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  • to for of with的用法区别2020-11-13 11:29:58文/樊越to用法:表示相对,针对,表示对比,比较;for用法:对…来说,由于理由,原因,向,往方向,目的地;of用法:表示剥夺,除去,of接直接宾语,of接间接宾语,of...

    to for of with的用法区别2020-11-13 11:29:58文/樊越

    to用法:表示相对,针对,表示对比,比较;for用法:对…来说,由于理由,原因,向,往方向,目的地;of用法:表示剥夺,除去,of接直接宾语,of接间接宾语,of表示人物的特性,籍贯,特性或出生等;with用法:with+宾语+现在分词或短语,with+宾语+过去分词或短语,with是副词词性。

    常用时间介词

    1.at

    表示在几点:at seven o’clock, at a quarter past four, at eleven twenty等。固定搭配单独记:at noon, at night, at the weekend

    2.on

    表示在具体某一天:on Monday, on Saturday, On Children’s Day, on June 22, 2006, on weekends

    3.in

    表示在早晨,下午,晚上以及月份,季节,年份,即in+一段时间:in the morning, in the afternoon, in December, in winter, in 2018

    常用方位介词

    in , on , at表地点的用法:at一般指小地方;in一般指大地方或某个范围之内,国家、城市等;on往往表示“在某个物体的表面”,两者互相接触。

    常用的方位介词还有:over在某物的上方,两者互相不接触。under在某物垂直的正下方behind在某物体的后面near在某物体的附近beside在......旁边in front of在......的前面,与behind相反。

    展开全文
    weixin_39608559 2020-12-29 07:54:06
  • 简单介词 at,in,on,to,since,until 等.如:He's worked there since 1998.2.复合介词 into,onto,out of 等.如:She is out of school.她毕业了.3.二重介词 from under,from behind,from out of,until after,except ...

    一、介词按其构成可分为:

    1.简单介词 at,in,on,to,since,until 等.如:

    He's worked there since 1998.

    2.复合介词 into,onto,out of 等.如:

    She is out of school.她毕业了.

    3.二重介词 from under,from behind,from out of,until after,except in 等.如:

    I'm from out of town.我是从城外来的.

    4.短语介词 because of,instead of,in spite of 等.如:

    I went back not because of the rain,but because I was tired.

    我回去不是因为下雨,而是因为我累了.

    二、介词的作用:

    1.表示地点:after,along,at,below,by,of,near,over,through,under 等.如:

    Near the village the boys are skating on the ice.男孩子们正在村子附近的冰上滑冰.

    They lay down under the shade of a tree.他们躺在一棵树的树阴下.

    2.表示时间:about,after,across,at,during,for,in,of,till,until 等.如:

    After class he will tell us about the accident.课后他将告诉我们有关事故的情况.

    A heavy rain has been falling across three days.一场大雨下了整整三天.

    The accident happened during the night.事故发生在夜间.

    3.表示动作:at,across,around,on,over,under 等.如:

    The earth goes around the sun.地球绕太阳运行.

    The car is under repair.汽车在修理中.

    4.表示比较:as,like,above,over,with 等.如:

    She was something like her sister.她有几份像她的妹妹.

    Chinese is much more difficult in contrast with English.和英语相比,汉语难得多.

    5.表示原因:about,for,from,with 等.如:

    Don't worry about my lessons.不要担心我的功课.

    Business kept me from coming.我因事不能来.

    He was angry with what I did.他对我所做的很气愤.

    6.表示条件:to,with,without 等.如:

    Without your advice,he would have failed.没有你的忠告他可能已经失败了.

    7.表示手段、方式:as,by,in,with 等.如:

    He behaved as a drunkard.他的举止如同醉汉一样.

    Learn the new words by heart.记住这些生词.

    We see with our eyes.我们用眼睛看.

    8.表示距离、数量:from,in,within 等.如:

    My house is ten miles from the school.我家离学校十英里.

    They were thirty in all.他们总共有三十人.

    9.表示目的:as,for 等.如:

    I only said it as a joke.我只是把它当作笑话讲的.

    It's time for class.到上课的时间了.

    10.表示让步:for,with 等.如:

    For all his effort,he didn't succeed.虽然他做了一番努力,仍不能成功.

    With all his money,he is unhappy.尽管他有钱,但他并不快乐.

    for 还可以引导插入语,例如:

    I,for one,shall vote against the proposal.我也投票反对这个提议.

    作业帮用户

    2017-10-25

    举报

    展开全文
    weixin_33283907 2020-12-29 07:54:08
  • 故答案为:too, for, to 10. Is the earth round? The little boy asked. (合并为宾语从句) The little boy asked ________ the earth ________ round. 【解析】一般疑问句作宾语从句时须加连接词if 或whether,当...

    1. Jim, or, Mary                             2.

    today, or, tomorrow

    3. Did, do                                       4.

    Does, want

    5. When, did, go                            6.

    How, many, months

    7. What, color                                 8.

    Whose, ball

    9. will, you                                     10.

    didn’t, he

    11. isn’t, there                                12.

    did, he

    13. has, he                                      14.

    aren’t, I

    15. will, you                                   16.

    isn’t, it

    主动语态变被动语态

    将下列句子变为被动语态:

    1. We often sing this

    song.

    _______________________________

    2. He broke his leg in the

    match.

    _______________________________

    3. She will sell her house

    soon.

    _______________________________

    4. He is repairing the

    machine.

    _______________________________

    5. He has finished his

    work.

    _______________________________

    6. We call him Lao Wang.

    _______________________________

    7. We must do something to

    help her.

    _______________________________

    8. What did you say at the

    meeting?

    _______________________________

    9. He gave me some old

    magazines.

    _______________________________

    10. He told me to wait at

    the gate.

    _______________________________

    【参考答案】

    1. This song is often

    sung.

    2. His leg was broken in

    the match.

    3. Her house will be sold

    soon.

    4. The machine is being

    repaired.

    5. His work has been

    finished.

    6. He is called Lao

    Wang.

    7. Something must be done

    to help her.

    8. What was said at the

    meeting?

    9. I was given some old

    magazines.

    10. I was told to wait at

    the gate.

    中考英语句型变换小练

    在空白处填上适当的词语,使之与所给句子意思相同,每空一词:

    1. I don’t know when we

    will go there for our holiday.

    →I don’t know

    ______ _____ _____ there for our holiday.

    2. The question is where

    we can buy such a machine.

    →The question

    is _____ ______ ______ such a machine.

    3. He was so frightened

    that he couldn’t say anything.

    →He was

    ______ ______ ______ say anything.

    4. It is such a difficult

    book that all of us can’t understand it.

    →The book is

    _____ difficult ______ all of us _____ understand.

    5. The girl is too young

    to get married.

    →The girl is

    ______ ______ ______ ______ get married.

    6. We hope that we can buy

    such a nice house.

    → We hope

    ______ ______such a nice house.

    【参考答案】

    1. when, to, start                            2.

    where, to, buy

    3. too, frightened,

    to                       4.

    too, for, to

    5. not, old, enough,

    to                    6.

    to, buy

    中考英语句子改写题复习说明

    一、句子改写题的题型特点

    句子改写是考查学生句型方面知识的题型,即从语法规则上考查学生对基本句型的理解、掌握和运用,它包括句型转换(即将一个或几个英语句子按一定的要求,改写成能够表达其他各种不同意思和语气的句子,如肯定句与否定句的转换,陈述句与疑问句的转换,陈述句与感叹句的转换,主动语态与被动语态的转换等)和同义句改写(在保留原句句意基本不变的情况下,把整个句子结构或句子中的某些成分加以变换)。句子改写也是中考命题的一个重要题型,它不仅考查学生对英语语法的基础知识和基本技能,而且考查学生分析、判断、辨别、迁移等综合运用能力以及用不同表达方式表述相同和相近意思的能力。

    二、句子改写题的解题方法

    在做句子改写题时,首先要弄清所给句子的句式结构、句子转换的要求、试题填空部分与原句的对应关系,对两个句子相同部分不需理会,全力考虑的是需要转换的部分。

    1. 认真阅读原句,弄清转换部分与原句的对应部分,对原句所表达的含义及句子结构、时态、语态、表达形式等要认真加以分析,弄清其言下之意,做到心中有数。

    2. 根据所给的空格,确定同义的句式和恰当的词语。解题时应把原句与要改写的句子联系起来,抓住关键内容,灵活运用所学的知识。

    3. 认真检查改写后的句子,注意检查所用的表达方式、时态、语态、词汇、结构等是否符合题目要求,意思是否与原句一致。

    总之,同学们只要在平时的学习中善于归纳总结,弄清内在联系,理清思路,多思多练,定能提高解题的能力

    句子改写题实例分析

    1. Li Lei does his homework at seven. (改为否定句)

    Li

    Lei ________ ________

    his homework at seven.

    【解析】此题的要求是改为否定句,原句是一般现在时,且主语是第三人称单数,句中的does是行为动词,所以第一空应填doesn’t;而第二空则把does还原成do。

    2. His sister had lunch at school

    yesterday. (改为一般疑问句)

    _________ his sister _________ lunch at school yesterday?

    【解析】先弄清原句的时态,had和yesterday都可表明原句时态为一般过去时,所以改为一般疑问句时,须在主语前加助动词did,had还原成have。故正确答案为:Did,

    have

    3. Lucy’s just come back from the USA.(改为反意疑问句)

    Lucy’s

    just come back from the USA,

    ________ ________?

    【解析】原句的时态为现在完成时,Lucy’s是Lucy

    has 的缩写形式,陈述部分是肯定形式,Lucy为女名,所以正确答案为:hasn’t

    she

    4. He was very tired. He couldn’t do

    anything. (改为同义句)

    He

    was ________ tired _________

    do anything.

    【解析】原句意为“他太累了,他什么也不能做。”把两句合并为一句时,根据所给的空格我们可用“too…to…(太……以致于不能……)”结构表达相同的意思。故答案为:too,

    to,但须注意此句不能用so…that

    结构,除非把句子改为He

    was so tired that he couldn’t do anything.

    5. It was windy yesterday. (对句子划线部分提问)

    ________ was the _________ like yesterday?

    【解析】句中的划线部分windy是一个表天气状况的形容词,那么询问天气的句式是“What’s the weather like today?(今天天气怎样?)”。所以答案为:What,

    weather

    6. He likes the book. So does she. (改为简单句,使句意不变)

    ________ he _______ she ________

    the book.

    【解析】原句意为“他喜欢这本书,她也是。”根据题目要求句意不变,那么我们可以说“他和她都喜欢这本书。”在英语中表达“两者都”可用Both…and

    …来表示。主语是并列主语,所以第三空为like。

    7. Hurry up, or we’ll be late.(改为复合句)

    ________ we ________ hurry, we’ll be late.

    【解析】原句是由并列连词or

    引导的并列句,只须把祈使句Hurry

    up改为以if引导的条件状语从句即可。答案为:If,

    don’t

    8. The film is very interesting. (改为感叹句)

    ________ ________ the film is!

    【解析】感叹句的句式为How

    + adj. + 主语

    + 谓语!或

    What (a / an) + adj. + n. + 主语+ 谓语!根据所给的空格,应用第一种感叹句式。正确答案为:How

    interesting

    9. The box was so heavy that she couldn’t

    carry it. (改为简单句)

    The

    box was ________ heavy ________ her ________ carry.

    【解析】so…that…句型是一个复合句,若that从句表示否定的,可用too…to结构改成一个简单句,但注意动词不定式的逻辑主语应在不定式前加for

    sb。故答案为:too,

    for, to

    10. Is the earth round? The little boy

    asked. (合并为宾语从句)

    The

    little boy asked ________ the earth ________ round.

    【解析】一般疑问句作宾语从句时须加连接词if

    或whether,当宾语从句表示客观真理或客观事实时,时态不随主句的时态而变化,仍然用一般现在时。故答案为:if

    / whether, is

    11. Jim runs faster than any other boy in

    the class. (改为同义句)

    Jim

    runs ______ _______

    in his class.

    【解析】原句意为“吉姆比班里其他任何男孩跑得快。”言外之意,吉姆是班里跑得最快的。此题是由比较级转换成最高级。故正确答案为:the

    fastest

    12. Where did they grow vegetables? (改为被动语态)

    Where

    ________ vegetables ________

    ?

    【解析】被动语态的结构为be

    + vt.p.p.(及物动词的过去分词),原句时态为一般过去时,句子主语vegetables为复数,所以be用were,第二空用grow的过去分词grown。

    13. The boy is very strong, and he can carry

    the heavy box. (合并为一句,使句意不变)

    The

    boy is _________ _________

    _________ carry the heavy box.

    【解析】原句意为:这男孩非常有力,他能提起那个重盒子。合并为一句时,我们可用adj.(形容词)

    + enough to 或so

    + adj. + that从句来改写。根据所给的空格,故正确答案为:strong

    enough to. 但如果用so

    … that改写,句子应该是这样:The

    boy is so strong that he can carry the heavy box.

    14. I don’t know when we shall leave for Nanjing. (改为简单句)

    I

    don’t know when ______ ________ for Nanjing.

    【解析】原句是一个含宾语从句的复合句,当主句谓语动词为know,

    decide等时,且宾语从句是一个特殊疑问句,我们可用疑问词+不定式来改写。故答案为:to

    leave

    15. Li Lei received a letter from his

    parents yesterday. (改为同义句)

    Li

    Lei ________ _________

    his parents yesterday.

    【解析】在英语中,往往一个句子有多种表达法,在平时的学习中同学们要尽可能地把一些词义在用法上相似的单词或短语组合起来,加深记忆,使之不易混淆。句中的received

    a letter from就相当于heard

    from。

    中考英语句型转换复习方略

    一、考题揭密

    句子改写是考查学生句型方面知识的题型,即从语法规则上考查学生对基本句型的理解、掌握和运用。它包括句型转换(即将一个或几个英语句子按一定的要求,改写成能够表达其他各种不同意思和语气的句子,如肯定句与否定句的转换,陈述句与疑问句的转换,陈述句与感叹句的转换,主动语态与被动语态的转换等)和同义句改写(在保留原句句意基本不变的情况下,把整个句子结构或句子中的某些成分加以变换)。句子改写也是中考命题的一个重要题型,它不仅考查学生英语语法的基础知识和基本技能,而且考查学生分析、判断、辨别、迁移等综合运用能力以及用不同表达方式表述相同和相近意思的能力。

    二、解题方法

    在做句子改写题时,首先要弄清所给句子的句式结构、句子转换的要求、试题填空部分与原句的对应关系,不需理会两个句子相同的部分,全力考虑的是需要转换的部分。

    1.

    认真阅读原句,弄清转换部分与原句的对应部分,对原句所表达的含义及句子结构、时态、语态、表达形式等要认真加以分析,弄清其言下之意,做到心中有数。

    2.

    根据所给的空格,确定同义的句式和恰当的词语。解题时应把原句与要改写的句子联系起来,抓住关键内容,灵活运用所学的知识。

    3.

    认真检查改写后的句子,注意检查所用的表达方式、时态、语态、词汇、结构等是否符合题目要求,意思是否与原句一致。

    总之,同学们只要在平时的学习中善于归纳总结,弄清内在联系,理清思路,多思多练,定能提高解题的能力。

    句型变换复习?陈述句变疑问句

    1.将陈述句改为一般疑问句

    1)

    若句中有系动词(be)、助动词、情态动词或have

    (作“有”讲)时,将其提到主语前,句末用问号。例如:

    He

    is a first-year student.

    →Is

    he a first-year student?

    I

    have a pencil-box.

    →Have

    you a pencil-box?

    2)

    如果谓语动词是行为动词,则在主语前加Do(Does或Did),再将动词还原成原形,在句末加问号。例如:

    He

    does morning exercises every day.

    →Dose

    he do morning exercises every day?

    They

    did some cleaning yesterday.

    →Did

    they do some cleaning yesterday?

    2.将陈述句改为反意疑问句

    反意疑问句是在陈述句后边加上一个简短问句,对陈述句所叙述的内容提出相反的疑问,这种句子就叫做反意疑问句。反意疑问句可以表示真实的疑问,也可以表示提问人的倾向、强调或反问。如果陈述句是肯定句时,后边的反意疑问句通常要用否定式;反之,如果陈述句是否定句时,后边的反意疑问句通常要用肯定式。陈述句和后边的反意疑问句的主语以及谓语动词的人称、数、时态通常要保持一致。例如:

    He

    is a teacher, isn’t he?

    He

    speaks English, doesn’t he?

    Mary

    won’t do it, will she?

    回答反意疑问句和回答一般疑问句一样,肯定回答用“Yes, +肯定结构”;否定回答用“No,

    +否定结构”。这与汉语习惯有所不同,例如:

    ―He’s

    a doctor, isn’t he? 他是医生,对吧?

    ―Yes,

    he is. 对,他是医生。(No,

    he isn’t. 不,他不是医生。)

    ―He

    isn’t a doctor, is he? 他不是医生,对吧?

    ―Yes,

    he is. 不,他是医生。(No,

    he isn’t. 对,他不是医生。)

    在使用反意疑问句时,特别要注意以下几点:

    1.在动词have当“有”讲时,可以有两种反意疑问句形式:

    He

    hasn’t any sisters, has he?

    He

    doesn’t have any sisters, does he?

    当have表示其他含义(如:经历、遭受、得到、吃……) 讲时,只有一种反意疑问句形式:

    You

    all had a good time, didn’t you?

    He

    often has colds, doesn’t he?

    They

    had milk and bread for breakfast, didn’t they?

    2.

    如果陈述句的谓语动词含有have

    to, had to时,反意疑问句通常用其他适当形式:

    We

    have to get there at 8 tomorrow morning, don’t we?

    They

    had to take the early train, didn’t they?

    3.

    need既可以作情态动词,又可以作实意动词,注意有两种反意疑问句形式:

    You

    needn’t hand in your paper today, need you?

    You

    don’t need to hand in your paper today, do you?

    4.

    如果陈述句的谓语动词含有used

    to时,也可以有两种反意疑问句形式:

    He

    used to get up late, usedn’t / didn’t he?

    5.如果陈述句中出现never,

    seldom, hardly, few, little, nobody, no one, nothing 等含有否定意义的词时,反意疑问句通常要用肯定式,例如:

    She

    seldom goes to the concert, does she?

    He

    hardly writes to you, does he?

    He

    has few good reasons for staying, has he?

    You

    have nothing else to say, have you?

    6.

    如果陈述句中的主语是不定式短语、动名词短语、从句、everything或nothing等时,反意疑问句通常要用it作主语。例如:

    To

    sell / Selling newspaper was his job, wasn’t it?

    What

    he said is true, isn’t it?

    Nothing

    can stop us now, can’t it?

    Everything

    is all right, isn’t it?

    7.

    如果陈述句中的主语是不定代词everybody,

    everyone, somebody, someone, nobody, no one, each of 等时,反意疑问句通常要用they或he作主语。例如:

    Everyone

    knows the answer, don’t they / doesn’t he?

    Somebody

    borrowed my bike, didn’t they / he?

    Each

    of them fulfilled his work, didn’t he?

    Each

    of them passed the exam, didn’t they?

    No

    one was hurt, was he?

    8.

    如果陈述句用“I am”时,反意疑问句通常要用“aren’t

    I”。例如:

    I’m

    late, aren’t I?

    9.

    如果陈述句是含有宾语从句的复合句式,反意疑问句的主语以及谓语动词的人称、数、时态通常要与主句保持一致。例如:

    He

    never said that he would come, did he?

    I

    told that not everyone could do it, didn’t I?

    但是,如果陈述句是“I

    don’t think(believe, suppose, imagine等) 含有宾语从句的复合句式”,反意疑问句的主语以及谓语动词的人称、数、时态通常要和从句保持一致,并且要用肯定式。例如:

    I

    don’t think she can finish the hard work alone, can she?

    I

    don’t believe he knows it, does he?

    10.

    如果陈述句是含有“there be”结构时,反意疑问句要用there,省去主语代词。例如:

    There

    is something wrong with your computer, isn’t there?

    There

    wouldn’t be any trouble, will there?

    句型变换复习?肯定句变否定句

    1.

    谓语动词是be、have(作“有”讲),或谓语动词有助动词、情态动词时,在它们的后面加not。若句中有some时,需将some改为any。例如:

    I

    have some books on this subject.

    →I

    have not any books on this subject.

    He

    can speak English.

    →He

    cannot speak English.

    2.

    当谓语动词是行为动词,而句中又没有情态动词或助动词时,需要在谓语动词之前加do

    not, does not或did

    not 来构成否定句。例如:

    I

    know something about it.

    I don’t know anything about it.

    3.

    否定由think、believe、know等动词引出的宾语从句时,应将主句改为否定形式。例如:

    She

    knows why the train is late.

    →She

    doesn’t know why the train is late.

    4.

    祈使句的否定形式是在谓语动词前直接加do

    not。例如:

    Read

    in bed.

    →Don’t

    read in bed.

    5.

    特殊句型:

    陈述句中含有had

    better,要将其变为否定句时,要把not加在better后。例如:

    You

    had better go with me.

    →You

    had better not go with me.

    陈述句中含有“both

    (all) of +名词”作主语,要将其改为否定句时,要用neither来代替both,none代替all,并注意谓语动词数的变化。例如:

    Both

    of them are Americans.

    →Neither

    of them is American.

    句型变换复习?就划线部分提问

    1.对句中的主语或主语的定语部分提问

    只把要提问的部分用特殊疑问词who,

    what, whose, which等替换下来,原句词序不变即可。例如:

    1)

    Peter draws well. (问人物,主语)

    →Who

    draws well?

    2)

    The girl in the car is his sister. (问哪一个,定语)

    →Which

    girl is his sister?

    3)

    Our classroom is bright. (问物主,定语)

    →Whose

    classroom is bright?

    2.对表语或表语的定语提问

    用特殊疑问词who,

    whose, what colour, how, how old 等引导,后面加一般疑问句形式。如:

    1)

    My father is a worker. (问职业,表语)

    →What

    is your father?/What

    does your father do?

    2)

    The teacher is my brother’s friend. (问物主,定语)

    →Whose

    friend is the teacher?

    3)

    The book is on the desk. (问地点,表语)

    →Where

    is the book?

    4)

    He is twelve. (问年龄,表语)

    →How

    old is he?

    5)

    It’s six o’clock. (问时间,表语)

    →What time is it?

    6)

    He is fine. (问身体状况,表语)

    →How

    is he?

    7)

    Mary’s sweater is red. (问颜色,表语)

    →What

    colour is Mary’s sweater?

    8)

    It’s Sunday today. (问星期几,表语)

    →What

    day is it today?

    3.对宾语或宾语的定语部分提问

    用特殊疑问词who(whom),

    what, which, whose, how many, how much 等引导,后加一般疑问句形式。例如:

    1)

    The nurse is looking after the children. (问人,介宾)

    Who/Whom

    is the nurse looking after?

    2)

    I like the book on the right best. (问哪一个,定语)

    →Which

    book do you like best?

    3)

    They have learned 100 English words. (问多少,定语)

    →How

    many English words have they learned?

    4)

    They had much rice for lunch. (问多少,定语)

    →How

    much rice did they have for lunch?

    4.对状语部分提问

    用特殊疑问词

    when, what time, where, how, why 等引导,后加一般疑问句形式。例如:

    1)

    I often go to school at six in the morning. (问时间,状语)

    →What

    time do you often go to school in the morning?

    2)

    We have lunch at home. (问地点,状语)

    →Where

    do you have lunch?

    3)

    My sister goes to school on foot. (问方式,状语)

    →How does your sister go to school?

    4)

    Mary didn’t come to school yesterday because she was ill. (问原因,状语)

    →Why

    didn’t Mary come to school yesterday?

    注:how

    long, how soon和how

    often都含有“多久”的意思,都能对时间状语进行提问,应注意其区别:

    how

    long提问“一段时间”,即对介词短语for...

    和since...

    提问,可用于一般现在时、一般过去时、一般将来时、现在完成时等。如:

    They

    stayed there for ten years. (问多长时间,状语)

    →How

    long did they stay there?

    how

    soon提问“多久以后”,即表示所间隔的时间段,如介词短语in...

    等,常与一般将来时连用,这种情况有时也可用when提问。如:

    He

    will be back in an hour. (问多久以后,状语)

    →How

    soon/When

    will he be back?

    They

    will finish the work very soon. (问多久以后,状语)

    →How

    soon will they finish the work?

    how

    often提问频度、“多久一次”,即重复动作所发生的时间间隔,不强调次数,常与一般现在时和一般过去时连用。如:

    I

    watch TV every evening. (问多久一次,状语)

    →How

    often do you watch TV?

    句型变换复习?主动语态变被动语态

    被动语态由“助动词+及物动词的过去分词”构成。不同时态的被动语态的差异主要体现在助动词be的变化上,同时助动词be还要在人称和数上与主语保持一致。在将主动语态变为被动语态时,可按以下三个步骤:a.

    把主动语态的宾语变为被动语态的主语。b.

    把谓语变成被动结构(be+过去分词)

    ,并根据被动语态句子里的主语的人称和数以及原来主动语态句子中动词的时态来决定be的形式。c.

    把主动语态中的主语放在介词by之后作宾语,将主格改为宾格。在无须说明动作的执行者或只强调动作的承受者时,by短语可以省略。例如:

    All

    the people laughed at him. →He was laughed at by all people.

    They

    make the bikes in the factory. →The bikes are made by them in the factory.

    含有双宾语的主动句改为被动句时,应将其中一个宾语改为被动结构的主语,另一个宾语仍保留在原处。一种情况是把间接宾语(指人)变为主语,直接宾语(指物)不变;另一种情况是把直接宾语(指物)变为主语,间接宾语(指人)不变,这时,间接宾语前通常加介词to,有时加for。例如:

    My

    father gave me a new book on my birthday.

    →I

    was given a new book (by my father) on my birthday. (间接宾语作了主语)

    →A

    new book was given to me (by my father) on my birthday. (直接宾语作了主语)

    含有情态动词的主动句变成被动句时,由“情态动词+be+过去分词”构成,原来带to的情态动词变成被动语态后,to

    仍要保留。例如:

    We

    can repair this watch in two days.

    →This

    watch can be repaired in two days.

    They

    should do it at once.

    →It

    should be done at once.

    句型变换复习?陈述句变感叹句

    感叹句通常由what,

    how引导,表示赞美、惊叹、喜悦、等感情。what修饰名词,how

    修饰形容词、副词或动词。感叹句结构主要有以下几种:

    How+形容词+a

    +名词+其他成分!

    How+形容词或副词+其他成分!

    What+名词+其他成分!

    What+a+形容词+名词+其他成分!

    What+形容词+复数名词+其他成分!

    What+形容词+不可数名词+其他成分!

    把一个陈述句变为感叹句,可用“一断,二加,三换位,四改号”的方法来做。

    第一步:“一断”是在谓语后把句子断开。如:

    He is / a good student.

    She works / (very) hard.

    第二步:“二加”是在第二部分前加上how或what。如:

    He is / (what) a good student.     She works / (how)

    (very) hard.    注:如有very, too, quite等词应去掉。

    第三步:“三换位”是把第一、二部分交换位置。注意句中有关单词的大小写。如:

    What a good student he is.       How hard

    she works.

    第四步:“四改号”是把原来的句号改为感叹号。如:

    What a good student he is!       How hard

    she works!

    同义句变换备考方略

    一、命题特点

    同义句改写题是近几年中考的常考题型,通常的出题形式是同时给出两个句子,第一句完整,第二句中设有几处空格,要求考生填入适当的词或词组,使第二句的意思与第一句意思相同。它综合考查考生的语法、词汇、短语或习惯用语和句型结构等知识,要求运用所学的词汇、语法知识和句型结构填写句子,使句子结构完整、逻辑合理、语法知识无误、意思与所给句子相同。

    通过对近几年的中考英语试题中同义句改写题的分析,我们注意到中考同义句改写题具有以下的命题规律: 一方面,该题型主要考查考生对英语词汇、句型的掌握情况和灵活运用的能力。其特点是涉及面广、语言点多、方式灵活,特别是对语言的准确性要求很高;另一方面,近几年来,随着新课程标准的出台,新教材的广泛使用,比较死的知识点的考查正被逐步淡化,以纯语言知识点进行填词的题目的数量正在减少,而旨在考查考生理解句子意思,实际运用英语能力的题目,比如根据句子意思分析填词这类题所占分值则逐年递增。

    二、解题方法

    众所周知,掌握良好的解题技巧是走向成功的关键性因素,那么在平时学习和应考过程中我们应特别地注意以下问题:

    1. 善于积累和总结所学词汇以及句型结构,并不断进行练习以加强巩固,还要适当地加强对那些根据句子意思转换、同义词或词组转换、固定结构的转换等题型的训练与总结。切忌死记硬背词汇、句型和语法知识点,一定要将基础知识与语意的理解相结合,分析句子结构,灵活运用所掌握的知识技能,这样才能在考试中取得令人满意的成绩。

    2. 认真阅读上句,理解句意,这样才好找出与下句对应的关系、对应的词语或句型。填词时一定要注意词形(如时态、单复数、比较等级等)

    是否正确,上下两句的意思是否一致、句子结构是否恰当合适、是否满足空格字数的要求等。

    同义句变换?利用同义词改写

    用同义词或同义词组对原句中的某些词或词组进行替换,注意替换后的词或词组的词形变化要与句子其他成分相适应。如:

    1.They could see icebergs here and there.

    They

    could see icebergs _________.

    【答案】everywhere。everywhere与here

    and there都有“到处”之意。

    2.Mrs Green always takes good care of the

    children in the school.

    Mrs

    Green always _________ _________ the children well in the school.

    【答案】looks

    after。take

    good care of 与look

    after…well都有“好好照顾”之意。

    3.Lin Tao is good at physics.

    Lin

    Tao_________ _________ in physics.

    【答案】does

    well。be

    good at与do

    well in都有“在……(方面)

    做得好,擅长于……”之意。

    4.I like Backstreet Boys. But he likes F4

    better.

    He_________ F4_________

    Backstreet Boys.

    【答案】prefers,

    to。词组prefer

    A to B 意为“选择A(而不选择B);比起

    B 来,更喜欢A”。

    5.Mother is ill. Send for a doctor right

    away.

    Mother

    is ill. Send for a doctor _________ _________.

    【答案】at

    once。right

    away与at

    once 都有“马上”之意。

    6.They enjoyed themselves at the garden

    party.

    They

    _________ _________

    _________ _________

    at the garden party.

    【答案】had

    a good time。enjoy

    oneself同have

    a good time都有“玩得很高兴,愉快”之意。

    同义句变换?利用反义词改写

    用反义词或词组加上否定词表达与原句相同的意思,主要考查学生对反义词、词组的积累和换位思维的能力。如:

    1.The boy lent a story-book to Tom just

    now.

    Tom

    _________ a story-book _________ the boy just now.

    【答案】borrowed;

    from。borrow…from意为“从……借来”;而lend…to意为“向……借出”,两个词组正好为一组反义词组,当句子的主语变化时,两个词组可以进行互换。

    2.The factory is not far from here. It only

    takes you ten minutes by bike.

    The

    factory is _________here. It’s only ten

    minutes’_________.

    【答案】near;

    bike-ride。not

    far的意思是“不远,近”,可用形容词near与之转换。

    3.I think music is less interesting than

    P.E.

    I

    _________think music is _________interesting than P.E.

    【答案】don’t;

    more。less

    interesting的意思是“没有 / 不及……有趣”,与之相反more interesting的意思是“(比)

    ……更有趣”。

    语言现象“否定的转移”要求将think后面宾语从句中的否定形式转移到think

    上。

    4.The bike under the tree is different from

    this one.

    The

    bike under the tree isn’t the _________

    _________this one.

    【答案】same

    as。the

    same as意为“与……相同”,而反义词组

    be different from 意为“与……不同”。

    同义句变换?利用语态改写

    通过改变主语,主动语态与被动语态之间可进行同义句转换,特别要注意时态、情态动词的用法。如:

    1.People grow rice in the south of China.

    Rice_________ _________

    in the south of China.

    【答案】is

    grown。rice作主语,助动词用一般现在时的单数形式is。

    2.Everyone should give back his library

    books on time.

    Library

    books should  _________

    _________ on time.

    【答案】be

    given back。被动句中含有情态动词should,因此助动词用be。

    3.It is widely accepted that more people

    use computers in the world today.

    Computers

    _________ widely _________ in the world today.

    【答案】are;

    used。computers是复数名词作主语,助动词用are,且句子用被动语态。

    4.We must keep the noise level under 50dbs(分贝).

    The

    noise level must _________ _________ under 50dbs.

    【答案】be

    kept。被动句中含情态动词must,因此助动词用be。

    5.Do they grow rice in autumn?

    rice  in autumn?

    【答案】Is;

    grown。不可数名词rice作主语,

    助动词用单数is,一般疑问句的助动词置于句首。

    6.We call maths the language of science.

    Maths

    _________ _________

    the language of science.

    【答案】is

    called。主语maths虽然是以s结尾,但并不是名词的复数,因此助动词仍用单数is。

    同义句变换?利用时态改写

    中考同义句改写中涉及的时态间的相互转换主要是针对一般过去时与现在完成时两种时态间的转换而言的,应特别注意非延续性动词的用法。如:

    1.The film began 20 minutes ago.

    The

    film has been _________ _________ 20 minutes.

    【答案】on

    for。短暂动词begin,在此意为“(电影)

    开始(放映、上演)

    ”,不能与延续时间状语连用,与延续性时间状语连用时,将begin

    改成be

    up。has

    been提示时态是现在完成时态,

    “for+时间段”

    表示“持续(一段时间)

    ”,常用在含有现在完成时态的句子里。

    2.Sam’s grandfather died 10 years ago.

    Sam’s

    grandfather has been _________ _________ 10 years.

    【答案】dead

    for。短暂动词die,意为“死亡”,不能与延续性时间状语连用,与延续性时间状语连用时,将短暂动词die改为be

    dead。

    3.My grandpa joined the Party thirty years

    ago.

    My

    grandpa _________ _________ _________

    the Party for thirty years.

    【答案】has

    been in。短暂动词join,意为“参加,加入(组织,政党)”,不能与延续性时间状语连用,与延续性时间状语连用时,将join

    改成be

    in 或be

    a member in…。

    4.I got up half an hour ago.

    I

    _________ _________

    up for half an hour.

    【答案】have

    been。短暂动词get

    up,意为“起床”,不能与延续时间状语连用,与延续性时间状语连用时,将get

    up 改成be

    up。

    5.Three years has passed since the students

    came to this school.

    The

    students have _________ _________ this school for three years.

    【答案】been

    in。与原句意思一致,“学生在这所学校里已3年了”。

    同义句变换?利用不定式改写

    1.The foreigners want to know how they can

    learn Chinese Kongfu well.

    The

    foreigners want to know _________ _________ learn Chinese Kongfu well.

    【答案】how

    to。不定式与特殊疑问词what,

    when, where, how, which, whether连用构成不定式复合结构,在句中作主语、宾语、表语、宾语补足语等。

    2.She was so weak that she couldn’t take

    care of her baby.

    She

    was _________ weak _________ take care of her baby.

    【答案】too;

    to。原句意思是:她身体太弱,不能照顾孩子。too…to

    … 句型表示“太……以致于(不能)……”之意。

    3.She seems to be worried now.

    _________ _________ that she _________

    worried now.

    【答案】It

    seems; is。固定句型

    It seems / seemed that sb… 可替换成sb seems / seemed to …,表示“某人看起来……”。

    4.He was so happy that he couldn’t say a

    word when he was told the news.

    He

    was _________ happy _________ say a word when he was told the news.

    【答案】too;

    to。too…to…

    表示“太……而不能……”之意。

    5.The ice on the lake was so thin that

    people couldn’t skate on it.

    The

    ice on the lake was not _________

    enough _________people _________ _________

    _________ it.

    【答案】thick;

    for; to skate on。形容词或副词+enough

    +to do sth,意为“足够……以致于能够……”,用来替换“so…that+结果状语从句”。

    6.In China we build the Great Green Wall

    so that the wind won’t blow the earth away.

    In

    China

    we build the Great Green Wall _________

    _________ _________

    _________ _________

    _________ the earth away.

    【答案】to

    stop the wind from blowing。不定式作目的状语。

    同义句变换?利用介词短语改写

    1.We have friends in the whole world.

    Our

    friends are _________ _________ the world.

    【答案】all

    over。固定词组all

    over表示“遍及”之意。

    2.It’s a long time since we met last.

    We

    haven’t seen each other _________ _________.

    【答案】for

    long。for

    long意为“很长一段时间”。

    3.He walks to school every day.

    He

    goes to school _________ _________ every day.

    【答案】on

    foot。固定词组on

    foot意为“步行”。

    4. Tom had no time for breakfast. He went

    to school in a hurry.

    Tom

    _________ to school _________ breakfast.

    【答案】went;

    without。介词without有“没有,不(带)

    ”之意。

    5.I met one of my friends when I was going

    to the museum.

    _________ _________ _________

    to the museum I met an old friend of mine.

    【答案】On

    my way。介词短语on

    one’s way to… 表示“在某人去……的路上”的意思。

    同义句变换?利用连词改写

    (1.运用关联连词(组)

    both...and, neither...nor, either...or, not only...but also, as well as等,可将并列句或两个句子合并为一个简单句,注意neither...nor,

    either...or, not only...but also作主语时,谓语动词遵循就近原则。

    1.Lucy can’t sing the English song Yesterday

    Once More. And Lily can’t sing it, either.

    _________ Lucy_________ Lily can sing the English song Yesterday

    Once More.

    【答案】Neither;

    nor。neither...nor表示

    “(两者)

    都不”。

    2.My father isn’t a history teacher. My

    mother isn’t a history teacher, either.

    _________ my father _________ my mother _________

    a history teacher.

    【答案】Neither;

    nor; is。neither

    …nor… 作句子的主语时,谓语动词遵循“就近原则”,与最邻近的那个名词或代词保持数的一致。

    3.Alice

    has seen the film twice. Sandy

    has seen it twice, too.

    _________ Alice_________ Sandy have seen the film twice.

    【答案】Both;

    and。both…and

    表示“(两者)都”。

    4.This store sells men’s shoes, and it also

    sells men’s clothes.

    This

    store sells _________ _________ men’s shoes _________ _________

    men’s clothes.

    【答案】not

    only; but also。not

    only...but also示“不仅……而且”之意。

    同义句变换?利用so do I改写

    “so+动词+主语”结构,表示肯定,译为“某人(物)

    也如此”。“neither/nor

    +动词+主语”结构表示否定, 译为“某人(物)

    也不……”。这两种结构指前一句所说的情况同样也适合另一个人或物。转换时应注意四点:

    1.动词指助动词、be动词或情态动词;

    2.动词在时态上与前句呼应;

    3.动词在数上要与本句主语保持一致;

    4.表示否定时,neither/nor本身具有否定意义,动词要用肯定形式。

    1.Jim wants to go boating and his parents

    want to go boating, too.

    Jim

    wants to go boating, and _________ _________ his parents.

    【答案】so

    do。主语是复数his

    parents, 时态是一般现在时,助动词用do。

    2.I like playing tennis. He likes playing

    tennis, too.

    I

    like playing tennis, _________ _________ he.

    【答案】so

    does。主语是第三人称单数,时态是一般现在时,助动词用does。

    同义句变换?利用从句改写

    即运用关系代词、关系副词或从属连词改写。如:

    1.The man is talking with a lady. He gave

    us a talk last week.

    The

    man _________ gave us a talk last week _________ _________

    with a lady.

    【答案】who

    / that; is talking。定语从句who

    / that gave us a talk last week修饰先行词the man。

    2.He didn’t want to miss the first bus, so

    he got up early.

    He

    got up early _________ _________ he could catch the first bus.

    【答案】so

    that。目的状语从句so

    that he could catch the first bus说明动词got up early的目的。

    3.“Did you sleep well last night?” David

    asked her.

    David

    asked her _________ _________ _________

    well last night.

    【答案】if

    / whether she slept。直接引语转换成间接引语时,如果直接引语是一般疑问句时,连接词要用if或whether,句子保持陈述句的语序。

    4.Come on, or we’ll miss the early bus.

    _________ we _________ hurry, we’ll miss the early bus.

    【答案】

    If; don’ t。if

    引导条件状语从句。句意为:如果我们还不快一点,我们就赶不上头班车了。

    祈使句与条件状语从句的相互转换。

    5.John will go to bed after he finished his

    homework.

    John

    _________ to bed _________ he finished his homework.

    【答案】didn’t;

    until。not…until表示“直到……才”的意思。

    同义句变换?根据句意改写

    主要考查学生对句意的理解和用一个词或一种结构来概括上句的意思的综合能力。如:

    1.Li Hua and Zhang Ming are the same age.

    Li

    Hua is _________ _________ _________

    Zhang Ming.

    【答案】as

    old / young as。第一句的意思是“李华和张明同岁”,第二句是说“李华和张明年纪一样大”。

    2.How many people live in France?

    _________ _________ the population of France?

    【答案】What

    is。第一句的意思是“法国有多少人?”第二句的意思是“法国的人口有多少?”

    3.The runner fell behind the others though

    he did what he could.

    The

    runner _________ to keep up with the

    others though he _________ his _________.

    【答案】failed;

    tried; best。第一句意思是:虽然这名赛跑选手尽了全力,但还是落在了别人的后面。第二句的意思是:虽然这名赛跑选手尽了全力,但还是跟不上别人。

    4.Before talking, he told me his name and I

    told him my name .

    We

    _________ _________

    _________ _________

    before talking.

    【答案】told

    each other’s names。第一句意思是:谈话前,他告诉了我他的名字,我也告诉他我的名字。第二句的意思是:谈话前,我们相互告知了对方的名字。

    5.She has been away from Shanghai for over one year.

    More

    than one year has _________ since she _________ Shanghai.

    【答案】passed;

    left。第一句的意思是:她离开上海已经一年多了。第二句的意思是:自从她离开上海,一年多已经过去了。

    6.Walk along the street, then take the third

    crossing on the right.

    Walk

    down the street, then _________ _________ at the third crossing.

    【答案】turn

    right。两句都是告知他人去某地的路线的常用语,其句意都是:沿着这条街走,然后在第三个拐弯处右转。

    肯定句变否定句的技巧

    一、动词后直接加not。原句中含有be动词(am,

    is, are, was, were) 和助动词(have, has, had) 和情态动词(can,

    shall, will, may, should, would, might, had better等)时,要在动词后直接加not。如:

    His mother has

    already called the police for help. (乌鲁木齐市中考题)

    His mother

    ______ called the police for help ______. (答案:hasn’t, yet)

    二、原句中没有be动词,助动词或情态动词时,要在行为动词前加助动词(do,

    does, did)与否定副词not的缩写形式。另外,还需要将原句子中的some改为any;

    too改either;already改为yet。还需要分清do,

    have等是实义动词还是助动词。如(from

    zkenglish.com):

    The old man

    hurt his leg last Wednesday. (西宁市中考题)

    The old man

    ______ ______ his leg last Wednesday. (答案:didn’t hurt)

    三、原句中含有every, everything,

    all, both等不定代词或both…and…,

    a lot of 等短语时,与否定副词not连用属部分否定。把这些不定代词变成neither,

    none, no one或把both…and…变成neither…nor…时,才是全部否定。如:

    Both Joy and Sam like singing Beijing Opera. (新疆中考题)

    ______ Joy

    ______ Sam likes singing Beijing

    Opera.(答案:Neither,

    nor)

    四、在含有宾语从句的主从复合句中,当主句的主语是第一人称,谓语动词是think时,如果要否定后面的宾语从句,习惯上否定主句的谓语动词。如:

    I think she will come here soon. →I don’t

    think she will come here soon.

    如何将陈述句变为疑问句

    一、变为一般疑问句

    将陈述句变成一般疑问句,要根据陈述句中的谓语动词及其时态确定疑问形式。其句型特点一般是:助动词或情态动词

    + 主语

    + 谓语

    + 动词

    + 其他?如:

    The policeman

    told the boys not to play football in the street. (甘肃省中考题)

    ______ the

    policeman ______ the boys not to play football in the street?

    答案:Did, tell

    二、变为特殊疑问句

    将陈述句变成特殊疑问句时,常用的方法是“一选,二移,三变,四代”。“一选”就是选择疑问词,被选择的疑问代词有:what,

    which, who, whose;疑问副词有:where,

    when, why, how;疑问副词词组有:how

    long, how often, how soon, how far, how many, how much, how old等。“二移”就是把be动词,助动词或情态动词移到句首。“三变”就是将原句中第一个单词的首字母改为小写(专有名词除外),将some,

    something等改为any,

    anything等,将句号改为问号。四代就是将选好的特殊疑问词替代划线部分。如:(西宁市中考题)

    At the age of

    three, David weighed 20 kilos. (就划线部分提问)

    ________ did David

    weigh at the age of three?

    答案:How much

    三、变为选择疑问句

    将陈述句变成一般疑问句,在问号前加上“or

    + 所给的被选择部分”。如:(新疆中考题)

    Most young men

    like popular music. (用 rock music 改为选择疑问句)

    ______ most

    young men like popular music ______ rock music?

    答案:Do, or (from

    www.zkenglish.com)

    四、变为反意疑问句

    陈述句变成反意疑问句时一定要遵循“前肯定,后否定;前否定,后肯定”的原则。历年中考常考的六种特殊的反意疑问句是①在英语口语中,I

    am后面的附加疑问部分常用aren’t

    I;②There be... 后面的附加疑问部分一般用be(not)there;③在Let

    us...后面,常用will

    you;④Let’s...后面,常用shall

    we;⑤had better后面,附加疑问部分的助动词用had;⑥当陈述部分是祈使句时,附加疑问部分通常用will

    you或won’t

    you。如:

    Miss King

    hardly spoke a word the whole time. (广州市中考题)

    Miss King

    hardly spoke a word the whole time, ______

    ______?

    答案:did she

    句型变换?肯定句变成否定句

    句型变换?陈述句变疑问句

    1.变成一般疑问句

    将陈述句变成一般疑问句,要根据陈述句中的谓语动词及其时态确定疑问形式。其句型特点一般是:助动词或情态动词

    + 主语

    + 谓语

    + 动词

    + 其他?如:

    The policeman told

    the boys not to play football in the street. (甘肃省中考题)

    ________

    the policeman ________ the boys not to play

    football in the street?

    答案:Did, tell

    2.变成特殊疑问句

    将陈述句变成特殊疑问句时,常用的方法是“一选,二移,三变,四代”。“一选”就是选择疑问词,被选择的疑问代词有:what,

    which, who, whose;疑问副词有:where,

    when, why, how;疑问副词词组有:how

    long, how often, how soon, how far, how many, how much, how old等。“二移”就是把be动词,助动词或情态动词移到句首。“三变”就是将原句中第一个单词的首字母改为小写(专有名词除外),将some,

    something等改为any,

    anything等,将句号改为问号。四代就是将选好的特殊疑问词替代划线部分。如:(西宁市中考题)

    At the age of

    three, David weighed 20 kilos. (就划线部分提问)

    ________

    did David weigh at the age of three?

    答案:How much

    3.变成选择疑问句

    将陈述句变成一般疑问句,在问号前加上“or

    + 所给的被选择部分”。如:(新疆中考题)

    Most young men

    like popular music. (用 rock music 改为选择疑问句)

    ________

    most young men like popular music ________

    rock music?

    答案:Do, or

    4.变成反意疑问句

    陈述句变成反意疑问句时一定要遵循“前肯定,后否定;前否定,后肯定”的原则。历年中考常考的六种特殊的反意疑问句是①在英语口语中,I

    am后面的附加疑问部分常用aren’t

    I;②There be... 后面的附加疑问部分一般用be(not)there;③在Let

    us...后面,常用will

    you;④Let’s...后面,常用shall

    we;⑤had better后面,附加疑问部分的助动词用had;⑥当陈述部分是祈使句时,附加疑问部分通常用will

    you或won’t

    you。如:(from www.zkenglish.com)

    Miss King

    hardly spoke a word the whole time. (广州市中考题)

    Miss King

    hardly spoke a word the whole time, ________  ________?

    答案:did she

    复合句与简单句的转换技巧

    一、含宾语从句的复合句转换为简单句

    即将宾语从句转换成相应的短语。如:

    We expected

    that you would come. 我们希望你来。

    →We expected

    you to come. 我们希望你来。

    Now tell me

    what I should do. 现在告诉我该怎么办。

    →Now tell me

    what to do. 现在告诉我该怎么办。

    I remember I

    once met her at a party. 我记得在一次晚会上见过他。

    →I remember

    once meeting her at a party. 我记得在一次晚会上见过他。

    I ask him

    what I shall do. 我问他该怎么办。

    →I ask him

    what to do. 我问他该怎么办。

    I can’t

    decide whom I should invite. 我不能决定该邀请谁。

    →I can’t

    decide whom to invite. 我不能决定该邀请谁。

    二、含状语从句的复合句转换成简单句

    即将状语从句转换成状语短语。如:

    He can’t come

    because he is ill. 他因病不能来。

    →He can’t

    come because of his illness. 他因病不能来。

    Turn off the

    light before you leave. 离开前请关灯。

    →Turn off the

    light before leaving. 离开前请关灯。

    He went home

    after he finished his work. 他做完工作后就回家了。

    →He went home

    after finishing his work. 他做完工作后就回家了。

    He was so

    angry that he couldn’t speak. 他气得话都说不出来。

    →He was too

    angry too speak. 他气得话都说不出来。

    He studied

    hard in order that he could pass the exam. 他努力学习以便能考及格。

    →He studied

    hard in order to pass the exam. 他努力学习以便能考及格。

    肯定句变否定句的基本方法

    1. 动词be的否定式

    动词be根据不同的人称和时态可以有am, is, are,

    was, were等不同形式,可用作连系动词(表示“是”、“在”等)和助动词(用于构成进行时态和被动语态等),但不管何种情况,构成否定式时,一律在其后加not:

    I’m old, but

    you’re young. 我老了,但你还年轻。

    →I’m not old,

    but you’re not young. 我还不老,但你不年轻了。

    He was

    reading and I was writing. 他在读,我在写。

    →He was not

    reading and I was not writing. 他没有在读,我没有在写。

    2. 动词have的否定式

    动词have根据不同的人称和时态可以有have, has,

    had等形式,可以用作实意动词和助动词,分以下情况讨论:

    1. 用作实意动词表示状态,如表示拥有、患病或用于have to表示“必须”等,在构成否定式时可以直接在其后加not,也可根据情况在其前使用don’t, doesn’t, didn’t:

    He has a car.

    他有辆小汽车。

    →He hasn’t a

    car. / He doesn’t have a car. 他没有小汽车。

    He had some

    dictionaries. 他有一些词典。

    →He hadn’t

    any dictionaries. / He didn’t have any dictionaries. 他没有词典。

    You have to

    go with him. 你必须同他一起去。

    →You haven’t

    to go with him. / You don’t have to go with him. 你不必同他一起去。

    【注】have to构成否定式时以在其前加don’t等较为常见。

    2. 用作实意动词表示动作,如表示“吃(=eat)”、“喝(=drink)”、“拿(=take)”、“收到(=receive)”、“度过(=spend)”等,构成否定式时不能直接在其后加not,而应根据情况在其前使用don’t, doesn’t, didn’t:

    He had some

    cake for breakfast. 他早餐吃了些蛋糕。

    →He didn’t

    have any cake for breakfast. 他早餐没有吃蛋糕。(不能用had not)

    We had a good

    holiday. 我们的假期过得很愉快。

    →We didn’t

    have a good holiday. 我们的假期过得不愉快。(不能用had not)

    3. 用作助动词构成完成时态,其否定式只能在其后加not:

    I have read

    the book. 我读这本书。

    →I have not

    read the book. 我还没读这本书。

    He had left

    when I arrived. 我到达时他已离开了。

    →He hadn’t

    left when I arrived. 我到达时他还没有离开。

    三、情态动词的否定式

    情态动词的否定式一般在其后加not构成:

    I can finish

    the work in an hour. 我能在1小时内完成这工作。

    →I can’t

    finish the work in an hour. 我不能在1小时内完成这工作。

    You must go

    with us. 你必须同我们一起去。

    →You mustn’t

    go with us. 你不能同我们一起去。

    We should

    help them. 我们应该帮助他们。

    →We shouldn’t

    help them. 我们不必帮助他们。

    四、实意动词的否定式

    一般实意动词的否定式,通常应根据不同时态和人称在实意动词之前加don’t,

    doesn’t, didn’t等:

    He works in a

    bank. 他在一家银行工作。

    →He doesn’t

    work in a bank. 他不是在银行工作。

    We often hear

    from her. 我们经常收到她的来信。

    →We don’t

    often hear from her. 我们不经常收到她的来信。

    I met her at

    the station. 我在车站见到了她。

    →I didn’t

    meet her at the station. 我在车站没见到她。

    肯定句变否定句的三点注意

    一、变否定句时相关词的改变

    肯定句变否定句时,除将谓语变为否定式外,句中其他词语也可能随之改变,如将some改为any,too和also改为either,already改为yet,and改为or等:

    There are

    some birds in the tree. 树上有些鸟。

    →There aren’t

    any birds in the tree. 树上没有鸟。

    He likes the

    girl, too. 他也喜欢这个女孩。

    →He doesn’t

    like the girl, either. 他也不喜欢这个女孩。

    We have

    already seen the film. 我们已看过这部电影。

    →We have not

    seen the film yet. 我们没有看这部电影。

    He likes

    singing and dancing. 他喜欢唱歌和跳舞。

    →He doesn’t

    like singing or dancing. 他不喜欢唱歌也不喜欢跳舞。

    二、不变谓语动词而变其他词语

    有时将肯定句变为否定句时,不改变谓语而改变其他词语:

    Both of us

    went there. 我们两人都去了那儿。

    →Neither of

    us went there. 我们两人都没去那儿。

    Both Jim and

    Mary can sing this song. 吉姆和玛丽都会唱这首歌。

    →Neither Jim

    nor Mary can sing this song. 吉姆和玛丽都不会唱这首歌。

    All of the

    books are worth reading. 所有这些书都值得读。

    →None of the

    books are worth reading. 所有这些书都不值得读。

    三、部分否定与完全否定

    比较以下句子:

    All of us

    laughed when we heard it. 听到这事时我们都笑了。(肯定句)

    All of us

    didn’t laughed when we heard it. 听到这事时我们并未都笑。(部分否定)

    Not all of us

    laughed when we heard it. 听到这事时我们并未都笑。(部分否定)

    None of us

    laughed when we heard it. 听到这事时我们都没笑。(完全否定)

    【注】可能涉及部分否定的词语有both, all, always, every等,即not both表示“并非两者都”,not all 表示“并非所有的都”,not always 表示“并非总是”,not every表示“并非每个…都”。

    英语常用否定词归纳

    除否定词not可用于构成否定句外,还有其他一些否定词语可以表示否定:

    1.

    用no表示。其意为“没有”:

    We have no

    children of our own. 我们没有自己的孩子。

    I’ve got no

    news from him. 我没听到他的消息。

    【注】no后接名词时也可换成not any:

    I have no

    [not any] friends here. 我在这儿没有朋友。

    2.

    用never表示。其意为“从不”:

    I have never

    been there. 我从未去过那儿。

    That will

    never do. 那决不行。

    3.

    用little, few表示。little用于指不可数名词,few用于指可数名词,均表示“很少”:

    There is little

    time left. 没什么时间了。

    Few people

    like snakes. 很少有人喜欢蛇。

    【注】若在其前用不定冠词,则表示肯定意义:

    There is a

    little time left. 还有点点时间。

    A few people

    like snakes. 有少数人喜欢蛇。

    4.

    用nobody, no one, nothing表示。nobody和no one用于指人,其意为“没有人”;nothing用于指物,其意为“没有任何东西”:

    No one

    [Nobody] wants to go there. 没有人想去那儿。

    She said

    nothing. 她什么也没说。

    5.

    用none表示。意为“没有人或物”:

    None of the

    pupils knew the answer. 学生中谁都不知道答案。

    None of this

    milk can be used. 这牛奶一点都不能用了。

    6.

    用neither表示。意为“两者都不”

    展开全文
    weixin_39925813 2020-12-31 03:04:33
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