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  • weixin_39819393 2020-12-29 06:25:45
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  • "There is no ulterior motive in work other than the product being made and the processes of its creation. The details of daily work are meaningful because they are not detached in the worker's mind ...

    Unit 8 - The Worker as Creator or Machine

    The Worker as Creator or Machine

    Erich Fromm

    Unless man exploits others, he has to work in order to live. However primitive and simple his method of work may be, by the very fact of production, he has risen above the animal kingdom; rightly has he been defined as "the animal that produces." But work is not only an inescapable necessity for man. Work is also his liberator from nature, his creator as a social and independent being. In the process of work, that is, the molding and changing of nature outside of himself, man molds and changes himself. He emerges from nature by mastering her; he develops his powers of co-operation, of reason, his sense of beauty. He separates himself from nature, from the original unity with her, but at the same time unites himself with her again as her master and builder. The more his work develops, the more his individuality develops. In molding nature and re-creating her, he learns to make use of his powers, increasing his skill and creativeness. Whether we think of the beautiful paintings in the caves of Southern France, the ornaments on weapons among primitive people, the statues and temples of Greece, the cathedrals of the Middle Ages, the chairs and tables made by skilled craftsmen, or the cultivation of flowers, trees or corn by peasants-all are expressions of the creative transformation of nature by man's reason and skill.

    In Western history, craftsmanship, especially as it developed in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, constitutes one of the peaks in the evolution of creative work. Work was not only a useful activity, but one which carried with it a profound satisfaction. The main features of craftsmanship have been very lucidly expressed by C. W. Mills. "There is no ulterior motive in work other than the product being made and the processes of its creation. The details of daily work are meaningful because they are not detached in the worker's mind from the product of the work. The worker is free to control his own working action. The craftsman is thus able to learn from his work; and to use and develop his capacities and skills in its prosecution. There is no split of work and play, or work and culture. The craftsman' s way of livelihood determines and infuses his entire mode of living."

    With the collapse of the medieval structure, and the beginning of the modern mode of production, the meaning and function of work changed fundamentally, especially in the Protestant countries. Man, being afraid of his newly won freedom, was obsessed by the need to subdue his doubts and fears by developing a feverish activity. The outcome of this activity, success or failure, decided his salvation, indicating whether he was among the saved or the lost souls.

    Work, instead of being an activity satisfying in itself and pleasurable, became a duty and an obsession. The more it was possible to gain riches by work, the more it became a pure means to the aim of wealth and success.

    Work became, in Max Weber's terms, the chief factor in a system of "inner-worldly asceticism ," an answer to man's sense of aloneness and isolation. However, work in this sense existed only for the upper and middle classes, those who could amass some capital and employ the work of others.

    For the vast majority of those who had only their physical energy to sell, work became nothing but forced labor. The worker in the eighteenth or nineteenth century who had to work sixteen hours if he did not want to starve was not doing it because he served the Lord in this way, nor because his success would show that he was among the "chosen " ones, but because he was forced to sell his energy to those who had the means of exploiting it. The first centuries of the modern era find the meaning of work divided into that of duty among the middle class, and that of forced labor among those without property. The religious attitude toward work as a duty, which was still so prevalent in the nineteenth century, has been changing considerably in the last decades.

    Modern man does not know what to do with himself, how to spend his lifetime meaningfully, and he is driven to work in order to avoid an unbearable boredom.

    But work has ceased to be a moral and religious obligation in the sense of the middle class attitude of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Something new has emerged. Ever-increasing production, the drive to make bigger and better things, have become aims in themselves, new ideals. Work has become alienated from the working person.

    What happens to the industrial worker? He spends his best energy for seven or eight hours a day in producing "something." He needs his work in order to make a living, but his role is essentially a passive one. He fulfills a small isolated function in a complicated and highly organized process of production, and is never confronted with "his" product as a whole, at least not as a producer, but only as a consumer, provided he has the money to buy "his" product in a store. He is concerned neither with the whole product in its physical aspects nor with its wider economic and social aspects. He is put in a certain place, has to carry out a certain task, but does not participate in the organization or management of the work. He is not interested nor does he know why one produces this, instead of another commodity--what relation it has to the needs of society as a whole. The shoes, the cars, the electric bulbs, are produced by "the enterprise," using the machines. He is a part of the machine, rather than its master as an active agent. The machine, instead of being in his service to do work for him which once had to be performed by sheer physical energy, has become his master. Instead of the machine being the substitute for human energy, man has become a substitute for the machine. His work can be defined as the performance of acts which cannot yet be performed by machines.

    Most investigations in the field of industrial psychology are concerned with the question of how the productivity of the individual worker can be increased, and how he can be made to work with less friction; psychology has lent its services to "human engineering," an attempt to treat the worker and employee like a machine which runs better when it is well oiled. While Taylor was primarily concerned with a better organization of the technical use of the worker's physical powers, most industrial psychologists are mainly concerned with the manipulation of the worker's psyche The underlying idea can be formulated like this: if he works better when he is happy, then let us make him happy, secure, satisfied, or anything else, provided it raises his output and diminishes friction. In the name of "human relations," the worker is treated with all devices which suit values are recommended in the interest of better relations a completely alienated person; even happiness and human with the public. Thus, for instance, according to Time magazine, one of the best-known American psychiatrists said to a group of fifteen hundred Supermarket executives: "It's going to be an increased satisfaction to our customers if we are happy... It is going to pay off in cold dollars and cents to management, if we could put some of these general principles of values, human relationships, really into practice." One speaks of "human relations" and one means the most inhuman relations, those between alienated automatons; one speaks of happiness and means the perfect routinization which has driven out the last doubt and all spontaneity.

    The alienated and profoundly unsatisfactory character of work results in two reactions: one, the ideal of complete laziness; the other a deep-seated, though often unconscious hostility toward work and everything and everybody connected with it.

    It is not difficult to recognize the widespread longing for the state of complete laziness and passivity. Our advertising appeals to it even more than to sex, There are, of course, many useful and labor saving gadgets. But this usefulness often serves only as a rationalization for the appeal to complete passivity and receptivity. A package of breakfast cereal is being advertised as "new--easier to eat." An electric toaster is advertised with these words: "... the most distinctly different toaster in the world! Everything is done for you with this new toaster. You need not even bother to lower the bread. Power-action, through a unique electric motor, gently takes the bread right out of your fingers!" How many courses in languages, or other subjects, are announced with the slogan" effortless learn- ins, no more of the old drudgery." Everybody knows the picture of the elderly couple in the advertisement of a life-insurance company, who have retired at the age of sixty, and spend their life in the complete bliss of having nothing to do except just travel.

    Radio and television exhibit another element of this yearning for laziness: the idea of "push-button power"; by pushing a button, or turning a knob on my machine, I have the power to produce music, speeches, ball games, and on the television set, to command events of the world to appear before my eyes.

    The pleasure of driving cars certainly rests partly upon this same satisfaction of the wish for push-button power.

    By the effortless pushing of a button, a powerful machine is set in motion; little skill and effort are needed to make the driver feel that he is the ruler of space.

    But there is far more serious and deep-seated reaction to the meaninglessness and boredom of work.

    It is a hostility toward work which is much less conscious than our craving for laziness and inactivity.

    Many a businessman feels himself the prisoner of his business and the commodities he sells; he has a feeling of fraudulency about his product and a secret contempt for it.

    He hates his customers, who force him to put up a show in order to sell.

    He hates his competitors because they are a threat; his employees as well as his superiors, because he is in a constant competitive fight with them.

    Most important of all, he hates himself, because he sees his life passing by, without making any sense beyond the momentary intoxication of success.

    Of course, this hate and contempt for others and for oneself, and for the very things one produces, is mainly unconscious, and only occasionally comes up to awareness in a fleeting thought, which is sufficiently disturbing to be set aside as quickly as possible.

    (from A Rhetorical Reader, Invention and Design, by Forrest D. Burt and E. Cleve Want)

    参考译文——工人是创造者还是机器

    工人是创造者还是机器

    埃里克弗罗姆

    人只要不剥削他人,就得靠劳动来求生存。不论其劳动方式是多么原始,多么简单,仅凭从事生产性劳动这一事实,就足以使人超出动物界。把人定义为"从事生产的动物"是很有道理的。但对于人来说,劳动不仅是必不可少的生存条件。劳动还使他从自然界中解放出来,成为一个不依附于自然界的社会的人。在劳动过程中,即在塑造和改造其自身以外的自然界的过程中,人也塑造和改造了他自己。人由征服自然、驾驭自然才最终达到超出自然的境界,并进而逐步增强了自己的协作能力、思维能力和审美能力。他将自己从自然界,从自己与自然结成的原始统一体中分离出来,同时又以主人翁和建设者的身份重新与自然相结合。人的劳动方式越进步,其个性特征也就发挥得越充分。在塑造和改造自然的过程中,人逐步学会了如何充分利用自己具有的各种能力,增进自己的技艺和创造性。无论是法国南部洞穴中的美丽绘画,原始人所用武器上的纹饰图案,希腊的雕像和神殿,还是中世纪的教堂建筑,能工巧匠制作的桌椅,乃至农民培育出来的花木五谷等等,无一不是人利用自己的思维能力与技艺创造性地改造大自然的具体例证。

    在西方历史上,手工技艺,尤其是十三、十四世纪中发展起来的手工技艺构成了人类创造性劳动发展史上的一个顶峰。那时的劳动不仅是一项有现实价值的活动,而且是一项给人以巨大的满足的活动。有关手工技艺的主要特征,美国社会学家米尔斯曾作过清楚的说明。他说,"除了劳动者对于被制造的产品和制造产品的生产过程本身的兴趣之外,劳动并无其他的深层动机。日常工作的细枝末节之所以有意义,是因为在劳动者的心目中,它们与劳动的产品密不可分。劳动者不受任何约束地主宰自己的劳动行为。这样,工匠艺人便能通过劳动过程来学习劳动技艺,并且在劳动过程中应用和提高自己的劳动技艺。工作和娱乐、工作和文化活动融为一体。工匠艺人的谋生手段决定并影响着其生活方式。随着中世纪社会结构的瓦解和现代生产方式的出现,劳动的社会意义和作用发生了根本性的变化,这一变化在新教国家尤为显著。人们对于自己新近获得的自由感到害怕,而为了克服自己的疑惧,他就必须进行某种狂热的活动。这种活动的结果,或成或败,就决定着他的命运和灵魂的归宿,标志着他死后是将进天堂还是入地狱。

    于是,劳动便成了一种义务,一种烦恼,而不再是一种能使人满足和愉快的活动。

    靠劳动发财致富的可能性越大,劳动就越发变成了一种纯粹的升官发财的手段。

    用马克斯·韦伯的话说,劳动已成为"内心世界禁欲主义"思想体系中的一个主要因素,解决人们内心的寂寞和孤独感的一种办法。

    不过,这种意义的劳动也只是对于那些能够积累一些资本并雇用他人劳动的中、上层阶级而言才存在的,而对于那仅有劳动力可供出卖的绝大多数人来说,劳动只不过是一种强迫劳役。

    十八、十九世纪的工人,若是不想饿死,便得一天劳动十六个小时。他这样做,并不是要以此侍奉上帝,也不是为以工作上的成功来证明他属于"上帝的选民"之列,而是因为他迫于无奈,不得不向那些拥有剥削手段的人出卖自己的劳动力。

    现代史开初的几个世纪中,劳动的意义划分为两种:对于中产阶级来说是义务,而对于无产者来说则是强迫劳役。

    视劳动为一项义务的宗教观念在十九世纪还十分流行,但最近几十年来,这种宗教观念正经历着重大的演变。

    现代人不知道自己该做些什么,怎样才能有意义地度过自己的一生,只是为了逃避无所事事所造成的寂寞无聊,才被迫去参加劳动。

    但劳动已不再被人们以十八、十九世纪的中产阶级的那种态度看作是一种道德和宗教上的义务。新的观念产生了。不断地提高生产,追求更大更、好地东西,这些本身已成了劳动的目的,成了新的理想。劳动与劳动者的关系开始异化了。

    产业工人的情况又如何呢?他一天要花七八个小时把自己最旺盛的精力用于生产"某种东西"。他需要劳动以求生计,但他在劳动过程中只扮演一个被动的角色。他只在一个复杂的、组织程度很高的生产过程中起一点很小的、孤立的作用,从来没有机会接触到"他的"产品的全貌,至少不能以生产者的身分,而只能以消费者的身份接触到"他的"产品的全貌,即使这样也还需要有一个前提条件,那就是,他得有足够的钱从商店里购买"他所生产出的,,产品。无论对生产出来的完全的成品本身还是其更深远的经济意义和社会意义,他都不用关心。他被安置在一个固定的岗位上,去完成一定的工作任务,而对生产的组织与管理则概不参与。对于为什么要生产这一种产品而不生产另一种产品,该种产品与整个社会需求之间的关系如何,他是既不知晓,也无兴趣知晓。鞋子、汽车、电灯泡等等都是由"工厂"用机器制造出来的。工人只是机器的一个组成部分,不是作为主动操纵者而成为机器的主人。机器不是在为他服务,替他去干过去要完全依靠体力去完成的工作,而是反过来成了他的主人。不是机器替代人力,而是人成了机器的替代物。人的工作被解释为执行目前尚不能由机器完成的动作。

    在工业心理学方面的大多数调查都是关于如何使工人的生产率得以提高,如何能使他少带一些抵触情绪去工作。心理学已用来服务于"人类工程",即试图把工人和雇员当作机器来对待,认为他们也像机器一样,只要加好油,就能运转得好一些。泰勒主要关心的是如何在工业生产上更好地组织使用工人的体力,而大多数工业心理学家关心的主要是如何左右工人的心灵。可以这样来表达其基本思想:如果他高兴就能工作得好一些的话,那么就让我们使他高兴、安心、满意或别的什么的,只要这样能提高他的产量,减少抵触情绪就行。在"人际关系"的名义下,他们用对一个完全冷漠的人的一切手段去对待一个工人;就是幸福和人们的价值观也是从与公众建立更好的关系这个角度提出来的。例如,据《时代》周刊报导,美国一位最著名的精神病学家对一批1500名超级市场经理人员说:"如果我们是高高兴兴的,我们的顾客就会感到更满意…如果我们真的能把某些有关价值观和人际关系的总的原则付诸实践,那么对资方来说,换来的将是实实在在的金钱。"他们讲的是"人际关系",指的却是最最非人的关系,冷漠的机器人之间的关系。他们讲的是幸福,指的却是完全机械的重复活动,这种活动使人完全失去了独立的思考和任何的主动性。

    劳动的这种冷漠无情,丝毫不能令人满足的性质势必引起两种结果:其一,使人们产生十足的懒惰思想;其二,使人们对劳动及与之有关的一切人和事产生一种根深蒂固的(尽管往往是潜意识的)敌对心理。

    不难看出,向往极端的懒散和消极怠工是人们的普遍心理状态。我们的广告对这一点的渲染甚至比对性的渲染更有过之而无不及。当然,确实有许多实用而省力的小玩意,但这种实用性往往只起着使追求十足的消极懒散和坐享其成成为合理化的作用。一包早餐食品在广告中被宣传为"新产品——食用更方便。"一种电烤箱所用的广告词竟是这样的:"……最新烤箱,设计独特,举世无匹!有了这种烤箱,一切工作都会自动完成,连放面包也无需您亲自动手,只要一通电,通过一种功能独特的电动机的电力作用就能将面包从您手上轻轻取下!"有多少语言或其他科目的教科书用着这样的宣传口号:"学习起来真轻松,完全不必下苦功。"有一家人寿保险公司还作了这么一个家喻户晓的广告画:画上是一对六十岁退休的年老夫妇除旅行度假外,长年无所事事,优哉游哉享清福的欢乐景象。

    广播和电视反映着这种追求懒散思想的另一方面,即"键钮万能"的思想。

    只需按一下按键,或拧一下旋钮,就可以播放出音乐、讲话、球赛实况,或是在电视机上将世界大事收之于眼前。

    驾驶汽车使人感到愉快,其部分的原因就是由于键钮万能的理想的实现所带来的满足感。

    只需轻轻一按按钮,便能发动一台大功率的发动机,驾车人无需掌握什么技艺,付出任何努力,便能体会到当空间的主宰的滋味。

    然而,劳动变得毫无意义而且令人厌烦之后所带来的另一种结果却还要严重而根深蒂固得多。

    这就是对劳动的敌对心理。这种心理远不如追求懒散无为那样容易被人们意识到。

    许多商人觉得自己变成了自己所经营的企业及其所出售的商品的俘虏;他感觉到自己所售商品有骗人的味道,并从内心里蔑视它们。

    他憎恨顾客,因为是他们迫使他弄虚作假来促销商品;

    他憎恨竞争对手,因为他们对他构成威胁;他憎恨自己的雇员和上司,因为他与他们永远处于一种互相倾轧的明争暗斗状况。

    但他最为痛恨的还是他自己,因为他眼见着自己的有生之年,除了赢利而带来一时陶醉之外,都在毫无意义地白白流逝。

    当然,这种对他人、对自己以及对自己的产品所怀有的憎恨和轻蔑,多半是无意识的,

    只是偶尔上升到意识中来,但也因憎怒过甚而一闪而过。

    (摘自福里斯特D伯特和E克利夫万特《修辞读物发明与设计》)

    Key Words:

    molding n. 铸造;装饰用的嵌线;模塑

    spontaneity    [.spɔntə'ni:iti] 

    n. 自然性,自生,自发

    longing   ['lɔŋiŋ]   

    n. 渴望,憧憬 adj. 渴望的

    conscious      ['kɔnʃəs] 

    adj. 神志清醒的,意识到的,自觉的,有意的

    参考资料:

    1. 高级英语第二册(MP3+中英字幕) 第8课:工人是创造者还是机器(1)_品牌英语听力 - 可可英语
    2. 高级英语第二册(MP3+中英字幕) 第8课:工人是创造者还是机器(2)_品牌英语听力 - 可可英语
    3. 高级英语第二册(MP3+中英字幕) 第8课:工人是创造者还是机器(3)_品牌英语听力 - 可可英语
    4. 高级英语第二册(MP3+中英字幕) 第8课:工人是创造者还是机器(4)_品牌英语听力 - 可可英语
    5. http://www.kekenet.com/Article/201510/40367shtml
    6. 高级英语第二册(MP3+中英字幕) 第8课:工人是创造者还是机器(7)_品牌英语听力 - 可可英语
    7. 高级英语第二册(MP3+中英字幕) 第8课:工人是创造者还是机器(8)_品牌英语听力 - 可可英语
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    hpdlzu80100 2021-12-06 11:55:12
  • Ulterior motive confirmations(别有用心的确认——汗,翻译成这样好像不太好吧)    四、二次确认页的替代方案:  如果不喜欢二次确认页,那么有别的方法可以取代吗?  1. 防止出错——设置...

    什么是二次确认页?

      二次确认页其实就是Confirmation Alert,属于Alert家族中重要的一员。

      

      英文定义:A confirmation is a modal dialog box that asks if the user wants to proceed with an action.

      翻译成汉语大概就是:一个确认页是一种询问用户是否想继续执行某个动作的对话框。

      二次确认页面的特点:

      直接出现在用户刚刚发起的某个操作之后。

      询问并确认用户是否想要继续之前的操作。

      一般会包含一个简单的问题和两到三个操作。

      二、什么时候用到二次确认?

      二次确认的好处是:

      1、减少误点击

      2、避免动作中断时的损失(保存确认)

      3、使操作更加慎重

      4、安全性(有的二次确认还需要用户输入密码)

      缺点是:

      1、干扰了正常的操作流程,不恰当的多余的二次确认面还会让客户心生厌烦。

      2、在一些鼓励的流程中,二次确认页还会形成巨大的漏斗效应,直接造成客户流失。

      

      因此,有以下三个原则:能不用就不用;必要时才用;用了就让人明白。

      那么,什么时候用二次确认呢?

      1. 保存确认(Save Confirmation)

      例:填写表单中途离开,邮件写了一半关闭浏览器,文档未保存状态下点关闭。

      确认的目的:避免误操作或损失。

      2. 删除确认(delete confirmation)

      例:开心网账户的删除(不能恢复),删除好友或文件等。

      注意:并不是所有的删除都需要确认,例外情况有如:频繁的操作(如删除邮件),不重要的删除或者恢复成本较低。

      3. 其他重要且后果不可逆的操作

      例:淘宝的确认收货并同意放款,百度有啊的撤销退款协议。

      确认的目的:告知后果使操作谨慎,避免误操作。

      

      4. 重要且不推荐的操作

      确认的目的:通过确认让用户更改选择。

      最典型的例子莫过于淘宝的“评价确认”:

      原文链接:http://www.nnwb.com.cn/homepage-design/2009513243.htm

      二次确认页的特征既然是存在两个以上的操作选择,所以当只存在一种选择的时候,无论页面长得再怎么像确认页,也不是。

      例如以下的页面:

      

      大家都很关心的问题:到底该如何判断要不要确认页呢?

      建议如下:

      1. 若不存在两个以上的动作选择——不要使用确认页,可以是成功提示,或者错误提醒,设计成不需要用户操作的样子。

      2. 若存在两个以上的选择,但是90%的用户都会选择默认的选项——二次确认也是可以考虑去除的。可以加注一些提示来避免那5%的用户出现损失,但是不要用一个确认页去干扰这90%的用户。

      3. 考虑重要性和恢复成本:

      重要但是恢复成本低的,和不重要但是恢复成本高的,不建议使用二次确认,提供撤销操作更人性化。

      重要且恢复成本高的,最好二次确认,避免损失和误操作。

      4.是否是频繁使用的操作:一般情况下,若频繁使用,重要性就不是特别高,而且频繁出现的确认页会让人抓狂的,这种情况下,最好不用二次确认页。而且确认页有很多替代的形式,能够达到同样的目的但是更加亲和。

     三、二次确认页的形式:

      从设计角度划分:

      1. 系统弹出框

      

      2. lightbox(浮出层)

      解释:Lightbox的效果类似于WinXP操作系统的注销/关机对话框,除去屏幕中心位置的对话框,其他的区域都以淡出的效果逐渐变为银灰色以增加对比度,此时除了对话框内的表单控件,没有其他区域可以点击。

      

      3. 邮箱验证及手机验证码等替代形式

      比如,要删除开心网帐号时,开心网会发一封邮件,点击邮箱里的链接来确认一定要删除。这种形式适用于比较重要的不可恢复的场合。

      手机验证码确认的形式一般和资金相关,也用于比较重要的操作。

      从内容和功能角度划分 (这段资料来自于《windows vista UX guide》,为避免偶英文翻译有误,保留原文名称)

      

      1.Routine confirmations(常规确认)

      Confirm that the user wants to proceed with a routine, low risk action.

      确认用户想要继续一个常规的,低风险的操作。

      如图:

      

      2.Risky action confirmations(风险操作确认)

      Confirm that the user wants to proceed with an action that has some risk and can’t be easily undone.

      确认用户想要继续一个有风险并且不容易撤销的操作。

      图:

      

      3.Unintended consequence confirmations(未预期的确认)

      Confirm that the user wants to proceed with an action that has unexpected or unintended

      consequences.

      确认用户想要继续一个可能会导致意料外的结果的动作。

      很多时候,确认页是建立在用户有明确的操作意向的时候,这种情况下,也许用户对后果是有预期判断的:删除就意味着后果就是删除。而若删除命令同时会导致别的意料之外的结果产生,那就是unintended consequence confirmation。

      典型的例子:在多标签浏览器环境中,关闭浏览器,一般就会弹出一个确认框。

      图:

      

      4.Clarifications(澄清式确认、探询式确认)

      Clarify how the user wants to proceed with an action that has potentially ambiguous or unexpected

      consequences.

      搞清楚用户想如何继续一个行为,而这个行为可能会导致预期外结果。

      就好像在岔路口,导游说:好,我们继续走吧。你可能想反问一下:怎么走呢?向左还是向右?因为你担心右边可能会有打劫的埋伏。

      UX guide建议除非确实认为这个行为可能会出现的多种结果中,不然就不需要这种澄清式的确认。

      5. Security confirmations(安全确认)

      Confirm that the user wants to proceed with an action with security consequences.

      确认用户想继续执行一个会出现安全问题的动作。

      这个大家很常见了吧:

      

      6. Ulterior motive confirmations(别有用心的确认——汗,翻译成这样好像不太好吧)

      
     四、二次确认页的替代方案:

      如果不喜欢二次确认页,那么有别的方法可以取代吗?

      1. 防止出错——设置任务,用户在进行破坏性的操作前有前置任务需要完成。

      比如,在我们最近的一个项目中,用户在点击某个button时,那个命令是需要被确认的,否则一旦误点击会造成不可恢复的后果。但是在点击下这个button后,用户是需要填写一个表单的。在提交表单时,我们就发现没有必要再用一个二次确认。因为用户在填写表单的过程中是可以思考和反悔的,他既然愿意花时间和精力去填写表单,证明他确实想明白了。

      2. 提供撤销操作(Undo)——gmail的undo

      图:

      

      3. 提供反馈,让不期望的结果显著化。

      图:在支付宝的直接付款页面,点击radio button后已经使用提示告知了后果,因此点击下一步就不需要再次确认了。

      

      4. 消除选择——往往需要被确认的是因为有两个或多个response(后续动作),可以认真想一下,是否一定有多个选择,如果仅仅剩下唯一一个了,那么就不需要询问了。

      如果需要被confirm的选项不是很重要,干脆拿掉它。我特讨厌有些网站给你一个长长的表单,下面有两个button,一个提交一个清空。往往会不小心点击了清空,结果刚才忙活了半天的东西都没有了。要避免这种情况,当然你可以在我点击清空时给我一个确认,不过我更加期望把这个button拿掉。

      五、设计形式的选择:

      自从有了浮出层,越来越多的web 2.0的网站抛弃了系统弹出框。开始使用lightbox(浮出层),当然,他们各有优劣,不能一概而论。

      比如以下这种情况:

      

      系统弹出层可以允许我挪开确认窗口以阅读“需要被确认的内容”。

      而如果使用浮出层,会出现这样的效果:

      

      挪都挪不开,怎么确认?当然你可以把需要被确认的内容放到浮出层上,前提是有足够的信息承受量。

      做了一张浮出层与二次确认页 两者的优劣点表,供参考:

      
     六、二次确认页注意事项:

      1、时机——确认是必要的时机

      2、形式——是不是采取了合适的形式(有哪些形式?),注意不要用二次确认页鱼目混珠,有很多网站把成功页面做成像二次确认页一样,居然还有个感叹号来警示用户“操作已经成功”……

      3、文案

      4、icon

      5、出错控制——:二次确认页应该给出建议性的下一步操作,默认的动作。

      6、结构——这个页面不需要太多创新,最保险的方式就是照顾用户已有的习惯,用主流的结构去呈现。

      文案太重要了:

      1. button的文案——需要让用户思考。

      很多时候我们发现一个页面很莫名其妙,很不容易理解,仔细看看,原来是文案没有传达清楚。

      如果二次确认页面也出现含糊不清,模棱两可的文案,那是最糟糕的事情。

      大家看得明白下面三个二次确认页的区别吗?——资料来自《windows vista UX guide》

      

      三者的区别在于button引导文案,先使用官方资料:

      第一个二次确认页面:windows认为是不合理的二次确认页,因为它起不到该起的作用,因为用户本身就是通过点击“uninstall”操作看到这个页面,当他看到button上的文案还是“uninstall”的时候,他几乎不会去阅读二次确认的问题和描述,直接就会点击“uninstall”。而windows认为二次确认页至少是需要用户思考一下再做操作的(不然还真的没必要)。——Do make me think。

      第二个二次确认页面:windows认为是合适的,使用yes和no作为button的文案,用户在点击前,至少会思考一下yes和no分别对应的后果,因此他会去看描述。

      第三个二次确认页面:windows认为也是靠谱的。一个简单的anyway作用很大……体会一下。

      Yes/No和OK/Cancel的button文案搭配大家似乎在英文站点上司空见惯了。好像是可以相互替代的是吗?

      

      现实生活中,某个人负责写二次确认页面文案,但是button上显示的文案有时却得走"规范",统一使用YES或者OK(比如),至于点击了button到什么页面是由设计师和工程师决定的。就会导致以上矛盾的情况:button和文案牛头不对马嘴,点击后却又是另外的情况……

      2. 页面的文案——足够的信息讲明白后果。

      

      你会经常被这种页面搞得很苦恼,你确定吗?你真的确定吗?你考验我的智力还是判断力还是耐力?

      ICON可不能乱用

      

      icon很美观,似乎很多设计师总是想用一个icon点缀一下二次确认页。即使不是二次确认页(向左侧的这个可怜的成功页面,却被用了警示的icon,实在匪夷所思)

    展开全文
    gufanyue 2014-11-21 16:27:49
  • placed on symlinks limited their usefulness, there *was* a reasoned engineering analysis --- it wasn't one guy with an ulterior motive trying to avoid a bad review score. In fact, that practically ...


    原文链接:http://blog.zorinaq.com/?e=74

    "I Contribute to the Windows Kernel. We Are Slower Than Other Operating Systems. Here Is Why."

    I was explaining on Hacker News why Windows fell behind Linux in terms of operating system kernel performance and innovation. And out of nowhere an anonymous Microsoft developer who contributes to the Windows NT kernel wrote a fantastic and honest response acknowledging this problem and explaining its cause. His post has been deleted! Why the censorship? I am reposting it here. This is too insightful to be lost. [Edit: The anonymous poster himself deleted his post as he thought it was too cruel and did not help make his point, which is about the social dynamics of spontaneous contribution. However he let me know he does not mind the repost at the condition I redact the SHA1 hash info, which I did.][Edit: A second statement, apologetic, has been made by the anonymous person. See update at the bottom.]

    """

    I'm a developer in Windows and contribute to the NT kernel. (Proof: the SHA1 hash of revision #102 of [Edit: filename redacted] is [Edit: hash redacted].) I'm posting through Tor for obvious reasons.

    Windows is indeed slower than other operating systems in many scenarios, and the gap is worsening. The cause of the problem is social. There's almost none of the improvement for its own sake, for the sake of glory, that you see in the Linux world.

    Granted, occasionally one sees naive people try to make things better. These people almost always fail. We can and do improve performance for specific scenarios that people with the ability to allocate resources believe impact business goals, but this work is Sisyphean. There's no formal or informal program of systemic performance improvement. We started caring about security because pre-SP3 Windows XP was an existential threat to the business. Our low performance is not an existential threat to the business.

    See, component owners are generally openly hostile to outside patches: if you're a dev, accepting an outside patch makes your lead angry (due to the need to maintain this patch and to justify in in shiproom the unplanned design change), makes test angry (because test is on the hook for making sure the change doesn't break anything, and you just made work for them), and PM is angry (due to the schedule implications of code churn). There's just no incentive to accept changes from outside your own team. You can always find a reason to say "no", and you have very little incentive to say "yes".

    There's also little incentive to create changes in the first place. On linux-kernel, if you improve the performance of directory traversal by a consistent 5%, you're praised and thanked. Here, if you do that and you're not on the object manager team, then even if you do get your code past the Ob owners and into the tree, your own management doesn't care. Yes, making a massive improvement will get you noticed by senior people and could be a boon for your career, but the improvement has to be very large to attract that kind of attention. Incremental improvements just annoy people and are, at best, neutral for your career. If you're unlucky and you tell your lead about how you improved performance of some other component on the system, he'll just ask you whether you can accelerate your bug glide.

    Is it any wonder that people stop trying to do unplanned work after a little while?

    Another reason for the quality gap is that that we've been having trouble keeping talented people. Google and other large Seattle-area companies keep poaching our best, most experienced developers, and we hire youths straight from college to replace them. You find SDEs and SDE IIs maintaining hugely import systems. These developers mean well and are usually adequately intelligent, but they don't understand why certain decisions were made, don't have a thorough understanding of the intricate details of how their systems work, and most importantly, don't want to change anything that already works.

    These junior developers also have a tendency to make improvements to the system by implementing brand-new features instead of improving old ones. Look at recent Microsoft releases: we don't fix old features, but accrete new ones. New features help much more at review time than improvements to old ones.

    (That's literally the explanation for PowerShell. Many of us wanted to improve cmd.exe, but couldn't.)

    More examples:

    • We can't touch named pipes. Let's add %INTERNAL_NOTIFICATION_SYSTEM%! And let's make it inconsistent with virtually every other named NT primitive.
    • We can't expose %INTERNAL_NOTIFICATION_SYSTEM% to the rest of the world because we don't want to fill out paperwork and we're not losing sales because we only have 1990s-era Win32 APIs available publicly.
    • We can't touch DCOM. So we create another %C#_REMOTING_FLAVOR_OF_THE_WEEK%!
    • XNA. Need I say more?
    • Why would anyone need an archive format that supports files larger than 2GB?
    • Let's support symbolic links, but make sure that nobody can use them so we don't get blamed for security vulnerabilities (Great! Now we get to look sage and responsible!)
    • We can't touch Source Depot, so let's hack together SDX!
    • We can't touch SDX, so let's pretend for four releases that we're moving to TFS while not actually changing anything!
    • Oh god, the NTFS code is a purple opium-fueled Victorian horror novel that uses global recursive locks and SEH for flow control. Let's write ReFs instead. (And hey, let's start by copying and pasting the NTFS source code and removing half the features! Then let's add checksums, because checksums are cool, right, and now with checksums we're just as good as ZFS? Right? And who needs quotas anyway?)
    • We just can't be fucked to implement C11 support, and variadic templates were just too hard to implement in a year. (But ohmygosh we turned "^" into a reference-counted pointer operator. Oh, and what's a reference cycle?)

    Look: Microsoft still has some old-fashioned hardcore talented developers who can code circles around brogrammers down in the valley. These people have a keen appreciation of the complexities of operating system development and an eye for good, clean design. The NT kernel is still much better than Linux in some ways --- you guys be trippin' with your overcommit-by-default MM nonsense --- but our good people keep retiring or moving to other large technology companies, and there are few new people achieving the level of technical virtuosity needed to replace the people who leave. We fill headcount with nine-to-five-with-kids types, desperate-to-please H1Bs, and Google rejects. We occasionally get good people anyway, as if by mistake, but not enough. Is it any wonder we're falling behind? The rot has already set in.

    """

    Edit: This anonymous poster contacted me, still anonymously, to make a second statement, worried by the attention his words are getting:

    """

    All this has gotten out of control. I was much too harsh, and I didn't intend this as some kind of massive exposé. This is just grumbling. I didn't appreciate the appetite people outside Microsoft have for Kremlinology. I should have thought through my post much more thoroughly. I want to apologize for presenting a misleading impression of what it's like on the inside.

    First, I want to clarify that much of what I wrote is tongue-in-cheek and over the top --- NTFS does use SEH internally, but the filesystem is very solid and well tested. The people who maintain it are some of the most talented and experienced I know. (Granted, I think they maintain ugly code, but ugly code can back good, reliable components, and ugliness is inherently subjective.) The same goes for our other core components. Yes, there are some components that I feel could benefit from more experienced maintenance, but we're not talking about letting monkeys run the place. (Besides: you guys have systemd, which if I'm going to treat it the same way I treated NTFS, is an all-devouring octopus monster about crawl out of the sea and eat Tokyo and spit it out as a giant binary logfile.)

    In particular, I don't have special insider numbers on poaching, and what I wrote is a subjective assessment written from a very limited point of view --- I watched some very dear friends leave and I haven't been impressed with new hires, but I am *not* HR. I don't have global facts and figures. I may very well be wrong on overall personnel flow rates, and I shouldn't have made the comment I did: I stated it with far more authority than my information merits.

    Windows and Microsoft still have plenty of technical talent. We do not ship code that someone doesn't maintain and understand, even if it takes a little while for new people to ramp up sometimes. While I have read and write access to the Windows source and commit to it once in a while, so do tens and tens of thousands of other people all over the world. I am nobody special. I am not Deep Throat. I'm not even Steve Yegge. I'm not the Windows equivalent of Ingo Molnar. While I personally think the default restrictions placed on symlinks limited their usefulness, there *was* a reasoned engineering analysis --- it wasn't one guy with an ulterior motive trying to avoid a bad review score. In fact, that practically never happens, at least consciously. We almost never make decisions individually, and while I maintain that social dynamics discourage risk-taking and spontaneous individual collaboration, I want to stress that we are not insane and we are not dysfunctional. The social forces I mentioned act as a drag on innovation, and I think we should do something about the aspects of our culture that I highlighted, but we're far from crippled. The negative effects are more like those incurred by mounting an unnecessary spoiler on a car than tearing out the engine block. What's indisputable fact is that our engineering division regularly runs and releases dependable, useful software that runs all over the world. No matter what you think of the Windows 8 UI, the system underneath is rock-solid, as was Windows 7, and I'm proud of having been a small part of this entire process.

    I also want to apologize for what I said about devdiv. Look: I might disagree with the priorities of our compiler team, and I might be mystified by why certain C++ features took longer to implement for us than for the competition, but seriously good people work on the compiler. Of course they know what reference cycles are. We're one of the only organizations on earth that's built an impressive optimizing compiler from scratch, for crap's sake.

    Last, I'm here because I've met good people and feel like I'm part of something special. I wouldn't be here if I thought Windows was an engineering nightmare. Everyone has problems, but people outside the company seem to infuse ours with special significance. I don't get that. In any case, I feel like my first post does wrong by people who are very dedicated and who work quite hard. They don't deserve the broad and ugly brush I used to paint them.

    P.S. I have no problem with family people, and want to retract the offhand comment I made about them. I work with many awesome colleagues who happen to have children at home. What I really meant to say is that I don't like people who see what we do as more of a job than a passion, and it feels like we have a lot of these people these days. Maybe everyone does, though, or maybe I'm just completely wrong.

    """

    mrbFriday 10 May 2013 at 9:14 pm | | Default
    展开全文
    hnhbdss 2013-05-13 18:51:32
  • It is really patheticto see that students undertake graduate studies with an ulterior motive—not forthe sake of loving what they study, but for the sake of merely landing a job,which in many cases...

    话题:1

         莫言获诺贝尔文学奖

    1我国作家莫言获诺贝尔文学奖。

    2此次获奖的重大意义。

    范文:

    Several months ago, a good news swept onChina that Mo Yan won the 2012 Nobel Prize for literature. After this bigevent, Mo Yan, the first Chinese resident to win the prize, has been the crispyfried chicken among China. Gaomi County in Shandong Province becomes atourist attraction because of his popularity. For his award, Chinese mediaoverwhelming report this exciting news. People are rushing to the bookstores tobuy his famous book and some are even out of stock.

    Generally speaking, his award means a lot to China,especially Chinese literature. The Nobel Prize for literature is a dream ofChinese literary field and all Chinese people. However, as a large culturalcountry that owns countless classic works, China had no winner of the NobelPrize for literature which had become a great pity. Therefore, this prizefinishesa pile wish of Chinese people. In addition, although we have agreat number of great works, very few people can read a book carefully andtranquilly in the impetuous society. I think this exciting news will inspirepeople’s enthusiasmtowards literature, which is a great motivation to thedevelopment of literature. This is what we are happy to see.

     

     

    话题:2

        1. 现在许多大学生放弃学业去参加“选秀”节目;

        2. 有人认为“选秀”节目为这些大学生提供了展示自我的平台,他们应该抓住机会“秀出自己”;但也有人认为这种选秀节目会养成大学生 “急功近利”的心态;

        3. 那么作为一个大学生,你是怎么看待这件事情的?

    [思路点拨]1)对选秀节目的看法。2)理性对待选秀现象。一方面它满足了观众普遍参与的愿望,另一方面需要我们从正确的角度来理解它,用正确的心态来对待它。3)对产生“选秀”热现象原因的分析。比如选秀所带来的是前所未有的视觉冲击和心灵体验,偶像们和粉丝们似乎在这里找到了价值认同等。4)重在参与和过程,特别是在竞争中培养能赢也能输的心态。5)从选秀活动中得到的收获。比如张扬自我,敢于拼搏,认赌服输等。

     [写作范文]

           Nowadays, TV PKShows (or we can call it Talent Shows) are great hit in China and haveattracted many young people. As for me, TV PK Shows, as all other things, haveboth positive and negative effects. Therefore, the most crucial thing is how wesee them.

    Some people think Talent Shows provide grass-rootpeople with a stage to display their talents, so they should seize everyopportunity to show off their talents. Some College students even give up theirstudies to attend these TV PK Shows in the hope of becoming famous overnight.They even regard TV PK shows as a shortcut to the success. While other peoplereckon that TV PK Shows will develop the undergraduates’ attitude of anxiousofachieving quicksuccess. And once they were failed in these shows, they wouldsuffer a great psychological unbalance. This is really bad to their physical andpsychological health.

    To sum up, everything has its limit. As long as theright attitude is employed, then it is OK.

     

     

    话题:3大学生就业难

    1)近年来出现大学生就业难的现象

    2)产生这一现象的原因

    3)如何解决这一问题

    【思路点拨】

    本题属于提纲式文字命题。提纲第1点要求指出目前大学生就业难的现象,提纲第2点要求分析这种现象产生的原因,提纲第3点则要求阐述应该如何解决这一问题,由此可判断本文应为问题解决型作文。

    根据所给提纲,本文应包含以下内容:提出大学生就业难的现象,指出现象的表现;说明现象产生的原因,如大学生追求目标过高等;从几个方面提出解决方法。

    【参考范文】

    Nowadays,the employment of college students is becoming more and more of a problem.About a decade ago, university students could find satisfactory and enviablejobs after graduation, while at current situation, about 30% of graduatestudents can’t find a job but stay at home after graduation.

    Employmentdifficulty of college students is due to the following reasons. Among these,the increasing recruitment of colleges and universities plays a vital role. Inaddition, many colleges and universities fail to adapt their courses to thedevelopment of economy.

    Consideringsuch a rough job market, I think it is high time that we took effectivemeasures to solve the problem. Above all, college students should realize theirown defects and further improve themselves to keep their competitive edge insociety. Moreover, colleges or universities should provide more trainings andinternship opportunities before the students enter the society. Besides,college students should hold a right attitude towards jobs and set their jobexpectations at a suitable level. Only through these ways can the collegestudents find a satisfactory job and have a brighter future.

     

     

    话题4:考研热

     

      The Craze of Pursuing GraduateStudies

      【精彩范文】

      The Craze of Pursuing GraduateStudies

      Each year, millions of Chinesecollege students sit for qualifying examinations for graduate studies,primarily in Master’s programs. Students prepare for those examinations eitherthrough years of arduous self-education or by spending large sums of moneyattending local training schools. The publishing of examinations-related studymaterials and the training programs offered, both online and offline, havecombined to form a sizable industry.

      An alarming fact about thiscraze is that most students pursue graduate studies not out of their voluntarywill. Faced with the harsh reality in the employment market, which is foreverlooking for graduates with higher degrees, many college graduates find going tograduate schools is a good way to avoid unemployment and to enhance one’scompetitiveness in future job hunting.

      However, without thatvoluntary initiative, most students who do enter graduate schools are notmotivated. For them, the only thing that ultimately counts is the degree or thediploma which they expect could give them an upper hand against other jobhunters. As to the actual substance of their graduate studies, it’s not a big dealfor them, as long as it leads to that degree or diploma. It is really patheticto see that students undertake graduate studies with an ulterior motive—not forthe sake of loving what they study, but for the sake of merely landing a job,which in many cases might be unrelated to what they have studied.

      The chill truth is thatstudents soon find their anticipations are a mere dream. As so manyundergraduates proceed onto graduate studies, the employment situation remainsas severe as ever. Instead of bringing about apparent competitive edges, two orthree years of additional academic training is simply a waste of time andenergy. They need to reflect on this craze and would have been better offdistinguishing themselves with outstanding knowledge and skills when they wereundergraduates.


     

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