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  • Xilinx zynq USB开发

    千次阅读 2018-10-06 21:45:23
    参考 Zynq Linux USB Device Driver

    作者

    QQ群:852283276
    微信:arm80x86
    微信公众号:青儿创客基地
    B站:主页 https://space.bilibili.com/208826118

    参考

    U-Boot USB Driver
    Zynq Linux USB Device Driver
    U-Boot USB Driver
    Zynq-7000 AP SoC USB Mass Storage Device Class Design Example Techtip
    Zynq-7000 AP SoC USB CDC Device Class Design Example Techtip
    Zynq Linux USB Device Driver
    Linux USB Gadget Driver
    USB Host System Setup
    USB Host Controller Driver
    AXI USB Device Driver
    AXI USB gadget driver
    USB boot with Linux 2015.2 build
    zynq-7000学习笔记(八)——USB摄像头图像采集
    ZYNQ-ZedBoard USB HOST问题初探
    ZYNQ-ZedBoard USB HOST问题二探
    Zynq usb无法识别
    USB Phy/ULPI (2-读写USB Phy寄存器)
    USB Mass Storage大容量存储的基本知识
    怎么通过 /proc/scsi/usb-storage来确定u盘是/dev/sdb还是sdc
    如何实现Linux下的U盘(USB Mass Storage)驱动
    Zynq Linux USB Driver Customization
    Linux/DRA77P: ULPI USB interface
    ZYNQ基础----裸机USB的使用

    介绍

    zynq上用的是chipidea的ip,ULPI 接口要求输入保持时间为1ns,TI TUSB1210 PHY 的最低 CTO 并未规定,但报告的最低 CTO 为 100 ps,无法满足 Zynq-7000 的要求(AR# 53450)。
    When the USB controller is configured in device mode, and Vbus voltage is varied such that it crosses the Vbus valid threshold multiple times, the ULPI interface becomes unresponsive.(AR# 61313)

    u-boot

    u-boot下操作usb,

    zynq-uboot> usb
    usb - USB sub-system
    
    Usage:
    usb start - start (scan) USB controller
    usb reset - reset (rescan) USB controller
    usb stop [f] - stop USB [f]=force stop
    usb tree - show USB device tree
    usb info [dev] - show available USB devices
    usb test [dev] [port] [mode] - set USB 2.0 test mode
        (specify port 0 to indicate the device's upstream port)
        Available modes: J, K, S[E0_NAK], P[acket], F[orce_Enable]
    usb storage - show details of USB storage devices
    usb dev [dev] - show or set current USB storage device
    usb part [dev] - print partition table of one or all USB storage    devices
    usb read addr blk# cnt - read `cnt' blocks starting at block `blk#'
        to memory address `addr'
    usb write addr blk# cnt - write `cnt' blocks starting at block `blk#'
        from memory address `addr'
    zynq-uboot> usb start
    starting USB...
    USB0:   USB EHCI 1.00
    scanning bus 0 for devices... 3 USB Device(s) found
    USB1:   usb1 wrong num MIO: 0, Index 1
    lowlevel init failed
           scanning usb for storage devices... 1 Storage Device(s) found
    zynq-uboot> usb tree
    USB device tree:
      1  Hub (480 Mb/s, 0mA)
      |  u-boot EHCI Host Controller 
      |
      +-2  Hub (480 Mb/s, 2mA)
        |
        +-3  Mass Storage (480 Mb/s, 300mA)
             Kingston DataTraveler 2.0 001A4D5F1A5CB0419945C2A1
           
    zynq-uboot> usb info
    1: Hub,  USB Revision 2.0
     - u-boot EHCI Host Controller 
     - Class: Hub
     - PacketSize: 64  Configurations: 1
     - Vendor: 0x0000  Product 0x0000 Version 1.0
       Configuration: 1
       - Interfaces: 1 Self Powered 0mA
         Interface: 0
         - Alternate Setting 0, Endpoints: 1
         - Class Hub
         - Endpoint 1 In Interrupt MaxPacket 8 Interval 255ms
    
    2: Hub,  USB Revision 2.0
     - Class: Hub
     - PacketSize: 64  Configurations: 1
     - Vendor: 0x0424  Product 0x2514 Version 11.179
       Configuration: 1
       - Interfaces: 1 Self Powered Remote Wakeup 2mA
         Interface: 0
         - Alternate Setting 0, Endpoints: 1
         - Class Hub
         - Endpoint 1 In Interrupt MaxPacket 1 Interval 12ms
         - Endpoint 1 In Interrupt MaxPacket 1 Interval 12ms
    
    3: Mass Storage,  USB Revision 2.0
     - Kingston DataTraveler 2.0 001A4D5F1A5CB0419945C2A1
     - Class: (from Interface) Mass Storage
     - PacketSize: 64  Configurations: 1
     - Vendor: 0x0930  Product 0x6545 Version 1.16
       Configuration: 1
       - Interfaces: 1 Bus Powered 300mA
         Interface: 0
         - Alternate Setting 0, Endpoints: 2
         - Class Mass Storage, Transp. SCSI, Bulk only
         - Endpoint 1 In Bulk MaxPacket 512
         - Endpoint 2 Out Bulk MaxPacket 512
    

    linux

    petalinux 2018.2下的内核与设备树,

    Device Drivers
    USB support
        <*> Support for Host-side USB
        <*> EHCI HCD (USB 2.0) support
        <*> USB Mass Storage support
        <*> ChipIdea Highspeed Dual Role Controller
        <*> ChipIdea host controller
            USB Physical Layer drivers --->
            <*> Generic ULPI Transceiver Driver
            
    usb_0: usb@e0002000 {
         compatible = "xlnx,zynq-usb-2.20.a", "chipidea,usb2";
         clocks = <&clkc 28>
         dr_mode = "host";
         interrupt-parent = <&intc>;
         interrupts = <0 21 4>;
         reg = <0xe0002000 0x1000>;
         usb-phy = <&usb_phy0>;
     };
     
     usb_phy0: phy0 { //Z:\program\fdk\bsp\zynqmp\linux-xlnx-v2018.2\drivers\usb\phy\phy-ulpi.c
        compatible = "ulpi-phy";
        #phy-cells = <0>;
        reg = <0xe0002000 0x1000>;
        view-port = <0x170>;
        drv-vbus;
    }
    

    petalinux 2015.2.1也是"xlnx,zynq-usb-2.20.a",参考drivers\usb\chipidea\ci_hdrc_usb2.c,petalinux 2015.2.1下的设备树,

    &usb0 {
    	compatible = "xlnx,zynq-usb-2.20.a";
    	dr_mode = "host";
    	phy_type = "ulpi";
    	status = "okay";
    };
    

    对内核打补丁,

    static int ci_hdrc_create_ulpi_phy(struct device *dev, struct ci_hdrc *ci)
    {
            struct usb_phy *ulpi;
            int reset_gpio;
            int ret;
    
            reset_gpio = of_get_named_gpio(dev->parent->of_node, "xlnx,phy-reset-gpio", 0);
            if (gpio_is_valid(reset_gpio)) {
                    ret = devm_gpio_request_one(dev, reset_gpio, GPIOF_INIT_LOW, "ulpi resetb");
                    if (ret) {
                            dev_err(dev, "Failed to request ULPI reset gpio: %d\n", ret);
                            return ret;
                    }
                    msleep(5);
                    gpio_set_value_cansleep(reset_gpio, 1);
                    msleep(1);
            }
    
            ulpi = otg_ulpi_create(&ulpi_viewport_access_ops,
                    ULPI_OTG_DRVVBUS | ULPI_OTG_DRVVBUS_EXT);
            if (ulpi) {
                    ulpi->io_priv = ci->hw_bank.abs + 0x170;
                    ci->usb_phy = ulpi;
            }
    
            return 0;
    }
    

    开机打印,

    ehci_hcd: USB 2.0 'Enhanced' Host Controller (EHCI) Driver
    ehci-pci: EHCI PCI platform driver
    usbcore: registered new interface driver usb-storage
    e0002000.usb supply vbus not found, using dummy regulator
    ULPI transceiver vendor/product ID 0x0451/0x1507
    Found TI TUSB1210 ULPI transceiver.
    ULPI integrity check: passed.
    ci_hdrc ci_hdrc.0: EHCI Host Controller
    ci_hdrc ci_hdrc.0: new USB bus registered, assigned bus number 1
    ci_hdrc ci_hdrc.0: USB 2.0 started, EHCI 1.00
    hub 1-0:1.0: USB hub found
    hub 1-0:1.0: 1 port detected
    ...
    hub 1-1:1.0: USB hub found
    hub 1-1:1.0: 4 ports detected
    INIT: version 2.88 booting
    usb 1-1.3: new high-speed USB device number 3 using ci_hdrc
    mount: mounting devtmpfs on /dev failed: Device or resource busy
    usb-storage 1-1.3:1.0: USB Mass Storage device detected
    scsi host0: usb-storage 1-1.3:1.0
    ...
    login[887]: root login on 'ttyPS0'
    scsi 0:0:0:0: Direct-Access     Kingston DataTraveler 2.0 PMAP PQ: 0 ANSI: 6
    sd 0:0:0:0: Attached scsi generic sg0 type 0
    sd 0:0:0:0: [sda] 30240768 512-byte logical blocks: (15.4 GB/14.4 GiB)
    sd 0:0:0:0: [sda] Write Protect is off
    sd 0:0:0:0: [sda] Write cache: disabled, read cache: enabled, doesn't support DPO or FUA
     sda: sda1
    sd 0:0:0:0: [sda] Attached SCSI removable disk
    

    TUSB1210 OTG_CTRL寄存器,可控制CPEN管脚,配合硬件完成,OTG电源切换,USB3320也是一样,
    196
    zc706 usb原理图,
    197

    读写ULPI PHY寄存器

    zynq的usb0基地址在0xE0002000,usb1在0xE0003000,通过ULPI Viewport来访问寄存器,zynq芯片不能使用ULPI Viewport读写ULPI PHY的扩展寄存器集(地址 0x40 及更高)。写入操作将地址本身写为数据,读取操作返回不正确的数据。
    在这里插入图片描述
    Viewport寄存器,低8位是写入的寄存器地址,
    在这里插入图片描述
    唤醒,

    memtool mw 0xE0002170 0xa0000000
    

    读TUSB1210 ID,

    root@zynq:~# memtool mw 0xE0002170 0x40000000
    root@zynq:~# memtool md 0xE0002170+4
    e0002170: 08005100                                           .Q..
    root@zynq:~# memtool mw 0xE0002170 0x40010000
    root@zynq:~# memtool md 0xE0002170+4
    e0002170: 08010400                                           ....
    root@zynq:~# memtool mw 0xE0002170 0x40020000
    root@zynq:~# memtool md 0xE0002170+4
    e0002170: 08020700                                           ....
    root@zynq:~# memtool mw 0xE0002170 0x40030000
    root@zynq:~# memtool md 0xE0002170+4
    e0002170: 08031500 
    

    写OTG_CTRL寄存器,

    memtool mw 0xE0002170 0x400a0000
    memtool md 0xE0002170+4
    
    展开全文
  • The following is a consolidated list of the kernel parameters as implemented by the __setup(), early_param(), core_param() and module_param() macros and sorted into English Dictionary order (defined ...

    The kernel’s command-line parameters

    The following is a consolidated list of the kernel parameters as implemented by the __setup(), early_param(), core_param() and module_param() macros and sorted into English Dictionary order (defined as ignoring all punctuation and sorting digits before letters in a case insensitive manner), and with descriptions where known.

    The kernel parses parameters from the kernel command line up to “--“; if it doesn’t recognize a parameter and it doesn’t contain a ‘.’, the parameter gets passed to init: parameters with ‘=’ go into init’s environment, others are passed as command line arguments to init. Everything after “--” is passed as an argument to init.

    Module parameters can be specified in two ways: via the kernel command line with a module name prefix, or via modprobe, e.g.:

    (kernel command line) usbcore.blinkenlights=1
    (modprobe command line) modprobe usbcore blinkenlights=1
    

    Parameters for modules which are built into the kernel need to be specified on the kernel command line. modprobe looks through the kernel command line (/proc/cmdline) and collects module parameters when it loads a module, so the kernel command line can be used for loadable modules too.

    Hyphens (dashes) and underscores are equivalent in parameter names, so:

    log_buf_len=1M print-fatal-signals=1
    

    can also be entered as:

    log-buf-len=1M print_fatal_signals=1
    

    Double-quotes can be used to protect spaces in values, e.g.:

    param="spaces in here"
    

    cpu lists:

    Some kernel parameters take a list of CPUs as a value, e.g. isolcpus, nohz_full, irqaffinity, rcu_nocbs. The format of this list is:

    <cpu number>,…,<cpu number>

    or

    <cpu number>-<cpu number> (must be a positive range in ascending order)

    or a mixture

    <cpu number>,…,<cpu number>-<cpu number>

    Note that for the special case of a range one can split the range into equal sized groups and for each group use some amount from the beginning of that group:

    <cpu number>-<cpu number>:<used size>/<group size>

    For example one can add to the command line following parameter:

    isolcpus=1,2,10-20,100-2000:2/25

    where the final item represents CPUs 100,101,125,126,150,151,…

    This document may not be entirely up to date and comprehensive. The command “modinfo -p ${modulename}” shows a current list of all parameters of a loadable module. Loadable modules, after being loaded into the running kernel, also reveal their parameters in /sys/module/${modulename}/parameters/. Some of these parameters may be changed at runtime by the command echo -n ${value} > /sys/module/${modulename}/parameters/${parm}.

    The parameters listed below are only valid if certain kernel build options were enabled and if respective hardware is present. The text in square brackets at the beginning of each description states the restrictions within which a parameter is applicable:

    ACPI    ACPI support is enabled.
    AGP     AGP (Accelerated Graphics Port) is enabled.
    ALSA    ALSA sound support is enabled.
    APIC    APIC support is enabled.
    APM     Advanced Power Management support is enabled.
    ARM     ARM architecture is enabled.
    ARM64   ARM64 architecture is enabled.
    AX25    Appropriate AX.25 support is enabled.
    CLK     Common clock infrastructure is enabled.
    CMA     Contiguous Memory Area support is enabled.
    DRM     Direct Rendering Management support is enabled.
    DYNAMIC_DEBUG Build in debug messages and enable them at runtime
    EDD     BIOS Enhanced Disk Drive Services (EDD) is enabled
    EFI     EFI Partitioning (GPT) is enabled
    EIDE    EIDE/ATAPI support is enabled.
    EVM     Extended Verification Module
    FB      The frame buffer device is enabled.
    FTRACE  Function tracing enabled.
    GCOV    GCOV profiling is enabled.
    HW      Appropriate hardware is enabled.
    IA-64   IA-64 architecture is enabled.
    IMA     Integrity measurement architecture is enabled.
    IOSCHED More than one I/O scheduler is enabled.
    IP_PNP  IP DHCP, BOOTP, or RARP is enabled.
    IPV6    IPv6 support is enabled.
    ISAPNP  ISA PnP code is enabled.
    ISDN    Appropriate ISDN support is enabled.
    ISOL    CPU Isolation is enabled.
    JOY     Appropriate joystick support is enabled.
    KGDB    Kernel debugger support is enabled.
    KVM     Kernel Virtual Machine support is enabled.
    LIBATA  Libata driver is enabled
    LP      Printer support is enabled.
    LOOP    Loopback device support is enabled.
    M68k    M68k architecture is enabled.
                    These options have more detailed description inside of
                    Documentation/m68k/kernel-options.rst.
    MDA     MDA console support is enabled.
    MIPS    MIPS architecture is enabled.
    MOUSE   Appropriate mouse support is enabled.
    MSI     Message Signaled Interrupts (PCI).
    MTD     MTD (Memory Technology Device) support is enabled.
    NET     Appropriate network support is enabled.
    NUMA    NUMA support is enabled.
    NFS     Appropriate NFS support is enabled.
    OF      Devicetree is enabled.
    OSS     OSS sound support is enabled.
    PV_OPS  A paravirtualized kernel is enabled.
    PARIDE  The ParIDE (parallel port IDE) subsystem is enabled.
    PARISC  The PA-RISC architecture is enabled.
    PCI     PCI bus support is enabled.
    PCIE    PCI Express support is enabled.
    PCMCIA  The PCMCIA subsystem is enabled.
    PNP     Plug & Play support is enabled.
    PPC     PowerPC architecture is enabled.
    PPT     Parallel port support is enabled.
    PS2     Appropriate PS/2 support is enabled.
    RAM     RAM disk support is enabled.
    RDT     Intel Resource Director Technology.
    S390    S390 architecture is enabled.
    SCSI    Appropriate SCSI support is enabled.
                    A lot of drivers have their options described inside
                    the Documentation/scsi/ sub-directory.
    SECURITY Different security models are enabled.
    SELINUX SELinux support is enabled.
    APPARMOR AppArmor support is enabled.
    SERIAL  Serial support is enabled.
    SH      SuperH architecture is enabled.
    SMP     The kernel is an SMP kernel.
    SPARC   Sparc architecture is enabled.
    SWSUSP  Software suspend (hibernation) is enabled.
    SUSPEND System suspend states are enabled.
    TPM     TPM drivers are enabled.
    TS      Appropriate touchscreen support is enabled.
    UMS     USB Mass Storage support is enabled.
    USB     USB support is enabled.
    USBHID  USB Human Interface Device support is enabled.
    V4L     Video For Linux support is enabled.
    VMMIO   Driver for memory mapped virtio devices is enabled.
    VGA     The VGA console has been enabled.
    VT      Virtual terminal support is enabled.
    WDT     Watchdog support is enabled.
    XT      IBM PC/XT MFM hard disk support is enabled.
    X86-32  X86-32, aka i386 architecture is enabled.
    X86-64  X86-64 architecture is enabled.
                    More X86-64 boot options can be found in
                    Documentation/x86/x86_64/boot-options.rst.
    X86     Either 32-bit or 64-bit x86 (same as X86-32+X86-64)
    X86_UV  SGI UV support is enabled.
    XEN     Xen support is enabled
    XTENSA  xtensa architecture is enabled.
    

    In addition, the following text indicates that the option:

    BUGS=   Relates to possible processor bugs on the said processor.
    KNL     Is a kernel start-up parameter.
    BOOT    Is a boot loader parameter.
    

    Parameters denoted with BOOT are actually interpreted by the boot loader, and have no meaning to the kernel directly. Do not modify the syntax of boot loader parameters without extreme need or coordination with <The Linux/x86 Boot Protocol>.

    There are also arch-specific kernel-parameters not documented here. See for example <AMD64 Specific Boot Options>.

    Note that ALL kernel parameters listed below are CASE SENSITIVE, and that a trailing = on the name of any parameter states that that parameter will be entered as an environment variable, whereas its absence indicates that it will appear as a kernel argument readable via /proc/cmdline by programs running once the system is up.

    The number of kernel parameters is not limited, but the length of the complete command line (parameters including spaces etc.) is limited to a fixed number of characters. This limit depends on the architecture and is between 256 and 4096 characters. It is defined in the file ./include/asm/setup.h as COMMAND_LINE_SIZE.

    Finally, the [KMG] suffix is commonly described after a number of kernel parameter values. These ‘K’, ‘M’, and ‘G’ letters represent the _binary_ multipliers ‘Kilo’, ‘Mega’, and ‘Giga’, equaling 2^10, 2^20, and 2^30 bytes respectively. Such letter suffixes can also be entirely omitted:

            acpi=           [HW,ACPI,X86,ARM64]
                            Advanced Configuration and Power Interface
                            Format: { force | on | off | strict | noirq | rsdt |
                                      copy_dsdt }
                            force -- enable ACPI if default was off
                            on -- enable ACPI but allow fallback to DT [arm64]
                            off -- disable ACPI if default was on
                            noirq -- do not use ACPI for IRQ routing
                            strict -- Be less tolerant of platforms that are not
                                    strictly ACPI specification compliant.
                            rsdt -- prefer RSDT over (default) XSDT
                            copy_dsdt -- copy DSDT to memory
                            For ARM64, ONLY "acpi=off", "acpi=on" or "acpi=force"
                            are available
    
                            See also Documentation/power/runtime_pm.rst, pci=noacpi
    
            acpi_apic_instance=     [ACPI, IOAPIC]
                            Format: <int>
                            2: use 2nd APIC table, if available
                            1,0: use 1st APIC table
                            default: 0
    
            acpi_backlight= [HW,ACPI]
                            { vendor | video | native | none }
                            If set to vendor, prefer vendor-specific driver
                            (e.g. thinkpad_acpi, sony_acpi, etc.) instead
                            of the ACPI video.ko driver.
                            If set to video, use the ACPI video.ko driver.
                            If set to native, use the device's native backlight mode.
                            If set to none, disable the ACPI backlight interface.
    
            acpi_force_32bit_fadt_addr
                            force FADT to use 32 bit addresses rather than the
                            64 bit X_* addresses. Some firmware have broken 64
                            bit addresses for force ACPI ignore these and use
                            the older legacy 32 bit addresses.
    
            acpica_no_return_repair [HW, ACPI]
                            Disable AML predefined validation mechanism
                            This mechanism can repair the evaluation result to make
                            the return objects more ACPI specification compliant.
                            This option is useful for developers to identify the
                            root cause of an AML interpreter issue when the issue
                            has something to do with the repair mechanism.
    
            acpi.debug_layer=       [HW,ACPI,ACPI_DEBUG]
            acpi.debug_level=       [HW,ACPI,ACPI_DEBUG]
                            Format: <int>
                            CONFIG_ACPI_DEBUG must be enabled to produce any ACPI
                            debug output.  Bits in debug_layer correspond to a
                            _COMPONENT in an ACPI source file, e.g.,
                                #define _COMPONENT ACPI_PCI_COMPONENT
                            Bits in debug_level correspond to a level in
                            ACPI_DEBUG_PRINT statements, e.g.,
                                ACPI_DEBUG_PRINT((ACPI_DB_INFO, ...
                            The debug_level mask defaults to "info".  See
                            Documentation/firmware-guide/acpi/debug.rst for more information about
                            debug layers and levels.
    
                            Enable processor driver info messages:
                                acpi.debug_layer=0x20000000
                            Enable PCI/PCI interrupt routing info messages:
                                acpi.debug_layer=0x400000
                            Enable AML "Debug" output, i.e., stores to the Debug
                            object while interpreting AML:
                                acpi.debug_layer=0xffffffff acpi.debug_level=0x2
                            Enable all messages related to ACPI hardware:
                                acpi.debug_layer=0x2 acpi.debug_level=0xffffffff
    
                            Some values produce so much output that the system is
                            unusable.  The "log_buf_len" parameter may be useful
                            if you need to capture more output.
    
            acpi_enforce_resources= [ACPI]
                            { strict | lax | no }
                            Check for resource conflicts between native drivers
                            and ACPI OperationRegions (SystemIO and SystemMemory
                            only). IO ports and memory declared in ACPI might be
                            used by the ACPI subsystem in arbitrary AML code and
                            can interfere with legacy drivers.
                            strict (default): access to resources claimed by ACPI
                            is denied; legacy drivers trying to access reserved
                            resources will fail to bind to device using them.
                            lax: access to resources claimed by ACPI is allowed;
                            legacy drivers trying to access reserved resources
                            will bind successfully but a warning message is logged.
                            no: ACPI OperationRegions are not marked as reserved,
                            no further checks are performed.
    
            acpi_force_table_verification   [HW,ACPI]
                            Enable table checksum verification during early stage.
                            By default, this is disabled due to x86 early mapping
                            size limitation.
    
            acpi_irq_balance [HW,ACPI]
                            ACPI will balance active IRQs
                            default in APIC mode
    
            acpi_irq_nobalance [HW,ACPI]
                            ACPI will not move active IRQs (default)
                            default in PIC mode
    
            acpi_irq_isa=   [HW,ACPI] If irq_balance, mark listed IRQs used by ISA
                            Format: <irq>,<irq>...
    
            acpi_irq_pci=   [HW,ACPI] If irq_balance, clear listed IRQs for
                            use by PCI
                            Format: <irq>,<irq>...
    
            acpi_mask_gpe=  [HW,ACPI]
                            Due to the existence of _Lxx/_Exx, some GPEs triggered
                            by unsupported hardware/firmware features can result in
                            GPE floodings that cannot be automatically disabled by
                            the GPE dispatcher.
                            This facility can be used to prevent such uncontrolled
                            GPE floodings.
                            Format: <byte>
    
            acpi_no_auto_serialize  [HW,ACPI]
                            Disable auto-serialization of AML methods
                            AML control methods that contain the opcodes to create
                            named objects will be marked as "Serialized" by the
                            auto-serialization feature.
                            This feature is enabled by default.
                            This option allows to turn off the feature.
    
            acpi_no_memhotplug [ACPI] Disable memory hotplug.  Useful for kdump
                               kernels.
    
            acpi_no_static_ssdt     [HW,ACPI]
                            Disable installation of static SSDTs at early boot time
                            By default, SSDTs contained in the RSDT/XSDT will be
                            installed automatically and they will appear under
                            /sys/firmware/acpi/tables.
                            This option turns off this feature.
                            Note that specifying this option does not affect
                            dynamic table installation which will install SSDT
                            tables to /sys/firmware/acpi/tables/dynamic.
    
            acpi_no_watchdog        [HW,ACPI,WDT]
                            Ignore the ACPI-based watchdog interface (WDAT) and let
                            a native driver control the watchdog device instead.
    
            acpi_rsdp=      [ACPI,EFI,KEXEC]
                            Pass the RSDP address to the kernel, mostly used
                            on machines running EFI runtime service to boot the
                            second kernel for kdump.
    
            acpi_os_name=   [HW,ACPI] Tell ACPI BIOS the name of the OS
                            Format: To spoof as Windows 98: ="Microsoft Windows"
    
            acpi_rev_override [ACPI] Override the _REV object to return 5 (instead
                            of 2 which is mandated by ACPI 6) as the supported ACPI
                            specification revision (when using this switch, it may
                            be necessary to carry out a cold reboot _twice_ in a
                            row to make it take effect on the platform firmware).
    
            acpi_osi=       [HW,ACPI] Modify list of supported OS interface strings
                            acpi_osi="string1"      # add string1
                            acpi_osi="!string2"     # remove string2
                            acpi_osi=!*             # remove all strings
                            acpi_osi=!              # disable all built-in OS vendor
                                                      strings
                            acpi_osi=!!             # enable all built-in OS vendor
                                                      strings
                            acpi_osi=               # disable all strings
    
                            'acpi_osi=!' can be used in combination with single or
                            multiple 'acpi_osi="string1"' to support specific OS
                            vendor string(s).  Note that such command can only
                            affect the default state of the OS vendor strings, thus
                            it cannot affect the default state of the feature group
                            strings and the current state of the OS vendor strings,
                            specifying it multiple times through kernel command line
                            is meaningless.  This command is useful when one do not
                            care about the state of the feature group strings which
                            should be controlled by the OSPM.
                            Examples:
                              1. 'acpi_osi=! acpi_osi="Windows 2000"' is equivalent
                                 to 'acpi_osi="Windows 2000" acpi_osi=!', they all
                                 can make '_OSI("Windows 2000")' TRUE.
    
                            'acpi_osi=' cannot be used in combination with other
                            'acpi_osi=' command lines, the _OSI method will not
                            exist in the ACPI namespace.  NOTE that such command can
                            only affect the _OSI support state, thus specifying it
                            multiple times through kernel command line is also
                            meaningless.
                            Examples:
                              1. 'acpi_osi=' can make 'CondRefOf(_OSI, Local1)'
                                 FALSE.
    
                            'acpi_osi=!*' can be used in combination with single or
                            multiple 'acpi_osi="string1"' to support specific
                            string(s).  Note that such command can affect the
                            current state of both the OS vendor strings and the
                            feature group strings, thus specifying it multiple times
                            through kernel command line is meaningful.  But it may
                            still not able to affect the final state of a string if
                            there are quirks related to this string.  This command
                            is useful when one want to control the state of the
                            feature group strings to debug BIOS issues related to
                            the OSPM features.
                            Examples:
                              1. 'acpi_osi="Module Device" acpi_osi=!*' can make
                                 '_OSI("Module Device")' FALSE.
                              2. 'acpi_osi=!* acpi_osi="Module Device"' can make
                                 '_OSI("Module Device")' TRUE.
                              3. 'acpi_osi=! acpi_osi=!* acpi_osi="Windows 2000"' is
                                 equivalent to
                                 'acpi_osi=!* acpi_osi=! acpi_osi="Windows 2000"'
                                 and
                                 'acpi_osi=!* acpi_osi="Windows 2000" acpi_osi=!',
                                 they all will make '_OSI("Windows 2000")' TRUE.
    
            acpi_pm_good    [X86]
                            Override the pmtimer bug detection: force the kernel
                            to assume that this machine's pmtimer latches its value
                            and always returns good values.
    
            acpi_sci=       [HW,ACPI] ACPI System Control Interrupt trigger mode
                            Format: { level | edge | high | low }
    
            acpi_skip_timer_override [HW,ACPI]
                            Recognize and ignore IRQ0/pin2 Interrupt Override.
                            For broken nForce2 BIOS resulting in XT-PIC timer.
    
            acpi_sleep=     [HW,ACPI] Sleep options
                            Format: { s3_bios, s3_mode, s3_beep, s4_nohwsig,
                                      old_ordering, nonvs, sci_force_enable, nobl }
                            See Documentation/power/video.rst for information on
                            s3_bios and s3_mode.
                            s3_beep is for debugging; it makes the PC's speaker beep
                            as soon as the kernel's real-mode entry point is called.
                            s4_nohwsig prevents ACPI hardware signature from being
                            used during resume from hibernation.
                            old_ordering causes the ACPI 1.0 ordering of the _PTS
                            control method, with respect to putting devices into
                            low power states, to be enforced (the ACPI 2.0 ordering
                            of _PTS is used by default).
                            nonvs prevents the kernel from saving/restoring the
                            ACPI NVS memory during suspend/hibernation and resume.
                            sci_force_enable causes the kernel to set SCI_EN directly
                            on resume from S1/S3 (which is against the ACPI spec,
                            but some broken systems don't work without it).
                            nobl causes the internal blacklist of systems known to
                            behave incorrectly in some ways with respect to system
                            suspend and resume to be ignored (use wisely).
    
            acpi_use_timer_override [HW,ACPI]
                            Use timer override. For some broken Nvidia NF5 boards
                            that require a timer override, but don't have HPET
    
            add_efi_memmap  [EFI; X86] Include EFI memory map in
                            kernel's map of available physical RAM.
    
            agp=            [AGP]
                            { off | try_unsupported }
                            off: disable AGP support
                            try_unsupported: try to drive unsupported chipsets
                                    (may crash computer or cause data corruption)
    
            ALSA            [HW,ALSA]
                            See Documentation/sound/alsa-configuration.rst
    
            alignment=      [KNL,ARM]
                            Allow the default userspace alignment fault handler
                            behaviour to be specified.  Bit 0 enables warnings,
                            bit 1 enables fixups, and bit 2 sends a segfault.
    
            align_va_addr=  [X86-64]
                            Align virtual addresses by clearing slice [14:12] when
                            allocating a VMA at process creation time. This option
                            gives you up to 3% performance improvement on AMD F15h
                            machines (where it is enabled by default) for a
                            CPU-intensive style benchmark, and it can vary highly in
                            a microbenchmark depending on workload and compiler.
    
                            32: only for 32-bit processes
                            64: only for 64-bit processes
                            on: enable for both 32- and 64-bit processes
                            off: disable for both 32- and 64-bit processes
    
            alloc_snapshot  [FTRACE]
                            Allocate the ftrace snapshot buffer on boot up when the
                            main buffer is allocated. This is handy if debugging
                            and you need to use tracing_snapshot() on boot up, and
                            do not want to use tracing_snapshot_alloc() as it needs
                            to be done where GFP_KERNEL allocations are allowed.
    
            amd_iommu=      [HW,X86-64]
                            Pass parameters to the AMD IOMMU driver in the system.
                            Possible values are:
                            fullflush - enable flushing of IO/TLB entries when
                                        they are unmapped. Otherwise they are
                                        flushed before they will be reused, which
                                        is a lot of faster
                            off       - do not initialize any AMD IOMMU found in
                                        the system
                            force_isolation - Force device isolation for all
                                              devices. The IOMMU driver is not
                                              allowed anymore to lift isolation
                                              requirements as needed. This option
                                              does not override iommu=pt
    
            amd_iommu_dump= [HW,X86-64]
                            Enable AMD IOMMU driver option to dump the ACPI table
                            for AMD IOMMU. With this option enabled, AMD IOMMU
                            driver will print ACPI tables for AMD IOMMU during
                            IOMMU initialization.
    
            amd_iommu_intr= [HW,X86-64]
                            Specifies one of the following AMD IOMMU interrupt
                            remapping modes:
                            legacy     - Use legacy interrupt remapping mode.
                            vapic      - Use virtual APIC mode, which allows IOMMU
                                         to inject interrupts directly into guest.
                                         This mode requires kvm-amd.avic=1.
                                         (Default when IOMMU HW support is present.)
    
            amijoy.map=     [HW,JOY] Amiga joystick support
                            Map of devices attached to JOY0DAT and JOY1DAT
                            Format: <a>,<b>
                            See also Documentation/input/joydev/joystick.rst
    
            analog.map=     [HW,JOY] Analog joystick and gamepad support
                            Specifies type or capabilities of an analog joystick
                            connected to one of 16 gameports
                            Format: <type1>,<type2>,..<type16>
    
            apc=            [HW,SPARC]
                            Power management functions (SPARCstation-4/5 + deriv.)
                            Format: noidle
                            Disable APC CPU standby support. SPARCstation-Fox does
                            not play well with APC CPU idle - disable it if you have
                            APC and your system crashes randomly.
    
            apic=           [APIC,X86] Advanced Programmable Interrupt Controller
                            Change the output verbosity while booting
                            Format: { quiet (default) | verbose | debug }
                            Change the amount of debugging information output
                            when initialising the APIC and IO-APIC components.
                            For X86-32, this can also be used to specify an APIC
                            driver name.
                            Format: apic=driver_name
                            Examples: apic=bigsmp
    
            apic_extnmi=    [APIC,X86] External NMI delivery setting
                            Format: { bsp (default) | all | none }
                            bsp:  External NMI is delivered only to CPU 0
                            all:  External NMIs are broadcast to all CPUs as a
                                  backup of CPU 0
                            none: External NMI is masked for all CPUs. This is
                                  useful so that a dump capture kernel won't be
                                  shot down by NMI
    
            autoconf=       [IPV6]
                            See Documentation/networking/ipv6.rst.
    
            show_lapic=     [APIC,X86] Advanced Programmable Interrupt Controller
                            Limit apic dumping. The parameter defines the maximal
                            number of local apics being dumped. Also it is possible
                            to set it to "all" by meaning -- no limit here.
                            Format: { 1 (default) | 2 | ... | all }.
                            The parameter valid if only apic=debug or
                            apic=verbose is specified.
                            Example: apic=debug show_lapic=all
    
            apm=            [APM] Advanced Power Management
                            See header of arch/x86/kernel/apm_32.c.
    
            arcrimi=        [HW,NET] ARCnet - "RIM I" (entirely mem-mapped) cards
                            Format: <io>,<irq>,<nodeID>
    
            arm64.nobti     [ARM64] Unconditionally disable Branch Target
                            Identification support
    
            arm64.nopauth   [ARM64] Unconditionally disable Pointer Authentication
                            support
    
            ataflop=        [HW,M68k]
    
            atarimouse=     [HW,MOUSE] Atari Mouse
    
            atkbd.extra=    [HW] Enable extra LEDs and keys on IBM RapidAccess,
                            EzKey and similar keyboards
    
            atkbd.reset=    [HW] Reset keyboard during initialization
    
            atkbd.set=      [HW] Select keyboard code set
                            Format: <int> (2 = AT (default), 3 = PS/2)
    
            atkbd.scroll=   [HW] Enable scroll wheel on MS Office and similar
                            keyboards
    
            atkbd.softraw=  [HW] Choose between synthetic and real raw mode
                            Format: <bool> (0 = real, 1 = synthetic (default))
    
            atkbd.softrepeat= [HW]
                            Use software keyboard repeat
    
            audit=          [KNL] Enable the audit sub-system
                            Format: { "0" | "1" | "off" | "on" }
                            0 | off - kernel audit is disabled and can not be
                                enabled until the next reboot
                            unset - kernel audit is initialized but disabled and
                                will be fully enabled by the userspace auditd.
                            1 | on - kernel audit is initialized and partially
                                enabled, storing at most audit_backlog_limit
                                messages in RAM until it is fully enabled by the
                                userspace auditd.
                            Default: unset
    
            audit_backlog_limit= [KNL] Set the audit queue size limit.
                            Format: <int> (must be >=0)
                            Default: 64
    
            bau=            [X86_UV] Enable the BAU on SGI UV.  The default
                            behavior is to disable the BAU (i.e. bau=0).
                            Format: { "0" | "1" }
                            0 - Disable the BAU.
                            1 - Enable the BAU.
                            unset - Disable the BAU.
    
            baycom_epp=     [HW,AX25]
                            Format: <io>,<mode>
    
            baycom_par=     [HW,AX25] BayCom Parallel Port AX.25 Modem
                            Format: <io>,<mode>
                            See header of drivers/net/hamradio/baycom_par.c.
    
            baycom_ser_fdx= [HW,AX25]
                            BayCom Serial Port AX.25 Modem (Full Duplex Mode)
                            Format: <io>,<irq>,<mode>[,<baud>]
                            See header of drivers/net/hamradio/baycom_ser_fdx.c.
    
            baycom_ser_hdx= [HW,AX25]
                            BayCom Serial Port AX.25 Modem (Half Duplex Mode)
                            Format: <io>,<irq>,<mode>
                            See header of drivers/net/hamradio/baycom_ser_hdx.c.
    
            blkdevparts=    Manual partition parsing of block device(s) for
                            embedded devices based on command line input.
                            See Documentation/block/cmdline-partition.rst
    
            boot_delay=     Milliseconds to delay each printk during boot.
                            Values larger than 10 seconds (10000) are changed to
                            no delay (0).
                            Format: integer
    
            bootconfig      [KNL]
                            Extended command line options can be added to an initrd
                            and this will cause the kernel to look for it.
    
                            See Documentation/admin-guide/bootconfig.rst
    
            bert_disable    [ACPI]
                            Disable BERT OS support on buggy BIOSes.
    
            bgrt_disable    [ACPI][X86]
                            Disable BGRT to avoid flickering OEM logo.
    
            bttv.card=      [HW,V4L] bttv (bt848 + bt878 based grabber cards)
            bttv.radio=     Most important insmod options are available as
                            kernel args too.
            bttv.pll=       See Documentation/admin-guide/media/bttv.rst
            bttv.tuner=
    
            bulk_remove=off [PPC]  This parameter disables the use of the pSeries
                            firmware feature for flushing multiple hpte entries
                            at a time.
    
            c101=           [NET] Moxa C101 synchronous serial card
    
            cachesize=      [BUGS=X86-32] Override level 2 CPU cache size detection.
                            Sometimes CPU hardware bugs make them report the cache
                            size incorrectly. The kernel will attempt work arounds
                            to fix known problems, but for some CPUs it is not
                            possible to determine what the correct size should be.
                            This option provides an override for these situations.
    
            carrier_timeout=
                            [NET] Specifies amount of time (in seconds) that
                            the kernel should wait for a network carrier. By default
                            it waits 120 seconds.
    
            ca_keys=        [KEYS] This parameter identifies a specific key(s) on
                            the system trusted keyring to be used for certificate
                            trust validation.
                            format: { id:<keyid> | builtin }
    
            cca=            [MIPS] Override the kernel pages' cache coherency
                            algorithm.  Accepted values range from 0 to 7
                            inclusive. See arch/mips/include/asm/pgtable-bits.h
                            for platform specific values (SB1, Loongson3 and
                            others).
    
            ccw_timeout_log [S390]
                            See Documentation/s390/common_io.rst for details.
    
            cgroup_disable= [KNL] Disable a particular controller
                            Format: {name of the controller(s) to disable}
                            The effects of cgroup_disable=foo are:
                            - foo isn't auto-mounted if you mount all cgroups in
                              a single hierarchy
                            - foo isn't visible as an individually mountable
                              subsystem
                            {Currently only "memory" controller deal with this and
                            cut the overhead, others just disable the usage. So
                            only cgroup_disable=memory is actually worthy}
    
            cgroup_no_v1=   [KNL] Disable cgroup controllers and named hierarchies in v1
                            Format: { { controller | "all" | "named" }
                                      [,{ controller | "all" | "named" }...] }
                            Like cgroup_disable, but only applies to cgroup v1;
                            the blacklisted controllers remain available in cgroup2.
                            "all" blacklists all controllers and "named" disables
                            named mounts. Specifying both "all" and "named" disables
                            all v1 hierarchies.
    
            cgroup.memory=  [KNL] Pass options to the cgroup memory controller.
                            Format: <string>
                            nosocket -- Disable socket memory accounting.
                            nokmem -- Disable kernel memory accounting.
    
            checkreqprot    [SELINUX] Set initial checkreqprot flag value.
                            Format: { "0" | "1" }
                            See security/selinux/Kconfig help text.
                            0 -- check protection applied by kernel (includes
                                    any implied execute protection).
                            1 -- check protection requested by application.
                            Default value is set via a kernel config option.
                            Value can be changed at runtime via
                                    /sys/fs/selinux/checkreqprot.
                            Setting checkreqprot to 1 is deprecated.
    
            cio_ignore=     [S390]
                            See Documentation/s390/common_io.rst for details.
            clk_ignore_unused
                            [CLK]
                            Prevents the clock framework from automatically gating
                            clocks that have not been explicitly enabled by a Linux
                            device driver but are enabled in hardware at reset or
                            by the bootloader/firmware. Note that this does not
                            force such clocks to be always-on nor does it reserve
                            those clocks in any way. This parameter is useful for
                            debug and development, but should not be needed on a
                            platform with proper driver support.  For more
                            information, see Documentation/driver-api/clk.rst.
    
            clock=          [BUGS=X86-32, HW] gettimeofday clocksource override.
                            [Deprecated]
                            Forces specified clocksource (if available) to be used
                            when calculating gettimeofday(). If specified
                            clocksource is not available, it defaults to PIT.
                            Format: { pit | tsc | cyclone | pmtmr }
    
            clocksource=    Override the default clocksource
                            Format: <string>
                            Override the default clocksource and use the clocksource
                            with the name specified.
                            Some clocksource names to choose from, depending on
                            the platform:
                            [all] jiffies (this is the base, fallback clocksource)
                            [ACPI] acpi_pm
                            [ARM] imx_timer1,OSTS,netx_timer,mpu_timer2,
                                    pxa_timer,timer3,32k_counter,timer0_1
                            [X86-32] pit,hpet,tsc;
                                    scx200_hrt on Geode; cyclone on IBM x440
                            [MIPS] MIPS
                            [PARISC] cr16
                            [S390] tod
                            [SH] SuperH
                            [SPARC64] tick
                            [X86-64] hpet,tsc
    
            clocksource.arm_arch_timer.evtstrm=
                            [ARM,ARM64]
                            Format: <bool>
                            Enable/disable the eventstream feature of the ARM
                            architected timer so that code using WFE-based polling
                            loops can be debugged more effectively on production
                            systems.
    
            clearcpuid=BITNUM[,BITNUM...] [X86]
                            Disable CPUID feature X for the kernel. See
                            arch/x86/include/asm/cpufeatures.h for the valid bit
                            numbers. Note the Linux specific bits are not necessarily
                            stable over kernel options, but the vendor specific
                            ones should be.
                            Also note that user programs calling CPUID directly
                            or using the feature without checking anything
                            will still see it. This just prevents it from
                            being used by the kernel or shown in /proc/cpuinfo.
                            Also note the kernel might malfunction if you disable
                            some critical bits.
    
            cma=nn[MG]@[start[MG][-end[MG]]]
                            [KNL,CMA]
                            Sets the size of kernel global memory area for
                            contiguous memory allocations and optionally the
                            placement constraint by the physical address range of
                            memory allocations. A value of 0 disables CMA
                            altogether. For more information, see
                            kernel/dma/contiguous.c
    
            cma_pernuma=nn[MG]
                            [ARM64,KNL,CMA]
                            Sets the size of kernel per-numa memory area for
                            contiguous memory allocations. A value of 0 disables
                            per-numa CMA altogether. And If this option is not
                            specificed, the default value is 0.
                            With per-numa CMA enabled, DMA users on node nid will
                            first try to allocate buffer from the pernuma area
                            which is located in node nid, if the allocation fails,
                            they will fallback to the global default memory area.
    
            cmo_free_hint=  [PPC] Format: { yes | no }
                            Specify whether pages are marked as being inactive
                            when they are freed.  This is used in CMO environments
                            to determine OS memory pressure for page stealing by
                            a hypervisor.
                            Default: yes
    
            coherent_pool=nn[KMG]   [ARM,KNL]
                            Sets the size of memory pool for coherent, atomic dma
                            allocations, by default set to 256K.
    
            com20020=       [HW,NET] ARCnet - COM20020 chipset
                            Format:
                            <io>[,<irq>[,<nodeID>[,<backplane>[,<ckp>[,<timeout>]]]]]
    
            com90io=        [HW,NET] ARCnet - COM90xx chipset (IO-mapped buffers)
                            Format: <io>[,<irq>]
    
            com90xx=        [HW,NET]
                            ARCnet - COM90xx chipset (memory-mapped buffers)
                            Format: <io>[,<irq>[,<memstart>]]
    
            condev=         [HW,S390] console device
            conmode=
    
            console=        [KNL] Output console device and options.
    
                    tty<n>  Use the virtual console device <n>.
    
                    ttyS<n>[,options]
                    ttyUSB0[,options]
                            Use the specified serial port.  The options are of
                            the form "bbbbpnf", where "bbbb" is the baud rate,
                            "p" is parity ("n", "o", or "e"), "n" is number of
                            bits, and "f" is flow control ("r" for RTS or
                            omit it).  Default is "9600n8".
    
                            See Documentation/admin-guide/serial-console.rst for more
                            information.  See
                            Documentation/networking/netconsole.rst for an
                            alternative.
    
                    uart[8250],io,<addr>[,options]
                    uart[8250],mmio,<addr>[,options]
                    uart[8250],mmio16,<addr>[,options]
                    uart[8250],mmio32,<addr>[,options]
                    uart[8250],0x<addr>[,options]
                            Start an early, polled-mode console on the 8250/16550
                            UART at the specified I/O port or MMIO address,
                            switching to the matching ttyS device later.
                            MMIO inter-register address stride is either 8-bit
                            (mmio), 16-bit (mmio16), or 32-bit (mmio32).
                            If none of [io|mmio|mmio16|mmio32], <addr> is assumed
                            to be equivalent to 'mmio'. 'options' are specified in
                            the same format described for ttyS above; if unspecified,
                            the h/w is not re-initialized.
    
                    hvc<n>  Use the hypervisor console device <n>. This is for
                            both Xen and PowerPC hypervisors.
    
                    If the device connected to the port is not a TTY but a braille
                    device, prepend "brl," before the device type, for instance
                            console=brl,ttyS0
                    For now, only VisioBraille is supported.
    
            console_msg_format=
                            [KNL] Change console messages format
                    default
                            By default we print messages on consoles in
                            "[time stamp] text\n" format (time stamp may not be
                            printed, depending on CONFIG_PRINTK_TIME or
                            `printk_time' param).
                    syslog
                            Switch to syslog format: "<%u>[time stamp] text\n"
                            IOW, each message will have a facility and loglevel
                            prefix. The format is similar to one used by syslog()
                            syscall, or to executing "dmesg -S --raw" or to reading
                            from /proc/kmsg.
    
            consoleblank=   [KNL] The console blank (screen saver) timeout in
                            seconds. A value of 0 disables the blank timer.
                            Defaults to 0.
    
            coredump_filter=
                            [KNL] Change the default value for
                            /proc/<pid>/coredump_filter.
                            See also Documentation/filesystems/proc.rst.
    
            coresight_cpu_debug.enable
                            [ARM,ARM64]
                            Format: <bool>
                            Enable/disable the CPU sampling based debugging.
                            0: default value, disable debugging
                            1: enable debugging at boot time
    
            cpuidle.off=1   [CPU_IDLE]
                            disable the cpuidle sub-system
    
            cpuidle.governor=
                            [CPU_IDLE] Name of the cpuidle governor to use.
    
            cpufreq.off=1   [CPU_FREQ]
                            disable the cpufreq sub-system
    
            cpufreq.default_governor=
                            [CPU_FREQ] Name of the default cpufreq governor or
                            policy to use. This governor must be registered in the
                            kernel before the cpufreq driver probes.
    
            cpu_init_udelay=N
                            [X86] Delay for N microsec between assert and de-assert
                            of APIC INIT to start processors.  This delay occurs
                            on every CPU online, such as boot, and resume from suspend.
                            Default: 10000
    
            cpcihp_generic= [HW,PCI] Generic port I/O CompactPCI driver
                            Format:
                            <first_slot>,<last_slot>,<port>,<enum_bit>[,<debug>]
    
            crashkernel=size[KMG][@offset[KMG]]
                            [KNL] Using kexec, Linux can switch to a 'crash kernel'
                            upon panic. This parameter reserves the physical
                            memory region [offset, offset + size] for that kernel
                            image. If '@offset' is omitted, then a suitable offset
                            is selected automatically.
                            [KNL, X86-64] Select a region under 4G first, and
                            fall back to reserve region above 4G when '@offset'
                            hasn't been specified.
                            See Documentation/admin-guide/kdump/kdump.rst for further details.
    
            crashkernel=range1:size1[,range2:size2,...][@offset]
                            [KNL] Same as above, but depends on the memory
                            in the running system. The syntax of range is
                            start-[end] where start and end are both
                            a memory unit (amount[KMG]). See also
                            Documentation/admin-guide/kdump/kdump.rst for an example.
    
            crashkernel=size[KMG],high
                            [KNL, X86-64] range could be above 4G. Allow kernel
                            to allocate physical memory region from top, so could
                            be above 4G if system have more than 4G ram installed.
                            Otherwise memory region will be allocated below 4G, if
                            available.
                            It will be ignored if crashkernel=X is specified.
            crashkernel=size[KMG],low
                            [KNL, X86-64] range under 4G. When crashkernel=X,high
                            is passed, kernel could allocate physical memory region
                            above 4G, that cause second kernel crash on system
                            that require some amount of low memory, e.g. swiotlb
                            requires at least 64M+32K low memory, also enough extra
                            low memory is needed to make sure DMA buffers for 32-bit
                            devices won't run out. Kernel would try to allocate at
                            at least 256M below 4G automatically.
                            This one let user to specify own low range under 4G
                            for second kernel instead.
                            0: to disable low allocation.
                            It will be ignored when crashkernel=X,high is not used
                            or memory reserved is below 4G.
    
            cryptomgr.notests
                            [KNL] Disable crypto self-tests
    
            cs89x0_dma=     [HW,NET]
                            Format: <dma>
    
            cs89x0_media=   [HW,NET]
                            Format: { rj45 | aui | bnc }
    
            dasd=           [HW,NET]
                            See header of drivers/s390/block/dasd_devmap.c.
    
            db9.dev[2|3]=   [HW,JOY] Multisystem joystick support via parallel port
                            (one device per port)
                            Format: <port#>,<type>
                            See also Documentation/input/devices/joystick-parport.rst
    
            ddebug_query=   [KNL,DYNAMIC_DEBUG] Enable debug messages at early boot
                            time. See
                            Documentation/admin-guide/dynamic-debug-howto.rst for
                            details.  Deprecated, see dyndbg.
    
            debug           [KNL] Enable kernel debugging (events log level).
    
            debug_boot_weak_hash
                            [KNL] Enable printing [hashed] pointers early in the
                            boot sequence.  If enabled, we use a weak hash instead
                            of siphash to hash pointers.  Use this option if you are
                            seeing instances of '(___ptrval___)') and need to see a
                            value (hashed pointer) instead. Cryptographically
                            insecure, please do not use on production kernels.
    
            debug_locks_verbose=
                            [KNL] verbose locking self-tests
                            Format: <int>
                            Print debugging info while doing the locking API
                            self-tests.
                            Bitmask for the various LOCKTYPE_ tests. Defaults to 0
                            (no extra messages), setting it to -1 (all bits set)
                            will print _a_lot_ more information - normally only
                            useful to lockdep developers.
    
            debug_objects   [KNL] Enable object debugging
    
            no_debug_objects
                            [KNL] Disable object debugging
    
            debug_guardpage_minorder=
                            [KNL] When CONFIG_DEBUG_PAGEALLOC is set, this
                            parameter allows control of the order of pages that will
                            be intentionally kept free (and hence protected) by the
                            buddy allocator. Bigger value increase the probability
                            of catching random memory corruption, but reduce the
                            amount of memory for normal system use. The maximum
                            possible value is MAX_ORDER/2.  Setting this parameter
                            to 1 or 2 should be enough to identify most random
                            memory corruption problems caused by bugs in kernel or
                            driver code when a CPU writes to (or reads from) a
                            random memory location. Note that there exists a class
                            of memory corruptions problems caused by buggy H/W or
                            F/W or by drivers badly programing DMA (basically when
                            memory is written at bus level and the CPU MMU is
                            bypassed) which are not detectable by
                            CONFIG_DEBUG_PAGEALLOC, hence this option will not help
                            tracking down these problems.
    
            debug_pagealloc=
                            [KNL] When CONFIG_DEBUG_PAGEALLOC is set, this parameter
                            enables the feature at boot time. By default, it is
                            disabled and the system will work mostly the same as a
                            kernel built without CONFIG_DEBUG_PAGEALLOC.
                            Note: to get most of debug_pagealloc error reports, it's
                            useful to also enable the page_owner functionality.
                            on: enable the feature
    
            debugfs=        [KNL] This parameter enables what is exposed to userspace
                            and debugfs internal clients.
                            Format: { on, no-mount, off }
                            on:     All functions are enabled.
                            no-mount:
                                    Filesystem is not registered but kernel clients can
                                    access APIs and a crashkernel can be used to read
                                    its content. There is nothing to mount.
                            off:    Filesystem is not registered and clients
                                    get a -EPERM as result when trying to register files
                                    or directories within debugfs.
                                    This is equivalent of the runtime functionality if
                                    debugfs was not enabled in the kernel at all.
                            Default value is set in build-time with a kernel configuration.
    
            debugpat        [X86] Enable PAT debugging
    
            decnet.addr=    [HW,NET]
                            Format: <area>[,<node>]
                            See also Documentation/networking/decnet.rst.
    
            default_hugepagesz=
                            [HW] The size of the default HugeTLB page. This is
                            the size represented by the legacy /proc/ hugepages
                            APIs.  In addition, this is the default hugetlb size
                            used for shmget(), mmap() and mounting hugetlbfs
                            filesystems.  If not specified, defaults to the
                            architecture's default huge page size.  Huge page
                            sizes are architecture dependent.  See also
                            Documentation/admin-guide/mm/hugetlbpage.rst.
                            Format: size[KMG]
    
            deferred_probe_timeout=
                            [KNL] Debugging option to set a timeout in seconds for
                            deferred probe to give up waiting on dependencies to
                            probe. Only specific dependencies (subsystems or
                            drivers) that have opted in will be ignored. A timeout of 0
                            will timeout at the end of initcalls. This option will also
                            dump out devices still on the deferred probe list after
                            retrying.
    
            dfltcc=         [HW,S390]
                            Format: { on | off | def_only | inf_only | always }
                            on:       s390 zlib hardware support for compression on
                                      level 1 and decompression (default)
                            off:      No s390 zlib hardware support
                            def_only: s390 zlib hardware support for deflate
                                      only (compression on level 1)
                            inf_only: s390 zlib hardware support for inflate
                                      only (decompression)
                            always:   Same as 'on' but ignores the selected compression
                                      level always using hardware support (used for debugging)
    
            dhash_entries=  [KNL]
                            Set number of hash buckets for dentry cache.
    
            disable_1tb_segments [PPC]
                            Disables the use of 1TB hash page table segments. This
                            causes the kernel to fall back to 256MB segments which
                            can be useful when debugging issues that require an SLB
                            miss to occur.
    
            stress_slb      [PPC]
                            Limits the number of kernel SLB entries, and flushes
                            them frequently to increase the rate of SLB faults
                            on kernel addresses.
    
            disable=        [IPV6]
                            See Documentation/networking/ipv6.rst.
    
            hardened_usercopy=
                            [KNL] Under CONFIG_HARDENED_USERCOPY, whether
                            hardening is enabled for this boot. Hardened
                            usercopy checking is used to protect the kernel
                            from reading or writing beyond known memory
                            allocation boundaries as a proactive defense
                            against bounds-checking flaws in the kernel's
                            copy_to_user()/copy_from_user() interface.
                    on      Perform hardened usercopy checks (default).
                    off     Disable hardened usercopy checks.
    
            disable_radix   [PPC]
                            Disable RADIX MMU mode on POWER9
    
            radix_hcall_invalidate=on  [PPC/PSERIES]
                            Disable RADIX GTSE feature and use hcall for TLB
                            invalidate.
    
            disable_tlbie   [PPC]
                            Disable TLBIE instruction. Currently does not work
                            with KVM, with HASH MMU, or with coherent accelerators.
    
            disable_cpu_apicid= [X86,APIC,SMP]
                            Format: <int>
                            The number of initial APIC ID for the
                            corresponding CPU to be disabled at boot,
                            mostly used for the kdump 2nd kernel to
                            disable BSP to wake up multiple CPUs without
                            causing system reset or hang due to sending
                            INIT from AP to BSP.
    
            disable_ddw     [PPC/PSERIES]
                            Disable Dynamic DMA Window support. Use this
                            to workaround buggy firmware.
    
            disable_ipv6=   [IPV6]
                            See Documentation/networking/ipv6.rst.
    
            disable_mtrr_cleanup [X86]
                            The kernel tries to adjust MTRR layout from continuous
                            to discrete, to make X server driver able to add WB
                            entry later. This parameter disables that.
    
            disable_mtrr_trim [X86, Intel and AMD only]
                            By default the kernel will trim any uncacheable
                            memory out of your available memory pool based on
                            MTRR settings.  This parameter disables that behavior,
                            possibly causing your machine to run very slowly.
    
            disable_timer_pin_1 [X86]
                            Disable PIN 1 of APIC timer
                            Can be useful to work around chipset bugs.
    
            dis_ucode_ldr   [X86] Disable the microcode loader.
    
            dma_debug=off   If the kernel is compiled with DMA_API_DEBUG support,
                            this option disables the debugging code at boot.
    
            dma_debug_entries=<number>
                            This option allows to tune the number of preallocated
                            entries for DMA-API debugging code. One entry is
                            required per DMA-API allocation. Use this if the
                            DMA-API debugging code disables itself because the
                            architectural default is too low.
    
            dma_debug_driver=<driver_name>
                            With this option the DMA-API debugging driver
                            filter feature can be enabled at boot time. Just
                            pass the driver to filter for as the parameter.
                            The filter can be disabled or changed to another
                            driver later using sysfs.
    
            driver_async_probe=  [KNL]
                            List of driver names to be probed asynchronously.
                            Format: <driver_name1>,<driver_name2>...
    
            drm.edid_firmware=[<connector>:]<file>[,[<connector>:]<file>]
                            Broken monitors, graphic adapters, KVMs and EDIDless
                            panels may send no or incorrect EDID data sets.
                            This parameter allows to specify an EDID data sets
                            in the /lib/firmware directory that are used instead.
                            Generic built-in EDID data sets are used, if one of
                            edid/1024x768.bin, edid/1280x1024.bin,
                            edid/1680x1050.bin, or edid/1920x1080.bin is given
                            and no file with the same name exists. Details and
                            instructions how to build your own EDID data are
                            available in Documentation/admin-guide/edid.rst. An EDID
                            data set will only be used for a particular connector,
                            if its name and a colon are prepended to the EDID
                            name. Each connector may use a unique EDID data
                            set by separating the files with a comma.  An EDID
                            data set with no connector name will be used for
                            any connectors not explicitly specified.
    
            dscc4.setup=    [NET]
    
            dt_cpu_ftrs=    [PPC]
                            Format: {"off" | "known"}
                            Control how the dt_cpu_ftrs device-tree binding is
                            used for CPU feature discovery and setup (if it
                            exists).
                            off: Do not use it, fall back to legacy cpu table.
                            known: Do not pass through unknown features to guests
                            or userspace, only those that the kernel is aware of.
    
            dump_apple_properties   [X86]
                            Dump name and content of EFI device properties on
                            x86 Macs.  Useful for driver authors to determine
                            what data is available or for reverse-engineering.
    
            dyndbg[="val"]          [KNL,DYNAMIC_DEBUG]
            <module>.dyndbg[="val"]
                            Enable debug messages at boot time.  See
                            Documentation/admin-guide/dynamic-debug-howto.rst
                            for details.
    
            nopku           [X86] Disable Memory Protection Keys CPU feature found
                            in some Intel CPUs.
    
            <module>.async_probe [KNL]
                            Enable asynchronous probe on this module.
    
            early_ioremap_debug [KNL]
                            Enable debug messages in early_ioremap support. This
                            is useful for tracking down temporary early mappings
                            which are not unmapped.
    
            earlycon=       [KNL] Output early console device and options.
    
                            When used with no options, the early console is
                            determined by stdout-path property in device tree's
                            chosen node or the ACPI SPCR table if supported by
                            the platform.
    
                    cdns,<addr>[,options]
                            Start an early, polled-mode console on a Cadence
                            (xuartps) serial port at the specified address. Only
                            supported option is baud rate. If baud rate is not
                            specified, the serial port must already be setup and
                            configured.
    
                    uart[8250],io,<addr>[,options]
                    uart[8250],mmio,<addr>[,options]
                    uart[8250],mmio32,<addr>[,options]
                    uart[8250],mmio32be,<addr>[,options]
                    uart[8250],0x<addr>[,options]
                            Start an early, polled-mode console on the 8250/16550
                            UART at the specified I/O port or MMIO address.
                            MMIO inter-register address stride is either 8-bit
                            (mmio) or 32-bit (mmio32 or mmio32be).
                            If none of [io|mmio|mmio32|mmio32be], <addr> is assumed
                            to be equivalent to 'mmio'. 'options' are specified
                            in the same format described for "console=ttyS<n>"; if
                            unspecified, the h/w is not initialized.
    
                    pl011,<addr>
                    pl011,mmio32,<addr>
                            Start an early, polled-mode console on a pl011 serial
                            port at the specified address. The pl011 serial port
                            must already be setup and configured. Options are not
                            yet supported.  If 'mmio32' is specified, then only
                            the driver will use only 32-bit accessors to read/write
                            the device registers.
    
                    meson,<addr>
                            Start an early, polled-mode console on a meson serial
                            port at the specified address. The serial port must
                            already be setup and configured. Options are not yet
                            supported.
    
                    msm_serial,<addr>
                            Start an early, polled-mode console on an msm serial
                            port at the specified address. The serial port
                            must already be setup and configured. Options are not
                            yet supported.
    
                    msm_serial_dm,<addr>
                            Start an early, polled-mode console on an msm serial
                            dm port at the specified address. The serial port
                            must already be setup and configured. Options are not
                            yet supported.
    
                    owl,<addr>
                            Start an early, polled-mode console on a serial port
                            of an Actions Semi SoC, such as S500 or S900, at the
                            specified address. The serial port must already be
                            setup and configured. Options are not yet supported.
    
                    rda,<addr>
                            Start an early, polled-mode console on a serial port
                            of an RDA Micro SoC, such as RDA8810PL, at the
                            specified address. The serial port must already be
                            setup and configured. Options are not yet supported.
    
                    sbi
                            Use RISC-V SBI (Supervisor Binary Interface) for early
                            console.
    
                    smh     Use ARM semihosting calls for early console.
    
                    s3c2410,<addr>
                    s3c2412,<addr>
                    s3c2440,<addr>
                    s3c6400,<addr>
                    s5pv210,<addr>
                    exynos4210,<addr>
                            Use early console provided by serial driver available
                            on Samsung SoCs, requires selecting proper type and
                            a correct base address of the selected UART port. The
                            serial port must already be setup and configured.
                            Options are not yet supported.
    
                    lantiq,<addr>
                            Start an early, polled-mode console on a lantiq serial
                            (lqasc) port at the specified address. The serial port
                            must already be setup and configured. Options are not
                            yet supported.
    
                    lpuart,<addr>
                    lpuart32,<addr>
                            Use early console provided by Freescale LP UART driver
                            found on Freescale Vybrid and QorIQ LS1021A processors.
                            A valid base address must be provided, and the serial
                            port must already be setup and configured.
    
                    ec_imx21,<addr>
                    ec_imx6q,<addr>
                            Start an early, polled-mode, output-only console on the
                            Freescale i.MX UART at the specified address. The UART
                            must already be setup and configured.
    
                    ar3700_uart,<addr>
                            Start an early, polled-mode console on the
                            Armada 3700 serial port at the specified
                            address. The serial port must already be setup
                            and configured. Options are not yet supported.
    
                    qcom_geni,<addr>
                            Start an early, polled-mode console on a Qualcomm
                            Generic Interface (GENI) based serial port at the
                            specified address. The serial port must already be
                            setup and configured. Options are not yet supported.
    
                    efifb,[options]
                            Start an early, unaccelerated console on the EFI
                            memory mapped framebuffer (if available). On cache
                            coherent non-x86 systems that use system memory for
                            the framebuffer, pass the 'ram' option so that it is
                            mapped with the correct attributes.
    
                    linflex,<addr>
                            Use early console provided by Freescale LINFlexD UART
                            serial driver for NXP S32V234 SoCs. A valid base
                            address must be provided, and the serial port must
                            already be setup and configured.
    
            earlyprintk=    [X86,SH,ARM,M68k,S390]
                            earlyprintk=vga
                            earlyprintk=sclp
                            earlyprintk=xen
                            earlyprintk=serial[,ttySn[,baudrate]]
                            earlyprintk=serial[,0x...[,baudrate]]
                            earlyprintk=ttySn[,baudrate]
                            earlyprintk=dbgp[debugController#]
                            earlyprintk=pciserial[,force],bus:device.function[,baudrate]
                            earlyprintk=xdbc[xhciController#]
    
                            earlyprintk is useful when the kernel crashes before
                            the normal console is initialized. It is not enabled by
                            default because it has some cosmetic problems.
    
                            Append ",keep" to not disable it when the real console
                            takes over.
    
                            Only one of vga, efi, serial, or usb debug port can
                            be used at a time.
    
                            Currently only ttyS0 and ttyS1 may be specified by
                            name.  Other I/O ports may be explicitly specified
                            on some architectures (x86 and arm at least) by
                            replacing ttySn with an I/O port address, like this:
                                    earlyprintk=serial,0x1008,115200
                            You can find the port for a given device in
                            /proc/tty/driver/serial:
                                    2: uart:ST16650V2 port:00001008 irq:18 ...
    
                            Interaction with the standard serial driver is not
                            very good.
    
                            The VGA and EFI output is eventually overwritten by
                            the real console.
    
                            The xen output can only be used by Xen PV guests.
    
                            The sclp output can only be used on s390.
    
                            The optional "force" to "pciserial" enables use of a
                            PCI device even when its classcode is not of the
                            UART class.
    
            edac_report=    [HW,EDAC] Control how to report EDAC event
                            Format: {"on" | "off" | "force"}
                            on: enable EDAC to report H/W event. May be overridden
                            by other higher priority error reporting module.
                            off: disable H/W event reporting through EDAC.
                            force: enforce the use of EDAC to report H/W event.
                            default: on.
    
            ekgdboc=        [X86,KGDB] Allow early kernel console debugging
                            ekgdboc=kbd
    
                            This is designed to be used in conjunction with
                            the boot argument: earlyprintk=vga
    
                            This parameter works in place of the kgdboc parameter
                            but can only be used if the backing tty is available
                            very early in the boot process. For early debugging
                            via a serial port see kgdboc_earlycon instead.
    
            edd=            [EDD]
                            Format: {"off" | "on" | "skip[mbr]"}
    
            efi=            [EFI]
                            Format: { "debug", "disable_early_pci_dma",
                                      "nochunk", "noruntime", "nosoftreserve",
                                      "novamap", "no_disable_early_pci_dma" }
                            debug: enable misc debug output.
                            disable_early_pci_dma: disable the busmaster bit on all
                            PCI bridges while in the EFI boot stub.
                            nochunk: disable reading files in "chunks" in the EFI
                            boot stub, as chunking can cause problems with some
                            firmware implementations.
                            noruntime : disable EFI runtime services support
                            nosoftreserve: The EFI_MEMORY_SP (Specific Purpose)
                            attribute may cause the kernel to reserve the
                            memory range for a memory mapping driver to
                            claim. Specify efi=nosoftreserve to disable this
                            reservation and treat the memory by its base type
                            (i.e. EFI_CONVENTIONAL_MEMORY / "System RAM").
                            novamap: do not call SetVirtualAddressMap().
                            no_disable_early_pci_dma: Leave the busmaster bit set
                            on all PCI bridges while in the EFI boot stub
    
            efi_no_storage_paranoia [EFI; X86]
                            Using this parameter you can use more than 50% of
                            your efi variable storage. Use this parameter only if
                            you are really sure that your UEFI does sane gc and
                            fulfills the spec otherwise your board may brick.
    
            efi_fake_mem=   nn[KMG]@ss[KMG]:aa[,nn[KMG]@ss[KMG]:aa,..] [EFI; X86]
                            Add arbitrary attribute to specific memory range by
                            updating original EFI memory map.
                            Region of memory which aa attribute is added to is
                            from ss to ss+nn.
    
                            If efi_fake_mem=2G@4G:0x10000,2G@0x10a0000000:0x10000
                            is specified, EFI_MEMORY_MORE_RELIABLE(0x10000)
                            attribute is added to range 0x100000000-0x180000000 and
                            0x10a0000000-0x1120000000.
    
                            If efi_fake_mem=8G@9G:0x40000 is specified, the
                            EFI_MEMORY_SP(0x40000) attribute is added to
                            range 0x240000000-0x43fffffff.
    
                            Using this parameter you can do debugging of EFI memmap
                            related features. For example, you can do debugging of
                            Address Range Mirroring feature even if your box
                            doesn't support it, or mark specific memory as
                            "soft reserved".
    
            efivar_ssdt=    [EFI; X86] Name of an EFI variable that contains an SSDT
                            that is to be dynamically loaded by Linux. If there are
                            multiple variables with the same name but with different
                            vendor GUIDs, all of them will be loaded. See
                            Documentation/admin-guide/acpi/ssdt-overlays.rst for details.
    
    
            eisa_irq_edge=  [PARISC,HW]
                            See header of drivers/parisc/eisa.c.
    
            elanfreq=       [X86-32]
                            See comment before function elanfreq_setup() in
                            arch/x86/kernel/cpu/cpufreq/elanfreq.c.
    
            elfcorehdr=[size[KMG]@]offset[KMG] [IA64,PPC,SH,X86,S390]
                            Specifies physical address of start of kernel core
                            image elf header and optionally the size. Generally
                            kexec loader will pass this option to capture kernel.
                            See Documentation/admin-guide/kdump/kdump.rst for details.
    
            enable_mtrr_cleanup [X86]
                            The kernel tries to adjust MTRR layout from continuous
                            to discrete, to make X server driver able to add WB
                            entry later. This parameter enables that.
    
            enable_timer_pin_1 [X86]
                            Enable PIN 1 of APIC timer
                            Can be useful to work around chipset bugs
                            (in particular on some ATI chipsets).
                            The kernel tries to set a reasonable default.
    
            enforcing       [SELINUX] Set initial enforcing status.
                            Format: {"0" | "1"}
                            See security/selinux/Kconfig help text.
                            0 -- permissive (log only, no denials).
                            1 -- enforcing (deny and log).
                            Default value is 0.
                            Value can be changed at runtime via
                            /sys/fs/selinux/enforce.
    
            erst_disable    [ACPI]
                            Disable Error Record Serialization Table (ERST)
                            support.
    
            ether=          [HW,NET] Ethernet cards parameters
                            This option is obsoleted by the "netdev=" option, which
                            has equivalent usage. See its documentation for details.
    
            evm=            [EVM]
                            Format: { "fix" }
                            Permit 'security.evm' to be updated regardless of
                            current integrity status.
    
            failslab=
            fail_usercopy=
            fail_page_alloc=
            fail_make_request=[KNL]
                            General fault injection mechanism.
                            Format: <interval>,<probability>,<space>,<times>
                            See also Documentation/fault-injection/.
    
            fb_tunnels=     [NET]
                            Format: { initns | none }
                            See Documentation/admin-guide/sysctl/net.rst for
                            fb_tunnels_only_for_init_ns
    
            floppy=         [HW]
                            See Documentation/admin-guide/blockdev/floppy.rst.
    
            force_pal_cache_flush
                            [IA-64] Avoid check_sal_cache_flush which may hang on
                            buggy SAL_CACHE_FLUSH implementations. Using this
                            parameter will force ia64_sal_cache_flush to call
                            ia64_pal_cache_flush instead of SAL_CACHE_FLUSH.
    
            forcepae        [X86-32]
                            Forcefully enable Physical Address Extension (PAE).
                            Many Pentium M systems disable PAE but may have a
                            functionally usable PAE implementation.
                            Warning: use of this parameter will taint the kernel
                            and may cause unknown problems.
    
            ftrace=[tracer]
                            [FTRACE] will set and start the specified tracer
                            as early as possible in order to facilitate early
                            boot debugging.
    
            ftrace_dump_on_oops[=orig_cpu]
                            [FTRACE] will dump the trace buffers on oops.
                            If no parameter is passed, ftrace will dump
                            buffers of all CPUs, but if you pass orig_cpu, it will
                            dump only the buffer of the CPU that triggered the
                            oops.
    
            ftrace_filter=[function-list]
                            [FTRACE] Limit the functions traced by the function
                            tracer at boot up. function-list is a comma-separated
                            list of functions. This list can be changed at run
                            time by the set_ftrace_filter file in the debugfs
                            tracing directory.
    
            ftrace_notrace=[function-list]
                            [FTRACE] Do not trace the functions specified in
                            function-list. This list can be changed at run time
                            by the set_ftrace_notrace file in the debugfs
                            tracing directory.
    
            ftrace_graph_filter=[function-list]
                            [FTRACE] Limit the top level callers functions traced
                            by the function graph tracer at boot up.
                            function-list is a comma-separated list of functions
                            that can be changed at run time by the
                            set_graph_function file in the debugfs tracing directory.
    
            ftrace_graph_notrace=[function-list]
                            [FTRACE] Do not trace from the functions specified in
                            function-list.  This list is a comma-separated list of
                            functions that can be changed at run time by the
                            set_graph_notrace file in the debugfs tracing directory.
    
            ftrace_graph_max_depth=<uint>
                            [FTRACE] Used with the function graph tracer. This is
                            the max depth it will trace into a function. This value
                            can be changed at run time by the max_graph_depth file
                            in the tracefs tracing directory. default: 0 (no limit)
    
            fw_devlink=     [KNL] Create device links between consumer and supplier
                            devices by scanning the firmware to infer the
                            consumer/supplier relationships. This feature is
                            especially useful when drivers are loaded as modules as
                            it ensures proper ordering of tasks like device probing
                            (suppliers first, then consumers), supplier boot state
                            clean up (only after all consumers have probed),
                            suspend/resume & runtime PM (consumers first, then
                            suppliers).
                            Format: { off | permissive | on | rpm }
                            off --  Don't create device links from firmware info.
                            permissive -- Create device links from firmware info
                                    but use it only for ordering boot state clean
                                    up (sync_state() calls).
                            on --   Create device links from firmware info and use it
                                    to enforce probe and suspend/resume ordering.
                            rpm --  Like "on", but also use to order runtime PM.
    
            fw_devlink.strict=<bool>
                            [KNL] Treat all inferred dependencies as mandatory
                            dependencies. This only applies for fw_devlink=on|rpm.
                            Format: <bool>
    
            gamecon.map[2|3]=
                            [HW,JOY] Multisystem joystick and NES/SNES/PSX pad
                            support via parallel port (up to 5 devices per port)
                            Format: <port#>,<pad1>,<pad2>,<pad3>,<pad4>,<pad5>
                            See also Documentation/input/devices/joystick-parport.rst
    
            gamma=          [HW,DRM]
    
            gart_fix_e820=  [X86-64] disable the fix e820 for K8 GART
                            Format: off | on
                            default: on
    
            gcov_persist=   [GCOV] When non-zero (default), profiling data for
                            kernel modules is saved and remains accessible via
                            debugfs, even when the module is unloaded/reloaded.
                            When zero, profiling data is discarded and associated
                            debugfs files are removed at module unload time.
    
            goldfish        [X86] Enable the goldfish android emulator platform.
                            Don't use this when you are not running on the
                            android emulator
    
            gpt             [EFI] Forces disk with valid GPT signature but
                            invalid Protective MBR to be treated as GPT. If the
                            primary GPT is corrupted, it enables the backup/alternate
                            GPT to be used instead.
    
            grcan.enable0=  [HW] Configuration of physical interface 0. Determines
                            the "Enable 0" bit of the configuration register.
                            Format: 0 | 1
                            Default: 0
            grcan.enable1=  [HW] Configuration of physical interface 1. Determines
                            the "Enable 0" bit of the configuration register.
                            Format: 0 | 1
                            Default: 0
            grcan.select=   [HW] Select which physical interface to use.
                            Format: 0 | 1
                            Default: 0
            grcan.txsize=   [HW] Sets the size of the tx buffer.
                            Format: <unsigned int> such that (txsize & ~0x1fffc0) == 0.
                            Default: 1024
            grcan.rxsize=   [HW] Sets the size of the rx buffer.
                            Format: <unsigned int> such that (rxsize & ~0x1fffc0) == 0.
                            Default: 1024
    
            gpio-mockup.gpio_mockup_ranges
                            [HW] Sets the ranges of gpiochip of for this device.
                            Format: <start1>,<end1>,<start2>,<end2>...
    
            hardlockup_all_cpu_backtrace=
                            [KNL] Should the hard-lockup detector generate
                            backtraces on all cpus.
                            Format: 0 | 1
    
            hashdist=       [KNL,NUMA] Large hashes allocated during boot
                            are distributed across NUMA nodes.  Defaults on
                            for 64-bit NUMA, off otherwise.
                            Format: 0 | 1 (for off | on)
    
            hcl=            [IA-64] SGI's Hardware Graph compatibility layer
    
            hd=             [EIDE] (E)IDE hard drive subsystem geometry
                            Format: <cyl>,<head>,<sect>
    
            hest_disable    [ACPI]
                            Disable Hardware Error Source Table (HEST) support;
                            corresponding firmware-first mode error processing
                            logic will be disabled.
    
            highmem=nn[KMG] [KNL,BOOT] forces the highmem zone to have an exact
                            size of <nn>. This works even on boxes that have no
                            highmem otherwise. This also works to reduce highmem
                            size on bigger boxes.
    
            highres=        [KNL] Enable/disable high resolution timer mode.
                            Valid parameters: "on", "off"
                            Default: "on"
    
            hlt             [BUGS=ARM,SH]
    
            hpet=           [X86-32,HPET] option to control HPET usage
                            Format: { enable (default) | disable | force |
                                    verbose }
                            disable: disable HPET and use PIT instead
                            force: allow force enabled of undocumented chips (ICH4,
                                    VIA, nVidia)
                            verbose: show contents of HPET registers during setup
    
            hpet_mmap=      [X86, HPET_MMAP] Allow userspace to mmap HPET
                            registers.  Default set by CONFIG_HPET_MMAP_DEFAULT.
    
            hugetlb_cma=    [HW,CMA] The size of a CMA area used for allocation
                            of gigantic hugepages.
                            Format: nn[KMGTPE]
    
                            Reserve a CMA area of given size and allocate gigantic
                            hugepages using the CMA allocator. If enabled, the
                            boot-time allocation of gigantic hugepages is skipped.
    
            hugepages=      [HW] Number of HugeTLB pages to allocate at boot.
                            If this follows hugepagesz (below), it specifies
                            the number of pages of hugepagesz to be allocated.
                            If this is the first HugeTLB parameter on the command
                            line, it specifies the number of pages to allocate for
                            the default huge page size.  See also
                            Documentation/admin-guide/mm/hugetlbpage.rst.
                            Format: <integer>
    
            hugepagesz=
                            [HW] The size of the HugeTLB pages.  This is used in
                            conjunction with hugepages (above) to allocate huge
                            pages of a specific size at boot.  The pair
                            hugepagesz=X hugepages=Y can be specified once for
                            each supported huge page size. Huge page sizes are
                            architecture dependent.  See also
                            Documentation/admin-guide/mm/hugetlbpage.rst.
                            Format: size[KMG]
    
            hung_task_panic=
                            [KNL] Should the hung task detector generate panics.
                            Format: 0 | 1
    
                            A value of 1 instructs the kernel to panic when a
                            hung task is detected. The default value is controlled
                            by the CONFIG_BOOTPARAM_HUNG_TASK_PANIC build-time
                            option. The value selected by this boot parameter can
                            be changed later by the kernel.hung_task_panic sysctl.
    
            hvc_iucv=       [S390]  Number of z/VM IUCV hypervisor console (HVC)
                                    terminal devices. Valid values: 0..8
            hvc_iucv_allow= [S390]  Comma-separated list of z/VM user IDs.
                                    If specified, z/VM IUCV HVC accepts connections
                                    from listed z/VM user IDs only.
    
            hv_nopvspin     [X86,HYPER_V] Disables the paravirt spinlock optimizations
                                          which allow the hypervisor to 'idle' the
                                          guest on lock contention.
    
            keep_bootcon    [KNL]
                            Do not unregister boot console at start. This is only
                            useful for debugging when something happens in the window
                            between unregistering the boot console and initializing
                            the real console.
    
            i2c_bus=        [HW]    Override the default board specific I2C bus speed
                                    or register an additional I2C bus that is not
                                    registered from board initialization code.
                                    Format:
                                    <bus_id>,<clkrate>
    
            i8042.debug     [HW] Toggle i8042 debug mode
            i8042.unmask_kbd_data
                            [HW] Enable printing of interrupt data from the KBD port
                                 (disabled by default, and as a pre-condition
                                 requires that i8042.debug=1 be enabled)
            i8042.direct    [HW] Put keyboard port into non-translated mode
            i8042.dumbkbd   [HW] Pretend that controller can only read data from
                                 keyboard and cannot control its state
                                 (Don't attempt to blink the leds)
            i8042.noaux     [HW] Don't check for auxiliary (== mouse) port
            i8042.nokbd     [HW] Don't check/create keyboard port
            i8042.noloop    [HW] Disable the AUX Loopback command while probing
                                 for the AUX port
            i8042.nomux     [HW] Don't check presence of an active multiplexing
                                 controller
            i8042.nopnp     [HW] Don't use ACPIPnP / PnPBIOS to discover KBD/AUX
                                 controllers
            i8042.notimeout [HW] Ignore timeout condition signalled by controller
            i8042.reset     [HW] Reset the controller during init, cleanup and
                                 suspend-to-ram transitions, only during s2r
                                 transitions, or never reset
                            Format: { 1 | Y | y | 0 | N | n }
                            1, Y, y: always reset controller
                            0, N, n: don't ever reset controller
                            Default: only on s2r transitions on x86; most other
                            architectures force reset to be always executed
            i8042.unlock    [HW] Unlock (ignore) the keylock
            i8042.kbdreset  [HW] Reset device connected to KBD port
    
            i810=           [HW,DRM]
    
            i8k.ignore_dmi  [HW] Continue probing hardware even if DMI data
                            indicates that the driver is running on unsupported
                            hardware.
            i8k.force       [HW] Activate i8k driver even if SMM BIOS signature
                            does not match list of supported models.
            i8k.power_status
                            [HW] Report power status in /proc/i8k
                            (disabled by default)
            i8k.restricted  [HW] Allow controlling fans only if SYS_ADMIN
                            capability is set.
    
            i915.invert_brightness=
                            [DRM] Invert the sense of the variable that is used to
                            set the brightness of the panel backlight. Normally a
                            brightness value of 0 indicates backlight switched off,
                            and the maximum of the brightness value sets the backlight
                            to maximum brightness. If this parameter is set to 0
                            (default) and the machine requires it, or this parameter
                            is set to 1, a brightness value of 0 sets the backlight
                            to maximum brightness, and the maximum of the brightness
                            value switches the backlight off.
                            -1 -- never invert brightness
                             0 -- machine default
                             1 -- force brightness inversion
    
            icn=            [HW,ISDN]
                            Format: <io>[,<membase>[,<icn_id>[,<icn_id2>]]]
    
            ide-core.nodma= [HW] (E)IDE subsystem
                            Format: =0.0 to prevent dma on hda, =0.1 hdb =1.0 hdc
                            .vlb_clock .pci_clock .noflush .nohpa .noprobe .nowerr
                            .cdrom .chs .ignore_cable are additional options
                            See Documentation/ide/ide.rst.
    
            ide-generic.probe-mask= [HW] (E)IDE subsystem
                            Format: <int>
                            Probe mask for legacy ISA IDE ports.  Depending on
                            platform up to 6 ports are supported, enabled by
                            setting corresponding bits in the mask to 1.  The
                            default value is 0x0, which has a special meaning.
                            On systems that have PCI, it triggers scanning the
                            PCI bus for the first and the second port, which
                            are then probed.  On systems without PCI the value
                            of 0x0 enables probing the two first ports as if it
                            was 0x3.
    
            ide-pci-generic.all-generic-ide [HW] (E)IDE subsystem
                            Claim all unknown PCI IDE storage controllers.
    
            idle=           [X86]
                            Format: idle=poll, idle=halt, idle=nomwait
                            Poll forces a polling idle loop that can slightly
                            improve the performance of waking up a idle CPU, but
                            will use a lot of power and make the system run hot.
                            Not recommended.
                            idle=halt: Halt is forced to be used for CPU idle.
                            In such case C2/C3 won't be used again.
                            idle=nomwait: Disable mwait for CPU C-states
    
            idxd.sva=       [HW]
                            Format: <bool>
                            Allow force disabling of Shared Virtual Memory (SVA)
                            support for the idxd driver. By default it is set to
                            true (1).
    
            ieee754=        [MIPS] Select IEEE Std 754 conformance mode
                            Format: { strict | legacy | 2008 | relaxed }
                            Default: strict
    
                            Choose which programs will be accepted for execution
                            based on the IEEE 754 NaN encoding(s) supported by
                            the FPU and the NaN encoding requested with the value
                            of an ELF file header flag individually set by each
                            binary.  Hardware implementations are permitted to
                            support either or both of the legacy and the 2008 NaN
                            encoding mode.
    
                            Available settings are as follows:
                            strict  accept binaries that request a NaN encoding
                                    supported by the FPU
                            legacy  only accept legacy-NaN binaries, if supported
                                    by the FPU
                            2008    only accept 2008-NaN binaries, if supported
                                    by the FPU
                            relaxed accept any binaries regardless of whether
                                    supported by the FPU
    
                            The FPU emulator is always able to support both NaN
                            encodings, so if no FPU hardware is present or it has
                            been disabled with 'nofpu', then the settings of
                            'legacy' and '2008' strap the emulator accordingly,
                            'relaxed' straps the emulator for both legacy-NaN and
                            2008-NaN, whereas 'strict' enables legacy-NaN only on
                            legacy processors and both NaN encodings on MIPS32 or
                            MIPS64 CPUs.
    
                            The setting for ABS.fmt/NEG.fmt instruction execution
                            mode generally follows that for the NaN encoding,
                            except where unsupported by hardware.
    
            ignore_loglevel [KNL]
                            Ignore loglevel setting - this will print /all/
                            kernel messages to the console. Useful for debugging.
                            We also add it as printk module parameter, so users
                            could change it dynamically, usually by
                            /sys/module/printk/parameters/ignore_loglevel.
    
            ignore_rlimit_data
                            Ignore RLIMIT_DATA setting for data mappings,
                            print warning at first misuse.  Can be changed via
                            /sys/module/kernel/parameters/ignore_rlimit_data.
    
            ihash_entries=  [KNL]
                            Set number of hash buckets for inode cache.
    
            ima_appraise=   [IMA] appraise integrity measurements
                            Format: { "off" | "enforce" | "fix" | "log" }
                            default: "enforce"
    
            ima_appraise_tcb [IMA] Deprecated.  Use ima_policy= instead.
                            The builtin appraise policy appraises all files
                            owned by uid=0.
    
            ima_canonical_fmt [IMA]
                            Use the canonical format for the binary runtime
                            measurements, instead of host native format.
    
            ima_hash=       [IMA]
                            Format: { md5 | sha1 | rmd160 | sha256 | sha384
                                       | sha512 | ... }
                            default: "sha1"
    
                            The list of supported hash algorithms is defined
                            in crypto/hash_info.h.
    
            ima_policy=     [IMA]
                            The builtin policies to load during IMA setup.
                            Format: "tcb | appraise_tcb | secure_boot |
                                     fail_securely | critical_data"
    
                            The "tcb" policy measures all programs exec'd, files
                            mmap'd for exec, and all files opened with the read
                            mode bit set by either the effective uid (euid=0) or
                            uid=0.
    
                            The "appraise_tcb" policy appraises the integrity of
                            all files owned by root.
    
                            The "secure_boot" policy appraises the integrity
                            of files (eg. kexec kernel image, kernel modules,
                            firmware, policy, etc) based on file signatures.
    
                            The "fail_securely" policy forces file signature
                            verification failure also on privileged mounted
                            filesystems with the SB_I_UNVERIFIABLE_SIGNATURE
                            flag.
    
                            The "critical_data" policy measures kernel integrity
                            critical data.
    
            ima_tcb         [IMA] Deprecated.  Use ima_policy= instead.
                            Load a policy which meets the needs of the Trusted
                            Computing Base.  This means IMA will measure all
                            programs exec'd, files mmap'd for exec, and all files
                            opened for read by uid=0.
    
            ima_template=   [IMA]
                            Select one of defined IMA measurements template formats.
                            Formats: { "ima" | "ima-ng" | "ima-sig" }
                            Default: "ima-ng"
    
            ima_template_fmt=
                            [IMA] Define a custom template format.
                            Format: { "field1|...|fieldN" }
    
            ima.ahash_minsize= [IMA] Minimum file size for asynchronous hash usage
                            Format: <min_file_size>
                            Set the minimal file size for using asynchronous hash.
                            If left unspecified, ahash usage is disabled.
    
                            ahash performance varies for different data sizes on
                            different crypto accelerators. This option can be used
                            to achieve the best performance for a particular HW.
    
            ima.ahash_bufsize= [IMA] Asynchronous hash buffer size
                            Format: <bufsize>
                            Set hashing buffer size. Default: 4k.
    
                            ahash performance varies for different chunk sizes on
                            different crypto accelerators. This option can be used
                            to achieve best performance for particular HW.
    
            init=           [KNL]
                            Format: <full_path>
                            Run specified binary instead of /sbin/init as init
                            process.
    
            initcall_debug  [KNL] Trace initcalls as they are executed.  Useful
                            for working out where the kernel is dying during
                            startup.
    
            initcall_blacklist=  [KNL] Do not execute a comma-separated list of
                            initcall functions.  Useful for debugging built-in
                            modules and initcalls.
    
            initrd=         [BOOT] Specify the location of the initial ramdisk
    
            initrdmem=      [KNL] Specify a physical address and size from which to
                            load the initrd. If an initrd is compiled in or
                            specified in the bootparams, it takes priority over this
                            setting.
                            Format: ss[KMG],nn[KMG]
                            Default is 0, 0
    
            init_on_alloc=  [MM] Fill newly allocated pages and heap objects with
                            zeroes.
                            Format: 0 | 1
                            Default set by CONFIG_INIT_ON_ALLOC_DEFAULT_ON.
    
            init_on_free=   [MM] Fill freed pages and heap objects with zeroes.
                            Format: 0 | 1
                            Default set by CONFIG_INIT_ON_FREE_DEFAULT_ON.
    
            init_pkru=      [X86] Specify the default memory protection keys rights
                            register contents for all processes.  0x55555554 by
                            default (disallow access to all but pkey 0).  Can
                            override in debugfs after boot.
    
            inport.irq=     [HW] Inport (ATI XL and Microsoft) busmouse driver
                            Format: <irq>
    
            int_pln_enable  [X86] Enable power limit notification interrupt
    
            integrity_audit=[IMA]
                            Format: { "0" | "1" }
                            0 -- basic integrity auditing messages. (Default)
                            1 -- additional integrity auditing messages.
    
            intel_iommu=    [DMAR] Intel IOMMU driver (DMAR) option
                    on
                            Enable intel iommu driver.
                    off
                            Disable intel iommu driver.
                    igfx_off [Default Off]
                            By default, gfx is mapped as normal device. If a gfx
                            device has a dedicated DMAR unit, the DMAR unit is
                            bypassed by not enabling DMAR with this option. In
                            this case, gfx device will use physical address for
                            DMA.
                    forcedac [X86-64]
                            With this option iommu will not optimize to look
                            for io virtual address below 32-bit forcing dual
                            address cycle on pci bus for cards supporting greater
                            than 32-bit addressing. The default is to look
                            for translation below 32-bit and if not available
                            then look in the higher range.
                    strict [Default Off]
                            With this option on every unmap_single operation will
                            result in a hardware IOTLB flush operation as opposed
                            to batching them for performance.
                    sp_off [Default Off]
                            By default, super page will be supported if Intel IOMMU
                            has the capability. With this option, super page will
                            not be supported.
                    sm_on [Default Off]
                            By default, scalable mode will be disabled even if the
                            hardware advertises that it has support for the scalable
                            mode translation. With this option set, scalable mode
                            will be used on hardware which claims to support it.
                    tboot_noforce [Default Off]
                            Do not force the Intel IOMMU enabled under tboot.
                            By default, tboot will force Intel IOMMU on, which
                            could harm performance of some high-throughput
                            devices like 40GBit network cards, even if identity
                            mapping is enabled.
                            Note that using this option lowers the security
                            provided by tboot because it makes the system
                            vulnerable to DMA attacks.
    
            intel_idle.max_cstate=  [KNL,HW,ACPI,X86]
                            0       disables intel_idle and fall back on acpi_idle.
                            1 to 9  specify maximum depth of C-state.
    
            intel_pstate=   [X86]
                            disable
                              Do not enable intel_pstate as the default
                              scaling driver for the supported processors
                            passive
                              Use intel_pstate as a scaling driver, but configure it
                              to work with generic cpufreq governors (instead of
                              enabling its internal governor).  This mode cannot be
                              used along with the hardware-managed P-states (HWP)
                              feature.
                            force
                              Enable intel_pstate on systems that prohibit it by default
                              in favor of acpi-cpufreq. Forcing the intel_pstate driver
                              instead of acpi-cpufreq may disable platform features, such
                              as thermal controls and power capping, that rely on ACPI
                              P-States information being indicated to OSPM and therefore
                              should be used with caution. This option does not work with
                              processors that aren't supported by the intel_pstate driver
                              or on platforms that use pcc-cpufreq instead of acpi-cpufreq.
                            no_hwp
                              Do not enable hardware P state control (HWP)
                              if available.
                            hwp_only
                              Only load intel_pstate on systems which support
                              hardware P state control (HWP) if available.
                            support_acpi_ppc
                              Enforce ACPI _PPC performance limits. If the Fixed ACPI
                              Description Table, specifies preferred power management
                              profile as "Enterprise Server" or "Performance Server",
                              then this feature is turned on by default.
                            per_cpu_perf_limits
                              Allow per-logical-CPU P-State performance control limits using
                              cpufreq sysfs interface
    
            intremap=       [X86-64, Intel-IOMMU]
                            on      enable Interrupt Remapping (default)
                            off     disable Interrupt Remapping
                            nosid   disable Source ID checking
                            no_x2apic_optout
                                    BIOS x2APIC opt-out request will be ignored
                            nopost  disable Interrupt Posting
    
            iomem=          Disable strict checking of access to MMIO memory
                    strict  regions from userspace.
                    relaxed
    
            iommu=          [X86]
                    off
                    force
                    noforce
                    biomerge
                    panic
                    nopanic
                    merge
                    nomerge
                    soft
                    pt              [X86]
                    nopt            [X86]
                    nobypass        [PPC/POWERNV]
                            Disable IOMMU bypass, using IOMMU for PCI devices.
    
            iommu.strict=   [ARM64] Configure TLB invalidation behaviour
                            Format: { "0" | "1" }
                            0 - Lazy mode.
                              Request that DMA unmap operations use deferred
                              invalidation of hardware TLBs, for increased
                              throughput at the cost of reduced device isolation.
                              Will fall back to strict mode if not supported by
                              the relevant IOMMU driver.
                            1 - Strict mode (default).
                              DMA unmap operations invalidate IOMMU hardware TLBs
                              synchronously.
    
            iommu.passthrough=
                            [ARM64, X86] Configure DMA to bypass the IOMMU by default.
                            Format: { "0" | "1" }
                            0 - Use IOMMU translation for DMA.
                            1 - Bypass the IOMMU for DMA.
                            unset - Use value of CONFIG_IOMMU_DEFAULT_PASSTHROUGH.
    
            io7=            [HW] IO7 for Marvel-based Alpha systems
                            See comment before marvel_specify_io7 in
                            arch/alpha/kernel/core_marvel.c.
    
            io_delay=       [X86] I/O delay method
                    0x80
                            Standard port 0x80 based delay
                    0xed
                            Alternate port 0xed based delay (needed on some systems)
                    udelay
                            Simple two microseconds delay
                    none
                            No delay
    
            ip=             [IP_PNP]
                            See Documentation/admin-guide/nfs/nfsroot.rst.
    
            ipcmni_extend   [KNL] Extend the maximum number of unique System V
                            IPC identifiers from 32,768 to 16,777,216.
    
            irqaffinity=    [SMP] Set the default irq affinity mask
                            The argument is a cpu list, as described above.
    
            irqchip.gicv2_force_probe=
                            [ARM, ARM64]
                            Format: <bool>
                            Force the kernel to look for the second 4kB page
                            of a GICv2 controller even if the memory range
                            exposed by the device tree is too small.
    
            irqchip.gicv3_nolpi=
                            [ARM, ARM64]
                            Force the kernel to ignore the availability of
                            LPIs (and by consequence ITSs). Intended for system
                            that use the kernel as a bootloader, and thus want
                            to let secondary kernels in charge of setting up
                            LPIs.
    
            irqchip.gicv3_pseudo_nmi= [ARM64]
                            Enables support for pseudo-NMIs in the kernel. This
                            requires the kernel to be built with
                            CONFIG_ARM64_PSEUDO_NMI.
    
            irqfixup        [HW]
                            When an interrupt is not handled search all handlers
                            for it. Intended to get systems with badly broken
                            firmware running.
    
            irqpoll         [HW]
                            When an interrupt is not handled search all handlers
                            for it. Also check all handlers each timer
                            interrupt. Intended to get systems with badly broken
                            firmware running.
    
            isapnp=         [ISAPNP]
                            Format: <RDP>,<reset>,<pci_scan>,<verbosity>
    
            isolcpus=       [KNL,SMP,ISOL] Isolate a given set of CPUs from disturbance.
                            [Deprecated - use cpusets instead]
                            Format: [flag-list,]<cpu-list>
    
                            Specify one or more CPUs to isolate from disturbances
                            specified in the flag list (default: domain):
    
                            nohz
                              Disable the tick when a single task runs.
    
                              A residual 1Hz tick is offloaded to workqueues, which you
                              need to affine to housekeeping through the global
                              workqueue's affinity configured via the
                              /sys/devices/virtual/workqueue/cpumask sysfs file, or
                              by using the 'domain' flag described below.
    
                              NOTE: by default the global workqueue runs on all CPUs,
                              so to protect individual CPUs the 'cpumask' file has to
                              be configured manually after bootup.
    
                            domain
                              Isolate from the general SMP balancing and scheduling
                              algorithms. Note that performing domain isolation this way
                              is irreversible: it's not possible to bring back a CPU to
                              the domains once isolated through isolcpus. It's strongly
                              advised to use cpusets instead to disable scheduler load
                              balancing through the "cpuset.sched_load_balance" file.
                              It offers a much more flexible interface where CPUs can
                              move in and out of an isolated set anytime.
    
                              You can move a process onto or off an "isolated" CPU via
                              the CPU affinity syscalls or cpuset.
                              <cpu number> begins at 0 and the maximum value is
                              "number of CPUs in system - 1".
    
                            managed_irq
    
                              Isolate from being targeted by managed interrupts
                              which have an interrupt mask containing isolated
                              CPUs. The affinity of managed interrupts is
                              handled by the kernel and cannot be changed via
                              the /proc/irq/* interfaces.
    
                              This isolation is best effort and only effective
                              if the automatically assigned interrupt mask of a
                              device queue contains isolated and housekeeping
                              CPUs. If housekeeping CPUs are online then such
                              interrupts are directed to the housekeeping CPU
                              so that IO submitted on the housekeeping CPU
                              cannot disturb the isolated CPU.
    
                              If a queue's affinity mask contains only isolated
                              CPUs then this parameter has no effect on the
                              interrupt routing decision, though interrupts are
                              only delivered when tasks running on those
                              isolated CPUs submit IO. IO submitted on
                              housekeeping CPUs has no influence on those
                              queues.
    
                            The format of <cpu-list> is described above.
    
            iucv=           [HW,NET]
    
            ivrs_ioapic     [HW,X86-64]
                            Provide an override to the IOAPIC-ID<->DEVICE-ID
                            mapping provided in the IVRS ACPI table. For
                            example, to map IOAPIC-ID decimal 10 to
                            PCI device 00:14.0 write the parameter as:
                                    ivrs_ioapic[10]=00:14.0
    
            ivrs_hpet       [HW,X86-64]
                            Provide an override to the HPET-ID<->DEVICE-ID
                            mapping provided in the IVRS ACPI table. For
                            example, to map HPET-ID decimal 0 to
                            PCI device 00:14.0 write the parameter as:
                                    ivrs_hpet[0]=00:14.0
    
            ivrs_acpihid    [HW,X86-64]
                            Provide an override to the ACPI-HID:UID<->DEVICE-ID
                            mapping provided in the IVRS ACPI table. For
                            example, to map UART-HID:UID AMD0020:0 to
                            PCI device 00:14.5 write the parameter as:
                                    ivrs_acpihid[00:14.5]=AMD0020:0
    
            js=             [HW,JOY] Analog joystick
                            See Documentation/input/joydev/joystick.rst.
    
            nokaslr         [KNL]
                            When CONFIG_RANDOMIZE_BASE is set, this disables
                            kernel and module base offset ASLR (Address Space
                            Layout Randomization).
    
            kasan_multi_shot
                            [KNL] Enforce KASAN (Kernel Address Sanitizer) to print
                            report on every invalid memory access. Without this
                            parameter KASAN will print report only for the first
                            invalid access.
    
            keepinitrd      [HW,ARM]
    
            kernelcore=     [KNL,X86,IA-64,PPC]
                            Format: nn[KMGTPE] | nn% | "mirror"
                            This parameter specifies the amount of memory usable by
                            the kernel for non-movable allocations.  The requested
                            amount is spread evenly throughout all nodes in the
                            system as ZONE_NORMAL.  The remaining memory is used for
                            movable memory in its own zone, ZONE_MOVABLE.  In the
                            event, a node is too small to have both ZONE_NORMAL and
                            ZONE_MOVABLE, kernelcore memory will take priority and
                            other nodes will have a larger ZONE_MOVABLE.
    
                            ZONE_MOVABLE is used for the allocation of pages that
                            may be reclaimed or moved by the page migration
                            subsystem.  Note that allocations like PTEs-from-HighMem
                            still use the HighMem zone if it exists, and the Normal
                            zone if it does not.
    
                            It is possible to specify the exact amount of memory in
                            the form of "nn[KMGTPE]", a percentage of total system
                            memory in the form of "nn%", or "mirror".  If "mirror"
                            option is specified, mirrored (reliable) memory is used
                            for non-movable allocations and remaining memory is used
                            for Movable pages.  "nn[KMGTPE]", "nn%", and "mirror"
                            are exclusive, so you cannot specify multiple forms.
    
            kgdbdbgp=       [KGDB,HW] kgdb over EHCI usb debug port.
                            Format: <Controller#>[,poll interval]
                            The controller # is the number of the ehci usb debug
                            port as it is probed via PCI.  The poll interval is
                            optional and is the number seconds in between
                            each poll cycle to the debug port in case you need
                            the functionality for interrupting the kernel with
                            gdb or control-c on the dbgp connection.  When
                            not using this parameter you use sysrq-g to break into
                            the kernel debugger.
    
            kgdboc=         [KGDB,HW] kgdb over consoles.
                            Requires a tty driver that supports console polling,
                            or a supported polling keyboard driver (non-usb).
                             Serial only format: <serial_device>[,baud]
                             keyboard only format: kbd
                             keyboard and serial format: kbd,<serial_device>[,baud]
                            Optional Kernel mode setting:
                             kms, kbd format: kms,kbd
                             kms, kbd and serial format: kms,kbd,<ser_dev>[,baud]
    
            kgdboc_earlycon=        [KGDB,HW]
                            If the boot console provides the ability to read
                            characters and can work in polling mode, you can use
                            this parameter to tell kgdb to use it as a backend
                            until the normal console is registered. Intended to
                            be used together with the kgdboc parameter which
                            specifies the normal console to transition to.
    
                            The name of the early console should be specified
                            as the value of this parameter. Note that the name of
                            the early console might be different than the tty
                            name passed to kgdboc. It's OK to leave the value
                            blank and the first boot console that implements
                            read() will be picked.
    
            kgdbwait        [KGDB] Stop kernel execution and enter the
                            kernel debugger at the earliest opportunity.
    
            kmac=           [MIPS] Korina ethernet MAC address.
                            Configure the RouterBoard 532 series on-chip
                            Ethernet adapter MAC address.
    
            kmemleak=       [KNL] Boot-time kmemleak enable/disable
                            Valid arguments: on, off
                            Default: on
                            Built with CONFIG_DEBUG_KMEMLEAK_DEFAULT_OFF=y,
                            the default is off.
    
            kprobe_event=[probe-list]
                            [FTRACE] Add kprobe events and enable at boot time.
                            The probe-list is a semicolon delimited list of probe
                            definitions. Each definition is same as kprobe_events
                            interface, but the parameters are comma delimited.
                            For example, to add a kprobe event on vfs_read with
                            arg1 and arg2, add to the command line;
    
                                  kprobe_event=p,vfs_read,$arg1,$arg2
    
                            See also Documentation/trace/kprobetrace.rst "Kernel
                            Boot Parameter" section.
    
            kpti=           [ARM64] Control page table isolation of user
                            and kernel address spaces.
                            Default: enabled on cores which need mitigation.
                            0: force disabled
                            1: force enabled
    
            kvm.ignore_msrs=[KVM] Ignore guest accesses to unhandled MSRs.
                            Default is 0 (don't ignore, but inject #GP)
    
            kvm.enable_vmware_backdoor=[KVM] Support VMware backdoor PV interface.
                                       Default is false (don't support).
    
            kvm.mmu_audit=  [KVM] This is a R/W parameter which allows audit
                            KVM MMU at runtime.
                            Default is 0 (off)
    
            kvm.nx_huge_pages=
                            [KVM] Controls the software workaround for the
                            X86_BUG_ITLB_MULTIHIT bug.
                            force   : Always deploy workaround.
                            off     : Never deploy workaround.
                            auto    : Deploy workaround based on the presence of
                                      X86_BUG_ITLB_MULTIHIT.
    
                            Default is 'auto'.
    
                            If the software workaround is enabled for the host,
                            guests do need not to enable it for nested guests.
    
            kvm.nx_huge_pages_recovery_ratio=
                            [KVM] Controls how many 4KiB pages are periodically zapped
                            back to huge pages.  0 disables the recovery, otherwise if
                            the value is N KVM will zap 1/Nth of the 4KiB pages every
                            minute.  The default is 60.
    
            kvm-amd.nested= [KVM,AMD] Allow nested virtualization in KVM/SVM.
                            Default is 1 (enabled)
    
            kvm-amd.npt=    [KVM,AMD] Disable nested paging (virtualized MMU)
                            for all guests.
                            Default is 1 (enabled) if in 64-bit or 32-bit PAE mode.
    
            kvm-arm.mode=
                            [KVM,ARM] Select one of KVM/arm64's modes of operation.
    
                            nvhe: Standard nVHE-based mode, without support for
                                  protected guests.
    
                            protected: nVHE-based mode with support for guests whose
                                       state is kept private from the host.
                                       Not valid if the kernel is running in EL2.
    
                            Defaults to VHE/nVHE based on hardware support and
                            the value of CONFIG_ARM64_VHE.
    
            kvm-arm.vgic_v3_group0_trap=
                            [KVM,ARM] Trap guest accesses to GICv3 group-0
                            system registers
    
            kvm-arm.vgic_v3_group1_trap=
                            [KVM,ARM] Trap guest accesses to GICv3 group-1
                            system registers
    
            kvm-arm.vgic_v3_common_trap=
                            [KVM,ARM] Trap guest accesses to GICv3 common
                            system registers
    
            kvm-arm.vgic_v4_enable=
                            [KVM,ARM] Allow use of GICv4 for direct injection of
                            LPIs.
    
            kvm_cma_resv_ratio=n [PPC]
                            Reserves given percentage from system memory area for
                            contiguous memory allocation for KVM hash pagetable
                            allocation.
                            By default it reserves 5% of total system memory.
                            Format: <integer>
                            Default: 5
    
            kvm-intel.ept=  [KVM,Intel] Disable extended page tables
                            (virtualized MMU) support on capable Intel chips.
                            Default is 1 (enabled)
    
            kvm-intel.emulate_invalid_guest_state=
                            [KVM,Intel] Enable emulation of invalid guest states
                            Default is 0 (disabled)
    
            kvm-intel.flexpriority=
                            [KVM,Intel] Disable FlexPriority feature (TPR shadow).
                            Default is 1 (enabled)
    
            kvm-intel.nested=
                            [KVM,Intel] Enable VMX nesting (nVMX).
                            Default is 0 (disabled)
    
            kvm-intel.unrestricted_guest=
                            [KVM,Intel] Disable unrestricted guest feature
                            (virtualized real and unpaged mode) on capable
                            Intel chips. Default is 1 (enabled)
    
            kvm-intel.vmentry_l1d_flush=[KVM,Intel] Mitigation for L1 Terminal Fault
                            CVE-2018-3620.
    
                            Valid arguments: never, cond, always
    
                            always: L1D cache flush on every VMENTER.
                            cond:   Flush L1D on VMENTER only when the code between
                                    VMEXIT and VMENTER can leak host memory.
                            never:  Disables the mitigation
    
                            Default is cond (do L1 cache flush in specific instances)
    
            kvm-intel.vpid= [KVM,Intel] Disable Virtual Processor Identification
                            feature (tagged TLBs) on capable Intel chips.
                            Default is 1 (enabled)
    
            l1tf=           [X86] Control mitigation of the L1TF vulnerability on
                                  affected CPUs
    
                            The kernel PTE inversion protection is unconditionally
                            enabled and cannot be disabled.
    
                            full
                                    Provides all available mitigations for the
                                    L1TF vulnerability. Disables SMT and
                                    enables all mitigations in the
                                    hypervisors, i.e. unconditional L1D flush.
    
                                    SMT control and L1D flush control via the
                                    sysfs interface is still possible after
                                    boot.  Hypervisors will issue a warning
                                    when the first VM is started in a
                                    potentially insecure configuration,
                                    i.e. SMT enabled or L1D flush disabled.
    
                            full,force
                                    Same as 'full', but disables SMT and L1D
                                    flush runtime control. Implies the
                                    'nosmt=force' command line option.
                                    (i.e. sysfs control of SMT is disabled.)
    
                            flush
                                    Leaves SMT enabled and enables the default
                                    hypervisor mitigation, i.e. conditional
                                    L1D flush.
    
                                    SMT control and L1D flush control via the
                                    sysfs interface is still possible after
                                    boot.  Hypervisors will issue a warning
                                    when the first VM is started in a
                                    potentially insecure configuration,
                                    i.e. SMT enabled or L1D flush disabled.
    
                            flush,nosmt
    
                                    Disables SMT and enables the default
                                    hypervisor mitigation.
    
                                    SMT control and L1D flush control via the
                                    sysfs interface is still possible after
                                    boot.  Hypervisors will issue a warning
                                    when the first VM is started in a
                                    potentially insecure configuration,
                                    i.e. SMT enabled or L1D flush disabled.
    
                            flush,nowarn
                                    Same as 'flush', but hypervisors will not
                                    warn when a VM is started in a potentially
                                    insecure configuration.
    
                            off
                                    Disables hypervisor mitigations and doesn't
                                    emit any warnings.
                                    It also drops the swap size and available
                                    RAM limit restriction on both hypervisor and
                                    bare metal.
    
                            Default is 'flush'.
    
                            For details see: Documentation/admin-guide/hw-vuln/l1tf.rst
    
            l2cr=           [PPC]
    
            l3cr=           [PPC]
    
            lapic           [X86-32,APIC] Enable the local APIC even if BIOS
                            disabled it.
    
            lapic=          [X86,APIC] Do not use TSC deadline
                            value for LAPIC timer one-shot implementation. Default
                            back to the programmable timer unit in the LAPIC.
                            Format: notscdeadline
    
            lapic_timer_c2_ok       [X86,APIC] trust the local apic timer
                            in C2 power state.
    
            libata.dma=     [LIBATA] DMA control
                            libata.dma=0      Disable all PATA and SATA DMA
                            libata.dma=1      PATA and SATA Disk DMA only
                            libata.dma=2      ATAPI (CDROM) DMA only
                            libata.dma=4      Compact Flash DMA only
                            Combinations also work, so libata.dma=3 enables DMA
                            for disks and CDROMs, but not CFs.
    
            libata.ignore_hpa=      [LIBATA] Ignore HPA limit
                            libata.ignore_hpa=0       keep BIOS limits (default)
                            libata.ignore_hpa=1       ignore limits, using full disk
    
            libata.noacpi   [LIBATA] Disables use of ACPI in libata suspend/resume
                            when set.
                            Format: <int>
    
            libata.force=   [LIBATA] Force configurations.  The format is comma-
                            separated list of "[ID:]VAL" where ID is
                            PORT[.DEVICE].  PORT and DEVICE are decimal numbers
                            matching port, link or device.  Basically, it matches
                            the ATA ID string printed on console by libata.  If
                            the whole ID part is omitted, the last PORT and DEVICE
                            values are used.  If ID hasn't been specified yet, the
                            configuration applies to all ports, links and devices.
    
                            If only DEVICE is omitted, the parameter applies to
                            the port and all links and devices behind it.  DEVICE
                            number of 0 either selects the first device or the
                            first fan-out link behind PMP device.  It does not
                            select the host link.  DEVICE number of 15 selects the
                            host link and device attached to it.
    
                            The VAL specifies the configuration to force.  As long
                            as there's no ambiguity shortcut notation is allowed.
                            For example, both 1.5 and 1.5G would work for 1.5Gbps.
                            The following configurations can be forced.
    
                            * Cable type: 40c, 80c, short40c, unk, ign or sata.
                              Any ID with matching PORT is used.
    
                            * SATA link speed limit: 1.5Gbps or 3.0Gbps.
    
                            * Transfer mode: pio[0-7], mwdma[0-4] and udma[0-7].
                              udma[/][16,25,33,44,66,100,133] notation is also
                              allowed.
    
                            * [no]ncq: Turn on or off NCQ.
    
                            * [no]ncqtrim: Turn off queued DSM TRIM.
    
                            * nohrst, nosrst, norst: suppress hard, soft
                              and both resets.
    
                            * rstonce: only attempt one reset during
                              hot-unplug link recovery
    
                            * dump_id: dump IDENTIFY data.
    
                            * atapi_dmadir: Enable ATAPI DMADIR bridge support
    
                            * disable: Disable this device.
    
                            If there are multiple matching configurations changing
                            the same attribute, the last one is used.
    
           
    展开全文
  • 1、条件: SysLinux版本 > = 3.72; 2、官方的Slackware 系统介质,如 DVD...参考很有分量的Wiki,http://alien.slackbook.org/dokuwiki/doku.php?id=slackware:usbboot; Slackware大师级的人物写的博客; Install

    1、条件: SysLinux版本 > = 3.72;

     2、官方的Slackware 系统介质,如 DVD镜像;

     3、一份本地Slackware 源码树的拷贝;

    参考很有分量的Wiki, http://alien.slackbook.org/dokuwiki/doku.php?id=slackware:usbboot; Slackware大师级的人物写的博客;


     

    Installing Slackware using a bootable USB stick
    ===============================================
    
    **WARNING:**
      The procedure outlined below will destroy all data that is currently
      stored on the USB stick you use to create a USB Slackware installer.
    
    
    Introduction
    ------------
    
        With the release of Slackware 12.0, the era of floppy-boot came to
    a definite end.  The reason is simple - the Linux 2.6 kernel will not
    fit on a single floppy, even in it's most condensed configuration.
    In this README, I will show you how to use a bootable USB stick to
    install Slackware.  This method - creating the USB equivalent of a
    boot/root floppy pair - is easy to use and fast. It requires that your
    computer is able to boot from USB-HDD.
    
    
    Booting the Slackware installer from a USB stick
    ------------------------------------------------
    
        The 'usbboot.img' file is a 25 MB small USB boot image that you can
    use to boot into the Slackware setup program.  The mini image does not
    contain any installable Slackware package.  In order to install Slackware
    you will need a local NFS/HTTP/FTP server or another Slackware package
    source like a prepared local harddisk partition.  This small image file
    works great, especially when you can't or don't want to use CDROM media
    as the carrier for the Slackware packages.
    The image is transfered to a USB stick in a matter of seconds.  Even the
    oldest and tiniest of USB drives is well suited for this purpose.
    
        The usual way of installing Slackware from a network server repository,
    is to boot the Slackware CDROM, and run the ('pcmcia' and) 'network' script
    that load the drivers for your network card.  You need a working network
    card before running setup and go through the installation procedure.
    When you type 'pcmcia' and/or 'network', the Slackware installer would look
    for the appropriate driver files on an available CDROM, and if no CDROM
    is found it prompts you to insert floppy disks.
    
        Now, with a boot from our USB stick we are assuming there is no CDROM 
    and no floppy drive available to us.  So, this USB boot image contains
    all the drivers you need and will not prompt you for additional 'floppies'.
    A consequence of adding all the network and pcmcia drivers to the USB image
    is that using a bootable USB stick is not a suitable method to install
    Slackware on old PCs that are low on memory!  The ramdisk will be more than
    30 MB in size, and you will need RAM for your kernel as well.
    
    
    Transfering the usbboot.img file to a USB device
    ------------------------------------------------
    
    In order to create a bootable USB stick with the Slackware installer on it,
    copy the 'usbboot.img' file to a USB stick as follows:
    
    (1) In a Linux terminal if you're in X, or just from the console, change
        directory to where the file 'usbboot.img' is located - you may have to
        mount your Slackware CDROM or DVD first.
    (2) Insert a USB stick that is going to become your Slackware installer.
        Note that all data the stick contains will be erased in the next steps!
        You need to find out the device name for this USB stick.  Sometimes it
        helps to run the command 'rescan-scsi-bus' if the USB stick is not 
        being detected right away.
        On systems without SCSI or SATA disks, the USB stick will usually be
        assigned '/dev/sda' as the device name.  If '/dev/sda' already is your
        SCSI or SATA hard drive, then '/dev/sdb' would become the device name
        for the USB stick.  Be very convinced that you know which device name
        represents your stick before you advance to the next step!
    (3) Transfer the image file to the USB stick using the 'dd' program.  In the
        example command line below, I am assuming that the USB stick is known as
        '/dev/sdx'.
    
          dd if=usbboot.img of=/dev/sdx bs=1M
    
        Be careful about the device name for your USB stick!  The above 'dd' 
        command will wipe out any existing data on the device, so you had better 
        be sure that it is not the SATA hard disk you're targeting!
    
    
    Booting from the USB stick
    --------------------------
    
        Your computer BIOS must support booting from USB HDD.
    
        Plug the stick into your computers USB slot, and boot it up.  Make 
    sure you select boot from USB-HDD - how you do this is very dependent on 
    the type of computer you have.  Many computers will display a message 
    during the initial stages of the booting that says something like
    "Press [F12] for a boot device list".
    
        The Slackware installer will start just like when you had booted from 
    a CDROM (maybe somewhat faster even).  Log in as root.  Start the install
    by partitioning your hard drive as usual, and running 'setup'.  If you want
    to install from a network server such as a NFS, HTTP or FTP server, you
    should run the commands 'pcmcia' (if your network card is a PCMCIA type)
    and/or 'network' prior to running 'setup' in order to load a driver for
    your network card.  If you want to install Slackware using a local hard
    disk partition in case you copied the content of the Slackware CDROMs/DVD
    there already, that is also an option.
    It would not make much sense to opt for the third install method to
    "use a CDROM" since we just abandoned the use of a CDROM medium :-)
    
    
    A remark about fdisk warnings
    -----------------------------
    
        After writing the 'usbboot.img' to the USB stick, if you run fdisk -l 
    you will see alarming output like this:
    
     This doesn't look like a partition table
     Probably you selected the wrong device.
     
        Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
     /dev/sda1   ?     8563200     8326647  2088818490    1  FAT12
     Partition 1 has different physical/logical beginnings (non-Linux?):
          phys=(124, 38, 11) logical=(8563199, 1, 16)
     Partition 1 has different physical/logical endings:
          phys=(344, 195, 26) logical=(8326646, 0, 49)
     Partition 1 does not end on cylinder boundary.
    
    ... and so on, for partitions 2, 3 and 4 as well.
    
        This is actually harmless.  The 'usbboot.img' file was copied to the
    raw device, it did not create partitions at all.  Fdisk reads the information
    in the first sector and incorrectly interprets that as a messed-up device.
    
    
    Create a bootable USB stick non-destructively
    ---------------------------------------------
    
        If you do not want to sacrifice a USB thumb drive for this (note that
    dumping the image file on the USB stick will destroy all data already
    present on the stick), there is a solution: Slackware also ships with a
    script usbimg2disk.sh since the 13.0 release (actually, it is the file
    /usb-and-pxe-installers/usbimg2disk.sh ).  This script extracts the content
    from the 'usbboot.img' image file and uses this to transform a regular USB
    thumb drive into a bootable Slackware installer non-destructively (i.e. any
    existing files on the stick will not be touched).  The only requirement is,
    that there is at least 30 MB of available free space on the stick.
    
        The usbimg2disk.sh script is also convenient if your computer refuses to
    boot from a USB stick loaded with the usbboot.img file. The BIOS of some
    computers will not understand the format of the default Slackware USB
    image. Using the usbimg2disk.sh script, you create an alternative bootable
    USB stick that will be recognized by your computers BIOS.
    
    
    Restoring a USB stick to its original state (empty VFAT partition)
    ------------------------------------------------------------------
    
        When you have used the small 25 MB image to create a USB installer, 
    your USB stick is no longer useful for anything else.  Any remaining 
    space on the stick (assuming you used a larger-than 25 MB stick for it) 
    is inaccessible.  Fortunately, it is easy to re-create a FAT partition on 
    the stick (thereby removing the Slackware installer of course) so that 
    the USB stick again becomes available for carrying around your data.
    
        Take care about which device actually is your USB stick !!! The next 
    command will render all data on /dev/sdx inaccessible !!!
    
    (1) First, wipe the bootsector of the USB stick:
    
          dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/sdx bs=512 count=1
    
    (2) Then, create a new FAT32 partition on the stick and write a FAT32 
        filesystem on it (vfat or type b in fdisk terminology):
    
    fdisk /dev/sdx <<EOF
    n
    p
    1
    
    
    t
    b
    w
    EOF
    mkdosfs -F32 /dev/sdx1
    
        The 10 lines starting with 'fdisk /dev/sdx <<EOF' and ending with the 
        single word 'EOF' is actually one single command spread over ten lines,
        including the two empty lines in the middle.  This format is called a
        'here-document'.  It allows you to use a command which expects interactive
        input in a non-interactive way.  If you're uncomfortable with the above
        command you can just run
    
          fdisk /dev/sdx
    
        and create a partition interactively :-)
    
    ==========================================================
    Author:   Eric Hameleers <alien@slackware.com> 17-feb-2011
    Blog post: http://alien.slackbook.org/blog/installing-slackware-using-usb-thumb-drive/
    Wiki URL: http://www.slackware.com/~alien/dokuwiki/doku.php?id=slackware:usbboot
    
     
     
    创建USB Sticker In Windows:
    Installing Slackware using a bootable USB stick
    ===============================================
    
    **WARNING:**
      The procedure outlined below will destroy all data that is currently
      stored on the USB stick you use to create a USB Slackware installer.
    
    
    Introduction
    ------------
    
        With the release of Slackware 12.0, the era of floppy-boot came to
    a definite end.  The reason is simple - the Linux 2.6 kernel will not
    fit on a single floppy, even in it's most condensed configuration.
    In this README, I will show you how to use a bootable USB stick to
    install Slackware.  This method - creating the USB equivalent of a
    boot/root floppy pair - is easy to use and fast. It requires that your
    computer is able to boot from USB-HDD.
    
    
    Booting the Slackware installer from a USB stick
    ------------------------------------------------
    
        The 'usbboot.img' file is a 25 MB small USB boot image that you can
    use to boot into the Slackware setup program.  The mini image does not
    contain any installable Slackware package.  In order to install Slackware
    you will need a local NFS/HTTP/FTP server or another Slackware package
    source like a prepared local harddisk partition.  This small image file
    works great, especially when you can't or don't want to use CDROM media
    as the carrier for the Slackware packages.
    The image is transfered to a USB stick in a matter of seconds.  Even the
    oldest and tiniest of USB drives is well suited for this purpose.
    
        The usual way of installing Slackware from a network server repository,
    is to boot the Slackware CDROM, and run the ('pcmcia' and) 'network' script
    that load the drivers for your network card.  You need a working network
    card before running setup and go through the installation procedure.
    When you type 'pcmcia' and/or 'network', the Slackware installer would look
    for the appropriate driver files on an available CDROM, and if no CDROM
    is found it prompts you to insert floppy disks.
    
        Now, with a boot from our USB stick we are assuming there is no CDROM 
    and no floppy drive available to us.  So, this USB boot image contains
    all the drivers you need and will not prompt you for additional 'floppies'.
    A consequence of adding all the network and pcmcia drivers to the USB image
    is that using a bootable USB stick is not a suitable method to install
    Slackware on old PCs that are low on memory!  The ramdisk will be more than
    30 MB in size, and you will need RAM for your kernel as well.
    
    
    Transfering the usbboot.img file to a USB device
    ------------------------------------------------
    
    In order to create a bootable USB stick with the Slackware installer on it,
    copy the 'usbboot.img' file to a USB stick as follows:
    
    (1) In a Linux terminal if you're in X, or just from the console, change
        directory to where the file 'usbboot.img' is located - you may have to
        mount your Slackware CDROM or DVD first.
    (2) Insert a USB stick that is going to become your Slackware installer.
        Note that all data the stick contains will be erased in the next steps!
        You need to find out the device name for this USB stick.  Sometimes it
        helps to run the command 'rescan-scsi-bus' if the USB stick is not 
        being detected right away.
        On systems without SCSI or SATA disks, the USB stick will usually be
        assigned '/dev/sda' as the device name.  If '/dev/sda' already is your
        SCSI or SATA hard drive, then '/dev/sdb' would become the device name
        for the USB stick.  Be very convinced that you know which device name
        represents your stick before you advance to the next step!
    (3) Transfer the image file to the USB stick using the 'dd' program.  In the
        example command line below, I am assuming that the USB stick is known as
        '/dev/sdx'.
    
          dd if=usbboot.img of=/dev/sdx bs=1M
    
        Be careful about the device name for your USB stick!  The above 'dd' 
        command will wipe out any existing data on the device, so you had better 
        be sure that it is not the SATA hard disk you're targeting!
    
    
    Booting from the USB stick
    --------------------------
    
        Your computer BIOS must support booting from USB HDD.
    
        Plug the stick into your computers USB slot, and boot it up.  Make 
    sure you select boot from USB-HDD - how you do this is very dependent on 
    the type of computer you have.  Many computers will display a message 
    during the initial stages of the booting that says something like
    "Press [F12] for a boot device list".
    
        The Slackware installer will start just like when you had booted from 
    a CDROM (maybe somewhat faster even).  Log in as root.  Start the install
    by partitioning your hard drive as usual, and running 'setup'.  If you want
    to install from a network server such as a NFS, HTTP or FTP server, you
    should run the commands 'pcmcia' (if your network card is a PCMCIA type)
    and/or 'network' prior to running 'setup' in order to load a driver for
    your network card.  If you want to install Slackware using a local hard
    disk partition in case you copied the content of the Slackware CDROMs/DVD
    there already, that is also an option.
    It would not make much sense to opt for the third install method to
    "use a CDROM" since we just abandoned the use of a CDROM medium :-)
    
    
    A remark about fdisk warnings
    -----------------------------
    
        After writing the 'usbboot.img' to the USB stick, if you run fdisk -l 
    you will see alarming output like this:
    
     This doesn't look like a partition table
     Probably you selected the wrong device.
     
        Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
     /dev/sda1   ?     8563200     8326647  2088818490    1  FAT12
     Partition 1 has different physical/logical beginnings (non-Linux?):
          phys=(124, 38, 11) logical=(8563199, 1, 16)
     Partition 1 has different physical/logical endings:
          phys=(344, 195, 26) logical=(8326646, 0, 49)
     Partition 1 does not end on cylinder boundary.
    
    ... and so on, for partitions 2, 3 and 4 as well.
    
        This is actually harmless.  The 'usbboot.img' file was copied to the
    raw device, it did not create partitions at all.  Fdisk reads the information
    in the first sector and incorrectly interprets that as a messed-up device.
    
    
    Create a bootable USB stick non-destructively
    ---------------------------------------------
    
        If you do not want to sacrifice a USB thumb drive for this (note that
    dumping the image file on the USB stick will destroy all data already
    present on the stick), there is a solution: Slackware also ships with a
    script usbimg2disk.sh since the 13.0 release (actually, it is the file
    /usb-and-pxe-installers/usbimg2disk.sh ).  This script extracts the content
    from the 'usbboot.img' image file and uses this to transform a regular USB
    thumb drive into a bootable Slackware installer non-destructively (i.e. any
    existing files on the stick will not be touched).  The only requirement is,
    that there is at least 30 MB of available free space on the stick.
    
        The usbimg2disk.sh script is also convenient if your computer refuses to
    boot from a USB stick loaded with the usbboot.img file. The BIOS of some
    computers will not understand the format of the default Slackware USB
    image. Using the usbimg2disk.sh script, you create an alternative bootable
    USB stick that will be recognized by your computers BIOS.
    
    
    Restoring a USB stick to its original state (empty VFAT partition)
    ------------------------------------------------------------------
    
        When you have used the small 25 MB image to create a USB installer, 
    your USB stick is no longer useful for anything else.  Any remaining 
    space on the stick (assuming you used a larger-than 25 MB stick for it) 
    is inaccessible.  Fortunately, it is easy to re-create a FAT partition on 
    the stick (thereby removing the Slackware installer of course) so that 
    the USB stick again becomes available for carrying around your data.
    
        Take care about which device actually is your USB stick !!! The next 
    command will render all data on /dev/sdx inaccessible !!!
    
    (1) First, wipe the bootsector of the USB stick:
    
          dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/sdx bs=512 count=1
    
    (2) Then, create a new FAT32 partition on the stick and write a FAT32 
        filesystem on it (vfat or type b in fdisk terminology):
    
    fdisk /dev/sdx <<EOF
    n
    p
    1
    
    
    t
    b
    w
    EOF
    mkdosfs -F32 /dev/sdx1
    
        The 10 lines starting with 'fdisk /dev/sdx <<EOF' and ending with the 
        single word 'EOF' is actually one single command spread over ten lines,
        including the two empty lines in the middle.  This format is called a
        'here-document'.  It allows you to use a command which expects interactive
        input in a non-interactive way.  If you're uncomfortable with the above
        command you can just run
    
          fdisk /dev/sdx
    
        and create a partition interactively :-)
    
    ==========================================================
    Author:   Eric Hameleers <alien@slackware.com> 17-feb-2011
    Blog post: http://alien.slackbook.org/blog/installing-slackware-using-usb-thumb-drive/
    Wiki URL: http://www.slackware.com/~alien/dokuwiki/doku.php?id=slackware:usbboot
    
     
     

    What tools will you need for the job at hand?

    • A version of dd for Windows. This is needed to copy a USB image file to the USB stick. You can obtain it here at chrysocome.net., the same site that also hostsRAWRITE.EXE which ships with Slackware in the isolinux/sbootmgr directory.
    • The syslinux tool from syslinux.zytor.com. This will be used to make your stick bootable. Download it directly from kernel.org – the .zip file contains a Windows executable.
    • A program like Winimage (a shareware program, free 30-day trial), or IZarc(might be a good free alternative to Winimage) that is able to open the usbboot.imgdisk image file and extract its content to your hard drive.
    • Of course you need a Slackware DVD. Either buy it at the Slackware Store (which helps keeing the distro alive) or download a DVD ISO image from any Slackware mirror. It is also possible to use a local copy of a Slackware package tree (either downloaded from a Slackware mirror or copied off a DVD). In the examples below I am using “slackware-13.0” which is the 32-bit Slackware version 13.0. The instructions are not limited to this particular version of Slackware – you can do this for every recent version of Slackware, including the 64-bit release.
    • And finally, a USB stick with a (single) FAT32 partition. If it has 40 MB of  free space, you can use this stick as a bootable Slackware installer but still need the DVD or a set of CDROMs for the actual packages. If the stick has 2 GB of available free space, you will be able to copy all Slackware packages to the stick as well. The resulting bootable USB stick will be all you need in order to install Slackware. Ideal for netbooks that do not have a DVD drive!

    Preparations:

    First things first:

    1. Insert the Slackware DVD or make sure you have a copy of a Slackware tree somewhere on your local drive (more specifically: everything on the Slackware DVD with the exception of the source and slackbook directories will be required). In the examples below I will assume that the top of the Slackware tree is “D:\slackware-13.0\“. For other releases of Slackware or for the 64-bit version of Slackware the pathnames will be a bit different of course, but the same procedure applies.
    2. Insert the USB stick, make sure it gets assigned a drive letter. In the examples below I assume that the drive letter for the USB stick is “U:“
    3. Now, you have to decide what to do with your stick. This depends on how much data it can contain (less than 2GB, or more than 2GB). See below, there is a set of instructions for both cases.

    If you have (much) less than 2 GB available on the stick, we can transform the stick into a bootable Slackware setup disk.

    NOTE: the following procedure will erase all existing data on the USB stick, so be careful and check what’s on it before you proceed.

    1. Install the Windows version of dd (see above) onto your Windows computer.
    2. Open a DOS box (i.e. get a command prompt) by running
      cmd.exe
    3. Run the following command at the prompt:
      dd if=d:\usb-and-pxe-installers\usbboot.img of=\\.\u:
    4. That’s it! You have created a bootable Slackware setup USB stick

    If you have 2 GB or more available on the stick, we will be creating a full “USB equivalent” to a Slackware DVD:

    NOTE: The following procedure is non-destructive; meaning that no files on the stick will have to be deleted.

    1. Install Winimage and the Windows version of syslinux (see above) onto your Windows computer.
    2. Create a directory “U:\boot\syslinux\” on the USB stick
    3. Use Winimage to extract the content of the image file “D:\usb-and-pxe-installers\usbboot.img” to the newly created directory “U:\boot\syslinux\” on the stick
    4. Remove the file “U:\boot\syslinux\ldlinux.sys
    5. Open a DOS box (i.e. get a command prompt) by running
      cmd.exe
      On Vista at least, you have to run cmd.exe as Administrator to avoid the “Accessing physical drive: access denied” message when running the syslinux command in the next step.
    6. Run the following command at the prompt to make the stick bootable (you will notice the directory /boot/syslinux in that command which is the directory we just populated):
      syslinux.exe -m -a -d /boot/syslinux u:
    7. Using Windows Explorer, give the U: drive the label “USBSLACKINS
    8. Copy the whole Slackware tree “D:\slackware-13.0” to the root of the USB stick, “U:\“. Exclude the slackbook, source and usb-and-pxe-installers directories while copying if you have just about 2 GB free. If you have a 4 GB stick you will find that everything will fit nicely. Using a Windows Explorer for this is probably easiest. As the end result you should have a “U:\slackware-13.0” directory on the stick with (among others) a file “PACKAGES.TXT” and a directory “slackware” below that.

    Booting the USB stick and installing Slackware:

    When booting this USB installer (the version containing the Slackware packages), you have to mount the USB partition before starting “setup” because you can access your packages only after mounting it. You cannot use the directory “/mnt” to mount this partition because the Slackware installer uses “/mnt” already. After the booting has finished and it delivers you to a command-prompt, you create a new directory in the installer, for instance “/usbinstall“:

    mkdir /usbinstall

    After you have created this mount point, you have to find out the name of your partition (you can run “fdisk -l” or “blkid” to find out) and then use the following mount command to preserve upper case filenames:

    mount -t vfat -o ro,shortname=mixed $(/sbin/blkid -t LABEL=USBSLACKINS | cut -f1 -d:) /usbinstall

    The “shortname” option used in that mount command is required, and Slackware installation will fail if you forget it.

    If you labeled the stick’s partition “USBSLACKINS” in step 7 above, then you can use the following command instead of the previous mount command. It will find the correct partition automatically (note that what follows is a single command line !):

    mount -t vfat -o ro,shortname=mixed $(/sbin/blkid -t LABEL=USBSLACKINS | cut -f1 -d:) /usbinstall

    Then afterwards, when it is time to specify the package SOURCE directory, you type:

    /usbinstall/slackware-13.0/slackware

    The rest of the installation will proceed as usual. Give me feedback in the comment section below if you encounter any problems.

    Good luck! I hope this small tutorial will be able to snatch you away from the Dark Side 

     

     

     

    Installing Slackware using a bootable USB stick
    ===============================================
    
    **WARNING:**
      The procedure outlined below will destroy all data that is currently
      stored on the USB stick you use to create a USB Slackware installer.
    
    
    Introduction
    ------------
    
        With the release of Slackware 12.0, the era of floppy-boot came to
    a definite end.  The reason is simple - the Linux 2.6 kernel will not
    fit on a single floppy, even in it's most condensed configuration.
    In this README, I will show you how to use a bootable USB stick to
    install Slackware.  This method - creating the USB equivalent of a
    boot/root floppy pair - is easy to use and fast. It requires that your
    computer is able to boot from USB-HDD.
    
    
    Booting the Slackware installer from a USB stick
    ------------------------------------------------
    
        The 'usbboot.img' file is a 25 MB small USB boot image that you can
    use to boot into the Slackware setup program.  The mini image does not
    contain any installable Slackware package.  In order to install Slackware
    you will need a local NFS/HTTP/FTP server or another Slackware package
    source like a prepared local harddisk partition.  This small image file
    works great, especially when you can't or don't want to use CDROM media
    as the carrier for the Slackware packages.
    The image is transfered to a USB stick in a matter of seconds.  Even the
    oldest and tiniest of USB drives is well suited for this purpose.
    
        The usual way of installing Slackware from a network server repository,
    is to boot the Slackware CDROM, and run the ('pcmcia' and) 'network' script
    that load the drivers for your network card.  You need a working network
    card before running setup and go through the installation procedure.
    When you type 'pcmcia' and/or 'network', the Slackware installer would look
    for the appropriate driver files on an available CDROM, and if no CDROM
    is found it prompts you to insert floppy disks.
    
        Now, with a boot from our USB stick we are assuming there is no CDROM 
    and no floppy drive available to us.  So, this USB boot image contains
    all the drivers you need and will not prompt you for additional 'floppies'.
    A consequence of adding all the network and pcmcia drivers to the USB image
    is that using a bootable USB stick is not a suitable method to install
    Slackware on old PCs that are low on memory!  The ramdisk will be more than
    30 MB in size, and you will need RAM for your kernel as well.
    
    
    Transfering the usbboot.img file to a USB device
    ------------------------------------------------
    
    In order to create a bootable USB stick with the Slackware installer on it,
    copy the 'usbboot.img' file to a USB stick as follows:
    
    (1) In a Linux terminal if you're in X, or just from the console, change
        directory to where the file 'usbboot.img' is located - you may have to
        mount your Slackware CDROM or DVD first.
    (2) Insert a USB stick that is going to become your Slackware installer.
        Note that all data the stick contains will be erased in the next steps!
        You need to find out the device name for this USB stick.  Sometimes it
        helps to run the command 'rescan-scsi-bus' if the USB stick is not 
        being detected right away.
        On systems without SCSI or SATA disks, the USB stick will usually be
        assigned '/dev/sda' as the device name.  If '/dev/sda' already is your
        SCSI or SATA hard drive, then '/dev/sdb' would become the device name
        for the USB stick.  Be very convinced that you know which device name
        represents your stick before you advance to the next step!
    (3) Transfer the image file to the USB stick using the 'dd' program.  In the
        example command line below, I am assuming that the USB stick is known as
        '/dev/sdx'.
    
          dd if=usbboot.img of=/dev/sdx bs=1M
    
        Be careful about the device name for your USB stick!  The above 'dd' 
        command will wipe out any existing data on the device, so you had better 
        be sure that it is not the SATA hard disk you're targeting!
    
    
    Booting from the USB stick
    --------------------------
    
        Your computer BIOS must support booting from USB HDD.
    
        Plug the stick into your computers USB slot, and boot it up.  Make 
    sure you select boot from USB-HDD - how you do this is very dependent on 
    the type of computer you have.  Many computers will display a message 
    during the initial stages of the booting that says something like
    "Press [F12] for a boot device list".
    
        The Slackware installer will start just like when you had booted from 
    a CDROM (maybe somewhat faster even).  Log in as root.  Start the install
    by partitioning your hard drive as usual, and running 'setup'.  If you want
    to install from a network server such as a NFS, HTTP or FTP server, you
    should run the commands 'pcmcia' (if your network card is a PCMCIA type)
    and/or 'network' prior to running 'setup' in order to load a driver for
    your network card.  If you want to install Slackware using a local hard
    disk partition in case you copied the content of the Slackware CDROMs/DVD
    there already, that is also an option.
    It would not make much sense to opt for the third install method to
    "use a CDROM" since we just abandoned the use of a CDROM medium :-)
    
    
    A remark about fdisk warnings
    -----------------------------
    
        After writing the 'usbboot.img' to the USB stick, if you run fdisk -l 
    you will see alarming output like this:
    
     This doesn't look like a partition table
     Probably you selected the wrong device.
     
        Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
     /dev/sda1   ?     8563200     8326647  2088818490    1  FAT12
     Partition 1 has different physical/logical beginnings (non-Linux?):
          phys=(124, 38, 11) logical=(8563199, 1, 16)
     Partition 1 has different physical/logical endings:
          phys=(344, 195, 26) logical=(8326646, 0, 49)
     Partition 1 does not end on cylinder boundary.
    
    ... and so on, for partitions 2, 3 and 4 as well.
    
        This is actually harmless.  The 'usbboot.img' file was copied to the
    raw device, it did not create partitions at all.  Fdisk reads the information
    in the first sector and incorrectly interprets that as a messed-up device.
    
    
    Create a bootable USB stick non-destructively
    ---------------------------------------------
    
        If you do not want to sacrifice a USB thumb drive for this (note that
    dumping the image file on the USB stick will destroy all data already
    present on the stick), there is a solution: Slackware also ships with a
    script usbimg2disk.sh since the 13.0 release (actually, it is the file
    /usb-and-pxe-installers/usbimg2disk.sh ).  This script extracts the content
    from the 'usbboot.img' image file and uses this to transform a regular USB
    thumb drive into a bootable Slackware installer non-destructively (i.e. any
    existing files on the stick will not be touched).  The only requirement is,
    that there is at least 30 MB of available free space on the stick.
    
        The usbimg2disk.sh script is also convenient if your computer refuses to
    boot from a USB stick loaded with the usbboot.img file. The BIOS of some
    computers will not understand the format of the default Slackware USB
    image. Using the usbimg2disk.sh script, you create an alternative bootable
    USB stick that will be recognized by your computers BIOS.
    
    
    Restoring a USB stick to its original state (empty VFAT partition)
    ------------------------------------------------------------------
    
        When you have used the small 25 MB image to create a USB installer, 
    your USB stick is no longer useful for anything else.  Any remaining 
    space on the stick (assuming you used a larger-than 25 MB stick for it) 
    is inaccessible.  Fortunately, it is easy to re-create a FAT partition on 
    the stick (thereby removing the Slackware installer of course) so that 
    the USB stick again becomes available for carrying around your data.
    
        Take care about which device actually is your USB stick !!! The next 
    command will render all data on /dev/sdx inaccessible !!!
    
    (1) First, wipe the bootsector of the USB stick:
    
          dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/sdx bs=512 count=1
    
    (2) Then, create a new FAT32 partition on the stick and write a FAT32 
        filesystem on it (vfat or type b in fdisk terminology):
    
    fdisk /dev/sdx <<EOF
    n
    p
    1
    
    
    t
    b
    w
    EOF
    mkdosfs -F32 /dev/sdx1
    
        The 10 lines starting with 'fdisk /dev/sdx <<EOF' and ending with the 
        single word 'EOF' is actually one single command spread over ten lines,
        including the two empty lines in the middle.  This format is called a
        'here-document'.  It allows you to use a command which expects interactive
        input in a non-interactive way.  If you're uncomfortable with the above
        command you can just run
    
          fdisk /dev/sdx
    
        and create a partition interactively :-)
    
    ==========================================================
    Author:   Eric Hameleers <alien@slackware.com> 17-feb-2011
    Blog post: http://alien.slackbook.org/blog/installing-slackware-using-usb-thumb-drive/
    Wiki URL: http://www.slackware.com/~alien/dokuwiki/doku.php?id=slackware:usbboot
    
     
    展开全文
  • android usb挂载分析--各种格式支持

    千次阅读 2012-04-15 22:27:03
    前面对usb挂载的流程及各种格式的支持做了分析,这一篇也基本是收尾篇了,主要是把各种格式的挂载在vold模块种加进去,这里对这部分做了一些更改,如直接 挂载到/mnt/sdcard,没有先挂载到/mnt/secure/staging,还有...

    前面对usb挂载的流程及各种格式的支持做了分析,这一篇也基本是收尾篇了,主要是把各种格式的挂载在vold模块种加进去,这里对这部分做了一些更改,如直接 挂载到/mnt/sdcard,没有先挂载到/mnt/secure/staging,还有把一些状态的转换去掉了,以及格式化、格式检查的去掉了,因为暂时还没听到这方面的奢求,哈哈,也是为了省事吧,这里把所有的挂载都在一个文件中实现了,先看下Android.mk

    BUILD_VOLD2 := false
    ifneq ($(TARGET_SIMULATOR),true)
        BUILD_VOLD2 := true
    endif
    
    ifeq ($(BUILD_VOLD2),true)
    
    LOCAL_PATH:= $(call my-dir)
    
    common_src_files := \
    	VolumeManager.cpp \
    	CommandListener.cpp \
    	VoldCommand.cpp \
    	NetlinkManager.cpp \
    	NetlinkHandler.cpp \
    	Volume.cpp \
    	DirectVolume.cpp \
    	logwrapper.c \
    	Process.cpp \
    	StorageMount.cpp \
    	Loop.cpp \
    	Devmapper.cpp \
    	ResponseCode.cpp \
    	Xwarp.cpp
    
    common_c_includes := \
    	$(KERNEL_HEADERS) \
    	kernel/include \
    	external/openssl/include
       ...
    这里去掉了FAT.cpp,把真正的挂载都在StorageMount.cpp实现了。

    对mountVol函数进行了修改。

    int Volume::mountVol() {
        dev_t deviceNodes[4];
        int n, i, rc = 0;
        char errmsg[255];
        char  file_type[8]  = {0};
        bool mountflat = false;
        int loopCount = 10;
    	
    loop:    
    	if (getState() == Volume::State_NoMedia) {
            snprintf(errmsg, sizeof(errmsg),
                     "Volume %s %s mount failed - no media",
                     getLabel(), getMountpoint());
    		if(loopCount > 0)
    		{
    			loopCount --;
    			sleep(1);
    			SLOGW("loopCount = %d.", loopCount);
    			goto loop;
    		}
            mVm->getBroadcaster()->sendBroadcast(
                                             ResponseCode::VolumeMountFailedNoMedia,
                                             errmsg, false);
            errno = ENODEV;
            return -1;
        } else if (getState() != Volume::State_Idle) {
        	if(loopCount > 0)
    	{
    		loopCount --;
    		sleep(1);
    		SLOGW("loopCount = %d.", loopCount);
    		goto loop;
    	}
            errno = EBUSY;
            return -1;
        }
    
        if (isMountpointMounted(getMountpoint())) {
            SLOGW("Volume is idle but appears to be mounted - fixing");
            setState(Volume::State_Mounted);
            // mCurrentlyMountedKdev = XXX
            return 0;
        }
    
        n = getDeviceNodes((dev_t *) &deviceNodes, 4);
        if (!n) {
            SLOGE("Failed to get device nodes (%s)\n", strerror(errno));
            return -1;
        }
    
        for (i = 0; i < n; i++) {
            char devicePath[255];
            int result = 0;
            const char *disktype = "fat";
    
            sprintf(devicePath, "/dev/block/vold/%d:%d", MAJOR(deviceNodes[i]),
                    MINOR(deviceNodes[i]));
    
            SLOGI("%s being considered for volume %s\n", devicePath, getLabel());
            if((StorageMount::doMount(devicePath, "/mnt/secure/staging", false, false, 1000, 1015, 0702, true)) != 0)
    			continue;
    		
            SLOGI("Device %s, target %s mounted @ /mnt/secure/staging", devicePath, getMountpoint());
    
            protectFromAutorunStupidity();
    
            if (createBindMounts()) {
                SLOGE("Failed to create bindmounts (%s)", strerror(errno));
                umount("/mnt/secure/staging");
                setState(Volume::State_Idle);
                return -1;
            }
    
            /*
             * Now that the bindmount trickery is done, atomically move the
             * whole subtree to expose it to non priviledged users.
             */
            if (doMoveMount("/mnt/secure/staging", getMountpoint(), false)) {
                SLOGE("Failed to move mount (%s)", strerror(errno));
                umount("/mnt/secure/staging");
                setState(Volume::State_Idle);
                return -1;
            }
            setState(Volume::State_Mounted);
            mCurrentlyMountedKdev = deviceNodes[i];
            return 0;
        }
    
        SLOGE("Volume %s found no suitable devices for mounting :(\n", getLabel());
        setState(Volume::State_Idle);
    
        return -1;
    }
    这里开始加了个loop,是因为有时候已经发送了VolumeDiskInserted给FrameWork层,FrameWork层会下发挂载命令,但在这里判断状态的时候不对,因为DirectVolume类中的handlePartitionAdded函数还未调用 完,未将状态改过来

    在挂载的时候直接调用StorageMount::doMount进行挂载,这里代码还有点问题,没有去掉一些没用的代码。

    int StorageMount::doMount(const char *fsPath, const char *mountPoint,
                     bool ro, bool remount, int ownerUid, int ownerGid,
                     int permMask, bool createLost) 
    {
    	int rc;
    	unsigned long flags;
    	char mountData[255];
    	char filetype[8];
    	int fd;
    	bool mountDataFlag = true;
    	enum ANDROID_FILESYSTEM_TYPE  e_filesystem_type = IPANEL_ANDROID_FILESYSTEM_UNKNOW;
    	enum ANDROID_MOUNT_FLAG e_mount_flag = IPANEL_ANDROID_MOUNT_FLAG_FAT;
    	flags = MS_NODEV | MS_NOEXEC | MS_NOSUID | MS_DIRSYNC;
    
    	flags |= (ro ? MS_RDONLY : 0);
    	flags |= (remount ? MS_REMOUNT : 0);
    
    	/*
    	* Note: This is a temporary hack. If the sampling profiler is enabled,
    	* we make the SD card world-writable so any process can write snapshots.
    	*
    	* TODO: Remove this code once we have a drop box in system_server.
    	*/
    	char value[PROPERTY_VALUE_MAX];
    	property_get("persist.sampling_profiler", value, "");
    	if (value[0] == '1') {
    	SLOGW("The SD card is world-writable because the"
    	" 'persist.sampling_profiler' system property is set to '1'.");
    	permMask = 0;
    	}
    
    
    	fd = open(fsPath, O_RDONLY | O_NONBLOCK, 777);
    	if(fd < 0)
    	{
    		return -1;
    	}
    	e_filesystem_type = disk_get_file_system(fd);
    	switch(e_filesystem_type)
    	{
    		case IPANEL_ANDROID_FILESYSTEM_NTFS:
    			strcpy(filetype, "ntfs");
    			e_mount_flag= IPANEL_ANDROID_MOUNT_FLAG_NTFS;
    			break;
    
    		case IPANEL_ANDROID_FILESYSTEM_FAT16:
    			strcpy(filetype, "vfat");
    			e_mount_flag= IPANEL_ANDROID_MOUNT_FLAG_NTFS;
    			break;
    
    		case IPANEL_ANDROID_FILESYSTEM_FAT32:
    			strcpy(filetype, "vfat");			
    			e_mount_flag= IPANEL_ANDROID_MOUNT_FLAG_FAT;
    			break;
    
    		case IPANEL_ANDROID_FILESYSTEM_EXT2:
    			strcpy(filetype, "ext2");
    			e_mount_flag= IPANEL_ANDROID_MOUNT_FLAG_EXT;
    			break;
    
    		case IPANEL_ANDROID_FILESYSTEM_EXT3:
    			strcpy(filetype, "ext3");
    			e_mount_flag= IPANEL_ANDROID_MOUNT_FLAG_EXT;
    			break;
    
    		case IPANEL_ANDROID_FILESYSTEM_EXT4:
    			strcpy(filetype, "ext4");
    			e_mount_flag= IPANEL_ANDROID_MOUNT_FLAG_EXT;
    			break;
    
    		case IPANEL_ANDROID_FILESYSTEM_UNKNOW:
    			SLOGE("filesystem unknow or not support");
    			return -1;
    	}
    	if(IPANEL_ANDROID_MOUNT_FLAG_EXT == e_mount_flag
    		|| IPANEL_ANDROID_MOUNT_FLAG_NTFS == e_mount_flag)
    	{
    		sprintf(mountData, "uid=%d,gid=%d,fmask=%o,dmask=%o",           
    								ownerUid, ownerGid, permMask, permMask);
    	}
    	else if(IPANEL_ANDROID_MOUNT_FLAG_FAT == e_mount_flag)
    	{
    		sprintf(mountData, "utf8,uid=%d,gid=%d,fmask=%o,dmask=%o,shortname=mixed",           
    								ownerUid, ownerGid, permMask, permMask);
    	}
    	else
    	{
    
    	}
    	SLOGI("mountData = %s. \n", mountData);
    
    	if(e_filesystem_type == IPANEL_ANDROID_FILESYSTEM_NTFS)
    	{
    		const char *args[8];
    		args[0] = "/system/bin/ntfs-3g";
    		args[1] = fsPath;
    		args[2] = mountPoint;
    		args[3] = NULL;    
    
    		rc = logwrap(7, args, 0);
    		}
    	else
    	{
    		rc = mount(fsPath, mountPoint, filetype, flags, mountData);
    	}
    	SLOGI("rc = %d.", rc);
    
    	if (rc == 0 && createLost) 
    	{
    		char *lost_path;
    		asprintf(&lost_path, "%s/LOST.DIR", mountPoint);
    		if (access(lost_path, F_OK)) 
    		{
    			/*
    			* Create a LOST.DIR in the root so we have somewhere to put
    			* lost cluster chains (fsck_msdos doesn't currently do this)
    			*/
    			if (mkdir(lost_path, 0075)) 
    			{
    				SLOGE("Unable to create LOST.DIR (%s)", strerror(errno));
    			}
    		}
    		free(lost_path);
    	}
    
    	return rc;
    
    ERR:
    	return -1;
    }
    这里会打开这个文件系统的,获取超级块,然后判断是什么类型的文件系统,再进行挂载,判断文件类型的函数:

    ANDROID_FILESYSTEM_TYPE StorageMount::disk_get_file_system(int  fd)
    {
    	unsigned char fsystem[8];
    	unsigned char FAT[8];
    	int i;
    	unsigned char *blockbuffer;
    	int file_system;
    	unsigned char hasjounal;
    	int sec_size = disk_get_sector_size(fd);
    	enum ANDROID_FILESYSTEM_TYPE  e_filesystem_type;
    	SLOGW("lijj disk_get_file_system");
    	blockbuffer = (unsigned char*)calloc(1,sec_size);
    	disk_read_sector(fd, 0, blockbuffer);
    	//dump_disk_sector(DBR,512);
    	/*0x03--0x0a 为 OEM ID*/
    	for (i = 0; i < 8; i++) //modify by yanglb (i<=8 Memory out of bounds)
    		fsystem[i] = blockbuffer[0x3 + i];
    	/*OEM ID 等于 "NTFS",则为NTFS文件系统*/
    	if (    fsystem[0] == 0x4e 
    		&& fsystem[1] == 0x54 
    		&& fsystem[2] == 0x46 
    		&& fsystem[3] == 0x53 
    		&& fsystem[4] == 0x20    
    		&& fsystem[5] == 0x20 
    		&& fsystem[6] == 0x20 
    		&& fsystem[7] == 0x20    )
    	{
    		e_filesystem_type = IPANEL_ANDROID_FILESYSTEM_NTFS;
    		SLOGW("lijj IPANEL_ANDROID_FILESYSTEM_NTFS");
    		goto FS_END;
    	}
    
    	/*FAT32 在 0x52-0x59描述了文件系统*/
    	for (i = 0; i < 8; i++) //modify by yanglb (i<=8 Memory out of bounds)
    		FAT[i] = blockbuffer[0x52 + i];
    	if (    FAT[0] == 0x46 
    		&& FAT[1] == 0x41 
    		&& FAT[2] == 0x54 
    		&& FAT[3] == 0x33 
    		&& FAT[4] == 0x32 
    		&& FAT[5] == 0x20
    		&& FAT[6] == 0x20 
    		&& FAT[7] == 0x20    )
    	{
    		e_filesystem_type = IPANEL_ANDROID_FILESYSTEM_FAT32; //FAT32
    		SLOGW("lijj IPANEL_ANDROID_FILESYSTEM_FAT32");
            	goto FS_END;
    	}
    	/*FAT16在 0x36-0x3d字节描述了文件系统*/
    	for (i = 0; i < 8; i++) //modify by yanglb (i<=8 Memory out of bounds)
    		FAT[i] = blockbuffer[0x36 + i];
    	if (    FAT[0] == 0x46 
    		&& FAT[1] == 0x41 
    		&& FAT[2] == 0x54 
    		&& FAT[3] == 0x31 
    		&& FAT[4] == 0x36 
    		&& FAT[5] == 0x20 
    		&& FAT[6] == 0x20 
    		&& FAT[7] == 0x20    )
    	{
            	e_filesystem_type = IPANEL_ANDROID_FILESYSTEM_FAT16; //FAT16
            	SLOGW("lijj IPANEL_ANDROID_FILESYSTEM_FAT16");
            	goto FS_END;
    	}
    	if( blockbuffer[0x1FE] == 0x55 && blockbuffer[0x1FF] == 0xaa)
    		goto FS_ERR;
    
    	/*如果分区引导记录PBR没有描述NTFS,FAT,则查询是否为EXT*/
    	/*查询超级块,若0x38,0x39位和EXT格式的魔数吻合,则可确定为EXT*/
    	/*另根据无日志判断EXT2,有日志默认为EXT3*/
    	memset(blockbuffer, 0, sec_size);
    	disk_read_sector(fd,  2, blockbuffer);
    	if (blockbuffer[0x38] != 0x53 || blockbuffer[0x39] != 0xef)
    	{
    		goto  FS_ERR;
    	}
    	/*ext2 ext3 从0x178开始的后面几位都为0*/
    	if (blockbuffer[0x178] != 0 || blockbuffer[0x179] != 0
    		||blockbuffer[0x17a] != 0 || blockbuffer[0x17b] != 0
    		||blockbuffer[0x17c] != 0 || blockbuffer[0x17d] != 0
    		||blockbuffer[0x17e] != 0 || blockbuffer[0x17f] != 0)
    	{
    		e_filesystem_type = IPANEL_ANDROID_FILESYSTEM_EXT4; //ext3
            	goto FS_END;
    	}
    
    	hasjounal = (blockbuffer[0x5c] >> 2) &0x1;
    	if (hasjounal == 1)
    	{
    		e_filesystem_type = IPANEL_ANDROID_FILESYSTEM_EXT3; //ext3
            	goto FS_END;
    	}
    	else
    	{
    		
    		e_filesystem_type = IPANEL_ANDROID_FILESYSTEM_EXT2; //ext3
            	goto FS_END;
    	}
    FS_END:
    	free(blockbuffer);
    	return e_filesystem_type;
    	
    FS_ERR:
    	e_filesystem_type = IPANEL_ANDROID_FILESYSTEM_UNKNOW;
    	free(blockbuffer);
    	return e_filesystem_type;
    }
    

    这里ext4类型的判断粊笨拙,这里的方法是因为ext4超级块的结构比其它ext2 ext3大,后面的 这引起字段不为0,而其它两种格式这些字段都是0的。


    类型判断好之后,就可以挂载了,这里根据不同的类型,挂载的时候参数或命令不一样。



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