Asia.
-How many countries did he visit in Southeast Asia? –He visited 3 different countries.
After all these travel Harry decided to make travel part of his career.
He didn’t want to work only in the US.
He didn’t want to work only with Americans.
He wanted to experience other countries and other cultures.
His dream was to work for an international company.
-Why did he decide to work for an international company? –he wanted to experience other countries and other cultures.
-What was his dream? –working for an international company.
5 years ago, his dream came true.
Now he is working for a German high-tech company.
As part of his job, he has to travel a lot.
As a result, he has been to many cities and countries.
And he has met many interesting people.
-What has happened as a result to his job? –He has been to many countries and met many interesting people.
-What kind of company is he working for? –A German hi-tech company.
A dental cavity is a hole in a tooth.
A cavity is caused by bacteria in the mouth.
Brushing your teeth frequently and regularly can help prevent cavities.
A crack tooth can be caused by biting down on something hard.
Dentists treat a crack tooth by covering it with a crown.
A dental X-Ray is a picture of your teeth and gums.
An X-Ray shows what can’t be seen on the surface of the teeth and gums.
Braces are used by dentists to strengthen teeth over a period of years.
Through braces are usually for children, they can also be used for adults with crooked teeth.
To exact a tooth means to remove it from the mouth.
Dentists have to pull hard to exact a tooth.
Braces are used on people with crooked teeth or after an injury.
Biting down on something hard can be very painful.
Dentist often inject something into the gum to block the pain during the extraction process.
The heart pumps blood to all parts of the body through a system of arteries and veins.
It’s located in the chest, between the lungs, and beats about once per second.
The kidneys remove waste and toxins from the blood.
They are bean-shaped organs, and are about 10 centimeters long and 6 centimeters wide.
The lungs exchange oxygen from the air, with carbon dioxide from the blood.
They expand when inhaling air, and contract when exhaling air.
The stomach is blow the heart, and is part of the digestive system.
It uses acids to digest food before passing it to the small intestine.
The bladder is a balloon-shaped organ that collects urine from the kidneys.
In an adult, the bladder can hold about half liter of urine.
Officer: Good evening, sir. You were driving too fast.
Driver: really? Was I?
Officer: Yes, you were going well above the speed limit.
Driver: I’m sorry officer.
Officer: OK, I need to see your driver’s license.
Driver: Here’s my driver’s license.
-Why has he been stopped? –He was driving too fast.
He has given his driver’s license to the police officer.
Officer: Your license has expired. Are you aware of that?
Driver: No sir, that’s a surprise. I didn’t know.
Officer: It has expired more than a year ago.
-He probably knows that his license has expired, so… -he’s lying.
-What has expired? –His driver’s license.
Officer: Is this your car?
Driver: No sir. It’s a friend’s. I’m borrowing it for a night.
-Click the correct choice. – He probably isn’t telling the truth.
Officer: Get out of the car, and put your hands behind your back.
Driver: Why officer? What have I done?
Officer: Just do as I say.
Driver: OK, officer, I’m cooperating. Please don’t push me.
-To cooperate means.. –to do as asked.
Officer: Get your hands behind your back.
Driver: OK, OK.
Officer: I’m not asking you, I’m ordering you.
Driver: Please officer, I haven’t done anything wrong.
-What is he supposed to do? –to put his hands behind his back.
-To order someone to do something means… -to command them to do it.
Officer: Stay still, and don’t say anything. This is a stolen car. Are you aware of that?
Driver: Are you going to arrest me?
Officer: What do you think? That’s what we do with car thieves.
-Stay still means the same thing as… -Don’t move.
-To be aware of means… -to know.
Driver: If you let me go, I’ll give you a couple of thousand dollars. I haven’t hurt anybody.
Officer: So now you are trying to bribe me. How stupid can you be?
Driver: I just don’t want to go back to jail. Give me a break.
-What is the driver trying to do? –bribe the officer.
Officer: Sure, you’re a nice guy. I’d like to give you a break. But there’s nothing I can do.
Driver: Please officer.
Officer: OK, where’s the money? Let me see it, and I’ll think about it.
-If he takes the money, what would he be taking? –a bribe.
-An honest police officer will never… -accept a bribe.
Quick Serve is a successful home repair company.
It provides quick, reliable repair services to homes.
It was established five years ago, and has been expanding rapidly.
In the last two years, it has opened offices in three new cities.
-How many offices has it opened in the past two years? –It has opened offices in 3 new cities.
-What services does it provide? –It provides home repair services.
-To be reliable means… -to be dependable.
Because of its rapid growth, it has to hire many new employees.
In the last six months, it has hired 50 new employees.
The total number of employees in the company is now over 500.
And the number of customers has increased to more than 5000.
-How many people has the company hired in the last 6 months? –It has hired 50 new employees.
-Why does it have to hire new employees? –It has been expanding rapidly.
The company has also improved its business model.
Instead of offering only repair services, it can now help customers to upgrade their appliances.
Quick Serve does this by giving a choice.
Customers can choose to repair an appliance, or upgrade it by buying a new one.
If they choose to buy a new one, they will get a discounted price.
So a customer can either repair a broken refrigerator for a small fee, or buy a new one.
-To upgrade something means… -to add features or quality.
If they buy a new one, they will get a discounted price, along with free installation.
This is possible because several appliance manufacturers have agreed to give Quick Serve big discounts.
Quick Serve then installs the new appliance, and removes the old one.
Feedback from customers has been positive.
-How have customers reacted to this service? –Their feedback has been positive.
-Who have agreed to give Quick Serve big discounts? –Several appliance manufacturers.
A high percentage of customers have taken advantage of this new service.
As a result, Quick Serve has developed a great reputation.
Its dedication to high quality service has proven to be successful.
Its word of mouth approach to advising has been cost effective.
The appliance manufacturers have also been happy with the results.
Their growing relationship with Quick Serve has helped to increase their sales.
-What has proven to be successful? –Its dedication to high quality service. Quick Serve’s approach to business is proving to be successful.
The world’s population is growing.
There are now over 7 billion people in the world.
During the 20th century, the population grows from 1.65 billion to 6 billion.
It’s now growing at a rate of around 1.1% per year.
That mean it increases about 18 million per year.
By 2024, the population has expected to be around 8 billion people.
-How fast is the world’s population growing? –The growth rate is about 1.1% per year.
-What was the population at the end of the 20th century? –around 6 billion people.
The growth rate used to be higher.
In the late 1960s, the rate of growth was about 2%.
Since then, the growth rate has declined.
It is estimated that the growth rate will be less than 1% by 2020.
By the year 2050, the growth rate should be even less.
-What has happened to the growth rate? –It has declined since the 1960s.
It is estimated that the growth rate should be even less.
Even with the declining growth rate, the population will continue to grow.
But it will grow at a slower rate.
In the past 15 years the world’s population has more than doubled.
It has doubled from around 3 billion in 1960 to more than 7 billion in 2011.
-What has more than doubled in the past 15 years? –the world’s population.
The rate of growth varies by country.
The growth rate in India is more than twice that of China.
And the growth rate in Nigeria, which is in Africa, is more than twice India’s growth rate.
Russia, on the other hand, has had a negative growth rate in some years.
When a country has a negative growth rate, its population is decreasing.
-How do the growth rates of India and China compare? –India’s growth rate is higher.
Co-founder of Apple, this entrepreneur was a major figure in the computer industry.
He was self-centered and difficult to work for, but he led the development of many great products.
He died of cancer when he was just 56 years old.
Jack ma is one of the richest and most famous men in China.
He comes from a poor family and failed his college entrance exams twice.
Despite of his many failures, he has built one of the world’s largest internet companies.
David Beckham is one of the world’s richest and most famous athletes.
He started playing professional football when he was just 17.
Much of his success as an athletes is because he practiced harder than many other players.
As a young girl in Pakistan, Malala became famous for her writings on women’s education.
In 2012, she was shot in the head and nearly killed.
She survived the injury and became the world’s most famous teenager.
Born in 1942, Stephen Hawking is one of the world’s most famous scientists.
When he was 23, he was diagnosed with ALS, a real disease of the nerves.
Because of his disease, he is unable to walk and talk.
Though he was difficult to work for, his creative genius inspired others to do great work.
Despite his condition, he has made important discoveries about the creation of the universe.
Shy people are usually quiet and uncomfortable around other people.
They generally dislike going to social events such as parties.
It’s often difficult to make friends with a shy person because they won’t open up.
Outgoing people enjoy being with others, and are comfortable in social situations.
They’re friendly and pleasant to be with, though sometimes they can’t be trusted.
Self-centered people like to be the center of attention.
They like people to look at them and pay attention to them.
Self-centered people often talk too much and don’t listen enough.
Selfish and greedy people don’t share things with others.
They keep things for themselves and always want more.
People who are responsible and trustworthy are important in almost any situation.
They can be depended on to get things down.
These people can be trusted.
Outgoing people often have many friends and can be quite popular.
M: Hey, Steven, you know I’m your friend, right?
Steven: Sure. I know that. What are you trying to say?
M: I’m sorry to say this. But I think you are making a fool of yourself.
Steven: how am I making a fool of myself?
M: Your girlfriend is taking advantage of you.
Steven: Taking advantage of me?
M: Yes, I think so. She’s just using you.
-To use someone means… -to take advantage of them.
Steven: So, maybe she is. But I don’t mind. Even if she is using me, it’s OK. I’m using her too.
M: What do you mean? Are you joining in love with her?
Steven: Yes, I’m in love with her, but that doesn’t mean I’m not using her too.
-Steven doesn’t mind if his girlfriend… -is using him.
-How does Steven feel about his girlfriend? –He’s in love with her.
M: I don’t understand. What do you mean?
Steven: Maybe I’m using her because I enjoy being in love. I can’t imagine life without her. Even if she hurts me sometimes, I love her.
-What can’t he imagine? –life without his girlfriend.
Even if she hurts him sometimes, he enjoys being in love with her.
M: Do you trust her?
Steven: Yes, I trust her. She tells me what’s important to her. She’s honest with me.
She is never lied to me about anything important.
-To trust someone means… -you can believe what they say or promise to do.
M: Are you honest with her?
Steven: Yes, we are honest with each other even when it hurts.
And because we are honest with each other, we trust each other.
M: OK, so you don’t think you’re being taking advantage of?
Steven: No, I don’t, as long as she is honest with me.
The day she isn’t honest with me is the end of our relationship.
And when that happens, my heart will break. But until then, I’m her man.
-Why do they trust each other? –They are honest with each other.
-What will happen when their relationship ends? –His heart will break.
M: OK, I think I understand. I didn’t think you knew what was going on.
Steven: I’m not as stupid as I looked, my friend.
Being in the love with her makes my life exciting.
M: Well, I hope you’re right.
-What makes his life exciting? –being in love with her.
To make a fool of someone means to make them look stupid.
The earth was formed by about 4.6 billion years ago.
The first life appeared about a billion years later.
The first plaints didn’t appear until around 2 billion years ago.
Until about 580 million years ago, life forms were small and microscopic.
Since that time, life has evolved into many different types or species.
However, scientists estimate that more than 99% of them are now extinct.
-When did the first plant appear on earth? –about 2 billion years ago.
There have been several extinction events in the history of the Earth.
In an extinction event, many life forms, or species of life, die out.
The causes of mass extinction events are unsolved mysteries.
These events are not predictable, and can happen at any time.
Scientists think that some of them were started by asteroid impacts or volcanic eruptions.
Events like this can change the global conditions that life depends on.
-What happens in an extinction event? –Many species of life become extinct.
One major extinction event happened about 66 million years ago.
That event may have been started by a large asteroid that hit the Earth.
As a result, the dinosaurs and about half of all species on the planet, died out.
When the asteroid hit the Earth, it started a chain of events.
A chain of events is a series of events linked together, like a chain.
-What may have caused the extinction of the dinosaurs? –An asteroid hit the earth and started a chain of events.
This particular chain of events happened over a period of months and years.
When the asteroid hit the Earth, it caused a huge cloud of dust to enter the atmosphere.
This cloud of dust blocked the sun and darkened the Earth for many months.
Without enough sunlight, plants and plant-eating animals quickly died.
With the deaths of so many plants and animals, the food chain collapsed
This led to the deaths of many more species.
-What caused the food chain to collapse? –The deaths of many plants and plant-eating animals.
Mass extinction events have played an important part in the evolution of life.
In fact, some extinction events have helps to accelerate evolution.
For example, some mammals lived through the age of the dinosaurs, but they couldn’t compete.
When the dinosaurs were removed, the mammals were able to compete more successfully.
Once they could compete, mammals evolved to higher state.
Without extinction events, perhaps we wouldn’t be here today.
-What may accelerate the evolution of mammals? –the extinction of dinosaurs.
Mammals couldn’t compete successfully with the dinosaurs, so their evolution was blocked.
Scientists estimated that there had been at least 5 mass extinctions in the last 540 million years.
They also believed that we have entered a new extinction event.
Species are becoming extinct at a much faster rate than before.
Instead of the asteroid or volcanic eruptions, the current event is a result of human activities.
Human activities, for example, have led to global warming.
-What is causing the current mass extinction event? –human activities.
-What do scientists believe has already started? –a new extinction event.
Global warming is a result of an increasing in carbon gases in out atmosphere.
These gases trap heat from the sun, so the Earth is getting warmer.
As a result, sea levels are rising, and weather patterns are changing.
In addition, we humans are destroying the habitats of many plants and animals.
Cutting down forests, and polluting rivers destroys the habitats of many forms of life.
-Why are sea levels rising? –With the rise in temperature, the polar icecaps are melting.
There is no longer any doubt that this is happening.
Species of life are disappearing at an increasing rate.
Global temperatures are rising and weather patterns are changing.
Scientists are warning us that fast action is necessary to save our future.
If we don’t act, we may go the way of the dinosaurs.
This new extinction event is caused by humans.
The body’s circulatory system includes the heart and blood vessels.
The heart pumps blood to all parts of the body through a network of arteries and veins.
The digestive system breaks down and absorbs food into the body.
It supplies the energy that the body needs for growth and repair.
After digestion, excess food is turned into waste and eliminated from the body.
The nervous system includes the brain, spinal cord, and nerves.
This is your body’s control system.
It controls your muscles and organs, including your circulatory and digestive systems.
The respiratory system includes the nose and lungs.
It brings air and oxygen into the body and removes carbon dioxide.
The lungs are where oxygen enters the bloodstream and carbon dioxide is removed.
The immune system protects the body against infections and diseases.
Sneezing and fever are examples of how the immune system works.
If an infection invades the body, the immune system attacks it.
The nervous system regulates your heartbeat and digestion.
For some diseases, the immune system uses white blood cells and antibodies to attack it.
The digestive system is where food is broken down and absorbed into the body.
The controlled use of fire allowed people to cook food and survive in colder climates.
Fire provided light so that people could work and socialize for longer hours.
With the invention of agriculture people could grow food and settle into communities.
By growing food, people could spend less time hunting and more time for other things such as art.
The domestication of animals allowed people to raise and use animals for food and work.
By raising herds of animal such as sheep, humans had a regular supply of meat and clothing.
The strength of animals such as horse and ox was used for working transportation.
The development of tools and machines has resulted into more efficient manufacture and construction.
With better tools and machines work can be done with fewer people at much lower cost.
The development of science and engineering has improved many things including communications.
With an understanding of electricity, telephones and radios allow people to communicate over long distances.
Science and engineering breakthroughs are rapidly changing the way we live our lives.
Science and engineering have changed the way we communicate with each other.
The use of machines has reduced the number of people needed to make things.
With the development of agriculture, people had more time for other activities.
The ability to raise herds of animals gave human a regular supply of meat and clothing.
M: I took a vocation last night.
W: What are you talking about? Where did you take your vocation?
M: I didn’t go anywhere. I just spent an evening without my smartphone.
W: How was it?
M: It was great. I got a real magazine and read it with no interruption.
It was very peaceful.
W: Yes, I haven’t done that in a long time.
-If someone is interrupted, they have to… -stop what they are doing.
-What hasn’t she done in a long time? –She hasn’t spent time without her smartphone.
-What made the evening different? –He didn’t use his smartphone.
M: You know what? I’m beginning to hate smartphones.
W: Really? But you can’t live without one, right?
M: Yes, that’s the problem. These things are changing the way people live.
-What can’t people live without? –People can’t live without smartphones.
-How does he feel about smartphones? –He’s beginning to hate them.
W: Yes, I just saw a documentary about that.
A husband was complaining to his wife that she was spending too much time on her smartphone.
M: What happen? Did they get a divorce?
W: You guessed it. In the end, they got a divorce.
-What happened to the couple? –They got a divorce.
-What was the wife spending too much time doing? –playing on her smartphone.
M: It’s a bit ironic. Don’t you think?
Smartphones were supposed to bring people together, but they are pulling people apart.
W: Yes, you’re right.
M: Hey, just a minute. I’ve got a message on my smartphone and it can’t wait.
-What do they think is ironic about smartphones? –Instead of bringing people together, they are pulling them apart.
Boss: Hey, wake up and get back to work. What’s wrong with you?
Employee: I’m on my break, sir. And I have a bad headache.
Boss: Well, we’re not paying you to sleep. If you’re going to sleep, sleep someplace else.
Employee: Yes, sir. Sorry. It won’t happen again.
Boss: You had better not.
-How did the employee treat the manager? –respectfully.
Employee: Just a minute. Don’t talk to me like that.
Boss: What did you say?
Employee: You hurt me. You don’t have to treat people like that.
Boss: Well, if you don’t like it, I suggest you leave.
Employee: OK, I will. I‘ve had enough of you. I’ll get a job somewhere else.
-How does the employee feel? –angry.
This man is holding a piece of fruit in his hand.
The piece of fruit is either an orange or an apple.
We can’t see which it is because we can’t see inside the box.
The probability that it is an orange is equal to the probability that it is an apple.
It may be an apple and it may be an orange.
It’s got to be one or the other.
It can’t be anything else.
-What’s the probability that it’s a banana? –The probability is 0%. It may be an apple but it can’t be a banana.
Now let’s look at it from the man’s point of view.
From his point of view, the probabilities are different.
From his point of view, the probability that he has an orange is 100% or 0%.
That’s because he knows what he has.
For him, there is no uncertainly.
If he has an orange, the probability is 100%.
If he doesn’t have an orange, the probability is 0%.
He either has it, or he doesn’t.
-From our point of view, what’s the probability that it’s an orange? -50%.
From our point of view, the probability that he has an orange is 50%.
From his point of view, the probability that he has an orange is 100% or 0%.
So the probability depends on your point of view.
-What’s the probability that it’s a banana? –a 0% probability.
The probability depends on your point of view, or how much you know.
People see things from different points of view.
This often leads to arguments between people.
Here are some examples.
From this man’s point of view, he is relaxing.
He needs to relax because he has been working too hard.
He hasn’t been getting enough sleep.
-If his wife shouts at him and tells him to get up and do something…
-he may shout back and refuse to help her.
His wife sees things differently.
She isn’t aware of how hard he has been working.
From her point of view, he is doing nothing.
However, she knows what needs to be done around the house.
It isn’t fair that she had to work while he does nothing.
-If he gets up and helps her… -She may not appreciate his help.
-From the husband’s point of view, what’s he doing? –He is relaxing.
When people see things from different points of view, they often come to different conclusions.
These differences can cause real communication problems.
People often argue with each other because they see things from a different point of view.
Earthquakes are caused by forces deep within the earth.
When the earth shakes, buildings can collapse, and people can be buried inside.
An explosion is a rapid, violent, release of energy.
Explosions can be caused by chemical reactions, such as inside an engine.
A spark can ignite mixture of gases, and release energy for good or destructive purposes.
Accidents are often caused by people doing foolish things, or by not being careful.
One major cause of accidents is driving too fast.
Accidents with fire can be very serious and can result in very painful injuries.
Epidemics are the rapid spread of diseased such as the flue or Ebola.
Throughout history, epidemics have killed millions of people.
Storms are caused by changes in the atmosphere, results in high winds and heavy rains.
Thunderstorms are caused by electric charges in the atmosphere that produce lighting, which can cause forest fires.
Some storms cause flooding, and major damage to homes and cities.
To reduce the danger of an explosion, it’s important to prevent gas leaks inside the home.
Many forest fires are caused by lightning.
Epidemics have killed more people than all wars and natural disasters.
Followers of the Islam religion are called Moslems (Muslims).
These Moslems are praying inside mosque.
Moslems are called to prayer five times a day, beginning just before sunrise.
Christianity is based on the teachings of Jesus Christ, Who lived more than 2000 years ago.
Christians believe that Jesus is the son of God.
Christians often gather in churches or cathedrals to worship.
Follower of the Judaism are somewhere called Jews.
These Jews are meeting inside synagogue, which is a place of worship and study.
Judaism was founded over 3500 years ago, in the Middle East.
Judaism was based on the teachings of Moses, who they believed is the most important prophet.
Buddhism began in India, and is based on the teachings of the Buddha.
The religion is about 2500 years old.
Some Buddhists practice a form of the meditation in which they empty their mind of any thought.
Hinduism is the world’s third most popular religion and is the main religion of India.
Hinduism has no founder, and is the mixture of many beliefs.
Some Hindus believe in the cycle of birth, life, death and rebirth.
Jews believe that Moses is the most important prophet.
W: Do you have any more information about the location of the missing aircraft?
M: No, we don’t. The only information we have is that it disappeared.
W: What about the last communication with the aircraft?
M: The last communication was about 15 minutes before it disappeared.
W: Was there anything unusual in the communication?
M: No, there wasn’t anything unusual. Nothing pointed to any kind of problem.
W: Anyway, we are confident that we’ll find it.
It’s a large aircraft so it shouldn’t be difficult to find.
M: How many countries are helping with the search?
W: Right now we have search teams from 3 countries starting the search.
M: It’s a big area to search, so can you give us an estimate about how long it will take?
W: Yes, it’s a big area, so it might take a long time.
But we won’t give up. We’ll search until we find it.
-How long do they plan to search for it? –They plan to search for it until they find it.
M1: Have they found the wreckage yet?
M2: What are you talking about?
M1: You know, the airplane that disappeared last year.
M2: Oh yes. Now I know what’s you’re referring to. Yes, they found some pieces of it.
-How much of the airplane have they found? –some pieces.
M1: What about the black boxes?
M2: No, they still haven’t found the black boxes.
M1: It’s hard to believe they still don’t know what happened.
M2: Perhaps they’ll never know, especially if they don’t find the black boxes.
M1: Whatever happen to it, there is no good reason why a modern airline is allowed to disappear.
M2: I agree with you.
Alcatraz is a small island in San Francisco Bay, 1.5 miles from San Francisco.
From Alcatraz, you can see the famous Golden Gate Bridge.
Alcatraz is also famous, and is now a major tourist attraction.
Tourists can reach the island by boat from the city.
-What can people see from Alcatraz? –The Golden Gate Bridge.
Alcatraz has often appeared in movies, including Escape from Alcatraz, which was made in 1979.
One reason it’s famous is because it used to be a prison, a very special prison.
It was designed for prisoners who were causing trouble in other prisons, such as trying to escape.
It was a maximum security prison, so escape was almost impossible.
The waters around it are cold and only very strong swimmers can swim from the island to San Francisco.
-What kind of prisoners was it designed for? –prisoners who were troublemakers.
-Why is it famous? –It used to be a very special prison.
The first group of prisoners arrived in 1934.
There were 137 prisoners including bank rubbers and murderers.
They came by train from another prison in the state of Kansas.
During that trip, there was heavy security.
The prisoners were under guard and handcuffed.
Nobody wanted them to escape.
-Where do the first group of prisoners come from? –They came from Kansas.
The prison was designed to hold up to 336 prisoners.
However, the average population was only about 270.
Although there were several notorious inmate such as Al Capone, most of the inmates were not well known.
Many had tried to escape from other prisons or working setter to violent.
If a man did not behave at another prison, he could be sent to Alcatraz.
At Alcatraz, there was just one inmate in each prison cell.
-Why were prisoners usually sent to Alcatraz? –They caused trouble at other prisons.
-A notorious inmate is one who… -is very well known.
Prison life at Alcatraz was highly structured and boring.
It was designed to teach prisoners to follow rules.
They had four rights: food, clothing, shelter and medical care.
Everything else was a privilege that had to be earned.
Privileges included working, visits from family members and access to the prison library.
There were also activities such as painting and music.
Once a prisoner showed that he could follow the rules, he could be transferred back to another prison to finish his sentence.
Alcatraz was used as a prison for 29 years.
During that time, no prisoners escaped successfully.
There were 14 escape attempts, involving 36 prisoners.
23 were caught alive and 6 were shot and killed.
2 men tried to escape twice.
2 drowned and 5 were listed as missing and presumed drowned.
The most violent escape attempt occurred on May 2nd 1946, when 6 prisoners tried to escape.
That event is called the battle of the Alcatraz.
-How many prisoners escaped? –none.
While it was in use, Alcatraz had some of the most notorious criminals in American history, such as Al Capone.
Al Capone was a crime boss, who built his career in Chicago.
The prison was finally closed in 1963.
It was closed because it was too expensive to operate.
-Why was the prison finally closed? –It was too expensive to operate.
No prisoners ever escaped from Alcatraz.
A bar graph uses rectangle bars of different lengths to show and compare data.
The lengths of the bars are proportional to the values they represent.
The bars can be vertical, up and down, or horizontal.
A circle graph, often called a pie graph, is shaped like a circle.
It is divided into segments that look like pieces of a pie.
Percentage are used to compare the segments, which are ordered from biggest to smallest.
Line graphs are used to show the relationship between 2 variables such as time and distance.
These variables are plotted on 2 axis, the x axis and the y axis.
The x axis often shows time, while the y axis shows how quantities, such as distance, temperature, or profits, change with time.
A flow chart is a type of graph that shows how a process or project flows from start to finish.
A flow chart consists of start points, inputs, outputs and decision points.
An organizational chart or org chart shows the structure of company.
It shows how people and department within the company are connected.
It defines the roles and responsibilities of people and departments within the company.
Line graphs are very good at showing how things change over time.
An org chart shows how people and departments within a company are connected.
A line graph uses connected points to show how things are related to each other.
Laws are rules that people are supposed to follow.
A system of laws governs the behavior of people within the country.
Criminals are people who break the law.
People who commit a crime are called criminals.
Some criminals are very dangerous and need to be put in jail.
A jail or prison is a place where criminals were lock behind bars, sometimes for many years.
Prisons are designed to keep criminals away from other people.
A court house is where someone charge with committing a crime goes on trial.
In court evidence is present to show the guilty or innocent person on trial.
When someone breaks the law, they may be arrested by the police.
To arrest someone means to take and hold them until they go on trial.
When a person is charged with breaking a law, they are tried in a court of law.
An action that is against the law is an illegal action.
An action that is follow the law is a legal action.
Someone who is found guilty of committing a crime is sent to prison.
W: May I help you sir?
M: I’d like to change some US dollars into Japanese yen please.
W: Yes, certainly, sir. How much would you like to change?
M: I’d like to change 500 dollars.
W: May I see your passport, please?
M: I don’t have it with me, but I do have my driver’s license. Would that be ok?
W: No, I’m sorry, sir. I need to see your passport. It’s the law.
M: Look, I’m not asking for a loan. I just want to convert my dollars into yen.
Why do I need my passport?
W: I understand your frustration, sir. But that’s the law. I cannot do something that is illegal.
-Why does the customer need his passport? –It’s required by law.
M: Ok, do you have any suggestions?
W: Sure, the easiest thing for you to do is to use a machine in one of the hotels near here. You can borrow someone’s passport and then do the conversion.
M: So the machine doesn’t check my fingerprints or anything like that?
W: No, sir. But there’s a limit as how much you can change at one time.
You also have to pay a higher fee.
M: Thanks for your help.
W: You’re welcome, sir.
Al Capone was one of the most famous criminals in American history.
He came from an immigrate family.
His parents came from Italy and his father was a barber.
As a boy, he belonged to a street gangs.
He quit school after finishing the 6th grade.
-Where were his parents from? –They were from Italy.
He built his career as a crime boss in Chicago.
He became boss at 26 when the previous leader was nearly killed.
His crime organization made a lot of money, more than 100 million dollars a year.
Most the money came from illegal activities, especially the sales of illegal liquor.
His organization was also involved in gambling and prostitution.
-What kind of illegal activities was his organization involved with? –Gambling and prostitution.
-Liquor includes… -alcoholic drinks such as whiskey and vodka.
Capone was flashy dresser who enjoyed being famous.
He protected himself by bribing police and public officials.
Though he was involved in the deaths of many, he was never convicted of a serious crime.
When he was finally arrested, it was for minor crimes.
In 1929, he and his body guard were arrested for carrying deadly weapons.
For that, they were sentenced to a year in prison.
Capone was released nine month for good behavior.
-Why were he and his body guard arrested and sent to prison? –They were caught carrying deadly weapons.
-What kind of person was he? –violent and self-centered.
In 1930, Capone was public enemy NO.1 in Chicago.
A year later, he was arrested for failed to pay taxes.
The government had finally found a way to catch him.
After a trail, he was found guilty and sentenced to 11 years in prison.
He spent the first 2 years of his sentence at a prison in Atlanta
Then he was sent to Alcatraz, the country’s most famous prison.
-Why was he sentenced to prison for 11 years? –He was found guilty of tax evasion.
At Alcatraz, he was diagnosed with a disease that began to take over his brain.
As a result, he spent much of his time in the prison hospital.
By the time he was released from the prison in 1939, he was no longer able to lead his organization.
He died of a stroke and pneumonia in 1947.
-Why did he spend much of his time in the prison hospital? –He had a serious disease.
Income is money received from work or from investments.
For a company to survive, its income needs to be more than its expenses.
People who earned a good salary can buy what they need to survive.
A receipt is given to you after you have paid for something.
A receipt is proof that you have paid for something.
A receipt shows that something has been paid for.
After paying for something, be sure to get a receipt.
An invoice is a request for payment.
An invoice lists the prices and the products being bought.
To invoice someone means to give them a bill for the products or services.
Once an invoice is paid, it can be used as a receipt.
Taxes are what we pay to the government for the government services.
Taxes pay for many services, such as education, police and health care.
An income tax is a tax on your income.
In some countries, income taxes are very high.
Interest is what we pay to lenders when we borrow money.
If someone lends you money, you pay interest for the use of that money.
Emotional people often show their feelings and have a bad temper.
They make decisions based on their feelings more than facts.
Sometimes these people make bad decisions because of their emotions.
Leaders are people who take responsibility and are trusted by others.
Good leaders make good decisions and get things down.
In many situations, others look to them for leadership.
Loyal people can be depended on to follow their leader.
They will support and protect their leaders and friends.
A strong team needs a good leader and loyal followers.
Independent people can do things on their own.
They often prefer working by themselves.
Sometimes they have difficulty working in a group.
Creative people come up with new ideas and ways of doing things.
They often have a good imagination and can see things in different ways.
Many artists and musicians are very creative.
Independent people may want to do things their own way.
People don’t like to work for people who are too emotional.
Someone with a bad temper gets angry easily and shouts at others.
W: Congratulations, Lisa.
Lisa: Congratulations for what?
W: We just heard the news.
Lisa: What news? Don’t keep me in suspense.
W: QuickServe has accepted your video proposal.
Lisa: Already? I just submitted it a week ago.
W: Maybe so, but they liked it so much that they made a quick decision.
They want you to get started on it as soon as possible.
-What did Lisa do a week ago? –She summited her proposal.
Lisa: That’s great news. But I’m still working on some other projects.
They need to be finished first.
W: Can’t you delay some of our other projects?
Lisa: I’m not sure. How important is this project?
W: They are putting a lot of pressure on us now especially since they read your proposal.
They really like it. It’s a very creative way of presenting their company.
It had everybody laughing.
Lisa: Yes, that was the idea. It was fun to do and our whole team thought it was funny.
W: Well, great job. I think it’s the best work your team has ever down.
-What may need to be delayed? –Some of their other projects.
-To delay something means to… -postpone it.
W: When can you get started on the project?
Lisa: Are they going to pay extra? In my proposal,
I said the earliest start date would be one month after signing the contract.
W: Was that in the proposal?
Lisa: Yes, it was. Have they signed the contract yet?
W: No, they haven’t. But I’m sure they will right away.
-When do the contract say the project will begin?-one month after signing the contract.
-Why does she think they should pay extra? –They want to get started earlier than what was in the proposal.
The proposal said that the earliest start date would be one month after signing the contract.
Lisa: They’ll also need to make an advance payment. That was in the proposal too.
We can’t stop everything else just because they are excited.
W: OK, I’ll get back to them and let them know.
Lisa: Yes, please do. I’ve been through these kinds of thing before.
-What are they going to ask for from QuickServe? –an advance payment and an extra fee to start the project early.
-To get back to them means… -to contact them.
Look at these two pie graphs.
They show how these two people spend their days, not including weekends.
The one on the top shows how Emma divides up her days.
She is a designer who works for a large company.
-20% of the day is how much hours? -4.8 hours.
As Emma’s graph shows, the biggest portion of her day is spent working.
She works an average of 8 hours a day, which is 1/3 of her day.
She gets an average of 6 hours of sleep, which is 25% of her day.
That’s less sleep than Martin gets.
According to his graph, he gets an average of 7 hours of sleep, which is about 29% of his day.
On the other hands, Martin, who is an engineer, works more hours than Emma does.
Martin averages 9 hours a day at work, compared to Emma’s 8.
That’s 37.5%, compare to 33%.
Other factors shown in the graphs include time for meals and commuting to work.
-What percent of the day does Emma spend at her work? -33%.
Other activities include getting dressed and household choice, such as doing laundry and paying bills.
As you can see, for Martin, commuting is taking a large amount of his time.
If he could reduce his commute time, he will have more time for other things.
And it isn’t just the time.
When the traffic is really heavy, his commute is stressful.
It would be great if he could work from home for 1 or 2 days a week.
His life will be more enjoyable.
-In what category are things like doing the laundry or paying bills? –other.
And looking at Emma’s graph, we see that she probably needs more sleep.
Perhaps she should spend a bit less time socializing with her friends.
On the other hand, socializing with her friends is something she really values.
As for putting on makeup, she isn’t willing to change that.
For her, exercising, socializing and staying beautiful help her deal with the stress of work.
In conclusion, Emma and Martin both wish there were more hours in a day.
These next graph shows how various factors compare an importance to 1500 job applicants.
These applicants were between 20 and 25 years old.
They were asked to list which factors were most important to a good job.
As the graph shows, money was the most important factor for 25% of the applicants.
However, other factors were also important.
The second most important factor was the working environment.
-According to this graph, what was the second most important factor? –a good work environment.
In other words, for many, money isn’t everything.
People want to like where they work.
In fact, if we combine working environment and coworkers, the total is 35%.
This is well above the 25% for salary and benefits.
Taking together, they are more important than salary and benefits.
Career path is also important, especially for younger applicants.
They want to see that their job helps build the successful career.
For older workers, this may not be as important.
Older workers often put a higher value on the balance between life and work.
What do you think?
Which conclusion most accurately summarize this graph? –A good job needs to satisfy several needs.
-People who want their work to be challenging are people who…-enjoy solving problems.
The best jobs satisfy several needs, not just salary and benefits.
The government of a country is its control system.
Governments make laws and provide services to their citizens.
The land over which a government has control is its territory.
A country’s territory has boundaries or borders.
When you leave or enter a country’s territory, you usually need a passport.
A country’s military provides defends for its territory and its citizens.
The military includes an army, an air force and a navy.
The main purpose of a military is to defend a country from attack.
A country’s criminal justice system includes the police, courts and prisons.
Its purpose is to enforce the law and protect people from criminal activities.
A country’s social services system provides support to people in need.
It provides basic health care services and helps poor people support their children.
When a country wants to change its boundaries, there may be a war.
Most of the citizens of a country live within its territory.
Some governments have powerful leaders who control things.
A country’s borders mark its territory and separate it from its neighbors.
Most governments pay for their services by collecting taxes from its citizens.
The armed forces of a country have many weapons such as guns, tanks and planes.
The criminal justice system is responsible for enforcing the law.
What rules a country? –some governments have powerful leaders who control things.
What is located in the capital? –the center government is located in the country’s capital city.
The territory of a country is defined by its boundaries.
A state of anarchy exists when a country has no effective government.
In anarchy, there is nobody to make decisions and enforce the laws.
An autocracy is the simplest form of government.
In autocracy, the government is controlled by single individual, known as the autocrat.
Whether or not an autocracy is successful depends on the character and ability of the leader.
In an oligarchy, a small group of people controls the government.
Membership of its group often depends on family connections, wealth, or military power.
In a republic, individuals are elected to represent the citizens.
The power of the government in a republic is limited by constitution.
A constitution is a written document that makes the rules for a government to follow.
This limits the power of the government.
A constitution defines the relationship between the government and its citizens.
Who make decisions and enforce the laws in an anarchy? –nobody.
-What is a common way for oligarchy to increase their wealth? –bribery and corruption.
Bribery and corruption are common as a way to increase the wealth of the oligarchs.
Without a good government, decisions that need to be made, won’t be made.
M1: I hear you lost your job. Is that right?
M2: Yes, that’s right. I quit. I quit because of the way my boss treats people.
M1: What happened?
M2: I wasn’t feeling good one day and he yelled at me.
When I told him not to yell at me, he threatened me.
M1: Is that all? That’s what bosses do.
M2: Sure, sometimes maybe. But my boss treated everyone badly and I was tired of it.
It was the last string.
M1: The last string?
M2: Yes, you know? It reaches the point where I couldn’t take it anymore.
-What was the last string? –being yelled at and threatened that day.
-What did his boss do? –His boss threatened him.
M1: I see. So now you don’t have a job?
M2: Right, I don’t have a job. But at least I don’t have to deal with my boss anymore.
M1: What are you going to do now?
M2: To be honest, I’m not sure. But I’ll find something. I’ll get a job even if it pays less than before.
-What doesn’t he have to deal with anymore? –his ex-boss.
M1: Are you sorry you quit?
M2: Yes and no. I guess I should have found another job first, and then quit.
M1: Why didn’t you?
M2: As I said, he pushed me too far. There are some things that I just won’t take.
-What should have done? –looked for another job before quitting.
M1: What about your wife?
M2: She isn’t happy that I don’t have a job. But she understands.
She knows I have a temper. And she knows I wasn’t happy working there.
-What does his wife know about him? –He has a temper.
M1: Well I guess I’m lucky. My job isn’t great but I like the people I’m working with.
And I like my manager.
M2: Are you planning to stay there?
M1: I don’t know. For now it’s ok, but of course it all depends on how things change.
Is he planning to stay at his job? –It depends.
M2: Well if you hear of any job openings, let me know, ok?
M1: Sure, send me your resume and I’ll let people know you are looking.
He won’t take being treated badly and threatened too many times.
His boss pushed him too far one too many times, so he couldn’t wait to quit.
His boss treated him badly one too many times. He isn’t sure what he is going to do.
Lang Lang is one of the world’s greatest concert pianists.
His first contact with Western music was when he was just 2 years old.
He watched a cartoon in which a cat played a famous piece by Franz Liszt.
From this experience, he decided he wanted to learn to play the piano.
When he was 3 and a half years old, he started piano lessons.
Two years later, he won first place in a piano completion.
This early success gave his father high hopes that Lang Lang would become a great pianist.
-What experience introduced Lang Lang to Western music? –He watched a cartoon in which a cat played the piano.
When Lang Lang was 9 years old, his father quit his job and took him to Beijing.
They left everything behind including his mother who had to work.
Lang Lang didn’t want to leave her behind, but his father insisted.
His father wanted him to study at the famous Central Conservatory of Music.
-Why did they leave his mother behind? –She had to work to support him.
-Why did his father to Beijing? –His father wanted him to study in the famous collage.
When they moved to Beijing, they rented a flat in a poor area of the city.
During this time, Lang Lang practiced for several hours a day.
He started practicing at 5 o’clock, which upset his neighbors.
They would often pound on his door and ask him to stop practicing.
They were so angry that he often feared that they would beat him up.
-Where did they leave when they moved to Beijing? –They lived in the poor area of the city.
-What was one reason why his lessons were difficult? –His teacher always gave him a hard time. His lessons were to prepare for entrance into the Conservatory.
Lang Lang usually had piano lessons once a week to prepare for the conservatory.
Nearly 2000 students were applying for just 12 places at the conservatory.
His lessons were expensive and very difficult especially because of his piano teacher.
His music teacher didn’t like Lang Lang.
He called his teacher “professor angry” because she always gave him a hard time.
-What was one reason why his lessons were difficult? –His teacher always gave him a hard time.
His lessons were to prepare for entrance into the Conservatory.
One afternoon his teacher told him he had no talent and told him to go home.
Upon hearing the news, his father screamed and seemed to lose his mind.
His father told him that everything was destroyed and there was no reason to live.
He ordered Lang Lang to jump off the 11th floor balcony.
After this, Lang Lang almost went crazy.
He didn’t want to play the piano anymore.
-What did his father tell him to do? –jump off the balcony.
-What did his father tell him to do? –There was no reason to live.
For several months, he neither played the piano nor spoke to his father.
Then some friends encouraged him to play a piece for them and he realized his great love of the piano.
For the next 19 months, he practiced hard and his father encouraged him.
Finally, when he was 10, he was accepted into the conservatory with a full scholarship.
-Why did he start practicing again? –He realized his great love of the piano.
In 1995, when he was 13 years old, he played music by Chopin in the Beijing Concert Hall.
In that same year, he won first place in an international completion for young musicians in Japan.
When he was 15 he moved to the United States and began studies with a famous pianist that occur things xxx.
Since then his career has grown and he has become a major star.
One American music critic called him the biggest most exciting keyboard talent I have count for many year of piano recitals.
-What did he do when he was 15? –He went to study in the United States.
In 2010, Lang Lang signed a recording contract for several million dollars.
In 2011, he performed at the white house for president Obama of the United States and Hu Jintao of China.
With all of these success and fame, Lang Lang tries to encourage others.
He uses his fame to spread the popularity of the classical music and encourage the young musicians.
And in the end Lang Lang and his father have rebuilt their relationship.
In his autobiography, Mr. Lang dedicated the book to his mother and father.
A person’s debt is how much he or she owes to others.
Debt can be in the form of money, products, or services owe to someone else.
If you borrow money, you were taking on new debt.
An asset is something that has value, such as money, property or even a nice personality.
Assets can be used to pay off debts.
Specialize knowledge or skills are also assets that can be used to get a job or earn money.
Real estate is property such as land, houses and buildings.
Buying, selling, or renting property is a business of real estate.
Buying and selling real estate is a popular form of investment.
Inventory is a detailed list of items in one’s possession.
In business, one’s inventory is the supply of items that are ready for sale.
If a store runs out of things to sale, it needs to resupply its inventory.
An investment is a purchase of an asset with the hope that its value will increase.
A good investment will produce income, such as rental income.
If the value of an asset falls, the investment will lose money.
-If you own a house, it is… -an asset.
To take inventory means to make a detailed list of the items that you have.
When you sell an asset at a higher price than what you paid for it, you have made a profit.
If you buy a house and get a loan, the amount you owe on your loan is part of your debt.
China is the second largest country in the world by land area.
A major issue for China’s continue extension of its deserts, which have led to dust storm each spring.
Many of world’s most polluted cities are located there.
South Asia is referred to as the India subcontinent.
It’s called a subcontinent because it’s separated from the rest of Asia by mountains and seas.
It is one of the world’s poorest regions with about 75% of the poor living in rural areas.
Europe is the western neighbor of Asia.
It’s separated from Asia by the Ural Mountains which extend for 1500 miles and north-south direction for the Arctic Ocean.
The Philippines is the only country in Asia with the majority of Christians.
The Philippines is an island nation with over 7000 islands.
It’s located in the South China Sea.
The country’s capital city is Manila.
Asia is the world’s largest continent covering about 30% of the earth’s land area.
Several island nations are also a part of Asia, including Japan.
The world’s tallest mountains are in Asia, including MT Everest.
The traditional boundary line between them is the Ural mountain range.
As a result, the country is investing heavily to reduce air pollution.
W: Hey, have you decided how you’re going to vote?
M: No, I haven’t. I don’t like any of the candidates.
W: So you aren’t going to vote?
M: Hmm, I don’t know, probably not. It seems like a waste of time.
-What does he think of the candidates? –He doesn’t like any of them.
W: Really? Why do you think it’s a waste of time?
M: Have you listen to any of their speeches?
W: Yes, I have. And I agree that their speeches aren’t very good.
M: Exactly. I can’t believe anything they say.
They are just saying what they think we want to hear.
W: Sure, they want to get elected.
I have admitted that, the system isn’t perfect but it’s all we have.
M: Whether I vote or not won’t make a difference. It’s all a show.
-What do they think of the candidates’ speeches? –They are not very good.
W: Well, I think you should vote. Do a little research about the candidates.
M: Have you?
W: Yes, I have. I’ve looked into their backgrounds and education.
M: How can that help?
W: For example, if they know something about science,
it could help the government make better decisions about issues such as climate change.
M: Yes, that’s a good point. We need well-educated people making decisions.
W: And I looked to see what kind of people are supporting them.
-How has she researched the candidates? –She’s looked into their backgrounds and education.
-She wants to elect people who are… -smart and well-educated.
M: What issues do you think are most important?
W: I guess for me, pollution, housing and taxes are important.
I want to know how the government plans to deal with these issues.
M: Yes, I agree with you.
Maybe I will vote, especially if we can get together and talk more about it.
M: What about dinner tomorrow night?
W: Sorry I’m busy tomorrow night.
M: Oh that’s too bad. Do you have any time in the next few days?
I’ll take you to a nice restaurant.
W: Actually I’m quite busy. But I may have some time Sunday afternoon.
We could have lunch somewhere near the office.
M: Sure that works for me. I’ll give you a call on Saturday and we can decide the details, ok?
W: OK I’ll be looking forward to seeing which candidates you support.
Honeybees play an interesting and important role in nature.
In addition to making honey, honey bees help many plants reproduce.
They do this by pollenating the plant, which means to transfer pollen.
Pollination occurs when pollen is moved within a plant’s flower or carried to another flower.
This is how the plants reproduce.
For reproduction to succeed, the pollen must be transferred from the male part of the flower to the female part.
-Pollination is how some plants… -reproduce.
Many plants depend on pollination for reproduction.
These include many fruits and vegetables.
Besides honeybees, there are many other pollinators, including birds, insects, and other kinds of bees.
Without enough pollinators, many of our favorite fruits and vegetables would become more expensive and hard to find.
These include almonds and cherries.
-Besides honeybees, what are some other pollinators? –birds and insects.
Honeybees are important pollinators and play an important role in agriculture.
Beekeepers are people who keep honeybees.
In addition to connecting honey, some beekeepers provide pollination services to farmers.
They do this by raising and managing colonies of bees.
Farmers need the colonies to pollinate their crops.
Beekeepers can provide and manager bee colonies for farmers.
-How do beekeepers provide pollination services? –They raise and manage colonies of bees.
Honey bees are social insects that live in colonies.
A bee colony consists of a queen bee, male drones, and thousands of female worker bees.
Each colony also contains eggs and immature bees in various stages of development.
The number of bees within a colony depends on seasonal changes.
A colony’s population increases during the warmer seasons, and decreases during colder seasons.
-What does the population of a colony depend on? –seasonal changes.
In recent years many bee colonies have collapsed or disappeared.
A bee colony collapse occurs when a majority of bees in the colony disappear and leave behind the queen.
Some beekeepers have reported of losing 30 to 90% of their colonies.
This loss of bee colonies can cause significant problems for farmers who depend on them to pollinate their crops.
In some parts of the world, a shortage of bees has increased the cost of renting bees, by up to 20%.
-A bee colony collapse occurs when… -a majority of the bees in a colony disappear.
-What has increased the cost of renting bees in some parts of the world? –a shortage of bees.
There are several possible causes for bee colonies collapse.
One possible cause is the use of new pesticides.
Other possible causes include infections from viruses, genetic factors and malnutrition.
Changing weather patterns may also play a role as summers get hotter and winters get colder.
These changes in weather may weaken the bees, making it more difficult for them to fight infections.
-What may make it more difficult for bees to fight infections? –Changing weather conditions.
Whatever the cause of colonies collapse, it’s important to understand that many parts of our world are inter-dependent.
Changes that affect one species may have serious effects on other species.
A change to our environment can start a chain of events that is difficult to predict.
In any complex system, such as the earth’s environment, small changes can have an unforeseen consequences.
The danger of unforeseen consequences is something we all need to understand better.
-The Earth’s environment is … -a complex system.
-The main idea here is: -The Earth’s environment is a complex system.
Goods and services supply what people need or want.
Goods are things such as foods and clothing.
Services include things such as health care and police protection.
A country needs natural and human resources.
Natural resources include fresh water supplies, farmland and energy sources, such as oil and wind.
Human resources include a skilled workforce that can produce goods and services.
Once we have a supply of goods or services, they need to be distributed throughout a country.
Highways and railways are both ways to transport things from one part of a country to another.
Electricity is distributed through a system of transmission lines.
We live an age of advertising.
Advertising lets people know about goods and services.
It educates people about the product being advertised.
Trade allows for the exchange of goods and services between different countries.
Exports are goods and services that are sold to another country.
Imports are goods and services that are bought from another country.
For example, many countries import oil from country such as Saudi Arabia.
An advertiser’s goal is to convince people to buy something even if they don’t really need it.
Without a system of distribution, goods and services cannot be supplied throughout a country.
Advertisers try to increase the demand for a product or service.
Employees are the people who work for a company.
Some employees do basic work, such as operating a machine, or driving a drunk.
The people who hire and direct the work of other employees are managers.
Interviews are one way to find out about a person who applies for a job.
In an interview, a job applicant can ask questions about the company, and a company can find out about the person’s skills and experience.
An entrepreneur is someone who starts a new company.
Entrepreneur often have new ideas and ways of doing things that can give their company an advantage.
Salary and benefits are used to attract new employees into a company.
If the salary and benefits are good enough, employees may take the job and stay with the company.
Benefits include vocation time, health insurance and bonus for employees who do a good job.
When applying for a job, it’s important to have the skills and experience needed for the job.
Developing and increasing skills and experience is good way to prepare for a good job. Each job a person has is an opportunity to learn new things and develop new skills.
M: You don’t look good. Is something bothering you?
W: Yes, it’s my landlord.
M: Oh, is there something wrong with your flat?
W: No, there’s nothing wrong with the flat. But I’m going to have to move out.
-What’s wrong with her flat? –Nothing.
-She doesn’t look good because… -she has to move out of her flat.
M: Why do you have to move out?
W: For the last two months a friend has been staying with me.
She is staying until she can find a job.
M: That’s nice of you.
W: Yes, but I’m not supposed to have anyone staying there.
M: Was that in the rental agreement?
W: Yes, it was. It’s ok if a friend stays for a few days, but not for more than that.
-Her friend was going to stay… -until she could find a job.
M: So you broke the agreement, even though it was for a good reason.
W: Anyway, one of my neighbors told the landlord about my friend.
So now I’m in trouble. The landlord is angry and says she can’t trust me.
M: That’s ridiculous.
W: I told her about my friend and how I’m trying to help her, but she doesn’t care.
-Who told the landlord about her friend? –a neighbor.
M: Wow, she doesn’t sound very nice.
W: That’s right, she isn’t nice. She’s just interested in money.
In fact, she’s going to keep my security deposit.
M: How can she do that? Nothing is damaged, right?
W: Right, everything in the flat is fine.
She’s keeping the deposit because I broke the rental agreement.
-What is the landlord going to keep? –the security deposit.
M: What about your rent?
W: Yes, that’s another problem. I’ve already pay 3 months’ rent, so I hope I can get it back.
M: What can you do if she doesn’t return it?
W: I don’t know. I’ll talk to my agent. He’s nice and maybe he can help.
Maybe I should refuse to leave the flat until I get it back.
M: Be sure to take pictures of the flat.
W: What for?
M: Just to show the condition of the flat.
Then she can’t say your friend damage it in anyway.
W: Good idea. She’s a small-minded evil woman.
I should never have rented it from her in the first place.
-How many months’ rent has she paid in advance? –She’s paid 3 months’ rent in advance.
One of the neighbors told the landlord about her friend.
She doesn’t look good because she has to move out of her flat.
There’s nothing wrong with her flat.
What kind of careers are the best? And what are the qualifications?
One of the most popular careers for kids is to become an astronaut.
Many kids dream of going into space when they grow up.
They dream of working on the space station or exploring deep space.
To become an astronaut, it’s important to have the right background.
Many astronauts have the background in engineering, physics or medicine.
Sometimes they have military background, such as flying military aircraft.
As for pay, astronauts can earn a good salary, but not great.
Another popular career is to become musician or actor.
Many kids dream of become famous singers or movie stars.
However, most musicians and actors don’t become famous.
They are usually paid by the hour or by the performance.
Only a very few earn lots of money.
So the best advice is not become the musician or actor unless that’s your real passion.
Becoming a professional athlete is another dream job for many.
It’s nice to image playing a favorite sport and getting paid for it.
However, becoming a professional athlete takes a lot of work and practice.
Great athletes practice for hours a day with teammates and coaches.
They also work regularly with trainers to keep their body strong.
The level of pay for athlete depends on the success and level of their performance.
Athletes often have short career because of the physical requirements of their sport.
When they are no longer able to compete at a higher level, some athletes become coaches.
Firefighters and police officers are important jobs that help and protect people.
These careers require applicants to complete training programs and pass written and physical tests.
These jobs can be exciting and dangerous so they require courage and sometimes sacrifice.
When considering salary and benefits, some of the lowest paying jobs are hospitality and beauty industries.
For example food service workers and hair stylist generally have low salaries.
These kind of jobs don’t require much education or training.
But again if you enjoy what you are doing, that may be good enough.
For example, you may really enjoy talking with your customs.
Spending your life doing something you dislike can be very unsatisfied, even if the salary is high.
Some of the highest paid professions include doctors, lawyers and scientists.
However, these professions require high levels of education and training.
The path to becoming a doctor, for example, is a long one.
Doctors require a university degree, several years in medical school and several more years of experience.
Only then they are satisfied as a medical doctor or MD.
So it doesn’t make sense to consider these professions until they for many years.
And of course, you should really care about doing the work well.
Civil wars are fought between citizens of the same country and are fought within the country.
If citizens of a country disagree about a policy or leader, they may fight a civil war.
A world war is fought when countries form alliances and these alliances fight each other.
A world war involves many or most of the world’s most powerful countries.
There were 2 world wars in the 20th century.
Terrorism involves groups of individuals rather than countries.
Terrorists may come from different countries, and may share the same believes.
Terrorists often use car bombings and suicide attacks on innocent people.
A terrorist attack can happen at any time and any place.
An invasion occurs when one country attacks another.
It sends its army into the other country and attempts to take control.
One of the most famous invasions was when France invaded Russia in 1812.
A defensive of war occurs when a country is attacked and needs to defend itself.
Most countries have military so that it can defend itself if it’s attacked.
When France invaded Russia in 1812, the Russian army fought a defensive war and defeated the France army.
A cell is the basic unit of life.
A cell is the smallest structure that can live and reproduce.
Cells grow and develop, reproduce and interact with the environment.
Photosynthesis is one of the most important biological processes.
It allows plants to capture and use light as an energy source.
Photosynthesis is the process of converting light energy into chemical energy.
A virus is a small biological structure that attacks and inters cells.
Once inside a cell a virus reproduces and makes many copies of itself.
Some diseases such as influence are virus.
Bacteria are one-celled form of life that all around us.
Although they have a single cell structure they are very important.
Many bacteria are inside us and help us digest our food.
DNA is a complex molecule that stores information and can make copies of itself.
Nearly every cell in a person’s body has the same DNA.
The information stored in DNA tells cell what to do and is necessary for reproduction.
W: good evening, sir. How can I help you?
M1: yes, we just checked in and our room is unacceptable. It’s room 8 in 10.
W: is there something wrong with the room?
M1: yes, there certainly is.
We requested a nonsmoking room but the room smells of smoke.
W: let me check. Yes, that room is supposed to be a nonsmoking room.
M1: well, somebody certainly didn’t follow the rules.
The curtain smells like cigars. We can hardly breathe and the windows won’t open.
W: right, the windows don’t open, sir.
I’m really sorry about this. Let me see if I can find you another room.
M1: yes, please. We certainly can’t stay in that room.
Both of our kids have
asima, so the smells of smoke can cause breathing problems.
W: yes, I understand your concern.
W: sir, I’m afraid we don’t have any other rooms with 2 double beds.
If you’ll excuse me, I’ll speak with my manager.
M1: thank you. We are really tired and we would like to get some rest as soon as possible.
W: yes, I understand. If you don’t mind, could you wait in the lounge near the elevators?
I shouldn’t be long.
M1: sure, I hope it doesn’t take time.
M2: good evening sir, I’m the manager here and I’m sorry to hear about your room.
M1: yes, we’re not happy and we’re really tired. I hope you can help us.
M2: I’m sure we can.
Since we don’t have another nonsmoking room for you, I’ll upgrade you to a suite.
Would that be ok?
M1: yes, that would be fine. There’s no extra cost, right?
M2: no, sir. There will be no extra charge.
M1: and it’s nonsmoking, right?
M2: yes, sir. I have confirmed that it’s nonsmoking.
M1: thanks, I really appreciate your help.
M2: it’s my pleasure, sir. I hope you and your family have a wonderful stay with us.
Here’s my card. If there is anything else I can do for you, please let me know.
M1: I will. Have a good evening.
M2: thank you, sir and once again, let me apologize for the same convenience.
流利说 Level 3 全文2019-05-22 10:51:17He wanted to go to the airport so he wanted to get on bus number 38. He expected it to come at 8:40. Instead he got on bus number 60, which came at 8:40. He didn’t notice that it was the ...
Kathy usually gets up at 6:30, but this morning, she didn’t hear her alarm.
As a result, she overslept.
She didn’t get up until 7:00, 30 minutes later than usual.
As a result, she didn’t have time to cook breakfast for her children.
-Why did she oversleep? –She didn’t hear her alarm.
-Why didn’t she cook breakfast? –She didn’t have time.
Today Kathy and her kids left home early.
They usually leave home at 7:30, but today they left at 7:15.
They left early because they had to buy breakfast on their way to school.
-Why did they leave home early? –They had to buy breakfast on their way to school.
-What did they have to buy on their way to school? –their breakfast.
It usually takes 45 minutes to drive her kids to school, but today it took longer.
It took them longer because they stopped for breakfast along the way.
It took 15 minutes for them to have breakfast.
They ate at a little coffee shop along the side of the road.
-How long does it usually take to drive her kids to school? –It usually takes 45 minutes.
-How long did it take them to have breakfast? –It took 15 minutes.
After eating breakfast, they got back into their car.
On most days the traffic isn’t too bad in the morning.
But this morning, it was much worse than usual.
The cars were moving very slowly.
As a result it took them longer than usual to get to school.
-What did they do after eating breakfast? –They got back into their car.
One of her children got to school on time, but the other two were late.
They were late because their schools are farther away.
They were both about 10 minutes late to school.
-How late were two of her children? –They were about 10 minutes late.
When Kathy finally got home she cleaned her house as usual.
She vacuumed the living room and cleaned the bathroom.
Then she talked with her friend on the phone as usual.
When she finished talking with her friend she got into her car.
She put the key into the ignition, and tried to start the engine.
But the car’s engine didn’t start.
Her car battery was dead, so she had to call for help.
-What happened when she tried to start her car? –The car’s engine didn’t start.
-Why did she have to call for help? –to get a new battery.
After getting a new battery for her car, the engine started.
Then Kathy drove to the mall to meet her friend.
She arrived to the mall an hour late but her friend was waiting for her.
They had lunch together and then they went shopping.
They both bought new shoes and some things for their kids.
Kathy bought a new tie for her husband.
-What did Kathy buy for her husband? –a new tie.
-Who was waiting for her at the mall? –Her friend was waiting for her.
It’s now 3:00 and everything is going as usual.
Kathy doesn’t want anything else to go wrong.
She wants the rest of the day to go as usual.
She doesn’t want any more surprises.
And tomorrow she won’t oversleep.
She never wants to oversleep again.
-What doesn’t Kathy want? –more surprises.
Here is a bus schedule at a bus stop.
On most days the buses come on schedule but sometimes they don’t.
Yesterday for example, several buses were late.
This is because the traffic yesterday was much heavier than usual.
-How was the traffic yesterday? –It was much heavier than usual.
-Why were several buses late? –The traffic was heavier than usual.
Bus number 38 was supposed to come at 8:40, but it was 5 minutes late.
It didn’t come until 8:45.
Bus number 60 was supposed to come at 8:30.
But yesterday it didn’t come until 8:40.
It was 10 minutes late.
Not one bus come early.
-How many buses came early? –Not one bus came early.
As a result of the delays one man got on the wrong bus.
He wanted to go to the airport so he wanted to get on bus number 38.
He expected it to come at 8:40.
Instead he got on bus number 60, which came at 8:40.
He didn’t notice that it was the wrong bus.
It didn’t go to the airport.
As a result he missed his flight.
-What time was bus number 38 supposed to come? -8:40.
-Why did the man miss his flight? –He got on the wrong bus.
Weddings are where two people get married.
This man and woman are getting married.
The building in the middle is an office building.
Many people come to work here during the week.
These people are at a dance party.
The woman in the green dress is dancing with her boyfriend.
These two people are meeting for the first time.
They are shaking hands.
This young boy is brushing his teeth.
He brushes his teeth several times a day.
-Who are shaking hands? –They are shaking hands.
Candies and cakes are sweet because they are made with lots of sugar.
Eating too many sweets is not good for your teeth.
Lemons and great food take a little sour so some people don’t like them.
Some sour tasting foods have a lot of vitamin C.
These red peppers are very hot and spicy.
Eating hot or spicy food rises body temperature so don’t eat them before going into bed.
These foods are deep-fried and greasy.
Greasy foods have a lot of calories, so don’t eat them if you want to lose weight.
Healthy foods are usually nature and don’t include dangerous chemical. Fruits and vegetables are examples of healthy foods.
-How do lemons and great food taste? –a little sour.
The triangle is inside the square.
The square is around the triangle.
The triangle is inside the circle.
The circle is around the triangle.
The square is inside the triangle.
The triangle is around the square.
The circle is between two small squares.
There is a square on either side of the circle.
The circle is on the left of the rectangle.
The rectangle is on the right of the circle.
W: Hey, where are you? I don’t see you anywhere.
M: I’m on the subway.
W: My flight arrived early and I’m tired.
M: I’m sorry to be late. I’ll be there as fast as I can.
-Where is she? –She is at the airport.
W: Where are you now?
M: There are three more stops. I’ll be there in ten minutes.
W: I’ll meet you at the bus stop in front of terminal 2. Then we can get a taxi.
M: OK. I’ll look for you in front of terminal 2. See you soon.
-What are they going to do after they meet? –Take a taxi.
Lisa: What’s the matter, Tom?
Tom: I don’t feel well.
Lisa: Are you sick?
Tom: No, I don’t think so. I’m just tired.
Lisa: Didn’t you get enough sleep?
Tom: No, I didn’t. I went to bed later than usual last night.
-Why didn’t he get enough sleep? –He went to bed later than usual.
Lisa: What time did you go to bed?
Tom: I didn’t go to bed until 12:00.
Lisa: Why did you stay up so late?
Tom: I was watching some videos on line.
-He didn’t go to bed until when? - He didn’t go to bed until 12:00.
Lisa: What kind of videos?
Tom: Music videos from all over the world.
Tom: Sure, I’ll send you some links if you like.
Lisa: Thanks, I like music videos too. They are really fun.
Tom: Just don’t stay up too late.
Lisa: Don’t worry, I won’t stay up too late. I need my sleep.
-Why won’t she stay up too late? –She needs enough sleep.
He was watching videos.
He didn’t go to bed until 12:00.
Our planet, the earth, is the third planet from the sun.
It is a beautiful, rotating sphere.
The side facing the sun is in daylight.
The side facing away from the sun is in darkness.
For example, when it’s daytime in the US, it’s nighttime in China.
In fact, there’s a 12-hour time difference between Boston and Shanghai.
When it’s midnight in Shanghai,it’s noon in Boston.
-Which side of the earth is in daylight? –the side facing the sun.
-What is the shape of our planet? –a sphere.
-What time of the day is noon? –It’s 12:00 pm.
-Which side of the earth is in darkness? –the side facing away from the sun.
The earth rotates from west to east.
To know which direction is east or west, watch the sun.
The sun travels through the sky from east to west.
The sun comes up in the east and goes down in the west.
Again, this is because the earth rotates.
It takes 24 hours for the earth to make a complete rotation.
And that is the length of one day.
-The sun comes up in which direction? –It comes up in the east.
Because of the earth’s rotation, the earth is divided into time zones.
Some countries, such as the US, have several time zones.
When it’s 10 am in New York, it’s 7 am in San Francisco.
Europe and the US are separated by several time zones.
When it’s 5 pm in Paris, it’s 11 am in Boston.
So there is a 6-hour difference between Paris and Boston.
One large country, China, has just one time zone for the whole country.
As a result, at the same time, some parts of the country can be dark and other parts can be light.
-Which large country has only one time zone? –China.
-Why is the earth divided into time zones? –It rotates.
As you travel around the earth, the time changes.
The time of day depends on your location on the planet.
When you travel east or west, you may cross several time zones.
For example, if you travel from Beijing to Los Angeles, you cross 8 time zones.
That means, when it’s noon on Sunday in China, it’s 8 pm on Saturday in Los Angeles.
For travelers, this means it can be very difficult to sleep after a long flight.
The clock may say 8 pm, but for your body, it’s noon.
This is called jet lag.
-What causes jet lag? –crossing several time zones.
-What happens if you travel east or west? –You may cross several time zones.
-What changes as you travel around the earth? –the time.
-What happens if you travel from Beijing to Los Angeles? –You will cross several time zones.
It depends on how far east or west you travel.
Crossing several time zones causes jet lag.
Kim is a popular Korea actress.
She’s 28 years old, slim, and beautiful.
She has a large fan club, and her movies are very popular.
Everywhere she goes, her fans want her autograph.
But Kim wants more.
She wants to be popular all over the world.
-What does Kim do? –She is an actress.
-What does Kim want? –She wants to be more popular.
-What do her fans want? –Her autograph.
Tomorrow is a special day for her.
She’s leaving for Hollywood.
She’s going to Hollywood to meet with some top movie executives.
The meeting is scheduled the day after tomorrow.
If the meeting goes well, she’ll be in a Hollywood movie.
This is her chance to become a star.
-When is she leaving for Holly Wood? –tomorrow.
-What will happen if the meeting goes well? –She’ll be in a Hollywood movie.
-When is she going to meet with executives? –the day after tomorrow.
She met the movie’s director last year.
He came to Korea and saw her latest movie.
After that he decided to use her in his new movie.
Fortunately, Kim’s English is excellent, so she can play the role.
-Who did she meet in Korea last year? –the movie’s director.
-What did the movie director decide to do? -He decided to use her in his new movie.
The director wants her to play a major role in the movie.
The movie story will take place in the future.
At that time the world will be a very different place.
Unfortunately, much of world will be polluted.
Robots will do much of the work, and only the very rich can have a good life.
-In the movie, who can have a good life? –the very rich.
-What are robots? –machines.
The ending of the movie is still a secret.
Even Kim doesn’t know how it will end.
But she hopes it will have a happy ending.
She wants people to have hope for a better future.
-What doesn’t Kim know? –the ending of the movie.
These people are having a meeting.
The woman is giving a presentation.
This person is having a scary dream.
In his dream, something is chasing him, so he is running as fast as he can.
This old man is a tourist.
He is looking out the window of his tour bus.
This young couple is in an art museum.
They are looking at a famous painting.
The sun is setting behind the mountains.
The sky is turning red.
Some buses, like this one, take tourists to places like the Great Wall.
She’s giving a presentation at a meeting.
The longest line is the one on the top.
The top line is the longest of the three lines.
The shortest line is the one in the middle.
The line in the middle is shorter than the other two.
The bottom line is the shortest.
The shortest of these three lines is the one on the bottom.
The shirt on the left is more expensive than the shirt on the right.
The shirt on the right is less expensive than the shirt on the left.
The shirt on the left isn’t as expensive as the one on the right.
The shirt on the left costs less than the one on the right.
The shirt on the left is more expensive than the shirt on the right.
Winter is the coldest season because the sun is at its lowest point in the sky.
Winter sports include skiing and ice skating.
Summer is the hottest season because the sun is at its highest point in the sky.
Many people like to go swimming in the summer because of the hot weather.
Spring is the season when the weather gets warmer each day.
For many animals new life begins in the spring.
Autumn is the season when the weather begins to cool and the days begin to shorten.
Autumn is when trees turn many colors and leaves fall to the ground.
Rainy season is the season when some countries get most of the rainfall.
Rainy season usually lasts for one or two months.
M: Hi, I’m sorry to be late.
W: What happened? You were supposed to be here an hour ago.
M: Yes, I know, but I missed my flight.
-How late is he? –H’s an hour late.
W: You missed your flight? How did that happen?
M: I got on the wrong bus this morning, so I was late to the airport.
By the time I arrived, the gate was closed.
W: What did you do then?
M: I had to rebook my flight and get on the waiting list.
-Why was he late to the airport? –He got on the wrong bus.
-What did he do when he got to the airport? –He rebooked his flight.
He had to get on a waiting list because other people were also trying to get on the flight.
W: Oh, that’s too bad. At least you got here.
M: Yes, it wasn’t easy getting on the next flight. I had to run to the gate.
W: This kind of thing happens a lot lately. Last week I missed a flight, too.
-What wasn’t easy? –It wasn’t easy getting on the next flight.
M: What happened?
W: There was a traffic accident near the airport.
M: You were driving?
W: No, I wasn’t. I was in a taxi. But it took a long time to get to the airport.
The traffic was stopped for nearly 15 minutes.
-Why did it take a long time to get to the airport? –The traffic was stopped because of an accident.
W: By the time I got there, it was too late to get on the flight.
The next flight wasn’t for another 3 hours, so it was a long wait.
From now on, I’ll try to get to the airport much earlier.
M: Me too.
-How long did she have to wait for the next flight? –She had to wait three hours. She had to wait three hours for the next flight.
M: What’s the matter? Why do you look so sad?
W: Ada has a new job. She’s going to Beijing.
M: Really? When is she leaving?
W: She’s leaving at the end of next week.
M: That soon?
W: Yes, she just told me.
M: That’s too bad. I really enjoy working with her.
W: Me too, I’m going to miss her.
-When is Ada leaving? –She is leaving at the end of next week.
W: Let’s have a going-away party for her.
M: Good idea. How about this weekend?
W: Friday evening would be better. We can have it after work.
M: Yes, Friday is better.
-When are they going to have the party? –They’re going to have it on Friday evening.
-Why is Friday evening better than the weekend? –They can have the party after work.
W: Let’s go to her favorite restaurant, okay?
M: Which one? The Italian one, or the German one?
W: The Italian one has better food, so let’s go there. Their pizzas are awesome.
-How good are the pizzas at the Italian restaurant? –They are awesome.
-Why did they decide on the Italian restaurant? –They think it has better food.
M: OK, I’ll make the reservations.
W: Let me check with Ada first. We don’t want her to miss her party.
M: Yeah, that’s for sure. And could you please invite everyone in the office?
W: Sure, no problem. Nobody will want to miss it.
-What are they going to check with Ada? –They need to confirm that she can come to the party.
Paul is a very successful businessman.
He owns several restaurants.
All of them are doing well.
In fact, they are very profitable.
To be profitable means that their income is more than their expenses.
As a result, he is making a lot of money.
-What does Paul do? –He is a businessman.
-Why is he making a lot of money? –His restaurants are profitable.
He is making money because his restaurants are profitable.
Paul wants to buy a new car.
He’s trying to decide which car to buy.
He has plenty of money.
As a result, he isn’t worried about the cost.
He can afford an expensive car.
-Why isn’t he worry about the cost? –He has plenty of money.
-As a result is the same as saying… -so
On the other hand, he doesn’t want to waste money.
He wants a car he can rely on.
It has to be safe and reliable, especially in cold winter weather.
If a car breaks down in bad weather, it can be very dangerous.
-What kinds of car does he want? –a safe, reliable car.
Paul wants to help reduce pollution and smog.
He would like to buy a clean car, something good for the environment.
He is thinking about buying a Tesla.
The Tesla is an all-electric car.
It used batteries instead of gasoline.
There is no exhaust so it doesn’t pollute the air.
-What kind of car is Tesla? –It is a clean, electric car.
-Why doesn’t the Tesla pollute the air? –It doesn’t exhaust.
However, the car can’t go very far without recharging the battery.
To charge the battery you can plug it in to an electrical outlet.
Recharging the battery takes time.
-What takes time? –Recharging the battery.
One of Paul’s friends has one and he is quite happy with it.
He says it’s reliable and well-engineered.
There’re also several charging station near Paul’s office.
So he isn’t worried about that.
The cost for charging the battery is low.
It’s less expensive than buying gasoline.
His wife, Kathy, also likes the idea of buying an electric car.
She likes the idea of driving a clean car.
So it makes sense.
-What’s less expensive than buying gasoline? –charging the battery.
-Why isn’t Paul worried about finding charging stations? –There’re several charging stations near Paul’s office.
In the future there may be driverless cars.
This may be very safe, but Paul doesn’t like them.
He enjoys driving.
He likes to be in control of his car.
-What does Paul enjoy doing? –He enjoys driving.
The man in the middle is the heaviest.
The man in the middle is heavier than the other two.
The woman on the left is smarter than the man on the right.
The man isn’t as smart as the woman is.
The woman is standing under a bridge.
The bridge is above the woman.
There is a bridge over the river.
The river is flowing beneath the bridge. The water is flowing over a waterfall.
The waterfall is very high and beautiful.
People need passports to travel internationally.
Without a passport, you cannot leave your country or enter another country.
You need a driver’s license to drive a car.
It is against the law to drive without a driver’s license.
Many people use credit cards to buy things on credit.
When you have a credit card, you don’t need to carry cash.
Smart phones are very useful and can do many things.
You can use them to make phone calls, play games, or go shopping on the internet.
We need to buy tickets in order to take a train, or watch a sport event.
You can often buy tickets on line and sometimes you can get a discount.
Banks are where people can deposit or withdraw money.
You can also use online bank to pay bills, such as your credit card bill.
Hotels are where travelers can stay overnight or for several days.
If you plan to stay at a hotel you should make a reservation.
Restaurants are where people go to eat with friends and family.
There are many different kinds of restaurants, such as Indian, Italian, or Chinese restaurants.
Repair shops are where people go to fix things which are broken or not working right.
This repair shop fixes cars and can check to see if it’s safe to drive.
Coffee shops are favorite place to meet new people or take a break from the office. They are usually less expensive than restaurants.
M: I’m tired of going out to eat. Let’s eat at home tonight.
W: OK, are you going to cook?
M: No, it’s too late, you know I’m not a good cook. Let’s order something.
-What are they going to do? –They are going to order food.
-Why does he want to eat at home? –He’s tired of going out to eat.
W: What do you have in mind?
M: I was thinking about a nice big pizza.
W: Again? I had pizza last night. So, please, no pizza.
-What was he thinking about ordering? –He was thinking about ordering a pizza.
-Why doesn’t she want pizza? –She’s tired of eating pizza.
M: OK, no pizza. Let’s order Chinese food, okay?
W: Sweet and sour? You always like sweet and sour. I feel like eating something hot and spicy.
M: OK, you order something hot and spicy, and I order sweet and sour. I don’t want anything spicy.
My stomach doesn’t feel good. It’s a bit upset.
-What does she feel like eating? –something hot and spicy.
-Why doesn’t he want something hot and spicy? –His stomach doesn’t feel good.
W: OK, if you want sweet and sour then I’ll have that too. And I’ll make a salad with lots of tomatoes.
How long will it take for the food to get here.
M: I don’t know. I’ll call and find out.
W: Thanks. Hopefully it won’t take longer than an hour. I’m getting hungry.
-What do they finally decide to order? –They decide to order sweet and sour.
-How long will it take for the food to be delivered? –They don’t know.
M: Hey, what did you do last night?
W: I took a long walk from my hotel.
M: You didn’t get lost?
W: No, I didn’t.
-What did she do last night? –She took a long walk.
-What is she staying? –She is staying at a hotel.
M: Where did you go, anywhere interesting?
W: I walked to river. There were thousands of people there.
M: You went to the river? How long did it take you to walk there.
W: It took around 20 minutes.
M: Did you see anything interesting?
W: I was really surprised by how many people were there.
-How did she get to the river? –She walked to the river.
-What did she see at the river? –She saw thousands of people there.
W: Many of them were taking pictures and selfies, Lots of selfies.
M: Do you take selfies?
W: Sure, don’t you?
M: Sometimes, but my girlfriend takes a lot of selfies. Then she shares them with her friends on line.
I don’t understand why people like to take so many pictures of themselves.
W: That’s because you are old-fashioned.
-What does his girlfriend put on line? –She puts her selfies on line.
-What does it mean to take a selfies? –It means to take a picture of yourself with your smart phone.
M: Hmm, I guess you are right. There are too many social media for me.
When I go to a restaurant, I see many people looking at their smart phones.
They don’t even look at the people they are with.
W: Times are changing, my friend, whether you like it or not.
-What are the people doing in the restaurant? –They are looking at their smart phones.
Christina sells women’s clothing in a department store.
She usually works six days a week, but this week she’s going to take three days off.
She’s taking time off so that she can visit her parents.
Her parents live in the mountains, about three hours away by train.
They are looking forward to seeing her.
They haven’t seen her for almost a year.
Christina is their only child.
-What does Christina sell? –Women’s clothing.
-When was the last time Christina saw her parents? –It was almost a year ago.
-Why is she taking time off? –She is taking time off to visit her parents.
Christina isn’t going on the trip by herself.
Her boyfriend is going with her.
She is going to introduce him to her parents.
She and her boyfriend want to get married.
If everything goes well, they plan to get married in 6 months.
-What is the purpose of the trip? –To introduce her boyfriend to her parents.
-When do they plan to get married? –In 6 months.
After they get married, Christina plans to quit her job.
She wants to spend more time designing clothes.
She wants to set up her own business.
This will take time.
Her boyfriend thinks it’s a good idea.
He is also thinking about starting his own business.
-What does Christina plan to do after she gets married? –She plans to quit her job.
-What does her boyfriend think it’s a good idea? –Start her own business.
They don’t plan to have children right away.
In fact, they may decide not to have children.
They don’t know yet.
It’s going to be a big decision.
-What’s going to be a big decision? –To have children or not.
-What may they decide not to do? –They may decide not to have children.
Christina’s parents want her to marry and have children.
They are looking forward to have grandchildren.
They don’t want her to start her own business.
They think it’s more important to have children.
In fact, they would like her to live closer to them.
They want to be close to their grandchildren.
-What do Christina’s parents want? –They want her to marry and have children.
-Where would Christina’s parents like her to live? –They would like her to live nearby.
So Christina doesn’t plan to tell her parents everything.
For now, she just wants them to meet her boyfriend.
She wants them to be happy that she is going to get married.
She wants them to like him and see her happiness.
She wants her parents to accept her way of life.
Life isn’t the same now as it used to be.
Times are changing.
-What does Christina want her parents to do for now? –She just wants them to meet her boyfriend.
Mechanics, like this one, fix cars.
He is working in a repair shop.
A delivery person delivers things, such as pizzas.
This person works for a restaurant.
A pharmacist sells medicines.
Pharmacists, like this woman, work in a pharmacy.
Thieves, like this one, steal things.
This thief is stealing a television from a home.
A musician, like this one, plays music.
This musician is playing a guitar.
Stealing things is against the law.
These people are wearing masks because of the smog.
One cause of smog is automobile exhaust.
It’s raining hard so you need an umbrella.
Heavy rain like this can cause flooding and mud slides.
When the sky is overcast we can’t see the sun because of the clouds.
A cloudy sky means that it might rain.
We need to wear a coat when it’s cold and windy.
In a very strong wind, it’s difficult to use an umbrella.
We need to drink water or other liquids when it’s hot outside.
When it’s really hot most people turn on the air conditioning.
Here are some different types of things to read.
Works or fictions include novels, short stories and plays, such as Shakespeare.
We read fiction to enjoy stories of imagination and adventure.
People read the news to learn about what’s happening in the world.
We can get the news in newspapers and online.
When we buy something, we often need to read an instruction manual.
Instruction manuals show us how to put together or install things.
Non-fiction works include biographies and books about science and history.
We read non-fiction to learn about different subjects and real people.
We can learn about the latest scientific research in journals and academic papers.
Many online universities courses give a list of research papers to read.
M1: What’s wrong?
M2: I can’t walk. My left foot hurts.
M1: Is it broken?
M2: I don’t know if it’s broken, but it sure hurts.
-What hurts? –His left foot hurts.
M1: There’s one way to find out if it’s broken.
M1: You need to see a doctor. The doctor can X-ray your foot.
-How can they find out if his foot is broken? –They need to see a doctor.
-Who can X-ray his foot? –a doctor.
M2: OK, let’s go. I can’t walk by myself. Can you help me into a taxi?
M1: Sure, I’ll call a taxi. I’ll get you to a hospital as soon as possible.
M2: Thanks. I sure hope it isn’t broken.
M1: We’ll find out soon enough.
-Where do they want to go? –They want to go to a hospital.
W: I don’t feel like cooking tonight. Let’s go out.
M: Where would you like to go?
W: I feel like eating some great Italian food.
M: How about AI’s Italian, it’s always good.
-What doesn’t she feel like doing? –cooking.
W: We went there last week. Let’s try something new. You have no imagination.
You always want to go to the same place.
M: Right, I don’t like unpleasant surprises. I just want things to be simple.
-What does she want to do? –She wants to try something new.
-Why doesn’t she want to go to AI’s Italian? –They went there last week.
W: OK, let’s compromise.
M: What does that mean? What do you mean by compromise?
W: Let’s go 50-50.
This time we’ll go someplace new and new and next time we can go to one of your favorites.
M: OK, I’ll compromise and make you halfway.
W: Good, I’ll look for something new and make reservations.
-What does she suggest? –She suggests that they compromise.
M: Great, let’s not go too late.
W: I’ll make reservations for 8. Is that okay?
M: Yes, perfect.
He doesn’t like unpleasant surprises.
Matter is made of atoms and molecules.
Water, for example, is the H2O molecule.
This means that a molecule of water has 3 atoms.
A water molecule has 2 hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom.
Substances like sugar have many atoms in their molecules.
A molecule of sugar has many atoms, including carbine, hydrogen and oxygen.
-What is H2O? –The water molecule.
-What is matter made of? –Atoms and molecules.
Matter is made of molecules such as the H2O which is the water molecule.
Matter can be in one of 3 states, solid, liquid or gas.
Water and ice are the same substance, but they are in different states.
These states depend on the temperature of the molecules.
When we heat a substance, the molecules move faster and try to take up more space.
When we cool a substance, the molecules move more slowly.
When we cool a substance to its freezing point, it becomes a solid.
-How many states of matter are there? –Three.
-What happens when we heat a substance? –the molecules move faster and try to take up more space.
-What happens if we cool a liquid to its freezing point? –It becomes a solid.
In a solid, the molecules move very little.
Their positions are almost fixed.
To be fixed means that their positions don’t change.
If we heat the molecules, they move faster and away from each other.
The solid begins to melt, like ice cream on a hot day.
-How can we change a solid into a liquid? –heat it up.
-How can we change a liquid into a solid? –cool it down.
At a certain temperature, a solid begins to change into a liquid.
The temperature at which a solid changes into a liquid depends on the substances.
For water, the solid begins to change into a liquid when its temperature rises to above 100 degrees Celsius.
For some substances, such as steel, the temperature at which it becomes a liquid is much higher.
Steel often melts at around 1370 degrees Celsius.
-At what temperature does ice begin to melt? –Above 0 degree Celsius.
-What does the temperature at which a substance begins to melt depend on? –The substances.
If we continue to heat a liquid, the molecules move even faster.
At a certain temperature, the liquid begins to change into a gas.
For water, the liquid begins to change into a gas at 100 degrees Celsius. This is the boiling point of water.
-What happens if we continue to heat a liquid? –Molecules move even faster.
Inside a star, such as our sun, the temperature is very high.
Everything inside the sun is a gas.
According to scientists, there are over 65 elements inside the sun.
These include oxygen and iron.
Over 90% of the sun is hydrogen gas.
-How many elements are inside the sun? –More than 65.
Yesterday there was an important science test.
Lisa, Tom and 20 other classmates took the test.
The test was about the states of matter and how they are different.
There were 25 questions on the test, and they had 45 minutes to take it.
Here are some of the test results.
Two students got perfect scores.
The lowest score was 68 out of a hundred.
The average score was 86.3
Eleven students scored higher than average.
Eleven students had below average scores.
Tom missed two questions on the test, so his score was 92.
His score was the eighth highest in the class.
Lisa missed two and a half questions, so her score was 90.
Her score was the tenth highest score.
Her score was 4 points higher than the average score.
Lisa was disappointed with her test results.
She studied hard for the test, but she still didn’t do well.
As a result, she plans to study harder for the next test.
The next test will be in about two weeks.
Tom was surprised and happy with his test results.
He didn’t study hard, so his result was better than he expected.
He was also happy that he did better than Lisa did.
She is screaming because she is really scared.
Something is chasing her so she is screaming for help.
He is shouting because he is angry.
When he’s really angry he often shouts like this.
She is sleeping because she’s tired.
Last night she didn’t get enough sleep, so today she has no energy.
She’s crying because she’s sad.
She got some bad news a few minutes ago.
She’s smiling because she’s happy.
Her boyfriend just called and he’s returning from a long trip.
Who is smiling because she got some good news?
This man is hiking up a mountain trail.
He is wearing hiking boots and is carrying a pack on his back.
This man enjoys cooking.
He attends a cooking class once a week.
This woman enjoys gardening.
She grows flowers, such as roses, and vegetables, such as tomatoes, in her garden.
This boy loves playing games.
He likes all kinds of games, including this video games on his computer.
This old couple enjoys travelling.
They take several trips a year, often to different countries.
W: Oh, there you are, finally.
M: Yeah, I’m sorry.
W: Why are you so late? You were supposed to be here 30 minutes ago.
M: I got on the wrong subway by mistake.
-When was he supposed to be there? -30 minutes ago.
-Why was he late? –He took the wrong subway.
W: Why didn’t you call? I was really worried.
M: I don’t have my phone. I left it in the office because I was in such a hurry to get here.
W: OK, well, you’re here now. We don’t have much time.
M: Yes, we’ll have to hurry. The meeting starts in 15 minutes, right?
W: Yes, it’s supposed to, if everyone gets here on time.
-When is the meeting supposed to start? –in 15 minutes.
-To hurry means.. –To go fast.
W: Did you read my presentation?
M: Yes, I do. It’s good, but it’s a bit too long. I’m afraid there won’t be enough time for questions.
W: Do you have any suggestions?
M: Yes, I do. I think the company introduction can be cut in half. They know what we do.
W: OK, I won’t show the video. It’s about 2 minutes long.
M: That’s a good idea. The video is on our website and is not that good any way.
-What is she going to cut from her presentation? –the video.
-Why is the presentation a bit too long? –There isn’t enough time for questions.
W: Do you have any other suggestions?
M: No, I don’t. I’m sure you’re doing a great job. Are you ready?
W: Yes, I’m ready. The meeting room is on the 21st floor.
M: OK, let’s go.
-Where is the meeting going to be? –in a meeting room.
She’s ready to give her presentation at the meeting.
Lisa: How did you do on yesterday’s science test?
Tom: I did better than expected. How about you?
Lisa: I didn’t do very well. I expected to do better than I did.
Tom: What was your score?
Lisa: I got a 90. What about you?
Tom: I got a 92. I only missed two questions.
-How well did he do on the test? –He did better than expected.
She didn’t do as well as she expected.
Lisa: So you did better than I did. And I really study for it too.
Tom: That is a surprise. You usually do better than I do.
Lisa: Yes, I wasn’t careful. I made one really stupid mistake.
Tom: What was it?
Lisa: I said 90% of the sun is Helium instead of Hydrogen.
Tom: Wow. That was a stupid mistake.
-Why was he surprised by the result? –He did better than she did.
Tom: What was the average score for the class, do you know?
Lisa: The average score was 86.3 and the lowest was 68.
Tom: Do you know who got the lowest test score?
Lisa: No, I don’t. I don’t know who got the lowest score.
Tom: It’s probably a secret. Did anyone get a perfect score?
Lisa: I think Ada and Sandi both got perfect score.
Tom: Yes, they always do well. I wish I were as smart as they are.
-What was the average test score? -86.3.
In six weeks Paul is going on a trip.
He is going to Japan and China.
There are a couple of reasons for the trip.
One reason is for business.
He is thinking about starting restaurants in both countries.
The other reason is for pleasure.
He enjoys travelling and he’d like to visit some friends.
-What’s going to happen in six weeks? –He is going on a trip.
-What is he thinking about starting in both countries? –He is thinking about starting restaurants.
Yesterday he went online and made airline reservations.
There were plenty of seats on the plane, so it was easy.
He also got a good discount.
Unfortunately, he needs a new passport.
His old passport is expiring next week.
This is something he didn’t expect.
Getting a new passport will take at least a week.
He needs to apply for one right away.
-Why did he need to get a new passport? –His old one is expiring soon.
-What did he need to do right away? –apply for a new passport.
-How long will it take to get a new passport? –At least a week.
Paul also needs a visa to enter China.
The last time he went to China was 3 years ago.
Getting a visa may also take a week or even two.
So he doesn’t have much time.
He needs to hurry.
He can’t get the visa until he gets his new passport.
He’ll have to go to the Chinese consulate in Toronto.
Hopefully there won’t be any delays.
-What may take a week or two? –getting a visa.
-When was the last time he went to China? -3 years ago.
Paul has several friends in each country.
One of his best friends lives near Mountain Fuji.
His friend lives near a beautiful lake about 3 hours from Tokyo.
His friend is a great cook and owns a little restaurant.
The restaurant is located on a hill above the lake.
It has a wonderful view and the food is wonderful.
Paul is looking forward to eating there.
Then he will spend the night at his friend’s house.
-Where is Paul going to stay? –He’ll stay at his friend’s house.
-What does his friend do? –He owns a restaurant.
One way to get to his friend’s house is to go by train.
If he takes a train his friend will meet him at the train station.
There’s a train station about half an hour from his friend’s house.
On the other hand he may decide to go by car.
He can rent a car for a few days and see more of the country.
He can use a GPS to help him with directions.
He doesn’t speak Japanese so the directions need to be in English.
-Why do the directions need to be in English? –He doesn’t speak Japanese.
-If he takes a train, who will meet him? –His friend.
In China Paul has a good friend who lives in Beijing.
They studied at the same university in Canada more than 15 years ago.
His Chinese friend wants to help Paul with his business.
His friend has lots of business experiences.
His friend can help Paul learn about doing business in China.
Paul knows there is a lot to learn.
He will certainly need his friend’s help.
-Where did Paul meet his Chinese friend? –At a university in Canada.
-What does Paul want to learn? –About doing business in China.
While in Beijing, they plan to visit several Italian restaurants.
They may meet with some of the owners too, but it isn’t certain yet.
Most of the owners are Chinese.
One or two of them may want to do business with Paul.
If he has time he may go to the Great Wall of China.
It’s a few hours outside Beijing by car.
-Who may want to do business with Paul? –One or two restaurant owners.
Altogether, the trip may take three or more weeks.
Paul still isn’t sure how long he will stay in each country.
He may spend a week in Japan and two weeks in China.
He may decide to stay longer.
Everything depends on his friends.
He expects to get more information from them in the next day or two.
-When does he expect to hear from his friends? –In a couple of days.
-What do his plans depend on? –His friends.
In basketball, players score points by shooting a basketball through a hoop.
Each side has 5 players and the game is played on a basketball court.
Football is probably the world’s most popular sport.
Each team tries to score a goal by kicking the ball into a net.
Baseball is a team sport where each side has 9 players.
Baseball players use a bat to try to hit the ball and get on base.
Golf is an individual sport where players try to hit the ball into a hole in the ground.
The game is played on a golf course with 18 holes.
In boxing the two boxers stand in a boxing ring and hit each other.
Sometimes a boxer, like this one, knocks the other one out.
When people fall down, they can break a bone.
A broken bone can be very painful.
If someone is cut, they will bleed.
A knife or sharp object can cut someone and cause bleeding.
Poisons are very dangerous and cause death.
Some snakes and spiders are poisonous, so be careful.
A heart attack can happen very suddenly.
If someone has a heart attack, call for an ambulance right away.
If you catch on fire, fall to the ground and roll.
Getting too close to a fire can be very dangerous.
M: What’s the matter? You look really tired today.
W: I am tired. I didn’t sleep well last night.
M: Bad dream.
W: Yes, exactly. I had a terrible dream, a really nightmare.
M: So it woke you up.
W: Yes, it woke me up. I was really scared.
M: I’ve had those kinds of dreams too.
W: It was so scary that I was afraid to go back to sleep.
-Why didn’t she sleep well last night? –She had a terrible dream.
M: Was something chasing you?
W: No, nothing was chasing me, but I was falling.
I was falling faster and faster, and it was dark. I couldn’t see or hear anything.
M: Can you remember anything else?
W: Yes, I remember now. In my dream I was screaming, but there was no sound.
I thought I was going to die at any second.
M: Wow. That is scary.
-What was she doing in her dream? –falling and screaming.
M: So what did you do when you woke up?
W: I didn’t want to go back to sleep, so I checked the news online. Then I played the game.
M: You didn’t go back to sleep?
W: Actually I got too tired playing the game than I fell asleep.
M: Well, at least you got some sleep. Some sleep is better than no sleep.
W: I guess so. But I’m still tired. I hope I can get through the day.
-What did she do when she woke up? –She went online.
-What was she doing when she fell asleep? –She was playing a game online.
M: Have a good lunch and then work out in the afternoon.
W: Thanks, I’m already feeling a bit better.
M: Hey, look, the boss is coming. Look like you’re working hard.
-How is she feeling now? –She’s feeling a bit better.
She had a terrible dream, and it woke her up.
M: Hey, what’s that awful smell?
W: The toilet is broken in the men’s bathroom.
M: Wow. I can’t work when it smells this bad. I need some fresh air.
-What’s causing the awful smell? –a broken toilet.
-Why can’t he work? –He can’t work because of the bad smell.
W: OK, let’s take a break and go out for a walk. Get your computer and we can work at a coffee shop.
M: Good idea. When do you think it will be cleaned up?
W: A plumber is coming and he should be here soon. By the time we get back, the smell should be gone.
-Who is coming to fix the toilet? –a plumber.
-To take a break means… -To stop working for a while.
M: That’s one job that I wouldn’t want. I hate to be around bad smells. What about you?
W: Me too. I wouldn’t want to be a plumber.
M: There are lots of jobs that I wouldn’t want.
W: We can talk about that later. Get your computer and let’s get out of here.
-What job wouldn’t they want to have? –They wouldn’t want to be a plumber.
Last month Paul went on a trip.
He went to Japan and China.
There were a couple of reasons for the trip.
One reason for the trip was for business.
He wanted to start some restaurants in both countries.
The other reason was for pleasure.
Paul enjoys travelling and he wanted to visit some friends.
-What was he thinking about starting in both countries? –some restaurants.
Before leaving on the trip Paul had several problems.
First his passport was going to expire.
As a result he needed to apply for a new passport.
Second he needed to get a visa to enter China.
In order to apply for a visa, he needed his new passport.
He had 6 weeks to get everything done.
-Why did he need a visa? –He needed a visa to enter China.
After applying for a new passport it took 2 weeks to get it.
Once he got the passport he went to the Chinese consulate in Toronto and applied for a visa.
He filled out an application form and stood in a long line.
He was surprised by how many people were applying for visas. It took more than an hour to submit his application.
-How long did it take to submit the application? –It took more than an hour to submit it.
-Why did he go to the Chinese consulate? –To apply for a visa.
He submitted his application for the visa on a Friday.
A week later he went back to the consulate to pick up his visa.
To his surprise, when he got there, the consulate was closed.
The consulate was closed because it was a Chinese holiday.
Paul was angry at himself for not checking the consulate’s website.
On its website the consulate’s schedule was posted.
There was a notice saying that the consulate would be closed that day.
-Why was the consulate closed? –It was a Chinese holiday.
As a result, Paul had to come back the next Monday.
This was because the consulate was closed on weekends.
Finally on Monday, he got the visa and he was ready to go.
-Why did he have to wait until Monday to come back? –The consulate was closed on weekends.
Another problem with the trip was his travel schedule.
He needed to extend his stay in Japan.
One week in Japan wasn’t enough.
3 Japanese restaurant owners wanted to meet with him.
He needed more time for the meetings than a couple of days.
And he didn’t want to miss staying with the good friend of his.
-What did he need to do his schedule? –He needed to extend his stay in Japan.
-What didn’t he want to miss? –Staying with a good friend of his.
His friend lives near Mountain (Mt. for short) Fuji and owns a great restaurant.
This was one thing Paul didn’t want to miss.
As a result he extended his stay in Japan.
Instead of staying for just a week, he decided to stay for 10 days.
-What does his friend own? –He owns a great restaurant.
As a result he had to change the dates for staying in China.
The meetings in China were delayed by 3 days.
Instead of arriving on the 1st of the month, he arrived on the 4th.
Fortunately, there were no problems with his new schedule in China.
-What problems were caused by his new schedule in China? –It didn’t cause any problems.
However there were fewer meetings than he expected.
There wasn’t much interest in opening new Italian restaurants. Still, he had one very good meeting.
He met a young Chinese restaurant owner who was interested.
The young man already has a restaurant, but he wants to improve it.
He and Paul liked each other right away.
They met twice in Beijing and are planning to meet again.
-How much interest was there in opening new Italian restaurants? –not much.
-How many times did Paul meet the young man? –They met twice.
The young Chinese man’s name is G.
He is planning to come to see Paul.
They’re going to meet lately next week in Toronto.
Together they will work on a business plan.
Paul is glad that he took the trip.
He thinks it was a successful and enjoyable trip.
-What are they going to work on? –a business plan.
Ambulances are used to transport injured or sick people to a hospital.
An ambulance is trained medical personal who can treat injured or sick people.
A wheel chair is for people who can’t walk.
Wheel chairs have 4 wheels and are often pushed by people from behind.
Fire engines are used to fight fires.
Firefighters like this one often rescue people from burning buildings.
Tow trucks are used to tow cars, this tow truck is towing a car to a repair shop.
Helicopters are used to rescue people from dangerous places.
This helicopter is lifting someone from a sinking boat.
If your car won’t start, you should call for a tow truck.
This tree is bending over because of the strong wind.
It’s going to be windy for the next few days.
It’s a very clear night, so they can look up and see many stars.
There isn’t a single cloud in the sky.
It’s very cold today, so they are wearing very warm clothes.
Without warm clothes, they would freeze to death.
It’s nice to eat ice cream on a hot day.
This mother is buying ice cream for her daughter.
This old man has to wear glasses to read.
Without reading glasses, he can’t see clearly enough to read.
M: How was Ada’s new job in Beijing?
W: It seems to be going well. I talked with her last night.
M: How much is she getting paid?
W: I’m not sure. She said she’s earning more, but I don’t know she’s getting.
M: Where is she living? Has she found a flat?
W: No, not yet. She’s living with a friend, until she can find one of her own.
Flats are more expensive there, and the quality isn’t good.
-Who is Ada living with? –She’s living with a friend.
-How long will Ada be living with her friend? –She’s going to stay until she can find a flat of her own.
M: Did she say anything else?
W: Her biggest complaint is the air quality. She hates the pollution.
On some days the pollution is so bad that she is afraid to breathe.
M: Yeah, I won’t want to live there.
W: She’s hoping it will get better.
M: I’m sure we will, but it’ll take time, especially with all the cars.
-What is Ada’s biggest complaint? –the poor air quality.
W: She also said she is still looking for a new boyfriend.
M: That shouldn’t be difficult. She’s nice and she’s good-looking. Has she met anyone?
W: No, I don’t think so. She’s looking for someone on the internet.
M: Maybe she’ll be lucky.
W: I think I’m going to try that too.
W: What other choices do we have? It’s so difficult to meet someone new. I never have any time.
M: Me too. I’m always working. Maybe I’ll try online dating too.
-Where is she looking for a new boyfriend? –She is looking for someone on the internet.
M: If I’m lucky I may meet someone new, like Steve’s girlfriend.
W: Oh, come one, you’re joking, right? I hope you can find someone better than her.
M: Steve seems happy enough.
W: Yes, but he is blind by love, you know that. I’m sure you won’t last for long.
As soon as she gets bored, she’ll find someone else.
M: You may be right. Let’s wait and see.
-What is blinding Steve? –He is blinded by love.
M: Hey, what about dinner?
W: Sure, it’s getting late and maybe I’ll be the woman of your dreams.
M: Well, let’s take one night at a time. Let’s have some Indian food, okay?
W: OK, tend and chicken for me. And I’m hungry.
-What kind of food are they going to eat? –They are going to have Indian food. She’s earning more, but we don’t know how much she’s being paid.
Earth is where we all live.
It is our home in the solar system.
There is no other place for us to live.
Earth isn’t just any planet.
It’s a very special place.
It’s special because we depend on it for many things.
Because of its importance we need to take care of it.
-Why is earth so specially? –We depend on it for many things.
We depend on the earth for its air, its water and many of its nature resources.
Nature resources such as coal and oil give us energy.
Other nature resources we depend on include forests and soil.
Forests provide clean air and wood for building houses.
Soil is needed to grow plants and keep them healthy.
We need to take care of these resources and not to waste them.
-What are examples of nature resources? –Coal and oil.
-What don’t we want to do with nature resources? –We don’t want to waste them.
The earth is a large, rotating sphere, about 4.5 billion years old.
The equator, which divides the earth into two hemispheres, is about 40 thousand kilometers long.
The earth’s diameter is 12756 kilometers.
Its radius is half that, or 6378 kilometers.
The radius is the distance from the earth center to its surface.
Most of the earth’s surface is covered by water.
About 75% of the earth’s surface is covered by water.
The rest of the earth’s surface is land.
-What divides the earth into two hemispheres? –The equator.
-Besides water, what is the rest of the earth’s surface? –The rest of the earth’s surface is land.
Just above the earth’s surface is the atmosphere.
The atmosphere is a layer of gases about 500 kilometers thick.
These gases include oxygen, nitrogen and carbon dioxide.
This mixture of gases is the air that we breathe.
As we move about the earth’s surface, the air gets thinner.
At high altitudes, the air is too thin to breathe.
At the edge of the atmosphere is space.
There is no air at all in space.
-Why can’t we breathe at very high altitudes? –The air is too thin.
-What is at the upper edge of the atmosphere? –Space.
-About how thick is the atmosphere? –It’s about 500 kilometer thick.
Most of the earth’s water is in the oceans.
The two largest oceans are the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans.
Unfortunately, we can’t drink ocean water.
This is because ocean water has too much salt.
Fortunately there is also water in lakes and rivers. These water isn’t salty so we can drink it.
Only about 2% of the world’s water is fresh water.
Without fresh drinking water we can’t live.
A person can’t live for more than a few days without water.
-How is fresh water different from ocean water? –Fresh water isn’t salty.
-Why can’t we drink ocean water? –It has too much salt.
One problem with ocean water is that we cannot drink it.
Rivers are important.
Most rivers begin in mountains and end in the oceans.
The water flows from high ground to low ground.
At first rivers are small and are called creeks or streams.
As water enters from other streams, a river grows.
-Where do most rivers end? –In the oceans.
-In which diction do rivers flow? –It flows from high ground to low ground.
Some rivers become very large and long.
The longest river in the world is the Nile River, in Africa.
It’s almost 6500 kilometers long.
As for water volume, the Amazon is the largest river.
The volume of water flowing through it per second is more than in any other river.
-What is the world’s largest river by volume? –The Amazon, in South America.
Another use of rivers is for energy.
The energy of falling water is used to produce electricity.
This use of water supplies over 20% of the world’s electricity.
Rivers are also important for agriculture.
Without water, farmers cannot grow food.
And of course rivers can be used for transportation.
Riverboats are used to carry things to inland cities or lakes.
-How do farmers depend on rivers? –They are needed to grow food.
This man goes running 5 days a week if the weather is good.
On the weekends he runs 10 kilometers unless the weather is bad.
This woman really enjoys reading, especially works of fiction.
She has read hundreds of books.
This young couple enjoys watching old movies, such as Titanic.
They both cried when it sank and many people went down with the ship.
These young boys enjoy playing sports on the weekend.
Sometimes they play basketball and sometimes they play football.
This young man eats too much sweet so he is overweight. He need to eat fewer sweets and exercises more.
He is overweight because he eats too many sweets.
Here are six of the earth’s seven continents.
Asia is the largest continent both in land and in population.
Asia covers 30% of the earth’s land area.
Africa is the second largest continent.
Of all the continent Africa has the youngest population.
Europe is to the west of Asia, and is second smallest continent.
Europe is the birthplace of classical music and some of the world’s greatest art and literature.
North and South America are bordered on the west by the Pacific Ocean and on the east by the Atlantic Ocean.
The first human beings to live in the Americas came from Asia more the 50000 years ago.
Australia is the world’s smallest continent and the world’s largest island.
Australia is surrounded by the Indian and Pacific Oceans.
M1: Hey , look at that.
M2: Look at what?
M1: Look out the window. Do you see the young lady in the red dress?
M2: Yeah, I see her. Wow, she is beautiful and hot. Look at the way she walks.
M1: Yes, no one behind her. Look in the car that’s following her.
M2: I’d rather look at the young lady.
-What does his opinion about the young lady? –He thinks she’s beautiful and hot.
-Where is he supposed to look? –in the car.
M2: So what’s so special about the car?
M1: Look at the driver, do you see one?
M2: No, I don’t. There isn’t anybody driving the car.
M1: Right. It’s one of those new driverless cars.
M2: Maybe it’s the woman’s car. It’s following her.
M1: I don’t know. Maybe you are right.
M2: Now that’s a smart car. Maybe I’ll go outside and follow her too.
M1: Hey, get back to work.
-Who is driving the car? –no one.
-What is the car following? –a young lady.
Answering machine: Thank you for calling our customer support.
Please listen to the following menu to help us direct your call.
Please say or press 1 to pay your bill.
Please say or press 2 to upgrade your service plan.
Please say or press 3 to report a technical problem.
Please say or press 4 if you want to hear this choice again.
Customer: I don’t want any of these choices.
-How does the custom feel? -Angry.
Answering machine: You may also go to our website for help.
Customer: I went to your website but it didn’t help. I want to speak to a human being.
Answering machine: Your business is very important to us.
-How does the custom feel? –Frustrated.
Answering machine: Please say or press 5 or hang up to end this call.
Customer: None of these. I want a human being. I want to cancel my service.
Answering machine: Please wait while we connect you to a service representative.
Customer: Finally. This is what they call customer service?
-What is the custom trying to do? –He wants to cancel his service.
Answering machine: To assist our representative, please say your first and last name.
Customer: Tom Smith.
Answering machine: We hear Tom Smith. If this is correct, say or press 1.
If this is not correct, say or press 2. Customer: 1.
Answering machine: Thank you. For security purpose, what was your father’s middle name?
Customer: he didn’t have a middle name.
Answering machine: Thank you. A customer service representative will be with you shortly.
-Why did they want the custom’s father’s middle name? –To confirm the customer’s identity.
-For security purpose means about the same as? –For safety reasons.
Answering machine: I’m sorry but our offices are closed.
Please call back during business hours.
Our business offices are open Monday through Friday, from 8:00 am until 6:00 pm.
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There are many forms of life on Earth, including human beings.
Life exists in a variety of conditions.
Some forms of life live in a watery environment, like the oceans.
Other forms of life can be found in very dry areas, like deserts.
However, for any form of life to exist, conditions must be right.
When conditions are not right, that form of life will become extinct.
To become extinct means to die out completely.
-What must be right for life to exist?-Conditions.
-What happens if conditions are not right? –Life cannot exist.
Conditions must be right for life to exist.
Millions of years ago, there were forms of life that no longer exist.
When conditions changed, these forms of life died out.
One extinction event happened about 250 million years ago.
This was the largest extinction event of all time.
Many forms of life became extinct.
96% of all life in the oceans died out.
Most insects also became extinct.
This event happened over a period of several million years.
-What happened about 250 million years ago? –Many forms of life became extinct.
-What happens in an extinction event? –Many forms of life became extinct.
The causes of this extinction event are still unknown.
Possible causes include large volcanic eruptions and global warming.
Some scientists believe that there were several causes.
They believe that a series of events caused the extinctions.
Scientists are working to better understand what really happened.
-What is the one possible cause of this event? –Volcanic eruptions.
In modern times, we humans face changing conditions.
For humans to live, we need clean air and clean water.
Pollution is now a growing problem around the world.
Pollution poisons the air and water that we depend on.
Polluted air makes people sick and afraid to go outside. Polluted water poisons our food supply.
As a result, we never know which foods are safe to eat.
Human beings cannot live in a poisoned environment.
Therefore, pollution is a major threat to our existence.
-What do humans need to live? –Clean air and clean water.
-What poisons the air and water? –Pollution.
Humans need temperatures to be in a comfortable range.
To be in a comfortable range means to be neither too hot nor too cold.
With global warming, global temperatures are rising.
As temperatures rise, the polar icecaps will melt.
As the polar ice caps melt, ocean levels will rise.
Areas of some countries will soon be under water.
People will be forced to relocate from flooded areas.
-As temperatures rise, what will happen to the polar icecaps? –The polar icecaps will melt.
-As the polar icecaps melt, what will happen? –Ocean levels will rise.
In nature, even small changes can sometimes have large effects.
It’s difficult to predict what’s going to happen.
The entire ecosystem that we depend on is changing.
Some of these changes are irreversible.
Irreversible changes cannot be undone.
-What can small changes sometimes cause? –Large effects.
-What is happening to the world’s ecosystem? –Ecosystem is changing.
Let’s hope that humans are smart enough to understand how the world is changing.
With more understanding, we can make better choices about what to do.
We can face the challenges of pollution and global warming.
We need to do this before it’s too late.
This planet Earth is our only home and we need to protect it.
-What challenges do we need to face? –Pollution and global warming. We need to protect the environment that supports us.
Mammals are covered by hair or fur, have a backbone, and are warm blooded.
All female mammals produce milk for their young.
Reptiles are covered by scales, and includes snakes, lizards and turtles.
Reptiles have a backbone and are cold blooded, which means they often relied on the external source of heat.
Birds are covered by feathers and are warm blooded.
Most birds can fly and many types of birds migrate great distances.
Most insects such as ants and bees have a small three part of body with three pairs of legs.
Some insects, like mosquitoes, spread diseases that cause the deaths of many humans.
Unlike animals, plants get the energy that they need from the sun.
Plants convert light energy, along with carbon dioxide and water, into chemical energy.
Insects don’t have a backbone and most are cooled-blooded.
Insects such as ants and bees live in well-organized colonies.
Mosquitoes cause the deaths of more humans than any other animal.
Mammals include some of the most intelligent animals on earth, such as elephants and human beings.
Scales and rulers are used to measure weight and length.
Units of weight include kilograms and pounds, and units of length include centimeters and inches.
These instruments are used to observe very large and very small objects.
Telescopes are used to by astronomers and microscopes are used by biologists and doctors.
These appliances are used in the kitchens of almost every home.
Stoves are used to heat food and refrigerators are used to keep foods cool or cold.
Household tools like these are used to build and repair things.
Hammers are used to pound in nails and screwdrivers are used to turn a scow.
If you need to pound in a nail, use a hammer.
W: do you know what day it is today?
M: what do you mean? Is it a special day?
W: oh, so you don’t remember.
M: remember what? What’s so special?
W: it’s our anniversary. We started dating a year ago today.
M: oh, really, I’m sorry.
-When did they first start dating? –A year ago.
M: just a minute. What do you think this is?
W: oh, it’s a necklace.
M: do you like it?
W: yes, I do. It’s lovely, especially the red heart. May I put it on?
M: no, let me do it.
-What did he give her? –A necklace.
W: so you did remember.
M: of course I remembered. It’s a very special day for both of us.
W: I have something for you too.
M: you do?
W: yes, but it will have to wait until later.
M: oh, I can’t wait. Tell me what it is.
-What would have to wait until later? –She’s going to give him a gift.
Do you know what today is?
W: can you guess what it is?
M: could you give me a hint?
W: we went there six month ago.
M: oh, you mean Alfredo’s.
W: yes, are you excited? You said you really like the food there.
M: yes, that’s true. I also remember the dessert. Do you?
W: yes, but let’s not talk about that now. Let’s now ruin the surprise.
-What is Alfredo’s? –A restaurant.
-What aren’t they going to talk about? –They aren’t going to talk about the desert.
He remembered that today is their anniversary
W: That restaurant looks nice.
M: Yes, but it looks expensive.
W: Let’s go in and look the menu. Wow the menu looks great, especially the fish.
M: Yes, it looks good, but look at those prices.
-What doesn’t she like about the menu? –She likes the food choices.
M: Let’s try somewhere else.
W: Sometimes it’s ok to spend a little money.
M: Yes, but these prices are a bit too high, don’t you think?
W: Yes, there are a bit high. But don’t you think I’m worth it? Let’s enjoy ourselves.
M: Ah, ok, if you put it that way. Let’s see if we can get a table.
W: I’m glad you have your credit card.
M: I sure hope the food is good.
W: Stop worrying. Let’s just enjoy.
-Who is going to pay the bill? –He will pay the bill.
-How is he going to pay? –He is going to use his credit card. He is worried about spending so much money.
Quick Serve is a home repair company.
It provides quick, reliable repair services to homes.
Quick Serve handles plumbing and electrical issues, 24 hours a day.
It also cleans roofs, fixes internet connections and replaces broken windows.
For a small fee, customers subscribe to the service.
Its main customers are the elderly, which means older people.
Whenever customers have a problem, they can call for help.
There is also a small service charge for each service call.
-What kind of services does Quick Serve provide? –Home repair services
The company was established 5 years ago and is growing rapidly.
It started in one city but is now in 5 cities.
The company plans to expand to 10 cities within the next 24 months.
In each city there is a small central office in the low-rent area of the city.
The central office handles the business, advertising, payroll and billing.
It also takes calls from customers, either on line or by telephone. It takes calls 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.
-When was the company established? –It started five years ago.
-Where does the company locate its central offices? –They locate in low-rent areas.
60% of the company’s employees work from their homes.
When a customer calls into central office, a service employee is contracted.
The service employee then contracts the customer and signs up an appointment.
These service employees are highly trained and provide excellent service.
In emergencies, such as a serious plumbing problem, service can be provided within an hour.
One reason for this is that the service employees live in different parts of the city.
They are not centrally located so it’s quicker and easier for them to travel to a customer’s home.
-Where do 60% of the company’s employees work? –From their own homes.
Quick Serve has an excellent reputation.
Its prices are reasonable and its services are quick and efficient.
The company’s service employees are clean, polite and efficient.
In this type of business, person to person contact is the key to success.
With each satisfied customer, more customers subscribe.
Satisfied customers recommend Quick Serve to their friends.
This kind of word of mouth advertising is very cost effective.
Cost effective means that the results are good without paying a high price. In other words, quality service provides its own reward to the company.
-What kind of customers recommend Quick Serve to their friends? –Satisfied customers.
-What kind of reputation does the company have? –It has an excellent reputation.
The company takes great pride in being honest with its customers.
There are no hidden charges for their services.
As a result, the number of customers in each city is growing rapidly.
With the aging population there are more elderly people who need home repair services.
These people need to have confidence in the service provider.
They don’t want to be cheated.
These people don’t mind to pay a reasonable fee for high quality service. High quality service should be rewarded.
-What should be rewarded? –High quality service.
-What is the company pride of? –It’s honest with its customers.
The company provides a range of service plans, each with the different subscription plans.
The least expensive service plan is called the basic plan.
This plan provides non-emergency services with a very low service charge.
The most expensive service plan is their VIP plan.
The VIP plan provides emergency services 24 hours a day with no additional service charge.
It also provides rebates to customers who don’t call for any services during the year.
In addition, Quick Serve gives bonus points to customers for each year they subscribe.
These bonus points can be used to buy new appliances such as stoves and refrigerators.
-What kind of service plans does the company provide? –It has a range of plans.
-What can bonus points be used for? –Buying new appliances.
If the business continues to grow, the owners may decide to take the company public.
This means that the public can buy shares of the company.
It will then change from a privately-owned company to a public company.
The owners believe that their business is successful and can expand around the world. They also believe that taking their company public can make them rich.
-Why do the owners want to take their company public? –They can become rich.
Biology is the study of life, including its structure and evolution.
Biologists study how life survives and reproduces.
Chemistry is the study of matter, including the structure of atoms and molecule.
Chemists study how various substances interact with each other.
Astronomy is one of the oldest sciences.
Astronomers study the structure and evolution of the universe, including the study of stars, planets, and galaxies.
Geology is the study of the structure and history of the Earth and the other planets.
Geologists study different types of rocks, earthquakes, and different layers of the Earth.
Mathematic is the study of numbers, shapes, patterns and change. Mathematic is used by all other branches of science.
Here are some types of terrible events that hurt or kill people.
Earthquakes are caused by forces deep within the Earth.
During earthquakes, many people are often killed by collapsing buildings and bridges.
Floods happen when rivers rise and overflow their banks.
Flood waters damage or destroy many houses and businesses.
Fires destroy buildings, land and forests.
There are many causes for fire, including lightning.
In a hurricane, high winds destroy buildings, and sometime cause flooding.
Some hurricanes have winds of more than 200 miles an hour.
Car accidents happen when cars collide, or when drivers lose control of their cars.
One of the main causes of car accidents is driving too fast.
When people are not careful, they can start fires that can cause a lot of damage.
W: What’s in the big box you are carrying?
M: It’s a new desk. I just bought it and now I have to put it together.
W: Do you need any help?
M: No, I don’t think so. I just need to get my tools. I’ll need a screwdriver and maybe a hammer.
W: Don’t forget to read the instructions.
-What does he need? –Some tools.
W: How are things going?
M: I’m almost finished.
W: Something doesn’t look right to me. The right side is higher than the left side.
M: Oh, you are right. It looks like I put a couple of screws into the wrong places.
-What doesn’t look right? –The desk.
W: So now you have to take it apart.
M: Great. And I thought I was almost finished.
W: I told you to read the instructions. Did you read them?
M: No, I didn’t read them. I hate to read instructions. I looked them, but they were confusing.
W: Well, this is what happens when you don’t. You were too impatient. Anyway, what can I do to help you?
M: Would you get another screwdriver and help me unscrew some of these screws?
W: Ok, but next time please read the instructions.
-What didn’t he do? –Read the instructions.
-What was wrong with the instructions? –They were confusing.
W: Do you ever look up at the sky and think about life and universe?
M: I did when I was a kid. But I don’t do that for as much anymore. Why do you ask?
W: Sometimes I feel like I lost in day-to-day details.
Then when I look up at the sky, I see the big picture. I appreciate things more, even the little things.
-What happens when she sees the big picture? –She appreciates things more.
-What doesn’t he do so much anymore? –He doesn’t think about life and universe.
M: You sound like a philosopher or a poet. I felt like that too when I was a kid.
W: Don’t you feel like that anymore?
M: No, I don’t. In fact, I try not to. When I think about things too deeply, I get depressed.
It’s even a bit frightening.
W: Really? For me, it’s just the opposite. Everything seems like a wonderful miracle.
M: Doesn’t that frighten you a bit? The universe is so large and we are so small.
-What happens when he thinks too deeply? –He gets depressed.
W: What I realize is how little we understand. We just need to appreciate our lives and not get lost.
M: Sometimes being lost isn’t so bad. Do you the expression, ignorance is bliss?
W: Sure, I’ve heard it many times. To be ignorant is to be happy.
-What does the word bliss mean? –Complete happiness.
-What does she realize? –There is a lot that we don’t understand.
M: Maybe it’s true. Maybe it’s best not to think or know too much.
W: No, that’s not for me. I want to understand as much as possible. That’s why I became a scientist.
M: Well, I respect your choice, but it’s not for me. If understanding is painful, I’d rather not understand.
-Why does she become a scientist? –She wants to understand as much as possible. -What doesn’t he agree with? –Her choice.
Harry is on a business trip.
Yesterday he was supposed to fly from San Francisco to Shanghai.
However, things didn’t turn out the way they were supposed to.
In fact, nothing went the way it was supposed to.
Everything went wrong and he didn’t get on his flight.
As a result, he is still in San Francisco.
-What was he supposed to do yesterday? –Fly to Shanghai.
-When was Harry supposed to fly to Shanghai? –Yesterday.
The following is the summary of what happened.
Yesterday morning he got up as usual and had breakfast.
Everything seemed to be fine and he was looking forward to the trip.
He was just about to check out of his hotel when he felt a pain.
It was a pain in his lower back.
It was a doll pain at first, not too bad.
So he didn’t worry about it and he checked out of the hotel.
Then he got on a shuttle bus to the airport.
-Where was the pain located? –It was a pain in his lower back.
-Why didn’t he worry about the pain? –It wasn’t too bad at first.
About half way to the airport, the pain in his back started to get worse.
It was a growing pain, and he was beginning to worry.
Soon it was difficult for him to sit in the seat.
The pain was getting worse.
He wanted to lie down.
He started to sweat and breathe quickly.
He was in real pain then.
On a scale of 1 to 10, the pain was an 8.
-How was the pain changing? –It was getting worse.
-Why did he want to lie down? –It was difficult for him to sit in the seat.
When the bus got to the airport the bus driver helped him get off.
It was difficult for him to walk but he finally made it to the terminal.
Inside the terminal he went to the man’s bath room. He went to the toilet but that didn’t help.
Instead of improving he felt dizzy and he threw up.
By now he was wet for all the sweating.
He knew he couldn’t get on his flight.
-How did he feel after he went to the toilet? –He felt dizzy and sick.
-Where did he go once he got inside the terminal? –He went to the men’s bathroom.
He used his phone to call the airline.
He explained the situation and cancelled his reservation.
Then he called 911 for emergency help.
911 is the emergency number to call for help in the United State.
-What did he do to his reservation? –He cancelled it.
-Why did he call 911? –He called 911 for emergency help.
An ambulance arrived about 10 minutes after he called.
By then he was in so much pain that he could barely walk.
Once inside the ambulance they gave him oxygen to help him breathe.
But the pain was still terrible.
Then they drove him into a hospital near the airport.
Luckily the hospital was on his health plan.
That means his health insurance is supposed to pay for everything.
Medical costs in the United States are very high.
-Who was supposed to pay for his medicine care? –His health insurance company.
-What did they give him inside the ambulance? –They gave him oxygen to help him breathe.
When he arrived at the hospital he was taken into the emergency room.
After some test a doctor told him he had a kidney stone.
It was a very small stone but it caused a lot of pain.
It was passing through a small turbine his body from his kidney to his bladder.
The pain would go away once it got to his bladder.
Until then he had to get pain medicine to reduce the pain.
-Where was he taken when he got to the hospital? –He was taken to the emergency room.
-What did he take to control his pain? –Some pain medicine.
Harry didn’t have to stay at the hospital for very long.
With the pain medicine the pain went away very quickly.
He took a taxi back to his hotel and checked in for another night.
Then he called the airline and made reservation for another flight.
The flight will leave tomorrow.
Until then he’ll just rest in his hotel.
There may even be a good movie to watch.
-Where will he be until his next flight? –He’ll stay in his hotel.
-What is he going to do until his next flight? –He is going to have some rest.
So when you are travelling, please be prepared for emergencies.
Make sure you have medicine insurance.
You never know when something like this can happen to you.
So be prepared.
-What should you have before travelling? –Medicine insurance. It’s a good idea to have medicine insurance before travelling.
Solar energy is one of the cleanest and most plentiful sources of energy.
Solar power depends on sunlight, so in cloudy weather and at night, no power is generated.
Wind energy is nonpolluting but is only useful in place where there is a lot of wind.
Wind turbines convert the kinetic energy of the wind into mechanical power.
Nuclear energy is efficient and doesn’t produce carbon gases as a waste product.
The dangers of nuclear power include deadly radioactive waste products.
A major source of energy comes from the burning of fossil fuels, such as coal and oil.
When we burn fossil fuels, waste gases such as CO2 are produced.
Fossil fuels remain the largest source of energy for most countries.
Hydropower comes from the kinetic energy of falling water.
Output is reliable and can be regulated to meet the demand, except during the periods of drought.
One of the main problems we face is how to reduce the use of the fossil fuels to produce energy.
We need to reduce the use of the fossil fuels to produce energy. Dams are expensive to build and affect wildlife such as fish.
Here are some different types of words in English.
Words that are nouns or pronouns are used to represent objects.
A noun or a pronoun can be a person, an animal or a thing, including an idea.
Verbs are used to express actions, such as to sit down, or stand up.
We also use verbs to express relationships, such as to love someone or to own something.
We used adjectives to describe objects, such as a tall building.
Adjectives are used with nouns and pronouns, but not with verbs.
We use adverbs to describe actions, such as to run fast or walk slowly.
Adverbs express the quality of an action, such as how well or poorly something is done.
We use conjunctions to connect things or actions, such as to read and write.
Conjunctions include words such as and, or, because, but, and yet.
Nouns and pronouns can be used to represent any object.
W: Hey, I’ve got some news, some good news and some bad news.
M: OK, give me the bad news first.
W: We are moving to a new office.
M: When is this going to happen?
W: We are supposed to move at the end of next month.
M: How far away is the new office?
W: We are not sure yet. But it will mean a longer commute for most of us.
The new office will probably be on the other side of the city.
M: The commute is already too long for me and I’m not going to change flats. We just bought one.
-What did he just but? –He just bought a new flat.
-How is the move going to affect the commute? –It’ll make the commute longer for most of the employees.
M: Anyway, what’s the good news?
W: The good news is that we are going to expand.
The company is growing so we are going to hire more people.
M: Well, I’ve got some news for you too.
W: I hope it’s a good news.
M: Well, that depends on your point of view. I’m planning to start my own business.
W: Why? I thought you were happy working here.
M: I like the work, but I’m not learning anything new. I think I can do better on my own.
-Why is the company going to hire more people? –The company is growing.
M: I was planning to wait a few months. But now that the office is moving, I’m ready to make the change.
W: What is your wife think?
M: She’s in fever of it and she will help me. She’s already designing a website.
We’ll work from home at first.
W: So you really are serious about this? You’re taking a big risk. Most new businesses fail.
M: Yes, I know, but if I don’t do it now, I never will. I’m tired of working for others.
W: I know what you mean.
-What does his wife think his decision? –She’s in favor of it.
-What is he serious about? –He is serious about starting his own business.
M: Don’t tell anyone about this, OK? It’s still a secret.
W: Sure, I won’t say anything to anybody. I’m sure this will come as a surprise to everyone.
M: I’m sure changing offices will also come as a surprise to people.
This is exactly why I want to work on my own. I don’t like these kinds of surprises.
W: You are right about that. When are you going to let people know?
M: I’ll make the announcement at the beginning of next month.
-What is a secret? –His decision to leave the company.
-When is he going to let people know about his decision to leave? –He’ll announce his decision at the beginning of next month.
Leonardo Da Vinci is one of the greatest geniuses of all time.
He was a painter, an architect, an engineer and a scientist.
He was born in Vinci, Italy in 1452.
Vinci is a town just outside the great Italian city, Florence.
His name Da Vinci means of Vinci.
Leonardo’s father was a lawyer and a landowner and his mother was a present.
Leonardo’s parents were never married to each other.
-How long were his parents married? –They were never married.
-Where was he born? –In Vinci, Italy.
Leonardo lived with his mother until he was around 5 years old.
When he was 5, he moved into the home of his father.
By then, his father had married a 16-year-old girl.
Leonardo’s mother married another man and moved to another town.
She had many more children after that, with several different men.
In the end, Leonardo had more than 15 half-sisters and brothers.
-With whom did he live when he was 5? –His mother.
As a young man, Da Vinci didn’t go to school.
He was educated at home in reading, writing and mathematics.
In other subjects, he was mostly self-educated.
He had access to books at his father’s home.
Leonardo spent a lot of time outdoors and developed a strong interest in nature.
He loved to observe things, especially birds.
He was also interested in the properties of water.
-What did he have access to at home? –Books at his father’s home.
-In what did he develop a strong interest? –He developed a strong interest in nature.
Leonardo’s early drawings and paintings demonstrated a rare talent.
His father and his father’s friend recognized his talent and encouraged him.
When he was 15, he was sent to Florence.
In Florence, he became an apprentice to a famous master painter.
For the next few years Leonardo worked at his master’s workshop.
It wasn’t long before his ability surpassed that of his master.
Some people say that his master became jealous about Leonardo’s greatest talent.
They say that the master vowed to never paint again.
In 1478, with his father’s help, Leonardo set up his own workshop.
-Who became jealous with Leonardo’s talent? –His master in Florence.
In 1482, he entered the service of a powerful man in the city of Milan.
This man was the duke of Milan.
For the next few years, Leonardo designed buildings, machinery and weapons of war.
Weapons were important because Italy was constantly at war during this period.
From 1485 to 1490, Leonardo produced designs for a variety of weapons.
In his notes, he predicted the development of advanced weapons such as submarines and flying machines. In 1499, the French invaded Italy, and Leonardo left Milan.
-Why did Leonardo live Milan? –The French invaded Italy.
-Who did Leonardo work for in Milan? –He worked for the duke of Milan.
All together Leonardo spent 17 years in Milan.
During this period he spent much of his time studying in nature.
He dissected bodies, both human and animal, to study an illustrate anatomy.
His detailed illustrations are masterpieces.
Leonardo filled many notebooks with drawings and ideas.
He wrote backwards so you need a mirror to read them.
-Why do you need a mirror to read his notebooks? –He wrote backwards. He left Milan because the French invaded Italy.
After 1500, Leonardo spent time in a number of Italian cities.
He worked very slowly and the range of his interests was very wide.
As a result Leonardo left many paintings and projects unfinished.
One painting that he did finish was the Mona Lisa, one of the world’s most famous paintings.
People are still interested in this painting, 500 years after he painted it.
Though there are many theories nobody knows who the woman in the painting really was.
-Why did Leonardo leave so many projects unfinished? –He worked slowly and had a wide range of interests.
-Who was the woman in the painting? –Nobody knows for sure.
In 1516, Leonardo left Italy for good when the French King, Francis I (the first), offered him a position.
There he had a freedom to paint and draw whatever he wanted.
Leonardo died in 1519 at the age of 67.
Some said that the French king who had become a close friend was with him when he died.
He was buried in the church which was destroyed during the French revolution.
The exact location of his remains is unknown.
-How old was he when he died? –He died at the age of 67.
-Who offered Leonardo a position in 1516? –The king of France.
Waste water and carbon gases from farm animals are bad for the environment.
Animals waste and other chemicals flow into the ground and pollute water supplies.
Exhaust gases from automobiles are a major cause of air pollution and global warming.
As a result many companies are trying to produce more efficient and cleaner cars.
Pesticides and fertilizers are used by farmers to grow crops such as fruits and vegetables.
These chemicals pollute water supplies when they flow into the ground or rivers.
Factories like this one allow harmful chemicals to get into the air or water.
Companies need to try harder to protect the environment and our health.
Nuclear waste products are radioactive and can pollute the environment for thousands of years. They need to be safely transported and stored in a safe place.
Nuclear waste products need to be stored in a safe place.
The British writer, Jane Austin, was born in England in 1775, one of seven children.
She wrote some of the most popular love stories of all time.
One of the most famous female rulers in history, Cleopatra had affairs with Julius Caesar and later with Mark Antony.
She was known for her great beauty and charming voice.
Born in 1756, Mozart composed and performed some of the world’s greatest classical music.
He was the youngest of 7 children and by the age of 5, he was already composing music.
The sun of the king, Alexander the great, was the military leader who created one of the largest empires in the ancient world.
As a youth, Alexander was taught by the Greek philosopher Aristotle.
Mohandas Gandy was a 20th century leader who used non-violent resistance to lead India to independence. Gandy dedicated his life to the pursuit of truth.
Mozart started writing music as a young child.
M: I’d like to speak with Mr. Bennett, please.
W: I’m sorry, but he’s not here right now. Would you like to leave a voice message?
M: It’s urgent that I speak with him. It’s an emergency.
W: Oh, I see. What kind of emergency?
M: It’s very personal so I can’t give you any details.
-What does the word urgent mean? –Need quick attention.
-Why doesn’t he want to leave a voice message? –It’s an urgent matter.
W: Without any details I’m afraid I can’t give you his number.
Give me your number and I’ll let him know about your call.
Then maybe he’ll call you back, would that be okay?
M: Sure, my number is 5834987. It would be great if he could call me within the next half hour.
-Why doesn’t she give out Mr. Bennett’s number? –She needs more details.
M1: That was a great dinner. Here, put away your wallet, I’ll the bill.
M2: You paid last time, this time is my turn to pay.
M1: Hey, you don’t have a job, and I do, let me pay.
M2: Thanks for the offer, but I can handle it.
-Why does he want to pay? –It’s his turn to pay.
M1: Wait, let’s flip for it.
M2: Flip for it? What does that mean?
M1: Do you see this corn? This side is heads and the opposite is tails. I’ll flip up in the air.
If it comes down with heads facing up, I’ll pay. If tails are the up, you can pay.
M2: OK, that’s fine with me.
-How are they going to decide who is going to pay? –They are going to flip a corn.
M1: Look, it’s heads up, so I’ll pay.
M2: Thanks, it’s very nice of you.
M1: It’s my pleasure.
W: Do you want anything else, Sir? Would you like to see the desserts menu?
M: No, thanks, I’m ready for the check. Here is my credit card.
W: I’m sorry, Sir, but we don’t take credit cards.
M: You’re joking, right?
W: No, sir. I’m not joking. Do you see that sign? It says cash only.
M: I didn’t see it when I came in. I don’t have enough cash to pay the bill.
-How did he plan to pay? –He planned to pay by credit card.
-Why can’t he pay? –He doesn’t have enough cash.
W: There is a bank down the street.
If you let me hold your driver’s license, you can go and get the cash.
M: OK, I hope the bank is open.
W: The bank is closed, but you can use the ATM to get your cash.
-Where can he get the cash? –He can get the cash at an ATM down the street. He has to leave his driver’s license with the waiter.
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How To Become A Hacker2012-11-13 23:01:14(You also have to develop a kind of faith in your own learningcapacity — a belief that even though you may not know all of what youneed to solve a problem, if you tackle just a piece of it and learn...
How To Become A Hacker
Copyright © 2001 Eric S. Raymond
Revision History Revision 1.44 20 May 2012 esr Updated the critique of Java. Revision 1.43 07 Feb 2011 esr Python passed Perl in popularity in 2010. Revision 1.42 22 Oct 2010 esr Added "Historical note". Revision 1.40 3 Nov 2008 esr Link fixes. Revision 1.39 14 Aug Jan 2008 esr Link fixes. Revision 1.38 8 Jan 2008 esr Deprecate Java as a language to learn early. Revision 1.37 4 Oct 2007 esr Recommend Ubuntu as a Unix distro for newbies.
Table of Contents
Why This Document?
What Is a Hacker?
The Hacker Attitude
- Basic Hacking Skills
- Status in the Hacker Culture
- The Hacker/Nerd Connection Points For Style Historical Note: Hacking, Open Source,and Free Software Other Resources Frequently Asked Questions
Why This Document?
As editor of the JargonFile and author of a few other well-known documents of similarnature, I often get email requests from enthusiastic network newbiesasking (in effect) "how can I learn to be a wizardly hacker?". Back in1996 I noticed that there didn't seem to be any other FAQs or webdocuments that addressed this vital question, so I started thisone. A lot of hackers now consider it definitive, and I suppose that means it is. Still, I don't claim to be the exclusiveauthority on this topic; if you don't like what you read here, writeyour own.
If you are reading a snapshot of this document offline, thecurrent version lives at http://catb.org/~esr/faqs/hacker-howto.html.
Note: there is a list of Frequently AskedQuestions at the end of this document. Please readthese—twice—before mailing me any questions about thisdocument.
Numerous translations of this document are available:ArabicBelorussianChinese (Simplified),Danish,Dutch,Estonian,German,GreekItalianHebrew,Norwegian,Portuguese(Brazilian),RomanianSpanish,Turkish,Ukrainian,and Swedish.Note that since this document changes occasionally, they may be out ofdate to varying degrees.
The five-dots-in-nine-squares diagram that decorates thisdocument is called a glider. It is a simplepattern with some surprising properties in a mathematical simulationcalled Lifethat has fascinated hackers for many years. I think it makes a goodvisual emblem for what hackers are like — abstract, at first abit mysterious-seeming, but a gateway to a whole world with anintricate logic of its own. Read more about the glider emblem here.
What Is a Hacker?
The JargonFile contains a bunch of definitions of the term ‘hacker’,most having to do with technical adeptness and a delight in solvingproblems and overcoming limits. If you want to know how tobecome a hacker, though, only two are reallyrelevant.
There is a community, a shared culture, of expert programmers andnetworking wizards that traces its history back through decades to thefirst time-sharing minicomputers and the earliest ARPAnet experiments.The members of this culture originated the term ‘hacker’. Hackersbuilt the Internet. Hackers made the Unix operating system what it istoday. Hackers run Usenet. Hackers make the World Wide Web work. Ifyou are part of this culture, if you have contributed to it and otherpeople in it know who you are and call you a hacker, you're ahacker.
The hacker mind-set is not confined to this software-hackerculture. There are people who apply the hacker attitude to otherthings, like electronics or music — actually, you can find it atthe highest levels of any science or art. Software hackers recognizethese kindred spirits elsewhere and may call them‘hackers’ too — and some claim that the hackernature is really independent of the particular medium the hacker worksin. But in the rest of this document we will focus on the skills andattitudes of software hackers, and the traditions of the sharedculture that originated the term ‘hacker’.
There is another group of people who loudly call themselveshackers, but aren't. These are people (mainly adolescent males) whoget a kick out of breaking into computers and phreaking the phonesystem. Real hackers call these people ‘crackers’ andwant nothing to do with them. Real hackers mostly think crackers arelazy, irresponsible, and not very bright, and object that being ableto break security doesn't make you a hacker any more than being ableto hotwire cars makes you an automotive engineer. Unfortunately, manyjournalists and writers have been fooled into using the word‘hacker’ to describe crackers; this irritates real hackersno end.
The basic difference is this: hackers build things, crackersbreak them.
If you want to be a hacker, keep reading. If you want to be a cracker,go read the alt.2600 newsgroup and getready to do five to ten in the slammer after finding out you aren't assmart as you think you are. And that's all I'm going to say aboutcrackers.
The Hacker Attitude
Hackers solve problems and build things, and they believe in freedomand voluntary mutual help. To be accepted as a hacker, you have tobehave as though you have this kind of attitude yourself. And tobehave as though you have the attitude, you have to really believe theattitude.
But if you think of cultivating hacker attitudes as just a wayto gain acceptance in the culture, you'll miss the point. Becomingthe kind of person who believes these things is important foryou — for helping you learn and keeping youmotivated. As with all creative arts, the most effective way tobecome a master is to imitate the mind-set of masters — not justintellectually but emotionally as well.
Or, as the following modern Zen poem has it:
To follow the path:
look to the master,
follow the master,
walk with the master,
see through the master,
become the master.
So, if you want to be a hacker, repeat the following things untilyou believe them:
1. The world is full of fascinating problems waiting to be solved.
Being a hacker is lots of fun, but it's a kind of fun that takeslots of effort. The effort takes motivation. Successful athletes gettheir motivation from a kind of physical delight in making theirbodies perform, in pushing themselves past their own physical limits.Similarly, to be a hacker you have to get a basic thrill from solvingproblems, sharpening your skills, and exercising yourintelligence.
If you aren't the kind of person that feels this way naturally, you'llneed to become one in order to make it as a hacker. Otherwise you'llfind your hacking energy is sapped by distractions like sex, money, andsocial approval.
(You also have to develop a kind of faith in your own learningcapacity — a belief that even though you may not know all of what youneed to solve a problem, if you tackle just a piece of it and learnfrom that, you'll learn enough to solve the next piece — and so on,until you're done.)
2. No problem should ever have to be solved twice.
Creative brains are a valuable, limited resource. They shouldn't bewasted on re-inventing the wheel when there are so many fascinatingnew problems waiting out there.
To behave like a hacker, you have to believe that the thinking time ofother hackers is precious — so much so that it's almost a moral dutyfor you to share information, solve problems and then give thesolutions away just so other hackers can solve newproblems instead of having to perpetually re-address old ones.
Note, however, that "No problem should ever have to be solvedtwice." does not imply that you have to consider all existingsolutions sacred, or that there is only one right solution to anygiven problem. Often, we learn a lot about the problem that we didn'tknow before by studying the first cut at a solution. It's OK, andoften necessary, to decide that we can do better. What's not OK isartificial technical, legal, or institutional barriers (likeclosed-source code) that prevent a good solution from being re-usedand force people to re-invent wheels.
(You don't have to believe that you're obligated to giveall your creative product away, though thehackers that do are the ones that get most respect from other hackers.It's consistent with hacker values to sell enough of it to keep you infood and rent and computers. It's fine to use your hacking skills tosupport a family or even get rich, as long as you don't forget yourloyalty to your art and your fellow hackers while doing it.)
3. Boredom and drudgery are evil.
Hackers (and creative people in general) should never be bored or haveto drudge at stupid repetitive work, because when this happens itmeans they aren't doing what only they can do — solve new problems.This wastefulness hurts everybody. Therefore boredom and drudgery arenot just unpleasant but actually evil.
To behave like a hacker, you have to believe this enough to want toautomate away the boring bits as much as possible, not just foryourself but for everybody else (especially other hackers).
(There is one apparent exception to this. Hackers willsometimes do things that may seem repetitive or boring to an observeras a mind-clearing exercise, or in order to acquire a skill or havesome particular kind of experience you can't have otherwise. But thisis by choice — nobody who can think should ever be forced into asituation that bores them.)
4. Freedom is good.
Hackers are naturally anti-authoritarian. Anyone who can give youorders can stop you from solving whatever problem you're beingfascinated by — and, given the way authoritarian minds work, willgenerally find some appallingly stupid reason to do so. So theauthoritarian attitude has to be fought wherever you find it, lestit smother you and other hackers.
(This isn't the same as fighting all authority. Children need to beguided and criminals restrained. A hacker may agree to accept somekinds of authority in order to get something he wants more than thetime he spends following orders. But that's a limited, consciousbargain; the kind of personal surrender authoritarians want is not onoffer.)
Authoritarians thrive on censorship and secrecy. And theydistrust voluntary cooperation and information-sharing — theyonly like ‘cooperation’ that they control. So to behavelike a hacker, you have to develop an instinctive hostility tocensorship, secrecy, and the use of force or deception to compelresponsible adults. And you have to be willing to act on thatbelief.
5. Attitude is no substitute for competence.
To be a hacker, you have to develop some of these attitudes. Butcopping an attitude alone won't make you a hacker, any more than itwill make you a champion athlete or a rock star. Becoming a hackerwill take intelligence, practice, dedication, and hard work.
Therefore, you have to learn to distrust attitude and respectcompetence of every kind. Hackers won't let posers waste their time,but they worship competence — especially competence at hacking, butcompetence at anything is valued. Competence at demanding skills thatfew can master is especially good, and competence at demanding skillsthat involve mental acuteness, craft, and concentration is best.
If you revere competence, you'll enjoy developing it in yourself— the hard work and dedication will become a kind of intense playrather than drudgery. That attitude is vital to becoming ahacker.
Basic Hacking Skills
The hacker attitude is vital, but skills are even more vital.Attitude is no substitute for competence, and there's a certain basictoolkit of skills which you have to have before any hacker will dreamof calling you one.
This toolkit changes slowly over time as technology creates new skillsand makes old ones obsolete. For example, it used to include programmingin machine language, and didn't until recently involve HTML. Butright now it pretty clearly includes the following:
1. Learn how to program.
This, of course, is the fundamental hacking skill. If you don'tknow any computer languages, I recommend starting with Python. It iscleanly designed, well documented, and relatively kind to beginners.Despite being a good first language, it is not just a toy; it is verypowerful and flexible and well suited for large projects. I havewritten a more detailed evaluationof Python. Good tutorials are available at the Python web site.
I used to recommend Java as a good language to learn early, butthiscritique has changed my mind (search for “The Pitfalls ofJava as a First Programming Language” within it). A hackercannot, as they devastatingly put it “approach problem-solvinglike a plumber in a hardware store”; you have to know what thecomponents actually do. Now I think it isprobably best to learn C and Lisp first, then Java.
There is perhaps a more general point here. If a language does toomuch for you, it may be simultaneously a good tool for production anda bad one for learning. It's not only languages that have thisproblem; web application frameworks like RubyOnRails, CakePHP, Djangomay make it too easy to reach a superficial sort of understanding thatwill leave you without resources when you have to tackle a hardproblem, or even just debug the solution to an easy one.
If you get into serious programming, you will have to learn C,the core language of Unix. C++ is very closely related to C; if youknow one, learning the other will not be difficult. Neither languageis a good one to try learning as your first, however. And, actually,the more you can avoid programming in C the more productive you willbe.
C is very efficient, and very sparing of your machine'sresources. Unfortunately, C gets that efficiency by requiring you todo a lot of low-level management of resources (like memory) by hand.All that low-level code is complex and bug-prone, and will soak uphuge amounts of your time on debugging. With today's machines aspowerful as they are, this is usually a bad tradeoff — it's smarterto use a language that uses the machine's time less efficiently, butyour time much more efficiently. Thus, Python.
Other languages of particular importance to hackers includePerl and LISP. Perl is worthlearning for practical reasons; it's very widely used for active webpages and system administration, so that even if you never write Perlyou should learn to read it. Many people use Perl in the way I suggest you should use Python, to avoid C programming on jobs thatdon't require C's machine efficiency. You will need to be ableto understand their code.
LISP is worth learning for a different reason — theprofound enlightenment experience you will have when you finally getit. That experience will make you a better programmer for the rest ofyour days, even if you never actually use LISP itself a lot. (You canget some beginning experience with LISP fairly easily by writing andmodifying editing modes for the Emacs text editor, or Script-Fuplugins for the GIMP.)
It's best, actually, to learn all five of Python, C/C++, Java,Perl, and LISP. Besides being the most important hacking languages,they represent very different approaches to programming, and each willeducate you in valuable ways.
But be aware that you won't reach the skill level of a hacker oreven merely a programmer simply by accumulating languages — youneed to learn how to think about programming problems in a generalway, independent of any one language. To be a real hacker, you needto get to the point where you can learn a new language in days byrelating what's in the manual to what you already know. This meansyou should learn several very different languages.
I can't give complete instructions on how to learn to programhere — it's a complex skill. But I can tell you that books andcourses won't do it — many, maybe most of the besthackers are self-taught. You can learn language features — bits ofknowledge — from books, but the mind-set that makes that knowledgeinto living skill can be learned only by practice and apprenticeship.What will do it is (a) reading code and (b)writing code.
Peter Norvig, who is one of Google's top hackers and theco-author of the most widely used textbook on AI, has written anexcellent essay called Teach Yourself Programming inTen Years. His "recipe for programming success" is worthcareful attention.
Learning to program is like learning to write good natural language.The best way to do it is to read some stuff written by masters of theform, write some things yourself, read a lot more, write a littlemore, read a lot more, write some more ... and repeat until yourwriting begins to develop the kind of strength and economy you see inyour models.
Finding good code to read used to be hard, because there were fewlarge programs available in source for fledgeling hackers to read andtinker with. This has changed dramatically; open-source software,programming tools, and operating systems (all built by hackers) arenow widely available. Which brings me neatly to our next topic...
2. Get one of the open-source Unixes and learn to use and run it.
I'll assume you have a personal computer or can get access toone. (Take a moment to appreciate how much that means. The hackerculture originally evolved back when computers were so expensive thatindividuals could not own them.) The single most important step anynewbie can take toward acquiring hacker skills is to get a copy ofLinux or one of the BSD-Unixes or OpenSolaris, install it on apersonal machine, and run it.
Yes, there are other operating systems in the world besidesUnix. But they're distributed in binary — you can't read thecode, and you can't modify it. Trying to learn to hack on a MicrosoftWindows machine or under any other closed-source system is like tryingto learn to dance while wearing a body cast.
Under Mac OS X it's possible, but only part of the system is opensource — you're likely to hit a lot of walls, and you have to becareful not to develop the bad habit of depending on Apple'sproprietary code. If you concentrate on the Unix under the hoodyou can learn some useful things.
Unix is the operating system of the Internet. While you canlearn to use the Internet without knowing Unix, you can't be anInternet hacker without understanding Unix. For this reason, the hackerculture today is pretty strongly Unix-centered. (This wasn't alwaystrue, and some old-time hackers still aren't happy about it, but thesymbiosis between Unix and the Internet has become strong enough thateven Microsoft's muscle doesn't seem able to seriously dent it.)
So, bring up a Unix — I like Linux myself but there are otherways (and yes, you can run both Linux andMicrosoft Windows on the same machine). Learn it. Run it. Tinker with it.Talk to the Internet with it. Read the code. Modify the code.You'll get better programming tools (including C, LISP, Python, andPerl) than any Microsoft operating system can dream of hosting, you'llhave fun, and you'll soak up more knowledge than you realize you'relearning until you look back on it as a master hacker.
To get your hands on a Linux, see the Linux Online! site; you candownload from there or (better idea) find a local Linux user group tohelp you with installation.
During the first ten years of this HOWTO's life, I reported thatfrom a new user's point of view, all Linux distributions are almostequivalent. But in 2006-2007, an actual best choice emerged: Ubuntu. While other distros havetheir own areas of strength, Ubuntu is far and away the mostaccessible to Linux newbies.
You can find BSD Unix help and resources at www.bsd.org.
A good way to dip your toes in the water is to boot up whatLinux fans call a liveCD, a distribution that runs entirely off a CD without havingto modify your hard disk. This will be slow, because CDs are slow,but it's a way to get a look at the possibilities without havingto do anything drastic.
I have written a primer on the basicsof Unix and the Internet.
I used to recommend against installing either Linux or BSD as asolo project if you're a newbie. Nowadays the installers have gottengood enough that doing it entirely on your own is possible, even for anewbie. Nevertheless, I still recommend making contact with your localLinux user's group and asking for help. It can't hurt, andmay smooth the process.
3. Learn how to use the World Wide Web and write HTML.
Most of the things the hacker culture has built do their workout of sight, helping run factories and offices and universitieswithout any obvious impact on how non-hackers live. The Web is theone big exception, the huge shiny hacker toy that evenpoliticians admit has changed the world. Forthis reason alone (and a lot of other good ones as well) you need tolearn how to work the Web.
This doesn't just mean learning how to drive a browser (anyone can dothat), but learning how to write HTML, the Web's markup language. Ifyou don't know how to program, writing HTML will teach you somemental habits that will help you learn. So build a home page.Try to stick to XHTML, which is a cleaner language than classic HTML.(There are good beginner tutorials on the Web;here's one.)
But just having a home page isn't anywhere near good enough tomake you a hacker. The Web is full of home pages. Most of them arepointless, zero-content sludge — very snazzy-looking sludge, mindyou, but sludge all the same (for more on this see The HTML HellPage).
To be worthwhile, your page must havecontent — it must be interesting and/or usefulto other hackers. And that brings us to the next topic...
4. If you don't have functional English, learn it.
As an American and native English-speaker myself, I havepreviously been reluctant to suggest this, lest it be taken as a sortof cultural imperialism. But several native speakers of otherlanguages have urged me to point out that English is the workinglanguage of the hacker culture and the Internet, and that you will need to know it to function in the hacker community.
Back around 1991 I learned that many hackers who have English asa second language use it in technical discussions even when they sharea birth tongue; it was reported to me at the time that English has aricher technical vocabulary than any other language and is thereforesimply a better tool for the job. For similar reasons, translationsof technical books written in English are often unsatisfactory (whenthey get done at all).
Linus Torvalds, a Finn, comments his code in English (itapparently never occurred to him to do otherwise). His fluencyin English has been an important factor in his ability to recruita worldwide community of developers for Linux. It's an example worthfollowing.
Being a native English-speaker does not guarantee that you havelanguage skills good enough to function as a hacker. If your writingis semi-literate, ungrammatical, and riddled with misspellings,many hackers (including myself) will tend to ignore you. While sloppywriting does not invariably mean sloppy thinking, we've generallyfound the correlation to be strong — and we have no use forsloppy thinkers. If you can't yet write competently, learn to.
Status in the Hacker Culture
Like most cultures without a money economy, hackerdom runs onreputation. You're trying to solve interesting problems, but howinteresting they are, and whether your solutions are really good, issomething that only your technical peers or superiors are normallyequipped to judge.
Accordingly, when you play the hacker game, you learn to keepscore primarily by what other hackers think of your skill (this is whyyou aren't really a hacker until other hackers consistently call youone). This fact is obscured by the image of hacking as solitary work;also by a hacker-cultural taboo (gradually decaying since the late1990s but still potent) against admitting that ego or externalvalidation are involved in one's motivation at all.
Specifically, hackerdom is what anthropologists call a giftculture. You gain status and reputation in it not by dominatingother people, nor by being beautiful, nor by having things otherpeople want, but rather by giving things away. Specifically, bygiving away your time, your creativity, and the results of yourskill.
There are basically five kinds of things you can do to be respected byhackers:
1. Write open-source software
The first (the most central and most traditional) is to writeprograms that other hackers think are fun or useful, and give theprogram sources away to the whole hacker culture to use.
(We used to call these works “free software”, but thisconfused too many people who weren't sure exactly what “free” wassupposed to mean. Most of us now prefer the term “open-source”software).
Hackerdom's most revered demigods are people who have written large,capable programs that met a widespread need and given them away, sothat now everyone uses them.
But there's a bit of a fine historical point here. Whilehackers have always looked up to the open-source developers among themas our community's hardest core, before the mid-1990s most hackersmost of the time worked on closed source. This was still true when Iwrote the first version of this HOWTO in 1996; it took themainstreaming of open-source software after 1997 to change things.Today, "the hacker community" and "open-source developers" are twodescriptions for what is essentially the same culture and population— but it is worth remembering that this was not alwaysso. (For more on this, see the section called “Historical Note: Hacking, Open Source,and Free Software”.)
2. Help test and debug open-source software
They also serve who stand and debug open-source software. Inthis imperfect world, we will inevitably spend most of our softwaredevelopment time in the debugging phase. That's why any open-sourceauthor who's thinking will tell you that good beta-testers (who knowhow to describe symptoms clearly, localize problems well, can toleratebugs in a quickie release, and are willing to apply a few simplediagnostic routines) are worth their weight in rubies. Even one ofthese can make the difference between a debugging phase that's aprotracted, exhausting nightmare and one that's merely a salutarynuisance.
If you're a newbie, try to find a program under development thatyou're interested in and be a good beta-tester. There's a naturalprogression from helping test programs to helping debug them tohelping modify them. You'll learn a lot this way, and generategood karma with people who will help you later on.
3. Publish useful information
Another good thing is to collect and filter useful andinteresting information into web pages or documents like Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) lists, and make those generallyavailable.
Maintainers of major technical FAQs get almost as much respect asopen-source authors.
4. Help keep the infrastructure working
The hacker culture (and the engineering development of theInternet, for that matter) is run by volunteers. There's a lot ofnecessary but unglamorous work that needs done to keep itgoing — administering mailing lists, moderating newsgroups,maintaining large software archive sites, developing RFCs and othertechnical standards.
People who do this sort of thing well get a lot of respect, becauseeverybody knows these jobs are huge time sinks and not as much fun asplaying with code. Doing them shows dedication.
5. Serve the hacker culture itself
Finally, you can serve and propagate the culture itself (by, forexample, writing an accurate primer on how to become a hacker :-)).This is not something you'll be positioned to do until you've beenaround for while and become well-known for one of the first fourthings.
The hacker culture doesn't have leaders, exactly, but it does haveculture heroes and tribal elders and historians and spokespeople.When you've been in the trenches long enough, you may grow into one ofthese. Beware: hackers distrust blatant ego in their tribal elders,so visibly reaching for this kind of fame is dangerous. Rather thanstriving for it, you have to sort of position yourself so it drops inyour lap, and then be modest and gracious about your status.
The Hacker/Nerd Connection
Contrary to popular myth, you don't have to be a nerd to be ahacker. It does help, however, and many hackers are in fact nerds.Being something of a social outcast helps you stay concentrated on thereally important things, like thinking and hacking.
For this reason, many hackers have adopted the label‘geek’ as a badge of pride — it's a way of declaringtheir independence from normal social expectations (as well as afondness for other things like science fiction and strategy games thatoften go with being a hacker). The term 'nerd' used to be used thisway back in the 1990s, back when 'nerd' was a mild pejorative and'geek' a rather harsher one; sometime after 2000 they switched places,at least in U.S. popular culture, and there is now even a significantgeek-pride culture among people who aren't techies.
If you can manage to concentrate enough on hacking to be good at itand still have a life, that's fine. This is a lot easier today thanit was when I was a newbie in the 1970s; mainstream culture is muchfriendlier to techno-nerds now. There are even growing numbers ofpeople who realize that hackers are often high-quality lover andspouse material.
If you're attracted to hacking because you don't have a life,that's OK too — at least you won't have trouble concentrating. Maybeyou'll get a life later on.
Points For Style
Again, to be a hacker, you have to enter the hacker mindset. Thereare some things you can do when you're not at a computer that seem tohelp. They're not substitutes for hacking (nothing is) but manyhackers do them, and feel that they connect in some basic waywith the essence of hacking.
Learn to write your native language well. Though it's a common stereotype that programmers can't write, a surprising number of hackers (including all the most accomplished ones I know of) are very able writers.
Read science fiction. Go to science fiction conventions (a good way to meet hackers and proto-hackers).
Train in a martial-arts form. The kind of mental discipline required for martial arts seems to be similar in important ways to what hackers do. The most popular forms among hackers are definitely Asian empty-hand arts such as Tae Kwon Do, various forms of Karate, Kung Fu, Aikido, or Ju Jitsu. Western fencing and Asian sword arts also have visible followings. In places where it's legal, pistol shooting has been rising in popularity since the late 1990s. The most hackerly martial arts are those which emphasize mental discipline, relaxed awareness, and control, rather than raw strength, athleticism, or physical toughness.
Study an actual meditation discipline. The perennial favorite among hackers is Zen (importantly, it is possible to benefit from Zen without acquiring a religion or discarding one you already have). Other styles may work as well, but be careful to choose one that doesn't require you to believe crazy things.
Develop an analytical ear for music. Learn to appreciate peculiar kinds of music. Learn to play some musical instrument well, or how to sing.
Develop your appreciation of puns and wordplay.
The more of these things you already do, the more likely it is that youare natural hacker material. Why these things in particular is notcompletely clear, but they're connected with a mix of left- andright-brain skills that seems to be important; hackers need tobe able to both reason logically and step outside the apparentlogic of a problem at a moment's notice.
Work as intensely as you play and play as intensely as you work.For true hackers, the boundaries between "play", "work", "science" and"art" all tend to disappear, or to merge into a high-level creativeplayfulness. Also, don't be content with a narrow range of skills.Though most hackers self-describe as programmers, they are very likelyto be more than competent in several related skills — systemadministration, web design, and PC hardware troubleshooting are commonones. A hacker who's a system administrator, on the other hand, islikely to be quite skilled at script programming and web design.Hackers don't do things by halves; if they invest in a skill at all,they tend to get very good at it.
Finally, a few things not todo.
Don't use a silly, grandiose user ID or screen name.
Don't get in flame wars on Usenet (or anywhere else).
Don't call yourself a ‘cyberpunk’, and don't waste your time on anybody who does.
Don't post or email writing that's full of spelling errors and bad grammar.
The only reputation you'll make doing any of these things is as atwit. Hackers have long memories — it could take you years to liveyour early blunders down enough to be accepted.
The problem with screen names or handles deserves someamplification. Concealing your identity behind a handle is a juvenileand silly behavior characteristic of crackers, warez d00dz, and otherlower life forms. Hackers don't do this; they're proud of what theydo and want it associated with their real names.So if you have a handle, drop it. In the hacker culture it will onlymark you as a loser.
Historical Note: Hacking, Open Source,and Free Software
When I originally wrote this how-to in late 1996, some of theconditions around it were very different from the way they look today.A few words about these changes may help clarify matters for peoplewho are confused about the relationship of open source, freesoftware, and Linux to the hacker community. If you are not curiousabout this, you can skip straight to the FAQ and bibliography fromhere.
The hacker ethos and community as I have described it here longpredates the emergence of Linux after 1990; I first became involvedwith it around 1976, and, its roots are readily traceable back to theearly 1960s. But before Linux, most hacking was done on eitherproprietary operating systems or a handful of quasi-experimentalhomegrown systems like MIT's ITS that were never deployed outside oftheir original academic niches. While there had been some earlier(pre-Linux) attempts to change this situation, their impact was atbest very marginal and confined to communities of dedicated truebelievers which were tiny minorities even within the hacker community,let alone with respect to the larger world of software ingeneral.
What is now called "open source" goes back as far as the hackercommunity does, but until 1985 it was an unnamed folk practice ratherthan a conscious movement with theories and manifestos attached to it.This prehistory ended when, in 1985, arch-hacker Richard Stallman("RMS") tried to give it a name — "free software". But his actof naming was also an act of claiming; he attached ideological baggageto the "free software" label which much of the existing hackercommunity never accepted. As a result, the "free software" label wasloudly rejected by a substantial minority of the hacker community(especially among those associated with BSD Unix), and used withserious but silent reservations by a majority of the remainder(including myself).
Despite these reservations, RMS's claim to define and lead thehacker community under the "free software" banner broadly held untilthe mid-1990s. It was seriously challenged only by the rise of Linux.Linux gave open-source development a natural home. Many projectsissued under terms we would now call open-source migrated fromproprietary Unixes to Linux. The community around Linux grewexplosively, becoming far larger and more heterogenous than thepre-Linux hacker culture. RMS determinedly attempted to co-opt allthis activity into his "free software" movement, but was thwarted byboth the exploding diversity of the Linux community and the publicskepticism of its founder, Linus Torvalds. Torvalds continued to usethe term "free software" for lack of any alternative, but publiclyrejected RMS's ideological baggage. Many younger hackers followedsuit.
In 1996, when I first published this Hacker HOWTO, the hackercommunity was rapidly reorganizing around Linux and a handful of otheropen-source operating systems (notably those descended from BSDUnix). Community memory of the fact that most of us had spent decadesdeveloping closed-source software on closed-source operating systemshad not yet begun to fade, but that fact was already beginning to seemlike part of a dead past; hackers were, increasingly, definingthemselves as hackers by their attachments to open-source projectssuch as Linux or Apache.
The term "open source", however, had not yet emerged; it wouldnot do so until early 1998. When it did, most of hacker communityadopted it within the following six months; the exceptions were aminority ideologically attached to the term "free software". Since1998, and especially after about 2003, the identification of 'hacking'with 'open-source (and free software) development' has becomeextremely close. Today there is little point in attempting todistinguish between these categories, and it seems unlikely that willchange in the future.
It is worth remembering, however, that this was not always so.
There is a document called How To BeA Programmer that is an excellent complement to this one. Ithas valuable advice not just about coding and skillsets, but abouthow to function on a programming team.
I have also written ABrief History Of Hackerdom.
I have written a paper, The Cathedraland the Bazaar, which explains a lot about how theLinux and open-source cultures work. I have addressed this topic evenmore directly in its sequel Homesteadingthe Noosphere.
Rick Moen has written an excellent document on how to runa Linux user group.
Rick Moen and I have collaborated on another document onHowTo Ask Smart Questions. This will help you seek assistancein a way that makes it more likely that you will actually get it.
If you need instruction in the basics of how personal computers,Unix, and the Internet work, seeThe Unix and Internet Fundamentals HOWTO.
When you release software or write patches for software, try tofollow the guidelines in the Software Release Practice HOWTO.
If you enjoyed the Zen poem, you might also like Rootless Root: The Unix Koans ofMaster Foo.
Frequently Asked Questions
How do I tell if I am already a hacker?
Will you teach me how to hack?
How can I get started, then?
When do you have to start? Is it too late for me to learn?
How long will it take me to learn to hack?
Is Visual Basic a good language to start with?
Would you help me to crack a system, or teach me how to crack?
How can I get the password for someone else's account?
How can I break into/read/monitor someone else's email?
How can I steal channel op privileges on IRC?
I've been cracked. Will you help me fend off further attacks?
I'm having problems with my Windows software. Will you help me?
Where can I find some real hackers to talk with?
Can you recommend useful books about hacking-related subjects?
Do I need to be good at math to become a hacker?
What language should I learn first?
What kind of hardware do I need?
I want to contribute. Can you help me pick a problem to work on?
Do I need to hate and bash Microsoft?
But won't open-source software leave programmers unable to make a living?
Where can I get a free Unix?
How do I tell if I am already a hacker?
Ask yourself the following three questions:
Do you speak code, fluently?
Do you identify with the goals and values of the hacker community?
Has a well-established member of the hacker community ever called you a hacker?
If you can answer yes to all three of thesequestions, you are already a hacker. No two alone are sufficient.
The first test is about skills. You probably pass it if youhave the minimum technical skills described earlier in this document.You blow right through it if you have had a substantial amount of codeaccepted by an open-source development project.
The second test is about attitude. If the five principles of the hacker mindset seemedobvious to you, more like a description of the way you already livethan anything novel, you are already halfway to passing it. That's theinward half; the other, outward half is the degree to which youidentify with the hacker community's long-term projects.
Here is an incomplete but indicative list of some of thoseprojects: Does it matter to you that Linux improve and spread? Are youpassionate about software freedom? Hostile to monopolies? Do you acton the belief that computers can be instruments of empowerment thatmake the world a richer and more humane place?
But a note of caution is in order here. The hacker community hassome specific, primarily defensive political interests — two ofthem are defending free-speech rights and fending off"intellectual-property" power grabs that would make open sourceillegal. Some of those long-term projects are civil-libertiesorganizations like the Electronic Frontier Foundation, and theoutward attitude properly includes support of them. But beyond that,most hackers view attempts to systematize the hacker attitude into anexplicit political program with suspicion; we've learned, the hardway, that these attempts are divisive and distracting. If someonetries to recruit you to march on your capitol in the name of thehacker attitude, they've missed the point. The right response isprobably “Shut up and show them the code.”
The third test has a tricky element of recursiveness about it.I observed in the section called “What Is a Hacker?” that being a hacker is partly amatter of belonging to a particular subculture or social network witha shared history, an inside and an outside. In the far past, hackerswere a much less cohesive and self-aware group than they are today.But the importance of the social-network aspect has increased overthe last thirty years as the Internet has made connections with thecore of the hacker subculture easier to develop and maintain. One easybehavioral index of the change is that, in this century, we have ourown T-shirts.
Sociologists, who study networks like those of the hackerculture under the general rubric of "invisible colleges", have notedthat one characteristic of such networks is that they have gatekeepers— core members with the social authority to endorse new membersinto the network. Because the "invisible college" that is hackerculture is a loose and informal one, the role of gatekeeper isinformal too. But one thing that all hackers understand in theirbones is that not every hacker is a gatekeeper. Gatekeepers have tohave a certain degree of seniority and accomplishment before they canbestow the title. How much is hard to quantify, but every hacker knowsit when they see it.
Will you teach me how to hack?
Since first publishing this page, I've gotten several requests aweek (often several a day) from people to "teach me all abouthacking". Unfortunately, I don't have the time or energy to do this;my own hacking projects, and working as an open-source advocate,take up 110% of my time.
Even if I did, hacking is an attitude and skill you basically have toteach yourself. You'll find that while real hackers want to help you,they won't respect you if you beg to be spoon-fed everything theyknow.
Learn a few things first. Show that you're trying, that you'recapable of learning on your own. Then go to the hackers you meet withspecific questions.
If you do email a hacker asking for advice, here are two thingsto know up front. First, we've found that people who are lazy orcareless in their writing are usually too lazy and careless in theirthinking to make good hackers — so take care to spell correctly, anduse good grammar and punctuation, otherwise you'll probably beignored. Secondly, don't dare ask for a reply toan ISP account that's different from the account you're sending from;we find people who do that are usually thieves using stolen accounts,and we have no interest in rewarding or assisting thievery.
How can I get started, then?
The best way for you to get started would probably be to go to a LUG(Linux user group) meeting. You can find such groups on the LDP General LinuxInformation Page; there is probably one near you, possiblyassociated with a college or university. LUG members will probablygive you a Linux if you ask, and will certainly help you install oneand get started.
When do you have to start? Is it too late for me to learn?
Any age at which you are motivated to start is a good age. Most peopleseem to get interested between ages 15 and 20, but I know ofexceptions in both directions.
How long will it take me to learn to hack?
That depends on how talented you are and how hard you work atit. Most people who try can acquire a respectable skill set in eighteenmonths to two years, if they concentrate. Don't think it ends there,though; in hacking (as in many other fields) it takes about ten yearsto achieve mastery. And if you are a real hacker, you will spend the restof your life learning and perfecting your craft.
Is Visual Basic a good language to start with?
If you're asking this question, it almost certainly means you'rethinking about trying to hack under Microsoft Windows. This is a badidea in itself. When I compared trying to learn to hack under Windowsto trying to learn to dance while wearing a body cast, I wasn'tkidding. Don't go there. It's ugly, and it never stops beingugly.
There is a specific problem with Visual Basic; mainlythat it's not portable. Though there is a prototype open-sourceimplementations of Visual Basic, the applicable ECMA standardsdon't cover more than a small set of its programming interfaces. OnWindows most of its library support is proprietary to a singlevendor (Microsoft); if you aren't extremelycareful about which features you use — more careful than anynewbie is really capable of being — you'll end up locked intoonly those platforms Microsoft chooses to support. If you'restarting on a Unix, much better languages with better libraries are available. Python, for example.
Also, like other Basics, Visual Basic is apoorly-designed language that will teach you bad programminghabits. No, don't ask me to describe them indetail; that explanation would fill a book. Learn a well-designedlanguage instead.
One of those bad habits is becoming dependent on a singlevendor's libraries, widgets, and development tools. In general, anylanguage that isn't fully supported under at least Linux or one of the BSDs,and/or at least three different vendors' operating systems, is a poorone to learn to hack in.
Would you help me to crack a system, or teach me how to crack?
No. Anyone who can still ask such a question after reading this FAQis too stupid to be educable even if I had the time for tutoring.Any emailed requests of this kind that I get will be ignored oranswered with extreme rudeness.
How can I get the password for someone else's account?
This is cracking. Go away, idiot.
How can I break into/read/monitor someone else's email?
This is cracking. Get lost, moron.
How can I steal channel op privileges on IRC?
This is cracking. Begone, cretin.
I've been cracked. Will you help me fend off further attacks?
No. Every time I've been asked this question so far, it's beenfrom some poor sap running Microsoft Windows. It is not possible toeffectively secure Windows systems against crack attacks; the code andarchitecture simply have too many flaws, which makes securing Windowslike trying to bail out a boat with a sieve. The only reliableprevention starts with switching to Linux or some other operatingsystem that is designed to at least be capable of security.
I'm having problems with my Windows software. Will you help me?
Yes. Go to a DOS prompt and type "format c:". Any problems you are experiencing will cease within a few minutes.
Where can I find some real hackers to talk with?
The best way is to find a Unix or Linux user's group local to you andgo to their meetings (you can find links to several lists of usergroups on the LDP site atibiblio).
(I used to say here that you wouldn't find any real hackers on IRC,but I'm given to understand this is changing. Apparently some realhacker communities, attached to things like GIMP and Perl, have IRCchannels now.)
Can you recommend useful books about hacking-related subjects?
For an introduction to Python, see the tutorial on the Python site.
Do I need to be good at math to become a hacker?
No. Hacking uses very little formal mathematics or arithmetic.In particular, you won't usually need trigonometry, calculus oranalysis (there are exceptions to this in a handful of specificapplication areas like 3-D computer graphics). Knowing some formal logicand Boolean algebra is good. Some grounding in finite mathematics(including finite-set theory, combinatorics, and graph theory) can behelpful.
Much more importantly: you need to be able to think logicallyand follow chains of exact reasoning, the way mathematicians do.While the content of most mathematics won't help you, you will needthe discipline and intelligence to handle mathematics. If you lackthe intelligence, there is little hope for you as a hacker; if youlack the discipline, you'd better grow it.
I think a good way to find out if you have what it takes is to pickup a copy of Raymond Smullyan's book What Is The Name OfThis Book?. Smullyan's playful logical conundrums are verymuch in the hacker spirit. Being able to solve them is a good sign;enjoying solving them is an even better one.
What language should I learn first?
XHTML (the latest dialect of HTML) if you don't already know it.There are a lot of glossy, hype-intensive badHTML books out there, and distressingly few good ones. The one I likebest is HTML: TheDefinitive Guide.
But HTML is not a full programming language. When you're readyto start programming, I would recommend starting with Python. You will hear a lot ofpeople recommending Perl, but it's harder to learn and (in my opinion)less well designed.
C is really important, but it's also much more difficult than eitherPython or Perl. Don't try to learn it first.
Windows users, do not settle for VisualBasic. It will teach you bad habits, and it's not portable offWindows. Avoid.
What kind of hardware do I need?
It used to be that personal computers were rather underpowered andmemory-poor, enough so that they placed artificial limits on a hacker'slearning process. This stopped being true in the mid-1990s; any machinefrom an Intel 486DX50 up is more than powerful enough for developmentwork, X, and Internet communications, and the smallest disks you canbuy today are plenty big enough.
The important thing in choosing a machine on which to learn iswhether its hardware is Linux-compatible (or BSD-compatible, shouldyou choose to go that route). Again, this will be true for almost allmodern machines. The only really sticky areas are modems and wirelesscards; some machines have Windows-specific hardware that won't workwith Linux.
There's a FAQ on hardware compatibility; the latest version is here.
I want to contribute. Can you help me pick a problem to work on?
No, because I don't know your talents or interests. You haveto be self-motivated or you won't stick, which is why having otherpeople choose your direction almost never works.
Try this. Watch the project announcements scroll by on Freshmeat for a few days.When you see one that makes you think "Cool! I'd like to work onthat!", join it.
Do I need to hate and bash Microsoft?
No, you don't. Not that Microsoft isn't loathsome, but there was ahacker culture long before Microsoft and there will still be one long afterMicrosoft is history. Any energy you spend hating Microsoft wouldbe better spent on loving your craft. Write good code — that willbash Microsoft quite sufficiently without polluting your karma.
But won't open-source software leave programmers unable to make a living?
This seems unlikely — so far, the open-source softwareindustry seems to be creating jobs rather than taking them away. Ifhaving a program written is a net economic gain over not having itwritten, a programmer will get paid whether or not the program isgoing to be open-source after it's done. And, no matter how much"free" software gets written, there always seems to be more demand fornew and customized applications. I've written more about this at theOpen Sourcepages.
Where can I get a free Unix?
If you don't have a Unix installed on your machine yet,elsewhere on this page I include pointers to where to get the mostcommonly used free Unix. To be a hacker you need motivation andinitiative and the ability to educate yourself. Start now...
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