精华内容
下载资源
问答
  • <p>It would be nice to have a kind of contextvar that is inherited by child tasks based on the value it had when their nursery was opened, rather than the value it had when the child task was spawned....
  • Historical footnotes trace the development of the discipline and identify outstanding individual contributions. This book builds the foundation for anyone who needs to learn differential equations ...
  • Historical footnotes trace the development of the discipline and identify outstanding individual contributions. This book builds the foundation for anyone who needs to learn differential equations ...
  • P122, 这是IQR method课的第一次作业,需要统计检验,x和y是否显著的有线性关系。 Assignment 1 1) Find a small bivariate...own discipline) and produce a scatterplot (this is easy using any spreadsheet...

    P122, 这是IQR method课的第一次作业,需要统计检验,x和y是否显著的有线性关系。

    Assignment 1
    1) Find a small bivariate dataset (preferably from your
    own discipline) and produce a scatterplot (this is easy
    using any spreadsheet)
    2) Use any statistics tool (a calculator, spreadsheet or
    statistical package) to calculate the best fitting
    regression line and test whether the population slope
    (=B) is zero.
    Notes:
    1. Testing whether the population slope (=B) is zero is
    different to whether the estimated slope (=b) is zero.
    2. Instructions for loading and using the Analysis
    Toolpak in Excel: <https://support.office.com/en-us/article/load-theanalysis-
    toolpak-in-excel-6a63e598-cd6d-42e3-9317-6b40ba1a66b4>
    

     

    入门:散点图、线性拟合、拟合参数slope

    进阶:统计检验,多重矫正FDR

    基本概念:

     这和基本的代数一样,只是统计更加严谨,把误差纳入到模型中了。

    怎么估计A和B呢?

    A和B可以看做是群体的参数,a和b可以看做是样本的估计参数,我们的方法是通过使残差最小来估计出a和b。

    如果我们假设误差项服从正态分布,那么我们就可以对slope斜率进行统计推断。

    我们可以构造出一个关于b的统计量,它会服从t分布。

    这部分还是看耶鲁大学的教程吧:Inference in Linear Regression

    如果只是应用的话,知道怎么用R求显著性就行了。

     

    入门R代码

    height <- c(176, 154, 138, 196, 132, 176, 181, 169, 150, 175)
    bodymass <- c(82, 49, 53, 112, 47, 69, 77, 71, 62, 78)
    plot(bodymass, height)
    plot(bodymass, height, pch = 16, cex = 1.3, col = "blue", main = "HEIGHT PLOTTED AGAINST BODY MASS", xlab = "BODY MASS (kg)", ylab = "HEIGHT (cm)")
    

    进阶

    eruption.lm = lm(eruptions ~ waiting, data=faithful)
    summary(eruption.lm) 
    help(summary.lm)
    
    Call: 
    lm(formula = eruptions ~ waiting, data = faithful) 
     
    Residuals: 
        Min      1Q  Median      3Q     Max 
    -1.2992 -0.3769  0.0351  0.3491  1.1933 
     
    Coefficients: 
                Estimate Std. Error t value Pr(>|t|) 
    (Intercept) -1.87402    0.16014   -11.7   <2e-16 *** 
    waiting      0.07563    0.00222    34.1   <2e-16 *** 
    --- 
    Signif. codes:  0 ’***’ 0.001 ’**’ 0.01 ’*’ 0.05 ’.’ 0.1 ’ ’ 1 
     
    Residual standard error: 0.497 on 270 degrees of freedom 
    Multiple R-squared: 0.811,      Adjusted R-squared: 0.811 
    F-statistic: 1.16e+03 on 1 and 270 DF,  p-value: <2e-16
    

    Decide whether there is a significant relationship between the variables in the linear regression model of the data set faithful at .05 significance level.

    NULL hypothesis: no relationship between x and y, so the slope is zero.

    假设误差服从正态分布,基于零假设,我们要检验以下统计量是否显著。

    统计量:(b-B)/sb follows a Student’s t distribution with n-2 degrees of freedom, where sb=s/√(∑(X-Mean(X))2) is the standard error of b. 

     


    进阶:多项回归,多重检验

    多次回归以后专门开一贴,以下讲多重检验multiple testing。

    Lecture 10: Multiple Testing - PPT通俗易懂

    所有的问题都是围绕着多重和error(就是一个2X2的表,根据检验和真实,有四种可能)的:

    做一次检验,我们犯第一类错误(应该是真的,我们拒绝了,又叫错误拒绝率)为a,犯第二类错误(应该是假的,我们接受了,又叫纳伪率)为b。

    那么,我们做基因差异表达,对每一个基因做一次检验,有3万多个基因,我们至少犯1次第一类错误的概率是多少呢?1-(a)2 

    为了使我们整体犯第一类错的概率效率0.05,我们必须要进行多重矫正。

    方法1:

    Bonferroni,直接把a 0.05除以次数,比如1万,来设立显著性阈值,这样会极大地增大第二类错误,我们会漏掉大量有用的信息。

    方法2:

    FDR,就是错误发现率,假/真阳性比例,就是显著水平里的真显著和假显著的比例。千万不要和假阳性率搞混了。

    做法很简答,把我们检测出来的显著的结果按p-value排列一下,去掉后面5%不太显著的结果。FDR的计算方法很多,BH最为常用。

     

    最熟悉的例子就是:生物信息学里的GO富集分析,一次检验是指我们的gene list与一个GO term做超几何分布检验,然而GO terms那么多,我们必须矫正,以控制错误率。

    另一个就是一鸣的组会讲的回归问题的拟合,我们拟合了很多次,需要对p-value做矫正,看PPT。

     


     

    medium专题

    这个非常值得一看,回归里的系数和p-value分别是什么含义。

    How to Interpret Regression Analysis Results: P-values and Coefficients

    null hypothesis:coefficient is 0,如果p-value小于0.05,我们就可以拒绝零假设。

     

    multiple testing

    Benjamini and Hochberg's method

    aggregated FDR

    FDR with group info


    Hu, James X., Hongyu Zhao, and Harrison H. Zhou. "False discovery rate control with groups." Journal of the American Statistical Association 105.491 (2010): 1215-1227.

     

    pak说:这个太重要了,对于大数据时代的统计而言。

    一般情况下:我们可以认为Q value = FDR = adjusted p value,即三者是一个东西,虽然有些定义上的细微区别,但是问题也不大。

     

    参考:浅谈多重检验校正FDR

     

    待续~

     

    转载于:https://www.cnblogs.com/leezx/p/9121312.html

    展开全文
  • dataValue = parseFloat(dataValue + val); }); $('#total').text(dataValue); }); $(document).ready(function() { $('.table-subscribers-per-discipline').DataTable({ bInfo: false, pagingType: 'simple...
  • computers as components

    2010-10-12 13:41:57
    The vast majority of existing ... Researchers, students, and savvy professionals, schooled in hardware or software, will value the integrated engineering design approach to this fast emerging field.  
  • select name="discipline" class="discipline"> <option value="&nbsp;" selected></option> <option value="access">ACCESS</option> <option value="inbraak">INBRAAK<...
  • 数组循环删除的问题

    2018-08-06 22:55:39
    问题描述 简单的需求,要删除数组中不符合条件的元素。 错误实现 最初的实现,foreach循环,发现就是不对。 // 如果学科存在id if (discipline.id) { ... angular.forEach(result, function(value, key) { // 如果...
        

    问题描述

    简单的需求,要删除数组中不符合条件的元素。

    错误实现

    最初的实现,foreach循环,发现就是不对。

    // 如果学科存在id
    if (discipline.id) {
        // foreach类别
        angular.forEach(result, function(value, key) {
            // 如果该类别有对应学科(考虑到“请选择的情况下”会报从undefined上获取id)
            // 并且该学科类别id不等于传入学科id
            if (value.discipline && !angular.equals(value.discipline.id, discipline.id)) {
                // 移除不符合要求的元素
                result.splice(key, 1);
            }
        });
    }

    每次删除时,都是根据key进行删除的,但是删除之后,数组的长度就会发生变化,导致下次再根据key去删除,发现长度变了,我们想删除的元素的位置也变了。

    解决方案

    Java中,我们使用iterator方法拿到其迭代对象,然后对其进行修改。

    // 如果学科存在id
    if (discipline.id) {
        /**
         * 数组过滤
         * 接收一个函数,根据该函数返回为true/false
         * 决定该元素保留还是删除
         */
        result = result.filter(function(value) {
            // 兼容请选择项,默认保留
            if (!value.discipline) {
                return true;
            }
            // 保留器具类别的学科id与当前学科id相同的项
            return angular.equals(value.discipline.id, discipline.id);
        });
    }
    展开全文
  • <p>I am working on a result management system in laravel, in which a student is enroll in one discipline which is divided in to 8 semester and each semester have multiple courses, these courses are ...
  • They represent a unique discipline responsible for supporting the global network of delivering products and services across the entire supply chain, from raw materials to end customers. ...
  • input class="disciplinechecks" type="checkbox" id="Print Design" name="Print Design" value="Print Design" onChange="checkBoxChange(this.checked,'Print Design');"> <label for="Print Design"> ...
  • jQuery Ajax TinyMCE

    2013-01-29 07:13:21
    Now I'm trying to pass a value via ajax to the php file that generates the list of links to narrow the query based on the sub-discipline:</p> <pre><code><script type="text/javascript"> $...
  • 合并数据结构

    2011-06-16 19:09:46
    <p>I want to build a data structure where if the discipline is in both courses, then it only appears once on a line in a new data structure, and nothing else, but if there are two unmatched ...
  • In Baseline, any value allocated to a register will have been pushed on the WebAssembly abstract stack more recently than any value spilled to the machine stack. <p>Multiple function return values ...
  • Designing.Great.Web.APIs

    2016-10-25 14:53:12
    They require a multi-discipline, cross-functional team to deliver APIs that meet the goals of both business and development teams. Whether you already have an API, are in the process of developing ...
  • As an auditor as well as researcher and author, I realize and value the importance of timely, well−focused, accurate information. It is with this philosophy in mind that the development of this ...
  • Discipline_x0020__x0028_Technical_x0029_": { __metadata: { "type": "SP.Taxonomy.TaxonomyFieldValue" }, Label: "Administation", TermGuid: "54e96d6e-8390-4cac-ba3e-...
  • <ul><li>add a default value to the places where nil is a valid value</li><li>remove all try that should not be there(we expect the data to be valid)</li><li>add more tests for student report: student ...
  • th class="attendee-discipline">Handicap</th> <th class="attendee-status">Home Club</th> </tr> <?php $guest_bookings = get_option('dbem_bookings_registration_disable')...
  • ID, 'discipline', array("fields" => "ids")); $term_list2 = wp_get_post_terms($post->ID, 'type', array("fields" => "ids")); $term_list3 = wp_get_post_terms($post->ID, 'sector', array(...
  • The entity instance value of type 'ODataRoutingDemo.Models.Discipline' doesn't have a value for property 'Id'. To compute an entity's metadata, its key and concurrency-token ...
  • 页面感知能够分配类

    2014-08-22 16:09:45
    $users = get_users('meta_value='. $discipline->term_id .''); if(count($users)>0) { echo '<ul class="sub-menu postid-'. get_the_id() .'">'; foreach( $users as $user ){ echo '<li>...
  • value": "Prayer is not a spiritual discipline that is separate from the mission of God. It is a discipline by which the Spirit will lead us to our role in the mission of God." } ], "...
  • I have a complex simulation written to evaluate Discipline Priest heals. The current one includes Holy Fire & Smite to drive attonement healing. I wanted to evaluate the value in putting points in...
  • Using Agile Project Management (APM), project managers can achieve all these goals without compromising value, quality, or business discipline. In Agile Project Management, Second Edition, renowned ...
  • The devising or choosing of names for things, especially in a science or other discipline." <p>I'm a firm believer that a consistent codebase is an intuitive codebase. This pull request is ...
  • Ansys名词解释

    2012-01-03 09:54:04
    CONVERGENCE VALUE 收敛值 coord 坐标 corner 对角 cornr 对角 count 总数 couple 耦合 coupled 耦合 coupling 耦合 create 创建 creep 蠕变 criteria 准则 cross product 向量积 cross-sectional 截面 ...
  • th class="attendee-discipline">Handicap</th> <th class="attendee-status">Home Club</th> </tr> <?php $guest_bookings = get_option('dbem_bookings_registration_disable')...
  • For example, SpiderMonkey has a strict <a href="https://searchfox.org/mozilla-central/rev/168c45a7acc44e9904cfd4eebcb9eb080e05699c/js/src/wasm/WasmFrameIter.h#50-57">JIT-frame discipline allowing ...
  • <div><p>The search page in OJS 3 needs two ... Then only offer the most high-value filters. Off-hand, I'd say it's Authors and From/Until.</p><p>该提问来源于开源项目:pkp/pkp-lib</p></div>

空空如也

空空如也

1 2 3
收藏数 56
精华内容 22
关键字:

disciplinevalue