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  • 流利说 Level 4 全文

    万次阅读 多人点赞 2019-05-22 10:52:40
    Mountains are formed by forces deep within the Earth, and are made of different types of rocks. Rivers are streams of water that usually begin in mountains and flow into the sea. Many early cities ...

    Level 4

    Unit 1

    1/4

    Listening

    Lesson 1 Visiting a Friend 1-2

    Lesson2

    Vocabulary

    Lesson 3 Pains and Sickness

    Lesson 4 Landforms

    Dialogue

    Lesson 5 Eating Out

    2/4

    Listening

    Lesson 1 A Trip to Yosemite Park 1-2

    Vocabulary

    Lesson 3 Science

    Lesson 4 Geometry

    Dialogue

    Lesson 5 Dinner Conversation

    3/4

    Listening

    Lesson 1 Harry Trips 1-2

    Vocabulary

    Lesson 3 Dental Problems

    Lesson 4 Internal Organs

    Dialogue

    Lesson 5 Police Traffic Stop

    4/4

    Listening

    Lesson 1 QuickServe2.0

    Lesson 2 The World’s Population

    Vocabulary

    Lesson 3 Contemporary People

    Lesson 4 Personality Types

    Dialogue

    Lesson 5 Relationship Advice

    Unit 2

    1/4

    Listening

    Lesson 1 Extinction Events 1-2

    Vocabulary

    Lesson 3 Body Systems

    Lesson 4 Great Discoveries

    Dialogue

    Lesson 5 Smartphone Addiction

    Lesson 6 Rude Boss

    2/4

    Listening

    Lesson 1 Point of View 1-2

    Vocabulary

    Lesson 3 Disasters

    Lesson 4 Religions

    Dialogue

    Lesson 5 Missing Aircraft

    3/4

    Listening

    Lesson 1 Alcatraz 1-2

    Vocabulary

    Lesson 3 Graphs & Charts

    Lesson 4 Legal Terms

    Dialogue

    Lesson 5 Currency Exchange

    4/4

    Listening

    Lesson 1 Al Capone 1-2

    Vocabulary

    Lesson 3 Economic Terms

    Lesson 4 Personality Types

    Dialogue

    Lesson 5 A Video Project 1-2

    Unit 3

    1/4

    Listening

    Lesson 1 Time Distribution

    Lesson 2 Job Satisfaction Factors

    Vocabulary

    Lesson 3 Political Terms

    Lesson 4 Types of Government

    Dialogue

    Lesson5 Quitting a job

    2/4

    Listening

    Lesson 1 Story of Lang Lang 1-2

    Vocabulary

    Lesson 3 Business and Economics

    Lesson 4 Countries and Continents

    Dialogue

    Lesson 5 Election & Voting

    3/4

    Listening

    Lesson 1 Honey Bee Pollination

    Lesson 2 Colony Collapse

    Vocabulary

    Lesson 4 Business and Economics

    Lesson 5 Career Building

    Dialogue

    Lesson 5 Landlord Trouble

    4/4

    Listening

    Lesson 1 Dream Jobs

    Lesson 2 Jobs and Wages

    Vocabulary

    Lesson 3 Types of Wars

    Lesson 4 Biology Terms

    Dialogue

    Lesson 5 Hotel Complaint

     

     

    Level 4

    Unit 1

    1/4

    Listening

    Lesson 1 Visiting a Friend 1-2

    Christina is on a two week vocation.

    This is the first vocation she has had for a long time.

    The last vocation she took was more than two years ago.

    Now she is visiting a friend in San Francisco.

    Her friend and her husband are living near the center of the city.

    He works for a start-up company in Silicon Valley.

    While he is working, she works part-time at a department store.

     

    -How long has it been since her last vocation? –It’s been more than 2 years.

    -What kind of company does her friend’s husband work for? –A start-up company.

     

    Christina hasn’t seen her friend for a longtime.

    The last time they saw each other was three years ago.

    At that time, they were both working at a department store.

    Then Christina quitted her job and started her own business.

    She designs women’s clothing.

    She has two employees now and her company is slowly growing.

     

    -How long has it been since Christina last saw her friend? –It has been 3 years.

    -Where were Christina and her friend working before she started her own business? –They were working at a department store.

    -How long has it been since Christina started her own business? –It’s been 3 years.

     

    Christina has come to San Francisco by herself.

    Her husband didn’t come, because he has to work.

    He tried to start a company two years ago, but it didn’t work out.

    His company failed after only a few months.

    So now he is working at another company and saving money.

    Once he saves enough money, he plans to start another company. He doesn’t want to give up.

     

    -Why hasn’t Christina’s husband come with her? –He has to work.

    -Why is Christina’s husband saving money? –He wants to start a new company.

     

    This is the second time Christina has been to San Francisco.

    The first time was when she was a high school student.

    That was more than ten years ago.

    During that trip, she was only in San Francisco for a few days.

    After that, she went to Los Angeles and New York.

    This time she and her friend plan to relax and have fun.

     

    -How many times has Christina been to San Francisco? –She has been to San Francisco twice.

    -How long did she stay in San Francisco on her first trip? –A few days.

    Lesson2

    Christina arrived two days ago, the day before yesterday.

    Her friend met her at the airport, and drove her to her apartment.

    Her apartment is just north of the airport, about 20 minutes from San Francisco.

    It’s a small apartment, but it’s on a hill, and it has a great view.

    Yesterday they went downtown, and rode the cable cars.

    Christina was surprised by how steep the hills are.

    Then they walked along the ocean, and ate lunch at a sea food restaurant.

    From the restaurant, they could see the Golden Gate Bridge.

     

    -How long has she been here? –For two days.

     

    Tomorrow they are planning to drive to Yosemite National Park.

    By car, it’s about four hours away.

    Christina has never been there before, so she is excited.

    She has heard that the park is very beautiful.

    Her friend has been to Yosemite several times.

    She says it’s one of the most beautiful places in the world.

    Christina just hopes that her friend is a good driver.

     

    -How many times has she been to the Yosemite? –Never.

    Vocabulary

    Lesson 3 Pains and Sickness

    Headaches can be very painful, and can last for a long time.

    If you have a headache, your head hurts.

    A sprained ankle can be so painful that you can’t walk.

    Someone with a sprained ankle may need to use crutches to walk.

    If you have a sore throat, it may be painful to swallow.

    A sore throat can be caused by viruses or bacteria.

    A burn is an injury to the skin caused by fire or heat.

    If you get to close to a fire, you will be burned.

    An earache is a sharp, dull or burning pain in the ear.

    Common causes of an earache include an infection, a changing air pressure, or water in the ear.

    Lesson 4 Landforms

    Mountains are land forms higher than 2000 feet or about 600 meters above sea level.

    Hills are like mountains but not as tall.

    Mountains are formed by forces deep within the Earth, and are made of different types of rocks.

    Rivers are streams of water that usually begin in mountains and flow into the sea.

    Many early cities were built alongside rivers.

    Most of the world’s water is in the oceans, which are large bodies of salt water.

    The oceans are also an important source of oxygen.

    Deserts are areas of land that receive little or no rainfall.

    The amount of rainfall in some deserts is so low that only a few plants can survive.

    A valley is a low relatively flat area between hills or mountains, often with a river running through it.

    Some valleys are formed by flowing water, and others are formed by glaciers.

     

    The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest ocean, covering more area than all the continents put together.

    Desert temperatures can range from cold at night to very hot during the daytime, often above 120 degrees F.

    Dialogue

    Lesson 5 Eating Out

    M: Have you eaten yet?

    W: No, I haven’t, and I’m hungry.

    M: Me too. Let’s go out for dinner.

    W: Where to?

    M: What about Joe’s Italian?

    W: How many times have you eaten there?

    M: I eat there a lot. It’s one of my favorite places.

     

    -Why is she hungry? –She hasn’t eaten yet.

     

    W: I went there two weeks ago, and the service was terrible.

    M: Really? Then let’s go someplace else. 

     

    -Why doesn’t she want to go to Joe’s Italian? –She went there two weeks ago and the service was terrible.

     

    M: What do you suggest?

    W: How about the Royal Indian? It’s not far from here.

    M: I’ve never heard of it. Is it good?

    W: Yes, I’ve been there several times, and I’ve never been disappointed.

     

    -What’s one reason she suggests Royal Indian? –It’s not far away.

    -Has she been to the Royal Indian before? –Yes, she has.

     

    M: OK, let’s try it. I haven’t eaten Indian food for a long time.

    W: You won’t be disappointed, and the prices are reasonable.

    M: Ah, so you mean I’m going to pay.

    W: Well, that would certainly be nice.

     

    -How expensive is the restaurant? –It’s reasonably priced.

     

    M: What about reservations?

    W: If we get there early enough, we won’t need them.

    M: I hope you are right.

    W: Don’t worry, if we have to wait, I’ll pay the bill.

     

    -What would happen if they don’t get there early enough? –They may have to wait.

    When she went there two weeks ago, the service was awful.

    She has been there several times.

    2/4

    Listening

    Lesson 1 A Trip to Yosemite Park 1-2

    Today Christina and her friend are enjoying themselves.

    This morning they got up very early and drove out of San Francisco.

    They crossed the Bay Bridge before the early morning commute and drove south.

    Because it was so early, there were almost no cars.

     

    -How heavy was the traffic? –There were almost no cars.

     

    After driving for an hour and a half, they stopped and had breakfast.

    They ordered pancakes and coffee.

    They also had some fresh fruit.

    When they finished eating, it was seven o’clock.

    Then they got back into the car, and drove south.

    Christina wanted to listen to music, so they turned on the radio.

    An hour later, they stopped for gas.

    They noticed that there was also a charging station for electric cars.

     

    -How did they order for breakfast? –They ordered pancakes and coffee.

    -What did they do after they finished eating? –They got back into the car and drove south.

     

    It’s now 1:15 (one fifteen), and they are in Yosemite Park.

    They have been there for two hours, since 11:15(eleven fifteen).

    They are looking at Yosemite falls, which is the highest waterfall in the park.

    The water drops a total of 740 meters from the top of the upper fall to the base of the lower fall.

     

     -When did they arrive at the park? –They got there at 11:15.

     

    In another fifteen minutes, they planned to eat lunch at a magnificent old hotel in the park.

    It was built in 1927 and has a great view.

    They wanted to stay there but they couldn’t get reservations.

    To get a room at that hotel, you usually need to make reservations several months in advance.

     

    -When do you need to make reservations? –You need to make reservations several months in advance.

    -Why couldn’t they get reservations? –They didn’t reserve early enough.

     

    They planned to stay in the park until around four o’clock.

    By then, they will have been in the park for nearly five hours.

    Then they will get back into the car and drive back to San Francisco.

    They plan to eat dinner somewhere along the way.

    If the traffic isn’t too bad, they should be back in San Francisco by ten o’clock.

     

    -When do they expect to be back in San Francisco? –They expect to be back by 10 o’clock.

    -How long would they have been in the park if they leave as scheduled? –For nearly 5 hours.

     

    Early tomorrow morning, they are going to cross the Golden Gate Bridge and go north along the coast.

    From some places you can look out on the ocean and see whales and other sea life.

    Christina has never seen a whale before, so she is looking forward to it.

    And tomorrow night they have something special planned.

    They are going to watch a baseball game.

    Christina has never seen a baseball game, but she has heard that it is very popular in the US.

    And the San Francisco baseball team is one of the best.

     

    -What does she hope to see from the coast? –She hopes to see whales.

    -What are they going to do tomorrow morning? –They are going to cross the Golden Gate Bridge.

    Vocabulary

    Lesson 3 Science

    A force is a push or a pull on an object.

    A force changes the motion of a moving object.

    A force can be strong or weak and it always has a direction.

    The Earth is a planet that goes around the sun in a circular orbit.

    The speed of its motion doesn’t change, but the direction of its motion does.

    The Earth has a layer of gas above its surface which helps to support life.

    Atoms are the building blocks of matter.

    At the center of an atom is its nucleus which has a positive electric charge.

    Outside the nucleus are electrons which have a negative charge.

    Asteroids and comets are objects that obey our sun, but are smaller than planets.

    Asteroids that pass close to the Earth are called near-earth objects.

    The layer of gases just above the Earth’s surface is our atmosphere.

    The atmosphere is made of gases such as oxygen and nitrogen.

    Without an atmosphere there would be no life on Earth.

     

    If they collide with Earth they could cause an extinction event.

    A force can increase or decrease the speed of an object, and it can change the direction of motion.

    The electric force between the nucleus and the electrons holds the atom together.

     

    Lesson 4 Geometry

    The two lines on the left intersect each other at a right angle which is 90 degrees.

    The two lines on the right are parallel which means they never cross.

    The adjacent sides of a rectangle are perpendicular which means they meet a 90-degree angle.

    The opposite sides of a rectangle are equal and parallel which means they never cross.

    The area of a rectangle is the length times the width.

    A circle is a two dimensional figure with a radius and a circumference which is the distance around the circle.

    The area of a circle is Pi R squared, where R is the radius and Pi is the ratio of the circle circumference to its diameter.

    A sphere is a three dimensional figure with a radius and a volume which is four thirds Pi R cubed.

    All points on the surface of a sphere are equidistant from its center.

    A right triangle is a two dimensional figure with three side, two of which are perpendicular.

    To find its area, multiply the length of the two perpendicular sides a and b and divide by 2, A equals 1 half ab.

     

    A rectangle is a 2 dimensional figure with 4 sides.

    Dialogue

    Lesson 5 Dinner Conversation

    M: Have you finished eating yet?

    W: No, I haven’t. Why are you in such a hurry?

    M: I’m sorry, but you are such a slow eater.

    W: A slow eater? Well, I try to enjoy my food. You just eat and swallow.

    I don’t see how you can even taste it.

     

    M: OK, I’m sorry. Do you mind if I get another glass of wine?

    W: No, go ahead. I don’t want you to sit there putting pressure on me.

    I thought we were going to have a relaxing evening.

     

    -What does she allow him to do? –She allows him to get another glass of wine. A relaxing evening is the opposite of a high-pressure evening.

     

    M: Yes, you are right. I’d like to relax, but I have a lot on my mind.

    W: Work related?

    M: Yes, it is. I’ve been getting some strange emails from my boss.

    He wants me to cut down on my expenses. Maybe he wants to fire me.

     

    His boss wants him to spend less.

    -What is he afraid of? –He may lose his job.

     

    W: Is business bad?

    M: Yes, it is. But I don’t want to talk about it.

    W: OK, but I’m a good listener. You can tell me if you’d like to.

     

    -What doesn’t he want to talk about? –He doesn’t want to talk about his business.

     

    M: Thanks. Maybe some other time.

    I’ll try to stop thinking about it until when it’s tomorrow.

    W: Good idea. You need to take a break from work. Your healthy is important, and so am I.

    M: Yes, you are. I don’t know what I would do without you.

     

    To deal with something means to do something about it.

    3/4

    Listening

    Lesson 1 Harry Trips 1-2

    Harry is an American businessman.

    His job requires him to do a lot of travelling.

    He takes nine or ten trips a year.

    In the past six months, he has made five trips.

    Three were to Asia, and two were to Europe.

    The purpose of his trips is to attend meetings and make presentations.

     

    -What does his job require him to do? –Travel a lot.

    -What is the purpose of his trips? –Attend meetings and make presentations. His job requires him to attend meetings in many countries.

     

    Harry loves to travel and he’s travelled to many countries.

    Most of his trips are for one or two weeks.

    His first international trip was 15 years ago when he was 20 years old.

    He really wanted to see Asia, so he and his friend flew to Tokyo, Japan.

     

    -How long are most of his trips? –for one or two weeks.

     

    From Tokyo, they travelled around Japan for 2 weeks.

    The people they met were very nice, but most of them didn’t speak English.

    Harry tried to speak a little Japanese, but it was difficult.

    He didn’t do very well.

    When he spoke to people, most of them just looked at him.

    They didn’t understand what he was trying to say.

     

    -What language did he try to use when he was in Japan? –He tried to speak Japanese.

    He has made 5 trips in the last 6 months.

     

    From Japan, they went to Korea for a week, and then they went to China.

    In China, they visited the Great Wall near Beijing.

    They stayed in Beijing for a few days, and then boarded a train for Shanghai.

    It was an overnight train, with sleeping cars.

     

    -What kind of train did they take to Shanghai? –It was an overnight train.

    -How long did they stay in Beijing? –for a few days.

     

    During the journey, they enjoyed looking out the window at the countryside.

    The view from the train was wonderful.

    Harry will never forget watching the sun go down in the evening. It was a beautiful sunset.

     

    -What did they enjoy doing during the journey? –looking out the window at the countryside.

    -What won’t Harry ever forget? –Watching the beautiful sunset.

     

    The journey to Shanghai took many hours, but it was an unforgettable experience.

    On the train, they met a Chinese professor who spoke English.

    He was a middle-aged man, whose hair was turning grey.

    He told them about how things were changing in China.

    It was wonderful to watch him as he was speaking.

    His eyes were full of energy and excitement.

     

    -Who did they meet on the train? –a Chinese professor.

    -What did the professor talk about? –He talked about the many changes China was experiencing.

     

    They only stayed in Shanghai a couple of days.

    Then they returned to the US and went back to school.

    They had one more year to finish their studies.

     

    -Why did they return to the US? –They went back to finish their studies.

     

    Harry’s next few trips were to different part of the world.

    He went to Europe twice, each time to different countries.

    On one trip, he travelled through the UK and France.

    On the next trip, he went to Italy and Greece.

     

    -How many times did he go to Europe? –He went to Europe twice.

     

    After Europe, he travelled to Mexico and South America.

    In South America he went to Argentina and Brazil.

    He enjoyed watching some great soccer matches.

     

    -What countries did he visit in South America? –Both Argentina and Brazil.

     

    Then he decided to go back to Asia.

    But this time he went to Southeast Asia.

    He visited Vietnam, Thailand and Singapore.

    Each country had a charm of its own.

     

    -Where did he go after he went to South America? –He went to Southeast Asia.

    -How many countries did he visit in Southeast Asia? –He visited 3 different countries.

     

    After all these travel Harry decided to make travel part of his career.

    He didn’t want to work only in the US.

    He didn’t want to work only with Americans.

    He wanted to experience other countries and other cultures.

    His dream was to work for an international company.

     

    -Why did he decide to work for an international company? –he wanted to experience other countries and other cultures.

    -What was his dream? –working for an international company.

     

    5 years ago, his dream came true.

    Now he is working for a German high-tech company.

    As part of his job, he has to travel a lot.

    As a result, he has been to many cities and countries.

    And he has met many interesting people.

     

    -What has happened as a result to his job? –He has been to many countries and met many interesting people.

    -What kind of company is he working for? –A German hi-tech company.

    Vocabulary

    Lesson 3 Dental Problems

    A dental cavity is a hole in a tooth.

    A cavity is caused by bacteria in the mouth.

    Brushing your teeth frequently and regularly can help prevent cavities.

    A crack tooth can be caused by biting down on something hard.

    Dentists treat a crack tooth by covering it with a crown.

    A dental X-Ray is a picture of your teeth and gums.

    An X-Ray shows what can’t be seen on the surface of the teeth and gums.

    Braces are used by dentists to strengthen teeth over a period of years.

    Through braces are usually for children, they can also be used for adults with crooked teeth.

    To exact a tooth means to remove it from the mouth.

    Dentists have to pull hard to exact a tooth.

     

    Braces are used on people with crooked teeth or after an injury.

    Biting down on something hard can be very painful.

    Dentist often inject something into the gum to block the pain during the extraction process.

     

    Lesson 4 Internal Organs

    The heart pumps blood to all parts of the body through a system of arteries and veins.

    It’s located in the chest, between the lungs, and beats about once per second.

    The kidneys remove waste and toxins from the blood.

    They are bean-shaped organs, and are about 10 centimeters long and 6 centimeters wide.

    The lungs exchange oxygen from the air, with carbon dioxide from the blood.

    They expand when inhaling air, and contract when exhaling air.

    The stomach is blow the heart, and is part of the digestive system.

    It uses acids to digest food before passing it to the small intestine.

    The bladder is a balloon-shaped organ that collects urine from the kidneys.

    In an adult, the bladder can hold about half liter of urine.

     

    Dialogue

    Lesson 5 Police Traffic Stop

    Officer: Good evening, sir. You were driving too fast.

    Driver: really? Was I?

    Officer: Yes, you were going well above the speed limit.

    Driver: I’m sorry officer.

    Officer: OK, I need to see your driver’s license.

    Driver: Here’s my driver’s license.

     

    -Why has he been stopped? –He was driving too fast.

    He has given his driver’s license to the police officer.

     

    Officer: Your license has expired. Are you aware of that?

    Driver: No sir, that’s a surprise. I didn’t know.

    Officer: It has expired more than a year ago.

     

    -He probably knows that his license has expired, so… -he’s lying.

    -What has expired? –His driver’s license.

     

    Officer: Is this your car?

    Driver: No sir. It’s a friend’s. I’m borrowing it for a night.

     

    -Click the correct choice. – He probably isn’t telling the truth.

     

    Officer: Get out of the car, and put your hands behind your back.

    Driver: Why officer? What have I done?

    Officer: Just do as I say.

    Driver: OK, officer, I’m cooperating. Please don’t push me.

     

    -To cooperate means.. –to do as asked.

     

    Officer: Get your hands behind your back.

    Driver: OK, OK.

    Officer: I’m not asking you, I’m ordering you.

    Driver: Please officer, I haven’t done anything wrong.

     

    -What is he supposed to do? –to put his hands behind his back.

    -To order someone to do something means… -to command them to do it.

     

    Officer: Stay still, and don’t say anything. This is a stolen car. Are you aware of that?

    Driver: Are you going to arrest me?

    Officer: What do you think? That’s what we do with car thieves.

     

    -Stay still means the same thing as… -Don’t move.

    -To be aware of means… -to know.

     

    Driver: If you let me go, I’ll give you a couple of thousand dollars. I haven’t hurt anybody.

    Officer: So now you are trying to bribe me. How stupid can you be?

    Driver: I just don’t want to go back to jail. Give me a break.

     

    -What is the driver trying to do? –bribe the officer.

     

    Officer: Sure, you’re a nice guy. I’d like to give you a break. But there’s nothing I can do.

    Driver: Please officer.

    Officer: OK, where’s the money? Let me see it, and I’ll think about it.

     

    -If he takes the money, what would he be taking? –a bribe.

    -An honest police officer will never… -accept a bribe.

    4/4

    Listening

    Lesson 1 QuickServe2.0

    Quick Serve is a successful home repair company.

    It provides quick, reliable repair services to homes.

    It was established five years ago, and has been expanding rapidly.

    In the last two years, it has opened offices in three new cities.

     

    -How many offices has it opened in the past two years? –It has opened offices in 3 new cities.

    -What services does it provide? –It provides home repair services.

    -To be reliable means… -to be dependable.

     

    Because of its rapid growth, it has to hire many new employees.

    In the last six months, it has hired 50 new employees.

    The total number of employees in the company is now over 500.

    And the number of customers has increased to more than 5000.

     

    -How many people has the company hired in the last 6 months? –It has hired 50 new employees.

    -Why does it have to hire new employees? –It has been expanding rapidly.

     

    The company has also improved its business model.

    Instead of offering only repair services, it can now help customers to upgrade their appliances.

    Quick Serve does this by giving a choice.

    Customers can choose to repair an appliance, or upgrade it by buying a new one.

    If they choose to buy a new one, they will get a discounted price.

    So a customer can either repair a broken refrigerator for a small fee, or buy a new one.

     

    -To upgrade something means… -to add features or quality.

     

    If they buy a new one, they will get a discounted price, along with free installation.

    This is possible because several appliance manufacturers have agreed to give Quick Serve big discounts.

    Quick Serve then installs the new appliance, and removes the old one.

    Feedback from customers has been positive.

     

    -How have customers reacted to this service? –Their feedback has been positive.

    -Who have agreed to give Quick Serve big discounts? –Several appliance manufacturers.

     

    A high percentage of customers have taken advantage of this new service.

    As a result, Quick Serve has developed a great reputation.

    Its dedication to high quality service has proven to be successful.

    Its word of mouth approach to advising has been cost effective.

    The appliance manufacturers have also been happy with the results.

    Their growing relationship with Quick Serve has helped to increase their sales.

     

    -What has proven to be successful? –Its dedication to high quality service. Quick Serve’s approach to business is proving to be successful.

     

    Lesson 2 The World’s Population

    The world’s population is growing.

    There are now over 7 billion people in the world.

    During the 20th century, the population grows from 1.65 billion to 6 billion.

    It’s now growing at a rate of around 1.1% per year.

    That mean it increases about 18 million per year.

    By 2024, the population has expected to be around 8 billion people.

     

    -How fast is the world’s population growing? –The growth rate is about 1.1% per year.

    -What was the population at the end of the 20th century? –around 6 billion people.

     

    The growth rate used to be higher.

    In the late 1960s, the rate of growth was about 2%.

    Since then, the growth rate has declined.

    It is estimated that the growth rate will be less than 1% by 2020.

    By the year 2050, the growth rate should be even less.

     

    -What has happened to the growth rate? –It has declined since the 1960s.

    It is estimated that the growth rate should be even less.

     

    Even with the declining growth rate, the population will continue to grow.

    But it will grow at a slower rate.

    In the past 15 years the world’s population has more than doubled.

    It has doubled from around 3 billion in 1960 to more than 7 billion in 2011.

     

    -What has more than doubled in the past 15 years? –the world’s population.

     

    The rate of growth varies by country.

    The growth rate in India is more than twice that of China.

    And the growth rate in Nigeria, which is in Africa, is more than twice India’s growth rate.

    Russia, on the other hand, has had a negative growth rate in some years.

    When a country has a negative growth rate, its population is decreasing.

     

    -How do the growth rates of India and China compare? –India’s growth rate is higher.

    Vocabulary

    Lesson 3 Contemporary People

    Co-founder of Apple, this entrepreneur was a major figure in the computer industry.

    He was self-centered and difficult to work for, but he led the development of many great products.

    He died of cancer when he was just 56 years old.

    Jack ma is one of the richest and most famous men in China.

    He comes from a poor family and failed his college entrance exams twice.

    Despite of his many failures, he has built one of the world’s largest internet companies.

    David Beckham is one of the world’s richest and most famous athletes.

    He started playing professional football when he was just 17.

    Much of his success as an athletes is because he practiced harder than many other players.

    As a young girl in Pakistan, Malala became famous for her writings on women’s education.

    In 2012, she was shot in the head and nearly killed.

    She survived the injury and became the world’s most famous teenager.

    Born in 1942, Stephen Hawking is one of the world’s most famous scientists.

    When he was 23, he was diagnosed with ALS, a real disease of the nerves.

    Because of his disease, he is unable to walk and talk.

     

    Though he was difficult to work for, his creative genius inspired others to do great work.

    Despite his condition, he has made important discoveries about the creation of the universe.

     Lesson 4 Personality Types

    Shy people are usually quiet and uncomfortable around other people.

    They generally dislike going to social events such as parties.

    It’s often difficult to make friends with a shy person because they won’t open up.

    Outgoing people enjoy being with others, and are comfortable in social situations.

    They’re friendly and pleasant to be with, though sometimes they can’t be trusted.

    Self-centered people like to be the center of attention.

    They like people to look at them and pay attention to them.

    Self-centered people often talk too much and don’t listen enough.

    Selfish and greedy people don’t share things with others.

    They keep things for themselves and always want more.

    People who are responsible and trustworthy are important in almost any situation.

    They can be depended on to get things down.

    These people can be trusted.

     

    Outgoing people often have many friends and can be quite popular.

    Dialogue

    Lesson 5 Relationship Advice

    M: Hey, Steven, you know I’m your friend, right?

    Steven: Sure. I know that. What are you trying to say?

    M: I’m sorry to say this. But I think you are making a fool of yourself.

    Steven: how am I making a fool of myself?

    M: Your girlfriend is taking advantage of you.

    Steven: Taking advantage of me?

    M: Yes, I think so. She’s just using you.

     

    -To use someone means… -to take advantage of them.

     

    Steven: So, maybe she is. But I don’t mind. Even if she is using me, it’s OK. I’m using her too.

    M: What do you mean? Are you joining in love with her?

    Steven: Yes, I’m in love with her, but that doesn’t mean I’m not using her too.

     

    -Steven doesn’t mind if his girlfriend… -is using him.

    -How does Steven feel about his girlfriend? –He’s in love with her.

     

    M: I don’t understand. What do you mean?

    Steven: Maybe I’m using her because I enjoy being in love. I can’t imagine life without her. Even if she hurts me sometimes, I love her.

     

    -What can’t he imagine? –life without his girlfriend.

    Even if she hurts him sometimes, he enjoys being in love with her.

     

    M: Do you trust her?

    Steven: Yes, I trust her. She tells me what’s important to her. She’s honest with me.

    She is never lied to me about anything important.

     

    -To trust someone means… -you can believe what they say or promise to do.

     

    M: Are you honest with her?

    Steven: Yes, we are honest with each other even when it hurts.

    And because we are honest with each other, we trust each other.

    M: OK, so you don’t think you’re being taking advantage of?

    Steven: No, I don’t, as long as she is honest with me.

    The day she isn’t honest with me is the end of our relationship.

    And when that happens, my heart will break. But until then, I’m her man.

     

    -Why do they trust each other? –They are honest with each other.

    -What will happen when their relationship ends? –His heart will break.

     

    M: OK, I think I understand. I didn’t think you knew what was going on.

    Steven: I’m not as stupid as I looked, my friend.

    Being in the love with her makes my life exciting.

    M: Well, I hope you’re right. 

     

    -What makes his life exciting? –being in love with her.

    To make a fool of someone means to make them look stupid.

    Unit 2

    1/4

    Listening

    Lesson 1 Extinction Events 1-2

    The earth was formed by about 4.6 billion years ago.

    The first life appeared about a billion years later.

    The first plaints didn’t appear until around 2 billion years ago.

    Until about 580 million years ago, life forms were small and microscopic.

    Since that time, life has evolved into many different types or species.

    However, scientists estimate that more than 99% of them are now extinct.

     

    -When did the first plant appear on earth? –about 2 billion years ago.

     

    There have been several extinction events in the history of the Earth.

    In an extinction event, many life forms, or species of life, die out.

    The causes of mass extinction events are unsolved mysteries.

    These events are not predictable, and can happen at any time.

    Scientists think that some of them were started by asteroid impacts or volcanic eruptions.

    Events like this can change the global conditions that life depends on.

     

    -What happens in an extinction event? –Many species of life become extinct.

     

    One major extinction event happened about 66 million years ago.

    That event may have been started by a large asteroid that hit the Earth.

    As a result, the dinosaurs and about half of all species on the planet, died out.

    When the asteroid hit the Earth, it started a chain of events.

    A chain of events is a series of events linked together, like a chain.

     

    -What may have caused the extinction of the dinosaurs? –An asteroid hit the earth and started a chain of events.

     

    This particular chain of events happened over a period of months and years.

    When the asteroid hit the Earth, it caused a huge cloud of dust to enter the atmosphere.

    This cloud of dust blocked the sun and darkened the Earth for many months.

    Without enough sunlight, plants and plant-eating animals quickly died.

    With the deaths of so many plants and animals, the food chain collapsed

    This led to the deaths of many more species.

     

    -What caused the food chain to collapse? –The deaths of many plants and plant-eating animals.

     

    Mass extinction events have played an important part in the evolution of life.

    In fact, some extinction events have helps to accelerate evolution.

    For example, some mammals lived through the age of the dinosaurs, but they couldn’t compete.

    When the dinosaurs were removed, the mammals were able to compete more successfully.

    Once they could compete, mammals evolved to higher state.

    Without extinction events, perhaps we wouldn’t be here today.

     

    -What may accelerate the evolution of mammals? –the extinction of dinosaurs.

    Mammals couldn’t compete successfully with the dinosaurs, so their evolution was blocked.

     

    Scientists estimated that there had been at least 5 mass extinctions in the last 540 million years.

    They also believed that we have entered a new extinction event.

    Species are becoming extinct at a much faster rate than before.

    Instead of the asteroid or volcanic eruptions, the current event is a result of human activities.

    Human activities, for example, have led to global warming.

     

    -What is causing the current mass extinction event? –human activities.

    -What do scientists believe has already started? –a new extinction event.

     

    Global warming is a result of an increasing in carbon gases in out atmosphere.

    These gases trap heat from the sun, so the Earth is getting warmer.

    As a result, sea levels are rising, and weather patterns are changing.

    In addition, we humans are destroying the habitats of many plants and animals.

    Cutting down forests, and polluting rivers destroys the habitats of many forms of life.

     

    -Why are sea levels rising? –With the rise in temperature, the polar icecaps are melting.

     

    There is no longer any doubt that this is happening.

    Species of life are disappearing at an increasing rate.

    Global temperatures are rising and weather patterns are changing.

    Scientists are warning us that fast action is necessary to save our future.

    If we don’t act, we may go the way of the dinosaurs.

     

    This new extinction event is caused by humans.

    Vocabulary

    Lesson 3 Body Systems

    The body’s circulatory system includes the heart and blood vessels.

    The heart pumps blood to all parts of the body through a network of arteries and veins.

    The digestive system breaks down and absorbs food into the body.

    It supplies the energy that the body needs for growth and repair.

    After digestion, excess food is turned into waste and eliminated from the body.

    The nervous system includes the brain, spinal cord, and nerves.

    This is your body’s control system.

    It controls your muscles and organs, including your circulatory and digestive systems.

    The respiratory system includes the nose and lungs.

    It brings air and oxygen into the body and removes carbon dioxide.

    The lungs are where oxygen enters the bloodstream and carbon dioxide is removed.

    The immune system protects the body against infections and diseases.

    Sneezing and fever are examples of how the immune system works.

    If an infection invades the body, the immune system attacks it.

     

    The nervous system regulates your heartbeat and digestion.

    For some diseases, the immune system uses white blood cells and antibodies to attack it.

    The digestive system is where food is broken down and absorbed into the body.

     

    Lesson 4 Great Discoveries

    The controlled use of fire allowed people to cook food and survive in colder climates.

    Fire provided light so that people could work and socialize for longer hours.

    With the invention of agriculture people could grow food and settle into communities.

    By growing food, people could spend less time hunting and more time for other things such as art.

    The domestication of animals allowed people to raise and use animals for food and work.

    By raising herds of animal such as sheep, humans had a regular supply of meat and clothing.

    The strength of animals such as horse and ox was used for working transportation.

    The development of tools and machines has resulted into more efficient manufacture and construction.

    With better tools and machines work can be done with fewer people at much lower cost.

    The development of science and engineering has improved many things including communications.

    With an understanding of electricity, telephones and radios allow people to communicate over long distances.

     

    Science and engineering breakthroughs are rapidly changing the way we live our lives.

    Science and engineering have changed the way we communicate with each other.

    The use of machines has reduced the number of people needed to make things.

    With the development of agriculture, people had more time for other activities.

    The ability to raise herds of animals gave human a regular supply of meat and clothing.

    Dialogue

    Lesson 5 Smartphone Addiction

    M: I took a vocation last night.

    W: What are you talking about? Where did you take your vocation?

    M: I didn’t go anywhere. I just spent an evening without my smartphone.

    W: How was it?

    M: It was great. I got a real magazine and read it with no interruption.

    It was very peaceful.

    W: Yes, I haven’t done that in a long time.

     

    -If someone is interrupted, they have to… -stop what they are doing.

    -What hasn’t she done in a long time? –She hasn’t spent time without her smartphone.

    -What made the evening different? –He didn’t use his smartphone.

     

    M: You know what? I’m beginning to hate smartphones.

    W: Really? But you can’t live without one, right?

    M: Yes, that’s the problem. These things are changing the way people live.

     

    -What can’t people live without? –People can’t live without smartphones.

    -How does he feel about smartphones? –He’s beginning to hate them.

     

    W: Yes, I just saw a documentary about that.

    A husband was complaining to his wife that she was spending too much time on her smartphone.

    M: What happen? Did they get a divorce?

    W: You guessed it. In the end, they got a divorce.

     

    -What happened to the couple? –They got a divorce.

    -What was the wife spending too much time doing? –playing on her smartphone.

     

    M: It’s a bit ironic. Don’t you think?

    Smartphones were supposed to bring people together, but they are pulling people apart.

    W: Yes, you’re right.

    M: Hey, just a minute. I’ve got a message on my smartphone and it can’t wait.

     

    -What do they think is ironic about smartphones? –Instead of bringing people together, they are pulling them apart.

    Lesson 6 Rude Boss

    Boss: Hey, wake up and get back to work. What’s wrong with you?

    Employee: I’m on my break, sir. And I have a bad headache.

    Boss: Well, we’re not paying you to sleep. If you’re going to sleep, sleep someplace else.

    Employee: Yes, sir. Sorry. It won’t happen again.

    Boss: You had better not.

     

    -How did the employee treat the manager? –respectfully.

     

    Employee: Just a minute. Don’t talk to me like that.

    Boss: What did you say?

    Employee: You hurt me. You don’t have to treat people like that.

    Boss: Well, if you don’t like it, I suggest you leave.

    Employee: OK, I will. I‘ve had enough of you. I’ll get a job somewhere else.

     

    -How does the employee feel? –angry.

    2/4

    Listening

    Lesson 1 Point of View 1-2

    This man is holding a piece of fruit in his hand.

    The piece of fruit is either an orange or an apple.

    We can’t see which it is because we can’t see inside the box.

    The probability that it is an orange is equal to the probability that it is an apple.

    It may be an apple and it may be an orange.

    It’s got to be one or the other.

    It can’t be anything else.

     

    -What’s the probability that it’s a banana? –The probability is 0%. It may be an apple but it can’t be a banana.

     

    Now let’s look at it from the man’s point of view.

    From his point of view, the probabilities are different.

    From his point of view, the probability that he has an orange is 100% or 0%.

    That’s because he knows what he has.

    For him, there is no uncertainly.

    If he has an orange, the probability is 100%.

    If he doesn’t have an orange, the probability is 0%.

    He either has it, or he doesn’t.

     

    -From our point of view, what’s the probability that it’s an orange? -50%.

     

    From our point of view, the probability that he has an orange is 50%.

    From his point of view, the probability that he has an orange is 100% or 0%.

    So the probability depends on your point of view.

     

    -What’s the probability that it’s a banana? –a 0% probability.

    The probability depends on your point of view, or how much you know.

     

    People see things from different points of view.

    This often leads to arguments between people.

    Here are some examples.

    From this man’s point of view, he is relaxing.

    He needs to relax because he has been working too hard.

    He hasn’t been getting enough sleep.

     

    -If his wife shouts at him and tells him to get up and do something…

    -he may shout back and refuse to help her.

     

    His wife sees things differently.

    She isn’t aware of how hard he has been working.

    From her point of view, he is doing nothing.

    However, she knows what needs to be done around the house.

    It isn’t fair that she had to work while he does nothing.

     

    -If he gets up and helps her… -She may not appreciate his help.

    -From the husband’s point of view, what’s he doing? –He is relaxing.

     

    When people see things from different points of view, they often come to different conclusions.

    These differences can cause real communication problems.

     

    People often argue with each other because they see things from a different point of view.

    Vocabulary

    Lesson 3 Disasters

    Earthquakes are caused by forces deep within the earth.

    When the earth shakes, buildings can collapse, and people can be buried inside.

    An explosion is a rapid, violent, release of energy.

    Explosions can be caused by chemical reactions, such as inside an engine.

    A spark can ignite mixture of gases, and release energy for good or destructive purposes.

    Accidents are often caused by people doing foolish things, or by not being careful.

    One major cause of accidents is driving too fast.

    Accidents with fire can be very serious and can result in very painful injuries.

    Epidemics are the rapid spread of diseased such as the flue or Ebola.

    Throughout history, epidemics have killed millions of people.

    Storms are caused by changes in the atmosphere, results in high winds and heavy rains.

    Thunderstorms are caused by electric charges in the atmosphere that produce lighting, which can cause forest fires.

    Some storms cause flooding, and major damage to homes and cities.

     

    To reduce the danger of an explosion, it’s important to prevent gas leaks inside the home.

    Many forest fires are caused by lightning.

    Epidemics have killed more people than all wars and natural disasters.

    Lesson 4 Religions

    Followers of the Islam religion are called Moslems (Muslims).

    These Moslems are praying inside mosque.

    Moslems are called to prayer five times a day, beginning just before sunrise.

    Christianity is based on the teachings of Jesus Christ, Who lived more than 2000 years ago.

    Christians believe that Jesus is the son of God.

    Christians often gather in churches or cathedrals to worship.

    Follower of the Judaism are somewhere called Jews.

    These Jews are meeting inside synagogue, which is a place of worship and study.

    Judaism was founded over 3500 years ago, in the Middle East.

    Judaism was based on the teachings of Moses, who they believed is the most important prophet.

    Buddhism began in India, and is based on the teachings of the Buddha.

    The religion is about 2500 years old.

    Some Buddhists practice a form of the meditation in which they empty their mind of any thought.

    Hinduism is the world’s third most popular religion and is the main religion of India.

    Hinduism has no founder, and is the mixture of many beliefs.

    Some Hindus believe in the cycle of birth, life, death and rebirth.

     

    Jews believe that Moses is the most important prophet.

    Dialogue

    Lesson 5 Missing Aircraft

    W: Do you have any more information about the location of the missing aircraft?

    M: No, we don’t. The only information we have is that it disappeared.

    W: What about the last communication with the aircraft?

    M: The last communication was about 15 minutes before it disappeared.

    W: Was there anything unusual in the communication?

    M: No, there wasn’t anything unusual. Nothing pointed to any kind of problem.

     

    W: Anyway, we are confident that we’ll find it.

    It’s a large aircraft so it shouldn’t be difficult to find.

    M: How many countries are helping with the search?

    W: Right now we have search teams from 3 countries starting the search.

    M: It’s a big area to search, so can you give us an estimate about how long it will take?

    W: Yes, it’s a big area, so it might take a long time.

    But we won’t give up. We’ll search until we find it.

     

    -How long do they plan to search for it? –They plan to search for it until they find it.

     

    M1: Have they found the wreckage yet?

    M2: What are you talking about?

    M1: You know, the airplane that disappeared last year.

    M2: Oh yes. Now I know what’s you’re referring to. Yes, they found some pieces of it.

     

    -How much of the airplane have they found? –some pieces.

     

    M1: What about the black boxes?

    M2: No, they still haven’t found the black boxes.

    M1: It’s hard to believe they still don’t know what happened.

    M2: Perhaps they’ll never know, especially if they don’t find the black boxes.

    M1: Whatever happen to it, there is no good reason why a modern airline is allowed to disappear.

    M2: I agree with you. 

    3/4

    Listening

    Lesson 1 Alcatraz 1-2

    Alcatraz is a small island in San Francisco Bay, 1.5 miles from San Francisco.

    From Alcatraz, you can see the famous Golden Gate Bridge.

    Alcatraz is also famous, and is now a major tourist attraction.

    Tourists can reach the island by boat from the city.

     

    -What can people see from Alcatraz? –The Golden Gate Bridge.

     

    Alcatraz has often appeared in movies, including Escape from Alcatraz, which was made in 1979.

    One reason it’s famous is because it used to be a prison, a very special prison.

    It was designed for prisoners who were causing trouble in other prisons, such as trying to escape.

    It was a maximum security prison, so escape was almost impossible.

    The waters around it are cold and only very strong swimmers can swim from the island to San Francisco.

     

    -What kind of prisoners was it designed for? –prisoners who were troublemakers.

    -Why is it famous? –It used to be a very special prison.

     

    The first group of prisoners arrived in 1934.

    There were 137 prisoners including bank rubbers and murderers.

    They came by train from another prison in the state of Kansas.

    During that trip, there was heavy security.

    The prisoners were under guard and handcuffed.

    Nobody wanted them to escape.

     

    -Where do the first group of prisoners come from? –They came from Kansas.

     

    The prison was designed to hold up to 336 prisoners.

    However, the average population was only about 270.

    Although there were several notorious inmate such as Al Capone, most of the inmates were not well known.

    Many had tried to escape from other prisons or working setter to violent.

    If a man did not behave at another prison, he could be sent to Alcatraz.

    At Alcatraz, there was just one inmate in each prison cell.

     

    -Why were prisoners usually sent to Alcatraz? –They caused trouble at other prisons.

    -A notorious inmate is one who… -is very well known.

     

    Prison life at Alcatraz was highly structured and boring.

    It was designed to teach prisoners to follow rules.

    They had four rights: food, clothing, shelter and medical care.

    Everything else was a privilege that had to be earned.

    Privileges included working, visits from family members and access to the prison library.

    There were also activities such as painting and music.

    Once a prisoner showed that he could follow the rules, he could be transferred back to another prison to finish his sentence.

     

    Alcatraz was used as a prison for 29 years.

    During that time, no prisoners escaped successfully.

    There were 14 escape attempts, involving 36 prisoners.

    23 were caught alive and 6 were shot and killed.

    2 men tried to escape twice.

    2 drowned and 5 were listed as missing and presumed drowned.

    The most violent escape attempt occurred on May 2nd 1946, when 6 prisoners tried to escape.

    That event is called the battle of the Alcatraz.

     

    -How many prisoners escaped? –none.

     

    While it was in use, Alcatraz had some of the most notorious criminals in American history, such as Al Capone.

    Al Capone was a crime boss, who built his career in Chicago.

    The prison was finally closed in 1963.

    It was closed because it was too expensive to operate.

     

    -Why was the prison finally closed? –It was too expensive to operate.

    No prisoners ever escaped from Alcatraz.

    Vocabulary

    Lesson 3 Graphs & Charts

    A bar graph uses rectangle bars of different lengths to show and compare data.

    The lengths of the bars are proportional to the values they represent.

    The bars can be vertical, up and down, or horizontal.

    A circle graph, often called a pie graph, is shaped like a circle.

    It is divided into segments that look like pieces of a pie.

    Percentage are used to compare the segments, which are ordered from biggest to smallest.

    Line graphs are used to show the relationship between 2 variables such as time and distance.

    These variables are plotted on 2 axis, the x axis and the y axis.

    The x axis often shows time, while the y axis shows how quantities, such as distance, temperature, or profits, change with time.

    A flow chart is a type of graph that shows how a process or project flows from start to finish.

    A flow chart consists of start points, inputs, outputs and decision points.

    An organizational chart or org chart shows the structure of company.

    It shows how people and department within the company are connected.

    It defines the roles and responsibilities of people and departments within the company.

     

    Line graphs are very good at showing how things change over time.

    An org chart shows how people and departments within a company are connected.

    A line graph uses connected points to show how things are related to each other.

     Lesson 4 Legal Terms

    Laws are rules that people are supposed to follow.

    A system of laws governs the behavior of people within the country.

    Criminals are people who break the law.

    People who commit a crime are called criminals.

    Some criminals are very dangerous and need to be put in jail.

    A jail or prison is a place where criminals were lock behind bars, sometimes for many years.

    Prisons are designed to keep criminals away from other people.

    A court house is where someone charge with committing a crime goes on trial.

    In court evidence is present to show the guilty or innocent person on trial.

    When someone breaks the law, they may be arrested by the police.

    To arrest someone means to take and hold them until they go on trial.

     

    When a person is charged with breaking a law, they are tried in a court of law.

    An action that is against the law is an illegal action.

    An action that is follow the law is a legal action.

    Someone who is found guilty of committing a crime is sent to prison.

     

    Dialogue

    Lesson 5 Currency Exchange

    W: May I help you sir?

    M: I’d like to change some US dollars into Japanese yen please.

    W: Yes, certainly, sir. How much would you like to change?

    M: I’d like to change 500 dollars.

    W: May I see your passport, please?

    M: I don’t have it with me, but I do have my driver’s license. Would that be ok?

    W: No, I’m sorry, sir. I need to see your passport. It’s the law.

    M: Look, I’m not asking for a loan. I just want to convert my dollars into yen.

    Why do I need my passport?

    W: I understand your frustration, sir. But that’s the law. I cannot do something that is illegal.

     

    -Why does the customer need his passport? –It’s required by law.

     

    M: Ok, do you have any suggestions?

    W: Sure, the easiest thing for you to do is to use a machine in one of the hotels near here. You can borrow someone’s passport and then do the conversion.

    M: So the machine doesn’t check my fingerprints or anything like that?

    W: No, sir. But there’s a limit as how much you can change at one time.

    You also have to pay a higher fee.

    M: Thanks for your help.

    W: You’re welcome, sir.

    4/4

    Listening

    Lesson 1 Al Capone 1-2

    Al Capone was one of the most famous criminals in American history.

    He came from an immigrate family.

    His parents came from Italy and his father was a barber.

    As a boy, he belonged to a street gangs.

    He quit school after finishing the 6th grade.

     

    -Where were his parents from? –They were from Italy.

     

    He built his career as a crime boss in Chicago.

    He became boss at 26 when the previous leader was nearly killed.

    His crime organization made a lot of money, more than 100 million dollars a year.

    Most the money came from illegal activities, especially the sales of illegal liquor.

    His organization was also involved in gambling and prostitution.

     

    -What kind of illegal activities was his organization involved with? –Gambling and prostitution.

    -Liquor includes… -alcoholic drinks such as whiskey and vodka.

     

    Capone was flashy dresser who enjoyed being famous.

    He protected himself by bribing police and public officials.

    Though he was involved in the deaths of many, he was never convicted of a serious crime.

    When he was finally arrested, it was for minor crimes.

    In 1929, he and his body guard were arrested for carrying deadly weapons.

    For that, they were sentenced to a year in prison.

    Capone was released nine month for good behavior.

     

    -Why were he and his body guard arrested and sent to prison? –They were caught carrying deadly weapons.

    -What kind of person was he? –violent and self-centered.

     

    In 1930, Capone was public enemy NO.1 in Chicago.

    A year later, he was arrested for failed to pay taxes.

    The government had finally found a way to catch him.

    After a trail, he was found guilty and sentenced to 11 years in prison.

    He spent the first 2 years of his sentence at a prison in Atlanta joja.

    Then he was sent to Alcatraz, the country’s most famous prison.

     

    -Why was he sentenced to prison for 11 years? –He was found guilty of tax evasion.

     

    At Alcatraz, he was diagnosed with a disease that began to take over his brain.

    As a result, he spent much of his time in the prison hospital.

    By the time he was released from the prison in 1939, he was no longer able to lead his organization.

    He died of a stroke and pneumonia in 1947.

     

    -Why did he spend much of his time in the prison hospital? –He had a serious disease.

    Vocabulary

    Lesson 3 Economic Terms

    Income is money received from work or from investments.

    For a company to survive, its income needs to be more than its expenses.

    People who earned a good salary can buy what they need to survive.

    A receipt is given to you after you have paid for something.

    A receipt is proof that you have paid for something.

    A receipt shows that something has been paid for.

    After paying for something, be sure to get a receipt.

    An invoice is a request for payment.

    An invoice lists the prices and the products being bought.

    To invoice someone means to give them a bill for the products or services.

    Once an invoice is paid, it can be used as a receipt.

    Taxes are what we pay to the government for the government services.

    Taxes pay for many services, such as education, police and health care.

    An income tax is a tax on your income.

    In some countries, income taxes are very high.

    Interest is what we pay to lenders when we borrow money.

    If someone lends you money, you pay interest for the use of that money.

     

    Lesson 4 Personality Types

    Emotional people often show their feelings and have a bad temper.

    They make decisions based on their feelings more than facts.

    Sometimes these people make bad decisions because of their emotions.

    Leaders are people who take responsibility and are trusted by others.

    Good leaders make good decisions and get things down.

    In many situations, others look to them for leadership.

    Loyal people can be depended on to follow their leader.

    They will support and protect their leaders and friends.

    A strong team needs a good leader and loyal followers.

    Independent people can do things on their own.

    They often prefer working by themselves.

    Sometimes they have difficulty working in a group.

    Creative people come up with new ideas and ways of doing things.

    They often have a good imagination and can see things in different ways.

    Many artists and musicians are very creative.

     

    Independent people may want to do things their own way.

    People don’t like to work for people who are too emotional.

    Someone with a bad temper gets angry easily and shouts at others.

    Dialogue

    Lesson 5 A Video Project 1-2

    W: Congratulations, Lisa.

    Lisa: Congratulations for what?

    W: We just heard the news.

    Lisa: What news? Don’t keep me in suspense.

    W: QuickServe has accepted your video proposal.

    Lisa: Already? I just submitted it a week ago.

    W: Maybe so, but they liked it so much that they made a quick decision.

    They want you to get started on it as soon as possible.

     

    -What did Lisa do a week ago? –She summited her proposal.

     

    Lisa: That’s great news. But I’m still working on some other projects.

    They need to be finished first.

    W: Can’t you delay some of our other projects?

    Lisa: I’m not sure. How important is this project?

    W: They are putting a lot of pressure on us now especially since they read your proposal.

    They really like it. It’s a very creative way of presenting their company.

    It had everybody laughing.

    Lisa: Yes, that was the idea. It was fun to do and our whole team thought it was funny.

    W: Well, great job. I think it’s the best work your team has ever down.

     

    -What may need to be delayed? –Some of their other projects.

    -To delay something means to… -postpone it.

     

    W: When can you get started on the project?

    Lisa: Are they going to pay extra? In my proposal,

    I said the earliest start date would be one month after signing the contract.

    W: Was that in the proposal?

    Lisa: Yes, it was. Have they signed the contract yet?

    W: No, they haven’t. But I’m sure they will right away.

     

    -When do the contract say the project will begin?-one month after signing the contract.

    -Why does she think they should pay extra? –They want to get started earlier than what was in the proposal.

    The proposal said that the earliest start date would be one month after signing the contract.

     

    Lisa: They’ll also need to make an advance payment. That was in the proposal too.

    We can’t stop everything else just because they are excited.

    W: OK, I’ll get back to them and let them know.

    Lisa: Yes, please do. I’ve been through these kinds of thing before.

     

    -What are they going to ask for from QuickServe? –an advance payment and an extra fee to start the project early.

    -To get back to them means… -to contact them.

    Unit 3

    1/4

    Listening

    Lesson 1 Time Distribution

    Look at these two pie graphs.

    They show how these two people spend their days, not including weekends.

    The one on the top shows how Emma divides up her days.

    She is a designer who works for a large company.

     

    -20% of the day is how much hours? -4.8 hours.

     

    As Emma’s graph shows, the biggest portion of her day is spent working.

    She works an average of 8 hours a day, which is 1/3 of her day.

    She gets an average of 6 hours of sleep, which is 25% of her day.

    That’s less sleep than Martin gets.

    According to his graph, he gets an average of 7 hours of sleep, which is about 29% of his day.

    On the other hands, Martin, who is an engineer, works more hours than Emma does.

    Martin averages 9 hours a day at work, compared to Emma’s 8.

    That’s 37.5%, compare to 33%.

    Other factors shown in the graphs include time for meals and commuting to work.

     

    -What percent of the day does Emma spend at her work? -33%.

     

    Other activities include getting dressed and household choice, such as doing laundry and paying bills.

    As you can see, for Martin, commuting is taking a large amount of his time.

    If he could reduce his commute time, he will have more time for other things.

    And it isn’t just the time.

    When the traffic is really heavy, his commute is stressful.

    It would be great if he could work from home for 1 or 2 days a week.

    His life will be more enjoyable.

     

    -In what category are things like doing the laundry or paying bills? –other.

     

    And looking at Emma’s graph, we see that she probably needs more sleep.

    Perhaps she should spend a bit less time socializing with her friends.

    On the other hand, socializing with her friends is something she really values.

    As for putting on makeup, she isn’t willing to change that.

    For her, exercising, socializing and staying beautiful help her deal with the stress of work.

    In conclusion, Emma and Martin both wish there were more hours in a day.

     

    Lesson 2 Job Satisfaction Factors

    These next graph shows how various factors compare an importance to 1500 job applicants.

    These applicants were between 20 and 25 years old.

    They were asked to list which factors were most important to a good job.

    As the graph shows, money was the most important factor for 25% of the applicants.

    However, other factors were also important.

    The second most important factor was the working environment.

     

    -According to this graph, what was the second most important factor? –a good work environment.

     

    In other words, for many, money isn’t everything.

    People want to like where they work.

    In fact, if we combine working environment and coworkers, the total is 35%.

    This is well above the 25% for salary and benefits.

    Taking together, they are more important than salary and benefits.

    Career path is also important, especially for younger applicants.

    They want to see that their job helps build the successful career.

    For older workers, this may not be as important.

    Older workers often put a higher value on the balance between life and work.

    What do you think?

     

    Which conclusion most accurately summarize this graph? –A good job needs to satisfy several needs.

    -People who want their work to be challenging are people who…-enjoy solving problems.

    The best jobs satisfy several needs, not just salary and benefits.

    Vocabulary

    Lesson 3 Political Terms

    The government of a country is its control system.

    Governments make laws and provide services to their citizens.

    The land over which a government has control is its territory.

    A country’s territory has boundaries or borders.

    When you leave or enter a country’s territory, you usually need a passport.

    A country’s military provides defends for its territory and its citizens.

    The military includes an army, an air force and a navy.

    The main purpose of a military is to defend a country from attack.

    A country’s criminal justice system includes the police, courts and prisons.

    Its purpose is to enforce the law and protect people from criminal activities.

    A country’s social services system provides support to people in need.

    It provides basic health care services and helps poor people support their children.

     

    When a country wants to change its boundaries, there may be a war.

    Most of the citizens of a country live within its territory.

     

    Some governments have powerful leaders who control things.

    A country’s borders mark its territory and separate it from its neighbors.

     

    Most governments pay for their services by collecting taxes from its citizens.

     

    The armed forces of a country have many weapons such as guns, tanks and planes.

    The criminal justice system is responsible for enforcing the law.

    What rules a country? –some governments have powerful leaders who control things.

    What is located in the capital? –the center government is located in the country’s capital city.

    The territory of a country is defined by its boundaries.

     Lesson 4 Types of Government

    A state of anarchy exists when a country has no effective government.

    In anarchy, there is nobody to make decisions and enforce the laws.

    An autocracy is the simplest form of government.

    In autocracy, the government is controlled by single individual, known as the autocrat.

    Whether or not an autocracy is successful depends on the character and ability of the leader.

    In an oligarchy, a small group of people controls the government.

    Membership of its group often depends on family connections, wealth, or military power.

    In a republic, individuals are elected to represent the citizens.

    The power of the government in a republic is limited by constitution.

    A constitution is a written document that makes the rules for a government to follow.

    This limits the power of the government.

    A constitution defines the relationship between the government and its citizens.

     

    Who make decisions and enforce the laws in an anarchy? –nobody.

    -What is a common way for oligarchy to increase their wealth? –bribery and corruption.

    Bribery and corruption are common as a way to increase the wealth of the oligarchs.

    Without a good government, decisions that need to be made, won’t be made.

    Dialogue

    Lesson5 Quitting a job

    M1: I hear you lost your job. Is that right?

    M2: Yes, that’s right. I quit. I quit because of the way my boss treats people.

    M1: What happened?

    M2: I wasn’t feeling good one day and he yelled at me.

    When I told him not to yell at me, he threatened me.

    M1: Is that all? That’s what bosses do.

    M2: Sure, sometimes maybe. But my boss treated everyone badly and I was tired of it.

    It was the last string.

    M1: The last string? 

    M2: Yes, you know? It reaches the point where I couldn’t take it anymore.

     

    -What was the last string? –being yelled at and threatened that day.

    -What did his boss do? –His boss threatened him.

     

    M1: I see. So now you don’t have a job?

    M2: Right, I don’t have a job. But at least I don’t have to deal with my boss anymore.

    M1: What are you going to do now?

    M2: To be honest, I’m not sure. But I’ll find something. I’ll get a job even if it pays less than before.

     

    -What doesn’t he have to deal with anymore? –his ex-boss.

     

    M1: Are you sorry you quit?

    M2: Yes and no. I guess I should have found another job first, and then quit.

    M1: Why didn’t you?

    M2: As I said, he pushed me too far. There are some things that I just won’t take.

     

    -What should have done? –looked for another job before quitting.

     

    M1: What about your wife?

    M2: She isn’t happy that I don’t have a job. But she understands.

    She knows I have a temper. And she knows I wasn’t happy working there.

     

    -What does his wife know about him? –He has a temper.

     

    M1: Well I guess I’m lucky. My job isn’t great but I like the people I’m working with.

    And I like my manager.

    M2: Are you planning to stay there?

    M1: I don’t know. For now it’s ok, but of course it all depends on how things change.

     

    Is he planning to stay at his job? –It depends.

     

    M2: Well if you hear of any job openings, let me know, ok?

    M1: Sure, send me your resume and I’ll let people know you are looking.

    M2: Thanks.

     

    He won’t take being treated badly and threatened too many times.

    His boss pushed him too far one too many times, so he couldn’t wait to quit.

    His boss treated him badly one too many times. He isn’t sure what he is going to do.

    2/4

    Listening

    Lesson 1 Story of Lang Lang 1-2

    Lang Lang is one of the world’s greatest concert pianists.

    His first contact with Western music was when he was just 2 years old.

    He watched a cartoon in which a cat played a famous piece by Franz Liszt.

    From this experience, he decided he wanted to learn to play the piano.

    When he was 3 and a half years old, he started piano lessons.

    Two years later, he won first place in a piano completion.

    This early success gave his father high hopes that Lang Lang would become a great pianist.

     

    -What experience introduced Lang Lang to Western music? –He watched a cartoon in which a cat played the piano.

     

    When Lang Lang was 9 years old, his father quit his job and took him to Beijing.

    They left everything behind including his mother who had to work.

     

    Lang Lang didn’t want to leave her behind, but his father insisted.

    His father wanted him to study at the famous Central Conservatory of Music.

     

    -Why did they leave his mother behind? –She had to work to support him.

    -Why did his father to Beijing? –His father wanted him to study in the famous collage.

     

    When they moved to Beijing, they rented a flat in a poor area of the city.

    During this time, Lang Lang practiced for several hours a day.

    He started practicing at 5 o’clock, which upset his neighbors.

    They would often pound on his door and ask him to stop practicing.

    They were so angry that he often feared that they would beat him up.

     

    -Where did they leave when they moved to Beijing? –They lived in the poor area of the city.

    -What was one reason why his lessons were difficult? –His teacher always gave him a hard time. His lessons were to prepare for entrance into the Conservatory.

     

    Lang Lang usually had piano lessons once a week to prepare for the conservatory.

    Nearly 2000 students were applying for just 12 places at the conservatory.

    His lessons were expensive and very difficult especially because of his piano teacher.

    His music teacher didn’t like Lang Lang.

    He called his teacher “professor angry” because she always gave him a hard time.

     

    -What was one reason why his lessons were difficult? –His teacher always gave him a hard time.

    His lessons were to prepare for entrance into the Conservatory.

     

    One afternoon his teacher told him he had no talent and told him to go home.

    Upon hearing the news, his father screamed and seemed to lose his mind.

    His father told him that everything was destroyed and there was no reason to live.

    He ordered Lang Lang to jump off the 11th floor balcony.

    After this, Lang Lang almost went crazy.

    He didn’t want to play the piano anymore.

     

    -What did his father tell him to do? –jump off the balcony.

    -What did his father tell him to do? –There was no reason to live.

     

    For several months, he neither played the piano nor spoke to his father.

    Then some friends encouraged him to play a piece for them and he realized his great love of the piano.

    For the next 19 months, he practiced hard and his father encouraged him.

    Finally, when he was 10, he was accepted into the conservatory with a full scholarship.

     

    -Why did he start practicing again? –He realized his great love of the piano.

     

    In 1995, when he was 13 years old, he played music by Chopin in the Beijing Concert Hall.

    In that same year, he won first place in an international completion for young musicians in Japan.

    When he was 15 he moved to the United States and began studies with a famous pianist that occur things xxx.

    Since then his career has grown and he has become a major star.

    One American music critic called him the biggest most exciting keyboard talent I have count for many year of piano recitals.

     

    -What did he do when he was 15? –He went to study in the United States.

     

    In 2010, Lang Lang signed a recording contract for several million dollars.

    In 2011, he performed at the white house for president Obama of the United States and Hu Jintao of China.

    With all of these success and fame, Lang Lang tries to encourage others.

    He uses his fame to spread the popularity of the classical music and encourage the young musicians.

    And in the end Lang Lang and his father have rebuilt their relationship.

    In his autobiography, Mr. Lang dedicated the book to his mother and father.

     

    Vocabulary

    Lesson 3 Business and Economics

    A person’s debt is how much he or she owes to others.

    Debt can be in the form of money, products, or services owe to someone else.

    If you borrow money, you were taking on new debt.

    An asset is something that has value, such as money, property or even a nice personality.

    Assets can be used to pay off debts.

    Specialize knowledge or skills are also assets that can be used to get a job or earn money.

    Real estate is property such as land, houses and buildings.

    Buying, selling, or renting property is a business of real estate.

    Buying and selling real estate is a popular form of investment.

    Inventory is a detailed list of items in one’s possession.

    In business, one’s inventory is the supply of items that are ready for sale.

    If a store runs out of things to sale, it needs to resupply its inventory.

    An investment is a purchase of an asset with the hope that its value will increase.

    A good investment will produce income, such as rental income.

    If the value of an asset falls, the investment will lose money.

     

    -If you own a house, it is… -an asset.

    To take inventory means to make a detailed list of the items that you have.

    When you sell an asset at a higher price than what you paid for it, you have made a profit.

    If you buy a house and get a loan, the amount you owe on your loan is part of your debt.

     Lesson 4 Countries and Continents

    China is the second largest country in the world by land area.

    A major issue for China’s continue extension of its deserts, which have led to dust storm each spring.

    Many of world’s most polluted cities are located there.

    South Asia is referred to as the India subcontinent.

    It’s called a subcontinent because it’s separated from the rest of Asia by mountains and seas.

    It is one of the world’s poorest regions with about 75% of the poor living in rural areas.

    Europe is the western neighbor of Asia.

    It’s separated from Asia by the Ural Mountains which extend for 1500 miles and north-south direction for the Arctic Ocean.

    The Philippines is the only country in Asia with the majority of Christians.

    The Philippines is an island nation with over 7000 islands.

    It’s located in the South China Sea.

    The country’s capital city is Manila.

    Asia is the world’s largest continent covering about 30% of the earth’s land area.

    Several island nations are also a part of Asia, including Japan.

    The world’s tallest mountains are in Asia, including MT Everest.

     

    The traditional boundary line between them is the Ural mountain range.

    As a result, the country is investing heavily to reduce air pollution.

    Dialogue

    Lesson 5 Election & Voting

    W: Hey, have you decided how you’re going to vote?

    M: No, I haven’t. I don’t like any of the candidates.

    W: So you aren’t going to vote?

    M: Hmm, I don’t know, probably not. It seems like a waste of time.

     

    -What does he think of the candidates? –He doesn’t like any of them.

     

    W: Really? Why do you think it’s a waste of time?

    M: Have you listen to any of their speeches?

    W: Yes, I have. And I agree that their speeches aren’t very good.

    M: Exactly. I can’t believe anything they say.

    They are just saying what they think we want to hear.

    W: Sure, they want to get elected.

    I have admitted that, the system isn’t perfect but it’s all we have.

    M: Whether I vote or not won’t make a difference. It’s all a show.

     

    -What do they think of the candidates’ speeches? –They are not very good.

     

    W: Well, I think you should vote. Do a little research about the candidates.

    M: Have you?

    W: Yes, I have. I’ve looked into their backgrounds and education.

    M: How can that help?

    W: For example, if they know something about science,

    it could help the government make better decisions about issues such as climate change.

    M: Yes, that’s a good point. We need well-educated people making decisions.

    W: And I looked to see what kind of people are supporting them.

     

    -How has she researched the candidates? –She’s looked into their backgrounds and education.

    -She wants to elect people who are… -smart and well-educated.

     

    M: What issues do you think are most important?

    W: I guess for me, pollution, housing and taxes are important.

    I want to know how the government plans to deal with these issues.

    M: Yes, I agree with you.

    Maybe I will vote, especially if we can get together and talk more about it. 

     

    M: What about dinner tomorrow night?

    W: Sorry I’m busy tomorrow night.

    M: Oh that’s too bad. Do you have any time in the next few days?

    I’ll take you to a nice restaurant.

    W: Actually I’m quite busy. But I may have some time Sunday afternoon.

    We could have lunch somewhere near the office.

    M: Sure that works for me. I’ll give you a call on Saturday and we can decide the details, ok?

    W: OK I’ll be looking forward to seeing which candidates you support.

    3/4

    Listening

    Lesson 1 Honey Bee Pollination

    Honeybees play an interesting and important role in nature.

    In addition to making honey, honey bees help many plants reproduce.

    They do this by pollenating the plant, which means to transfer pollen.

    Pollination occurs when pollen is moved within a plant’s flower or carried to another flower.

    This is how the plants reproduce.

    For reproduction to succeed, the pollen must be transferred from the male part of the flower to the female part.

     

    -Pollination is how some plants… -reproduce.

     

    Many plants depend on pollination for reproduction.

    These include many fruits and vegetables.

    Besides honeybees, there are many other pollinators, including birds, insects, and other kinds of bees.

    Without enough pollinators, many of our favorite fruits and vegetables would become more expensive and hard to find.

    These include almonds and cherries.

     

    -Besides honeybees, what are some other pollinators? –birds and insects.

     

    Honeybees are important pollinators and play an important role in agriculture.

    Beekeepers are people who keep honeybees.

    In addition to connecting honey, some beekeepers provide pollination services to farmers.

    They do this by raising and managing colonies of bees.

    Farmers need the colonies to pollinate their crops.

    Beekeepers can provide and manager bee colonies for farmers.

     

    -How do beekeepers provide pollination services? –They raise and manage colonies of bees.

     

    Lesson 2 Colony Collapse

    Honey bees are social insects that live in colonies.

    A bee colony consists of a queen bee, male drones, and thousands of female worker bees.

    Each colony also contains eggs and immature bees in various stages of development.

    The number of bees within a colony depends on seasonal changes.

    A colony’s population increases during the warmer seasons, and decreases during colder seasons.

     

    -What does the population of a colony depend on? –seasonal changes.

     

    In recent years many bee colonies have collapsed or disappeared.

    A bee colony collapse occurs when a majority of bees in the colony disappear and leave behind the queen.

    Some beekeepers have reported of losing 30 to 90% of their colonies.

    This loss of bee colonies can cause significant problems for farmers who depend on them to pollinate their crops.

    In some parts of the world, a shortage of bees has increased the cost of renting bees, by up to 20%.

     

    -A bee colony collapse occurs when… -a majority of the bees in a colony disappear.

    -What has increased the cost of renting bees in some parts of the world? –a shortage of bees.

     

    There are several possible causes for bee colonies collapse.

    One possible cause is the use of new pesticides.

    Other possible causes include infections from viruses, genetic factors and malnutrition.

    Changing weather patterns may also play a role as summers get hotter and winters get colder.

    These changes in weather may weaken the bees, making it more difficult for them to fight infections.

     

    -What may make it more difficult for bees to fight infections? –Changing weather conditions.

     

    Whatever the cause of colonies collapse, it’s important to understand that many parts of our world are inter-dependent.

    Changes that affect one species may have serious effects on other species.

    A change to our environment can start a chain of events that is difficult to predict.

    In any complex system, such as the earth’s environment, small changes can have an unforeseen consequences.

    The danger of unforeseen consequences is something we all need to understand better.

     

    -The Earth’s environment is … -a complex system.

    -The main idea here is: -The Earth’s environment is a complex system.

    Vocabulary

    Lesson 4 Business and Economics

    Goods and services supply what people need or want.

    Goods are things such as foods and clothing.

    Services include things such as health care and police protection.

    A country needs natural and human resources.

    Natural resources include fresh water supplies, farmland and energy sources, such as oil and wind.

    Human resources include a skilled workforce that can produce goods and services.

    Once we have a supply of goods or services, they need to be distributed throughout a country.

    Highways and railways are both ways to transport things from one part of a country to another.

    Electricity is distributed through a system of transmission lines.

    We live an age of advertising.

    Advertising lets people know about goods and services.

    It educates people about the product being advertised.

    Trade allows for the exchange of goods and services between different countries.

    Exports are goods and services that are sold to another country.

    Imports are goods and services that are bought from another country.

    For example, many countries import oil from country such as Saudi Arabia.

     

    An advertiser’s goal is to convince people to buy something even if they don’t really need it.

    Without a system of distribution, goods and services cannot be supplied throughout a country.

    Advertisers try to increase the demand for a product or service.

     Lesson 5 Career Building

    Employees are the people who work for a company.

    Some employees do basic work, such as operating a machine, or driving a drunk.

    The people who hire and direct the work of other employees are managers.

    Interviews are one way to find out about a person who applies for a job.

    In an interview, a job applicant can ask questions about the company, and a company can find out about the person’s skills and experience.

    An entrepreneur is someone who starts a new company.

    Entrepreneur often have new ideas and ways of doing things that can give their company an advantage.

    Salary and benefits are used to attract new employees into a company.

    If the salary and benefits are good enough, employees may take the job and stay with the company.

    Benefits include vocation time, health insurance and bonus for employees who do a good job.

    When applying for a job, it’s important to have the skills and experience needed for the job.

    Developing and increasing skills and experience is good way to prepare for a good job. Each job a person has is an opportunity to learn new things and develop new skills.

     

    Dialogue

    Lesson 5 Landlord Trouble

    M: You don’t look good. Is something bothering you?

    W: Yes, it’s my landlord.

    M: Oh, is there something wrong with your flat?

    W: No, there’s nothing wrong with the flat. But I’m going to have to move out.

     

    -What’s wrong with her flat? –Nothing.

    -She doesn’t look good because… -she has to move out of her flat.

     

    M: Why do you have to move out?

    W: For the last two months a friend has been staying with me.

    She is staying until she can find a job.

    M: That’s nice of you.

    W: Yes, but I’m not supposed to have anyone staying there.

    M: Was that in the rental agreement?

    W: Yes, it was. It’s ok if a friend stays for a few days, but not for more than that.

     

    -Her friend was going to stay… -until she could find a job.

     

    M: So you broke the agreement, even though it was for a good reason.

    W: Anyway, one of my neighbors told the landlord about my friend.

    So now I’m in trouble. The landlord is angry and says she can’t trust me.

    M: That’s ridiculous.

    W: I told her about my friend and how I’m trying to help her, but she doesn’t care.

     

    -Who told the landlord about her friend? –a neighbor.

     

    M: Wow, she doesn’t sound very nice.

    W: That’s right, she isn’t nice. She’s just interested in money.

    In fact, she’s going to keep my security deposit.

    M: How can she do that? Nothing is damaged, right?

    W: Right, everything in the flat is fine.

    She’s keeping the deposit because I broke the rental agreement.

     

    -What is the landlord going to keep? –the security deposit.

     

    M: What about your rent?

    W: Yes, that’s another problem. I’ve already pay 3 months’ rent, so I hope I can get it back.

    M: What can you do if she doesn’t return it?

    W: I don’t know. I’ll talk to my agent. He’s nice and maybe he can help.

    Maybe I should refuse to leave the flat until I get it back.

    M: Be sure to take pictures of the flat.

    W: What for?

    M: Just to show the condition of the flat.

    Then she can’t say your friend damage it in anyway.

    W: Good idea. She’s a small-minded evil woman.

    I should never have rented it from her in the first place.

     

    -How many months’ rent has she paid in advance? –She’s paid 3 months’ rent in advance.

    One of the neighbors told the landlord about her friend.

    She doesn’t look good because she has to move out of her flat.

    There’s nothing wrong with her flat.

    4/4

    Listening

    Lesson 1 Dream Jobs

    What kind of careers are the best? And what are the qualifications?

    One of the most popular careers for kids is to become an astronaut.

    Many kids dream of going into space when they grow up.

    They dream of working on the space station or exploring deep space.

    To become an astronaut, it’s important to have the right background.

    Many astronauts have the background in engineering, physics or medicine.

    Sometimes they have military background, such as flying military aircraft.

    As for pay, astronauts can earn a good salary, but not great.

     

    Another popular career is to become musician or actor.

    Many kids dream of become famous singers or movie stars.

    However, most musicians and actors don’t become famous.

    They are usually paid by the hour or by the performance.

    Only a very few earn lots of money.

    So the best advice is not become the musician or actor unless that’s your real passion.

     

    Becoming a professional athlete is another dream job for many.

    It’s nice to image playing a favorite sport and getting paid for it.

    However, becoming a professional athlete takes a lot of work and practice.

    Great athletes practice for hours a day with teammates and coaches.

    They also work regularly with trainers to keep their body strong.

    The level of pay for athlete depends on the success and level of their performance.

    Athletes often have short career because of the physical requirements of their sport.

    When they are no longer able to compete at a higher level, some athletes become coaches.

     

    Firefighters and police officers are important jobs that help and protect people.

    These careers require applicants to complete training programs and pass written and physical tests.

    These jobs can be exciting and dangerous so they require courage and sometimes sacrifice.

     Lesson 2 Jobs and Wages

    When considering salary and benefits, some of the lowest paying jobs are hospitality and beauty industries.

    For example food service workers and hair stylist generally have low salaries.

    These kind of jobs don’t require much education or training.

    But again if you enjoy what you are doing, that may be good enough.

    For example, you may really enjoy talking with your customs.

    Spending your life doing something you dislike can be very unsatisfied, even if the salary is high.

     

    Some of the highest paid professions include doctors, lawyers and scientists.

    However, these professions require high levels of education and training.

    The path to becoming a doctor, for example, is a long one.

    Doctors require a university degree, several years in medical school and several more years of experience.

    Only then they are satisfied as a medical doctor or MD.

    So it doesn’t make sense to consider these professions until they for many years.

    And of course, you should really care about doing the work well.

    Vocabulary

    Lesson 3 Types of Wars

    Civil wars are fought between citizens of the same country and are fought within the country.

    If citizens of a country disagree about a policy or leader, they may fight a civil war.

    A world war is fought when countries form alliances and these alliances fight each other.

    A world war involves many or most of the world’s most powerful countries.

    There were 2 world wars in the 20th century.

    Terrorism involves groups of individuals rather than countries.

    Terrorists may come from different countries, and may share the same believes.

    Terrorists often use car bombings and suicide attacks on innocent people.

    A terrorist attack can happen at any time and any place.

    An invasion occurs when one country attacks another.

    It sends its army into the other country and attempts to take control.

    One of the most famous invasions was when France invaded Russia in 1812.

    A defensive of war occurs when a country is attacked and needs to defend itself.

    Most countries have military so that it can defend itself if it’s attacked.

    When France invaded Russia in 1812, the Russian army fought a defensive war and defeated the France army.

     Lesson 4 Biology Terms

    A cell is the basic unit of life.

    A cell is the smallest structure that can live and reproduce.

    Cells grow and develop, reproduce and interact with the environment.

    Photosynthesis is one of the most important biological processes.

    It allows plants to capture and use light as an energy source.

    Photosynthesis is the process of converting light energy into chemical energy.

    A virus is a small biological structure that attacks and inters cells.

    Once inside a cell a virus reproduces and makes many copies of itself.

    Some diseases such as influence are virus.

    Bacteria are one-celled form of life that all around us.

    Although they have a single cell structure they are very important.

    Many bacteria are inside us and help us digest our food.

    DNA is a complex molecule that stores information and can make copies of itself.

    Nearly every cell in a person’s body has the same DNA.

    The information stored in DNA tells cell what to do and is necessary for reproduction.

     

    Dialogue

    Lesson 5 Hotel Complaint

    W: good evening, sir. How can I help you?

    M1: yes, we just checked in and our room is unacceptable. It’s room 8 in 10.

    W: is there something wrong with the room?

    M1: yes, there certainly is.

    We requested a nonsmoking room but the room smells of smoke.

     

    W: let me check. Yes, that room is supposed to be a nonsmoking room.

    M1: well, somebody certainly didn’t follow the rules.

    The curtain smells like cigars. We can hardly breathe and the windows won’t open.

    W: right, the windows don’t open, sir.

    I’m really sorry about this. Let me see if I can find you another room.

    M1: yes, please. We certainly can’t stay in that room.

    Both of our kids have asima, so the smells of smoke can cause breathing problems.

    W: yes, I understand your concern.

     

    W: sir, I’m afraid we don’t have any other rooms with 2 double beds.

    If you’ll excuse me, I’ll speak with my manager.

    M1: thank you. We are really tired and we would like to get some rest as soon as possible.

    W: yes, I understand. If you don’t mind, could you wait in the lounge near the elevators?

    I shouldn’t be long.

    M1: sure, I hope it doesn’t take time.

     

    M2: good evening sir, I’m the manager here and I’m sorry to hear about your room. 

    M1: yes, we’re not happy and we’re really tired. I hope you can help us.

    M2: I’m sure we can.

    Since we don’t have another nonsmoking room for you, I’ll upgrade you to a suite.

    Would that be ok?

    M1: yes, that would be fine. There’s no extra cost, right?

    M2: no, sir. There will be no extra charge.

     

    M1: and it’s nonsmoking, right?

    M2: yes, sir. I have confirmed that it’s nonsmoking.

    M1: thanks, I really appreciate your help.

    M2: it’s my pleasure, sir. I hope you and your family have a wonderful stay with us.

    Here’s my card. If there is anything else I can do for you, please let me know.

    M1: I will. Have a good evening.

    M2: thank you, sir and once again, let me apologize for the same convenience.

    展开全文
  • MusicXML文档翻译(持续更新)

    千次阅读 2019-04-12 08:39:58
    translator : Mr_52Hz Date : 2019/4/4 阅读原文 ...MusicXML is a digital sheet music interchange and distribution format. MusicXML 是数字活页乐谱的交换和分发格式。 goal is create a u...

    translator : Mr_52Hz
    Date : 2019/4/25

    阅读原文

    MusicXML 3.0 Tutorial MusicXML 3.0 教程

    MusicXML is a digital sheet music interchange and distribution format.
    MusicXML 是数字活页乐谱的交换和分发格式。
    goal is create a universal format for common Western music notation, similar to the role that the MP3 format serves for recorded music.
    目的是为西方音乐符号创造一种通用格式,类似MP3格式在录制音乐中的角色。
    The musical information is designed to be usable by notation programs, sequencers and other preformance programs, music education programs, and music databases.
    设计这种音乐信息主要用于标记程序、音序器、其他表演项目、音乐教育项目和音乐数据库。
    The goal of this tutorial is to introduce MusicXML to software developers who are interesting in reading or writing MusicXML files.
    那么这个教程的意义是为对阅读和制作MusicXML文档感兴趣的开发者提供介绍。
    MusicXML has many features that are required to support the demands of professional-level music software.
    MusicXML具备支持专业级音乐软件许多特性。
    But you do not need to use or understand all these elements to get started.
    但是刚开始你并不需要使用或搞明白所有的MusicXML元素。

    MusicXML FAQ MusicXml常见问答

    Why did we need a new format?
    我们为什么要搞一种新的格式?
    What’s behind some of the ways that MusicXML looks and feels?
    MusicXML的视听背后的方法是什么?
    What software tools can I use?
    我可以使用什么工具软件?
    Is MusicXML free?
    MusicXML 免费吗?

    “Hello World” in MusicXML MusicXML中的“你好,世界”

    Here you will find your simplest MusicXML file - one part, one measure, one note.
    在这个模块你将看到一个最简单的MusicXML文件 - 一个章节,一个小节,一个音符。

    The Structure of MusicXML Files MusicXML文件的结构

    There are two ways of structuring MusicXML files - measures within parts, and parts within measures.
    MusicXML文档结构有两种 - 章节包含小节,小节包含章节。
    This section describes how to do it either way, and how to switch back and forth between them.
    这部分描述每种方式的实现和两种方式之间怎样切换。
    It also discusses the descriptive data that goes at the start of a MusicXML file.
    这部分也讨论MusicXML文件怎样写开头部分描述性数据。

    The MIDI-Compatible Part of MusicXML MusicXML的MIDI兼容

    What parts of MusicXML do I need to represent a MIDI sound file?
    我需要用MusicXML哪部分来表示一个音频文件MIDI呢?
    The MIDI equivalents in MusicXML are described here.
    MusicXML中的MIDI等价部分在这部分介绍。

    Notation Basics 符号基础

    Here we discuss the basic notation features that go beyond MIDI’s capabilities, including stems, beams, accidentals, articulations, and directions.
    这部分我们讨论符号基础特征(MIDI范围之外)包括:符杆、符尾、偶然特性、articulations和说明。

    Chord Symbols and Diagrams 和旋符号和谱面

    MusicXML provides a rich representation for harmonies, both for harmonic analysis and for chord symbols.
    MusicXML提供了很多和旋的表示方法,包括和旋分析和和悬符号。
    Here wo discuss how to create the chord symbols and diagrams found in much contemporary sheet music, including lead sheets, piano/vocal/guitar arrangements, and big-band charts.
    这部分我们讨论怎样创建和旋符号,怎样创建当代的电子活页谱面,包括铅板、钢琴/人声/吉他排列和大乐队谱面。

    Tablature 弦乐器

    Here wo describute the basics of tablature notation: specifying strings, frets, string tunings, and guitar-specific notations like hammer-ons and pull-offs.
    这部分介绍弦乐器基础标识:指定弦、弦乐、弦乐调弦和特定于吉他的符号,如锤子和拉弦。

    Percussion 打击乐器

    Here we discuss the steps needed to represent unpitched percussion parts such as drum kits.
    这部分我们探讨表示没有音高的打击乐器(如鼓)的步骤。
    Some of these techniques apply to other types of music, such as the use of multiple instruments, alternate noteheads, and different measure styles.
    有些技巧也适用于其他类型的音乐,例如使用多个乐器,备用浮头,和不同小节样式。

    Compressed .XML Files 压缩的.XML文件

    MusicXML 2.0 added a compressed zip-based format that greatly reduces MusicXML file sizes.
    MusicXML 2.0添加了一种基于zip的压缩格式,这大大减小了MusicXML文件大小。
    Here we discuss the structure of the compressed .xml format.
    这部分我们探讨.xml格式的压缩结构。


    MusicXML FAQ MusicXML 常见问答

    Why did we need a new format? 为什么要搞一种新格式?

    There are many fine computer music programs in the world.
    世界上有很多好用的计算音乐的项目。
    Unfortunately, sharing music between them used to be difficult.
    不幸的是,在这些项目之间共享音乐是很困难的。
    This was a real problem since no one program can do everything equally well.
    这才是真正的问题因为没有一个项目能够很好的处理好每一个事情。
    Having to reenter musical data for each program you want to use is a big inconvenience to everyone who uses more than one music software program.
    对于使用多个音乐软件的每个人来说,必须为每个要使用的程序重新输入音乐数据是很不便的。
    Before MusicXML, the only music notation interchange format commonly supported was MIDI.
    在MusicXML诞生之前,通常MIDI是唯一通用的音乐符号交换格式。
    MIDI is a wonderful format for performance applications like sequencers, but it is not so wonderful for other applications like music notation.
    MIDI对(像音序器一样的)演奏类的应用来说是很完美的格式,但是对(音乐符号标记类)其他类的应用来说并不完美。
    MIDI does not know the different between F-sharp and a G-flat;
    MIDI并不能区分升半音的F和降半音的G。
    it does not represent stem direction, beams, repeats, slurs, measures, and many other aspects of notation.
    并且MIDI不能表示出符杆方向,符尾,重复小节,连音线,多小节和其他方面的标记。
    People had recognized for years that a new interchange format was needed, but no prior attempt at creating a new standard format had succeeded.
    人们许多年以前就意识到了,需要一中新的交换格式,但是先前创建新标准格式的尝试都没有成功。
    NIFF had probably been the most successful attempt to date, but it’s use was very limited and the format was not being maintained.
    NIFF可能是那时最成功的尝试了,但是它的使用很受限而且这个格式也没有进行维护。
    SMDL was the most ambitions attempt, but we know of no software actually using it.
    SMDL是最有雄心的尝试,但是并没有软件实际上使用它。
    At Recordare, we are excited by the possibilities of Internet music publishing just as many other people and companies are.
    但要记住,我们和其他人以及公司一样都对网络音乐的发行的可能性感到激动。
    But if you go to existing sites like Musicnotes and Sheet Music Direct, you find that all you can do with their music is 1)print it or 2)play it in their proprietary player.
    但是你去访问已经存在的一些站点(像Musicnotes、Sheet Music Direct),你会发现在他们的播放软件中你都能够做两件事1打印 2播放。
    Sites that only use scanned PDF files offer even less to consumers.
    这些站点提供给消费者的仅仅是扫描的PDF文件甚至没有。
    If that is all you can do with online music, why get it online instead of on pepar?
    如果在线音乐只有这些的话,那我们为什么非要在线获取而不是从纸上获取呢?
    That seems to be the reaction of most people, based on all published industry reports of online sheet music sales up through 2011.
    这个疑问可能是大多数人的反应,基于2011年所有已发布的在线乐谱销售行业报告。
    We believe that an Internet-friendly standard format is necessary for the growth of the Internet music publishing market.
    我们相信一个通用的网络标准格式对急速增长的网络音乐出版市场来说是很有必要的。
    Today it is like using the Internet before HTML was invented, or using synthesizers before MIDI was invented.
    今天这件事很像在HTML被创造出来之前使用Internet,或者在MIDI被创造出来之前使用合成器。

    Why not use an existing format like NIFF or SMDL? 为什么不使用已经存在的格式(像NIFF,SMDL)?

    NIFF and SMDL were noble efforts to solve the same type of interchange problem that MusicXML addresses.
    NIFF和SMDL格式付出了很大的努力来解决MusicXML同样出现的交换问题。
    So why don’t we use them rather than inventing something new?
    所以为什么我们不使用它而是开发新的格式呢?
    NIFF represents music using a graphical format.
    NIFF使用图形格式表示音乐。
    There is no concept of a “C” in NIFF: instead, you determine pitch by its placement on a staff.
    在NIFF格式中没有中央“C”的概念:相反,你使用音符在五线谱上的位置定义音高。
    This type of graphical music representation has a long and distinguished history.
    这种图形化的音乐表现形式有着悠久的历史。
    it works well for the scanning programs that were focus of NIFF’s work.
    NIFF针对一些扫描项目起到很好的作用。
    But it works poorly for many other types of applications, such as sequencing and musical databases.
    但是对一些其他类型的应用作用不是很大,比如音符序列和音乐数据库。
    For both of these applications, MIDI works much better than NIFF;
    这两类应用MIDI发挥的作用要比NIFF好。
    For notation, though, NIFF is more complete than MIDI.
    尽管,对标记符号而言NIFF比MIDI更完善。
    MusicXML is designed to meet the interchange needs for all these types of applications.
    MusicXML是被设计出来满足所有这些应用的交换需求的。
    A graphical format like NIFF really does not work well for general interchange, which is one of the main reasons NIFF has not been adopted by more programs.
    像NIFF这种图形化的格式事实上不适合用来做通用的交换,这也是NIFF没有被更多项目采用的原因之一。
    Another major impediment is that NIFF is a binary format, rather than a text format like XML.
    另一个主要障碍是NIFF是二进制格式,而不是像XML这样的文本格式。
    It is much easier to write and debug programs that read and write to a text format vs. a binary format.
    读写成一个文本(而不是二进制)对项目写和调试更加简单。
    SMDL suffered form the problem of trying to be a general-purpose solution to the problem of representing all possible musics of the past, present, and future.
    SMDL一直有一个问题,试图成为一个通用的解决方案,解决所有过去、现在和未来可能的音乐问题。
    In addition, the project was not grounded in practical implementation experience.
    另外,该项目没有实际的实施经验。
    The result was something so complicated that practically nobody can understand it.
    这就导致项目非常复杂,没有人能够理解它。
    The overwhelming complexity greatly inhibited SMDL’s adoption-it certainly inhibited us!-and we know of no commercial software that support it.
    过于复杂很大程度的影响了SMLD的被使用,当然也影响了我们采用它,并且没有一款商业软件能够支持它。

    Where did the design of MusicXML come from? MusicXML的设计从何而起呢?

    MusicXML was based primarily on two academic music formats:
    MusicXML基于两种理论格式:

    • The MuseData format, developed by Walter HewLett at Center of Computer Assisted Research in the Humanities (CCARH), located at Stanford University.
    • MuseData格式,由Walter HewLett在斯坦福大学人文科学计算机辅助研究中心(CCARH)开发
    • The Humdrum format, developed by David Huron, based at Ohio State University.
    • Humdrum格式,由俄亥俄州立大学的David Huron开发。

    Eleanor Selffidge-Feild from CCARH edited a magnificent book called Beyond MIDI: A Handbook of Musical Codes.
    来自CCARH的伟大的Selfridge-Feild出版了一本伟大的书:超越MIDI:音乐编码手册。
    Studying this volume made it clear that, as we had been advised, MuseData and Humdrum were the most comprehensive starting points for the type of language we wanted to build.
    详细研究了本书,我们清楚的认识到,正如被建议的那样,MuseData和Humdrum是我们想要创建的语言类型的最好的起点。
    The first beta version of MusicXML was basically an XML updating of MuseData, with the addition of some key conepts from Humdrum.
    MusicXML的第一个beta版本基本上是对Musedata的XML更新,添加了一些来自Hummerum的关键概念。
    Since both formats have been used primarily for work in classical and folk music, MusicXML was extended beyond those boundaires to better support contemporary popular music.
    由于这两种格式主要作用在古典和民间音乐中,所以MusicXML做了拓展,以便更好的适应流行音乐。
    In recent releases, MusicXML’s capabilities have been greatly expanded so it can serve as a distribution format for digital sheet music as well as an interchange format.
    在最近发布的版本中,MusicXML获得了很大的扩展,所以可以作为电子音乐的分发格式以及交换格式。
    Many features have been added in order to make MusicXML near-lossless when it comes to capturing how music is formatted on the printed page.
    MusicXML添加了很多特性,来保证谱面渲染时接近无误。

    Why do you use XML? 为什么使用XML?

    XML was designed to solve exactly the type of problem we face today in music software.
    XML被设计成完全能够解决我们目前在音乐软件中面临的问题。
    Say you have 100 music applications, each with its own format.
    假设有100个应用程序,每个都有自己的格式。
    For each application to communicate with the other, 10000 separate programs would need to be written without a common interface language!
    对每个APP来说,要跟其他app交互,如果没有通用的语言接口,需要编写10000独立的项目。
    With a common interface language, each application writes only one program, so only 100 separate pargrams would be required.
    如果有了一个通用的语言接口,每个app只需要写一份项目,所以仅需要写100个工程(就能实现app直接通信)。
    Consumers gain enormous value at relatively small cost to the software developer.
    这对软件开发者来说以相对较小的代价换取了巨大的价值。
    XML builds on decades of experience with its predecessor SGML, as well as the experience with the explosive growth of HTML and the Web.
    XML是建立在经过数十年发展的前身SGML的基础上,同时又是HTML和Web爆炸式发展的基础上。
    XML hits the magic “sweet spot” between simplicity and power, just as HTML and MIDI have done in the past.
    XML在简洁性和强大性之间达到了神奇的“最佳点”,正如HTML和MIDI过去所做的那样。
    It is designed to represent complex, structured data, and musical scores fit that description.
    MusicXML设计出来去表示复杂的,结构化的数据和符合乐谱的描述。
    Using XML frees us from worring about the basic syntax of the language, instead letting us worry about the semantics-what to represent, versus the syntax of how to represent it.
    使用XML我们不需要担心语言复杂的语法,相反我们只需要关注表示的语义,而不是语法结构怎么表示。
    Similarly, there is no need to write a low-level parser to read the language: XML parser exist everywhere.
    同样,不需要编写一个低级解析器来读取语言:XML解析器无处不在。
    Basing a music interchange language on XML lets music software, a relatively small community, leverage the investment in tools made by musch larger markets such as electronic commerce.
    基于XML的音乐交换语言,使得那些相对较小的社区音乐软件能够充分利用对大型市场(如电子商务)工具的投资。

    Is MusicXML free? MusicXML免费吗?

    The MusicXML DTDs and XSDs are available under a royalty-free license from Recordare.
    MusicXML DTD和XSD可从Recordre获得免版税许可证。
    This license is modeled on those from the World Wide Web Consortium(W3C).
    此许可证基于万维网联盟(W3C)的许可证。
    If you follow the trems of the license, you do not need to pay anyone to use MusicXML in your products or research.
    如果你遵循W3C许可,不需要想任何人付费就可以在你的产品或研究中使用。
    Recordare has no patents issued or pending for the MusicXML DTDs and XSDs.
    对于MusicXML DTD和XSD,Recordre没有已颁发或正在申请的专利。

    Is your software open source? 你的软件开源吗?

    No.
    不。
    We believe that making the MusicXml definition freely available is essential for its spread into the music industry.
    我们相信把MusicXML定义成免费有助于将它在音乐产业传播开来。
    We do not see a similar advantage to making our own software free or open source.
    我们并不认同有勇气开源自己的软件和代码。
    We do not charge people to beta test our software, but we do charge for production versions of our software.
    我们对测试版本软件不收费,但是对正式版本的软件收费。
    We encourage people to build more applications using MusicXML.
    我们鼓励人们使用MusicXML来搭建更多的app。
    There are many potential applications, and no one conpany or group can do everything.
    有太多潜在的应用,并且没有一个公司和团队能够做好每件事。
    If you want to make your software open source, that is fine with us.
    如果你能开源你的软件和源码,我们表示非常感谢。

    Who is using MusicXML? 谁在使用MusicXML?

    Many conpanies, music software developers and scholars are using MusicXML in their products and research, including:
    许多公司,音乐软件的开发者和学者在他们的产品和研究中使用,包括:
    以下列表部分翻译跳过,因为主要是公司或软件团体机构等专有名词

    • MakeMusic, including Finale, Allego, PrintMusic, Songwriter, Finale NotePad, and Finale Reader.
    • Sibelius, including Sibelius Student and Sibelius First.
    • Steinberg, including Cubase, Cubase Studio, Nuendo.
    • Recordare, including the Dolet for Sibelius and Dolet for Finale plug-ins.
    • Myriad, including the free Music Plug-in for web browsers, the Mac QuickLook plug-in, PDFtoMusic Pro, Harmony Assistant, Melody Assistant and Melody Player.
    • All the leading music scanning programs, including SharpEye Music Reader, capellascan, SmartScore, PhotoScore, ScoreMaker FX4 and Audiveris.
    • Many tablature editors, including Progression, Guitar Pro, TabEdit, TuxGuitar.
    • IOS notation programs for iPhone and iPad, such as Symphony Pro, Maestro, pocketscore.
    • Sheet music sales systems such as the Legato Sheet Music Viewer.
    • Electronic music stands such as MuseBook Score and OrganMuse.
    • Musicology applications and toolkits such as MelodicMatch and music21.

    See our MusicXML software page at www.recordare.com/musicxml/community/software for a more complete list, including links to each application.

    What software tools are available? 有什么可用的工具软件么?

    One of the great things about basing our work on XML is that there are tools available for practically every computer platform.
    将我们的工作建立在XML之上的一个好处是,几乎每个计算机平台都有可用的工具。
    At Recordare, we used Microsoft tools for our first generation of Dolet sofrware.
    在我们这里,我们使用Microsoft工具来处理第一代Dolet软件。
    The original Dolet for Finale plug-in was written in a mix of Visual Basic 6.0 and Visual C++ 6.0, using Miscrosoft’s MSXML parser.
    Dolet的源代码就是混合使用Visual Basic6.0和Visual C++ 6.0写的,使用微软MSXML解析。
    The Miscrosoft parser is designed to be easy to use within Visual Basic and succeeds admirably.
    Miscrosoft解析器设计为易于在Visual Basic中使用,并取得了令人钦佩的成功。
    We had great success with it.
    我们使用它也获得了成功。
    We then rewrote the Dolet for Finale plug-in in Java and C++ so that our software could run on Mac OS X as well as Windows.
    我们之后又是哦用Java和C++为Finale重写了Dolet,这样我们的软件就可以运行在Mac OS和Windows平台上。
    Many other project are using Java for multiple platform, including Linux.
    许多其他项目也正在使用Java适配多平台,包括Linux。
    We are using the Xerces parser from the Apache group, as are most of the other Java based MusicXML projects that we know.
    我们使用的是Apache组的Xerces解析器,正如我们所知道的大多数基于Java的MusicXML项目一样。
    It also works very well for us.
    而且对我们也起到了很好的作用。
    We have also heard good reports about the Xerces C++ parser.
    我们也总是收到良好的关于Xerces C++解析器的反馈。
    Other projects use the built-in XML support provided by Flash, Flex and Python.
    其他项目使用由Flash,Flex,Python内建的支持库。
    If all you want to do is write MusicXML files, not read them, you really don’t need a parser, though you may find it useful.
    如果所有你想做的是写MusicXML文件,而不是加载MusicXML文件,那你可能不需要一个解析器,尽管解析器是有用的。
    A scanner like SharpEye Music Reader, for instance, does not have any great need to read MusicXML files.
    比如,像SharpEye音乐阅读器这样带的扫描器,对于阅读MusicXML文件就没有必要了。
    Its MusicXML support is written in C, like the rest of the program, without using any spcial XML tools.
    MusicXML支持使用C写的,像程序的其他部分一样,没有使用任何其他特殊的XML工具。
    The pae2xml translator is written in Perl.
    pae2xml转换器使用Perl写的。
    The Dolet 6 for Sibelius plug-in is written in ManuScript.
    Sibelius的插件Dolet6是用ManuScript写的。
    You can also use XSLT to read and transform MusicXML files.
    你也可以使用XSLT来阅读和转换MusicXML文件。
    There are many XML sites that can guide you to XML tools beyond what we list here.
    当然除了我们在这列举的这些之外还有很多XML站点可以指引到其他XML工具。
    If you are using an XML parser, in most cases you will probably be using the XML DOM(Document Object Model) to handle MusicXML files.
    如果你正在使用XML解析器,大多情况下你很可能正在使用的是XML DOM来处理MusicXML文件。
    Good DOM support is likely to be more important than SAX support for MusicXML programs.
    对MusicXML程序来说,良好的DOM支持可能比SAX支持更重要。

    Why did you release an XSD for MusicXML 2.0? 对MusicXML2.0来说问什么要发布XSD?

    when we started developing MusicXML, a DTD(Document Type Difinition) was the only official W3C recommendation for defining an XML document.
    当我们开始开发MusicXML的时候,DTD是创建XML文档唯一符合W3C认证标准。
    Since that time, XSD(XML Schema Difinition) has become an official W3C recommendation, and alternative standards like RELAX NG have also become available.
    那段时间之后,XSD也成为了W3C官方认证标准,并且像RELAX NG也成为了可用的备选标准。
    When XSDs were first released, neither the supporting XSD software nor the state of MusicXML application usage was sufficiently advanced to take advantage of this technology.
    当第一次发布XSDs时,支持XSD的软件或者MusicXML应用当时的状态都不能充分发挥这项技术的优势。
    XSDs are more complex than DTDs, so it was clear there would be a cost to creating a MusicXML XSD schema.
    XSDs比起DTDs更加复杂,所以显而易见,开发新的XSD模式要花费一些时间。
    At the time it was also not clear how support would evolve for XSD, RELAX NG and other schema alternatives.
    当时,对发展XSD,RELAX NG以及其他备选的模式要怎样支持MusicXML也还清晰。
    It thus made sense to stay with DTDs for the releases of MusicXML 1.0 and 1.1.
    所以因此MusicXML 1.0和1.1版本的发布还是使用的DTDs。
    XSD and MusicXML technology have both matured significantly in the past few years.
    XSD和MusicXML在近几年都获得了显著的发展。
    Developer tool support for XSDs is now as pervasive as for DTDs.
    支持XSDs和开发工具也和DTDs的一样普遍了。
    New XML tools such as XQuery and XML data bingding tools can work much better with XSDs than DTDs.
    支持XSDS的新XML工具(像XQuery)和XML数据绑定工具比支持DTDs的要更好用了。
    While RELAX NG has some advantage over XSDs, its software support is not yet as pervasive as for XSDs.
    尽管RELAX NG要比XSDs有很多优势,但是支持他的软件并不想至此XSDs一样普遍。
    In addition, MusicXML’s move from an interchange to a distribution format makes it increasingly important to provide the most powerful tools possible for automated quality assurance.
    另外,MusicXML从一种交换格式转变成分发格式使得提供一种高质量的自动化工具就显得非常重要。
    Validating against an XSD can catch many more errors in XML document creation than validating a DTD.
    与验证DTD相比,根据XSD验证在XML文档创建过程中可能会捕获更多错误。
    These combined customer needs and opportunities regarding XSDs led us to develop a MusicXML 2.0 XSD that was released in September 2008.
    结合了客户对XSD的需求和机会,我们开发了MusicXML 2.0XSD,该产品于2008年9月发布。
    The XSD puts much more of MusicXML’s semantics into the language definition itself, rather than just in the documentation.
    XSD将MusicXML的更多语义放在语言定义本身中,而不仅仅放在文档中。
    Thus there are many documents that validate against the DTD that do not validate against the XSD, but these reflect MusicXML file errors that you do want to catch as early and automatically as possible.
    因此,有许多针对DTD进行验证的文档没有针对XSD进行验证,但这影响了尽早自动捕获MusicXML文件错误。
    DTDs remain more readable than XSDs for many people.
    对许多人来说,DTDs比XSDs依然有更好的可阅读性。
    you may find it easiest to read the DTDs, or both in combination.
    你会发现阅读DTDs更加简单,两者混用阅读也较为容易。
    This will depend on your experience and comfort level with the different technologies.
    当然,这也取决于你对这两项技术掌握和经验多少。
    The XSDs will generally offer more precise definitions than the DTDs since the format is now much more strongle typed.
    XSD通常会提供比DTD更精确的定义,因为现在格式的类型更加稳定。

    Why do you use all these elements instead of attributes? 为什么要使用所有这些元素而不是属性?

    This is mainly a stylistic decision.
    这主要由风格决定的。
    Several XML books advise representing semantics in elements rather than attributes where possible.
    部分XML书籍建议在可能的情况下用元素而不是属性表示语义。
    One advantage of doing this is that elements have structure, but atttibute do not.
    这样做的优势是元素有结构,而属性没有。
    If you find that what you are representing really has more than one part, you can create a hierarchical structure with an element.
    如果当你发现你要表示的要超过一章节,你可以使用元素创建一个层次结构。
    With attributes, you are limited to an unordered list.
    使用属性,你就被它的无序性限制了。
    For information retrieval applications, it can also be easier to search directly for elements rather than for attribute/element combinations.
    对信息检索类应用,使用元素直接进行搜索要比属性/元素混用简单的多。
    In MusicXML, attributes are generally limited to a few uses:
    在MusicXML中,属性通常只在以下几种情况用:

    • To indicate if this is where an element starts or stops, such as for slurs and tuplets.
    • 指示元素的开始和结束,比如连音线和tuplets(连音)。
    • To identify elements, as in measure numbers or beam levels.
    • 区分元素,比如小节号或者几级符尾。
    • To suggest how an element would best be printed.
    • 调整元素要怎样更好的打印展示。
    • To suggest how an element would best be converted into MIDI or other sound formats.
    • 调整元素参数更好的转化为MIDI或者其他声音格式。

    In both MusicXML 1.1 and 2.0, the third category grew enormously.
    在MusicXML1.1和2.0版本中,以上第三条增长很多。
    So you will find that MusicXML 3.0 files make much more use of attributes than do MusicXML 1.0 files.
    而且你也会发现MusicXML 3.0文件中比1.0中使用了更多的属性。
    The principles determing when to use elements and When to use attributes have remained the same.
    决定什么时候使用元素什么时候使用属性的原则依然不变。
    In summary, we follow common recommended practice by using elements for data and attributes for metadata.
    总之,我们遵循建议,使用元素表示数据,使用属性表示元数据。
    We find this works well.
    我们发现这起到了很好的作用。
    Certainly there are DTDs and XSDs in other domains that use attributes much more extensively, and they work well too.
    当然,在其他方面DTDs和XSDs使用属性也很普遍,也起到了很好的作用。
    Either way can do the job as long as it is applied consistently.
    任何一种方式都可以完成工作,只要被一致的应用。
    While there are a lot of MusicXML elements, we have tried to limit them to elements that directly represent musical concepts.
    当出现了很多MusicXML元素的时候,我们也尝试限定元素可以直接的标识音乐符号。
    We have tried to avoid using elements that would introduce concepts not found in musical scores.
    我们也尽可能避免使用一些音乐库中没有介绍的元素。
    For example, there is no “timeslice” elements as found in formats like NIFF.
    例如,在NIFF格式中就没有“timeslice”元素。
    We have generally found that we can represent what applications need without having to introduce artificial elements.
    通常我们发现,我们可以在不引入人工创造的元素就能满足应用需要的所有。

    Why is MusicXML so verbose? isn’t that inefficient? 为什么MusicXML如此冗长?这不是低效吗?

    MusicXML is both an interchange and distribution format.
    MusicXML文件既是交换格式又是分发格式。
    In both cases, ease of comprehensive is much more important than terseness.
    这两种格式情况下,易于整合要比简洁重要。
    Musical representation is complex enough without trying to figure out an abbreviated code.
    音乐表现是足够复杂的,不需要试图找出一个简洁的代码。
    The XML specification advises that “terseness in XML markup is of minimal importance” and we believe this is really true.
    XML规范建议“XML标记的简洁性是不重要的”,我们相信这是真的。
    Somebody who understands the domain should be able to figure out the basics of an XML file simply by reading it.
    理解这个领域的人应该能够通过读取XML文件来了解它的基础知识。
    We believe that MusicXML meets this goal, where several other musical XML proposals do not.
    我们相信MusicXML实现了这个目标,而其他几个XML提案并没有实现这个目标。
    There is of course a place for terse text formats like abc or Plaine and Easie, which allow easy and fast text entry of musical data.
    当然,也有输入扼要文本符号的空间像abc、Plaine(平缓的)、Easie(舒缓的),这可以简单并且快速的输入音乐数据。
    There are converters for both abc and the Plaine and Easie codes to MusicXML.
    这些简单的文本(abc,Plaine,Easie)也有转化为MusicXML的代码。
    Uncompressed MusicXML files do take up a lot of space, which can be problematic for digital sheet music distribution.
    未压缩的MusicXML确实占用很多空间,这对数字音乐的发行确实是一个问题。
    MusicXML 2.0 added a compressed zip format with a .mxl suffix that can make files roughly 20 times smaller than their uncompressed version.
    MusicXML 2.0添加了一个带有.mxl后缀的压缩zip格式,它可以使文件比未压缩版本小大约20倍。
    As an example, the four-page Joplin rag on our web site takes up 518K as an uncompressed xml file, but only 19K as a compressed .xml file.
    例如,四页未压缩的Jplin发布在网站上占用了518K,但是压缩过的xml文件仅有19K。
    This is even smaller than the MIDI representation, which is 21K, and the MXL file contains much more data about the music.
    这个比MIDI文件都小,MIDI要21K,但是MXL包含了更多的音乐数据。

    Why do I see text instead of music when I look at a MusicXML file in my browsers? 为什么在浏览器中查看MusicXML文件时只能看到文本而不是音乐?

    In order to see a MusicXML files as music within a browser, you need to have a plug-in installed that can understand and display MusicXML files.
    为了能在浏览器中查看MusicXML文件,你需要安装能够解析和显示MusicXML的插件。
    Myriad produces a web browser music plug-in that displays, prints and play MusicXML files within a web browser.
    Myriad开发了一款浏览器插件能够显示打印和播放MusicXML文件在一个web浏览器中。
    Currently, a web page needs to be designed to include this plug-in directly.
    目前,网站设计时应该直接包含这种插件。
    Noteflight and the Legato Sheet Music Viewer use the Flash plug-in for their applications that read and play MusicXML files within the browser.
    Noteflight和Legato Sheet Music使用Flash插件来加载和播放MusicXML文件在浏览器中。
    MusicXML 3.0 has two registered media type:
    MusicXML 3.0有两种注册的媒体类型:

    • application/vnd.recordare.musicxml for compressed .mxl files.
    • 压缩的.mxl文件类型。
    • application/vnd.recordare.musicxml+xml for uncompressed .xml files.
    • 未压缩的.xml类型。

    We hope that in the future, plug-ins will be able to automatically respond to these media types so that files outside of web pages will be displayed and played back automatically.
    我们希望将来,插件能够自动的识别这些文件类型,这样就能在网页之外显示和后台自动播放。
    It would be possible to build an XSLT stylesheet to convert MusicXML into a web-readable format and a proof of concept for this was done by one MusicXML user.
    构建一个XSLT的样式表将MusicXML转化为浏览器能够加载的格式是可行的,这个观点被一个MusicXML的用户证实了。
    However, building a professional quality XSLT for music notation would be an extraordinarlly difficult task.
    然而,构建这种专业的高质量的XSLT来标识所有音乐符号是一件非常困难的任务。
    HTL5 and related work holds the promise for at last providing native support for MusicXML in web browser.
    HTL5及其相关工作最终有望在Web浏览器中为MusicXML提供本地支持。
    Michael Good, CEO of Recordare, is a member of the W3C Audio Incubator Group that is exploring future audio and music standardization within the W3C.
    recordere首席执行官Michael Good是W3C音频孵化器组织的成员,该组织正在探索W3C未来的音频和音乐标准化。
    See our MusicXML 3.0 example page at www.recordare.com/musicxml/music/complete-musicxml-30-example to experience these different approaches to displaying and playing MusicXML within a web browser.
    到网站查看MusicXML 3.0的例子,在浏览器中来尝试这些不同的显示和播放MusicXML的demo。

    How do you pronounce Recordare? 你怎么读Recorare?

    Recordare is Latin for “remember”, so the pronounciation is as in Latin or Italian (rch-cor-DAH-ray).
    recordere是拉丁语的“remember”,所以发音和拉丁语或意大利语一样(rch-cor-dah-ray)。
    Internet publishing will allow musical works to be remembered and performed more widely.
    网络出版将允许在音乐方面的工作被铭记并且被广泛的采用。
    We believe a standard Internet-friendly format like MusicXML is essential for the success of Internet music publishing.
    我们相信,像MusicXML这样的标准的互联网友好格式对于互联网音乐出版的成功至关重要。

    “Hello World” in MusicXML MusicXML中的hello world

    Brian Kernighan and Dennis Ritchie popularized the practice of writing a program that prints the words “hello world” as the first program to write when learning a new programming language.
    BrianKernighan和DennisRitchie使得当学习新的编程语言编写第一个程序时打印显示出“hello world”变得很流行。
    It is the minimal program that tests how to build a program and display its results.
    这个是最小的一个项目,可以测试出怎样创建一个项目并且显示它的结果。
    In MusicXML, a song with the lyrics “hello world” is actually more complicated than we need for a simple MusicXML file.
    在MusicXML中,一首含有歌词是”hello world”的曲子实际上要比一个简单的MusicXML文件复杂的多。
    Let us keep things even simpler: a one-measure piece of music that contains a whole note on middle C, based in 4/4 time.
    让我们把事情简单化:创建一个小节的音乐,包含一个中央C的全音符,节拍是4/4拍。

    Here it is in MusicXML:
    这是MusicXML文件代码:

    <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="no"?>
    <!DOCTYPE score-partwise PUBLIC
        "-//Recordare//DTD MusicXML 3.0 Partwise//EC"
        "http://www.musicxml.org/dtds/partwise.dtd">
    <score-partwise version="3.0">
        <part-list>
            <score-part  id="P1">
                <part-name>Music</part-name>
            </score-part>
        </part-list>
        <part  id="P1">
            <measure number="1">
                <attributes>
                    <divisions>1</divisions>
                    <key>
                        <fifths>0</fifths>
                    </key>
                    <time>
                        <beats>4</beats>
                        <beat-type>4</beat-type>
                    </time>
                    <clef>
                        <sign>G</sign>
                        <line>2</line>
                    </clef>
                </attributes>
                <note>
                    <pitch>
                        <step>C</step>
                        <octave>4</octave>
                    </pitch>
                    <duration>4</duration>
                    <type>whole</type>
                </note>
            </measure>
        </part>
    </score-partwise>
    

    Let’s look at each part in turn:
    让我们挨部分查看文档:

    <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="no"?>
    

    This is the XML declaration required of all XML documents.
    这是所有XML文档所需的XML声明。
    We have specified that the characters are written in the Unicode encoding “UTF-8”.
    我们声明这些语法是用UTF-8编码的。
    This is the version of Unicode that has ASCII as a subset.
    这是将ASCII作为子集的Unicode版本。
    Setting the value of standalone to “no” means that we are defining the document with an external definition in another file.
    将standalone的值设置为“no”意味着我们用另一个文件中的外部定义来定义文档。

    <!DOCTYPE score-partwise PUBLIC
        "-//Recordare//DTD MusicXML 3.0 Partwise//EC"
        "http://www.musicxml.org/dtds/partwise.dtd">
    

    This is where we say that we are using MusicXML, specifically a partwise score where measures are contained within parts.
    在这部分我们声明我们正在使用MusicXML,并且声明一个partwise乐谱--确认小节包含在章节中。
    We use a PUBLIC declaration including an Internet locaion for the DTD.
    我们使用PUBLIC来声明DTD在网络中的位置。
    The URL in this declaration is just for reference.
    这里的URL仅供参考。
    Most applications that read MusicXML files will want to install a local copy of the MusicXML DTDs on the user’s machine.
    大多数加载MusicXML文件的应用都想要在用户设备的本地安装一个MusicXML DTDs。
    Use the entity resolver in your XML parser to validate against the local copy, rather than reading the DTDs slowly over the network.
    使用本地DTDs实体解析器来校验,而不是缓慢加载网络中的DTDs。
    If you application wants to validate against the MusicXMl XSD rather than a DTD, you can use a entity resolver in your XML parser to do this.
    如果你的应用想使用XSD而不是DTD来校验MusicXML,你可以使用一个实体解析器来完成。
    When writing MusicXML fiels, writing the DOCTYPE makes it easier for all applications-DTD or XSD based - to validate MusicXML files.
    当编写MusicXML文件时写入“DOCTYPE”,使得基于DTD和XSD的应用在校验时更容易。

    <score-partwise version="3.0">
    

    This is the root document type.
    这个是文档的根。
    The “<score-partwise>” element is made up of parts, where each part is made up of measures.
    score-partwise元素由章节构成,每个章节都由小节构成。
    There is also a “<score-timewise>” which is made up of measures, where each measure is made up of parts.
    也有score-timewise元素由小节组成,每个小节由章节组成。
    The version attribute lets programs distinguish what version of MusicXML is being used more easily.
    version属性让工程能够区分MusicXML的版本使得更加易用。
    Leave it out if you are writing MusicXML 1.0 files.
    如果你正在编写MusicXML 1.0 那要删除这个属性。

    <part-list>
        <score-part  id="P1">
            <part-name>Music</part-name>
        </score-part>
    </part-list>
    

    Whether you have a partwise or timewise score, a MusicXML file starts off with a header that lists the different musical part in the score.
    不管你使用的是partwise格式还是timewise格式的乐谱,MusicXML文件都是以能够区分不同音乐章节的header开头。
    The above example is the minimal part-lits possible: it contains one score-part, the required id attribute for the score-part, and the required part-name element.
    上边的例子是part-list最小可能:它只包含一个score-part,并且它需要一个id属性,和part-name元素。

        <part  id="P1">
    

    We are now beginning the first(and only, in this case) part within the document.
    现在我们就正在文档中开始制作第一(并且,在这个例子中只有第一章)章节。
    The id attribute here must refer to an id attribute for a score-part in the header.
    这里的id属性必须引用header中score-part中的id属性。

            <measure number="1">
    

    We are starting the first measure in the first part.
    我们正在开始写第一章节中的第一小节。

                <attributes>
    

    The attributes element contains key information needed to interpret the notes and musical data that follow in this part.
    attributes元素包含了本章节中音符和音乐数据所需要的关键信息。

                    <divisions>1</divisions>
    

    Each note in MusicXML has a duration element.
    每个MusicXMl中的音符都有一个duration(时值)元素。
    The divisions element provided the unit of measure for duration element in terms of divisions per quarter note.
    divisions元素给duration元素提供了度量单位,而且divisions本身以四分音符为基本单位。
    Since all we have in this file is one whole note, we nerver have to divide a quarter note, so we set the divisions value to 1.
    因为在这个文件中我们只有一个全音符,我们不需要分割四分音符,所以我们设置divisions的数值为1。
    Musical durations are typically expressed as fractions, such as “quarter” and “eight” notes.
    音乐的时长通常使用分数来表示,例如“1/4”和“1/8”音符。
    MusicXML durations are fractions, too.
    MusicXML中的时值也是使用分数来表示。
    Since the denominator rarely needs to change, it is represented separately in the divisions element, so that only the numerator needs to be associated with each individual note.
    因为分母很少改变,它在divisions元素中单独表示,所以只有分子需要联合每个独立的音符。
    This is similar to the scheme used in MIDI to represent note durations.
    这跟MIDI中表示音符时值的方案很相似。

                    <key>
                        <fifths>0<fifths>
                    </key>
    

    The key element is used to represent a key signature.
    key元素是用来代替调号的。
    Here we are in the key of C major, with no flats or sharps, so the fifths element is 0.
    在此我们表示的是C大调,没有降调和升调,所以fifths元素的值为0。
    If we were in the key of D major with 2 sharps, fifths would be set to 2.
    如果我们表示升2调的D大调,fifths元素的值应该设置为2。
    If we were in the key of F major with 1 flat, fifths would be set to -1.
    如果我们表示降1调的F大调,fifths的值设置为-1。
    The name “fifths” comes from the representation of a key signature of a key signature along the circle of fifths.
    "fifths"的名字来源于表示调号使用五个数字的循环使用。
    It let us represent standard key signatures with one element, instead of seqarate elements for sharps and flats.
    这使得我们使用一个元素就能表示标准的调号,而不用使用特定的元素,像升调和降调。

                    <time>
                        <beats>4</beats>
                        <beat-type>4</beat-type>
                    </time>
    

    The time element represents a time signature.
    time元素表示拍号。
    Its two component elements, beat and beat-type, are the numerator and denominator of the time signature, respectively.
    它有两个子元素,拍和拍类型,分别为分子和分母。

                    <clef>
                        <sign>G</sign>
                        <line>2</line>
                    </clef>
    

    MusicXML allows for many different clefs, including many no longer used today.
    MusicXML允许有很多不同的谱号,包括许多我们今天不再使用的。
    Here, the standard treble clef is represented by a G clef on the second line of the staff(e.g., the second line from the bottom of the staff is a G).
    在这里标准的高音谱号使用位于五线谱的第二根线上的G标识(同样,五线谱上的倒数第二根线是G)。

                </attributes>
                <note>
    

    We are done with the attributes,and are ready to begin the first note.
    我们到此就表示完了attributes元素,并且我们开始标识第一个note元素。

                    <pitch>
                        <step>C</step>
                        <octave>4</octave>
                    </pitch>
    

    The pitch element must have a step and an ovtave element.
    pitch元素必须含有一个step元素和一个octave元素。
    Optionally it can have an alter element, if there is a flat or sharp involved.
    也可以包含可选的alter元素,如果音符包含降调或者升调。
    These elements represent sound, so the alter element must always be included if used, even if the alteration is in the key signature.
    这些元素一起标识音,所以如果音符使用了升降必须包含alter元素,即使升降出现在调号中。
    The pitch step is C.
    pitch元素的step元素内容是C。
    The octave of 4 indicates the starts with middle C.
    octave元素内容4表示以中央C作为起点。

                    <duration>4</duration>
    

    Our divsions value is 1 division per quarter note, so the duartion of 4 is the length of 4 quarter notes.
    我们divisions元素值为1(标识一个四分音符),所以4时值就是4个四份音符的长度。

                    <type>whole</type>
    

    The type element tells us that is notated as a whole note.
    type元素告诉我们它标识一个全音符。
    You could probably derive this from the duration in this case, but it is much easier to work with both notation and performance applications if the notation and performance data is represented seqarately.
    你也完全可以从duration元素中得到,但是对于标记和演奏都有的app这更简单,尤其是标记和演奏数据独立标识时。
    In any event, the performance and notation data do not always match in practice.
    在特殊情况下,在练习中演奏和标记数据并不总是匹配。
    For example, if you want to better approximate a swing feel than the equal eighth notes notated in a jazz chart, you might use different duration values while the type remains an eighth note.
    例如,如果你想比爵士乐图表中记录的相同的第八个音符更好地近似一个摆动感觉,你可以使用不同的持续时间值,而类型仍然是第八个音符。
    Bach’s music contains examples of shorthand notation where the actual note durations do not match the standard interpretation of the notes on the pages, due to his use of a notational shorthand for certaian rhythms.
    巴赫的音乐包含了一些速记法的例子,因为他使用了一种记录节奏的速记法,所以实际的音符持续时间与页面上音符的标准解释不符。
    The duration element should reflect the intended duration, not a longer or shorter duration specific to a certain performance.
    duration元素应该直接影响预期的时值,并不是特定于某个演奏的更长或者更短。
    The note element has attack and release attributes that suggest ways to alter a note’s start and stop times from the nominal duration incicated directly or indirectly by the score.
    note元素通过编辑和发布一些属性,这些属性建议如何从duration直接或间接引发的名义持续时间更改note的开始和停止时间。

                </note>
    

    We are done with note.
    我们表示完了note元素。

            </measure>
    

    We are done with the measure.
    我们表示完了measure元素。

        </part>
    

    We are done with the part.
    我们表示完了part元素。

    </score-partwise>
    

    And we are done with the score.
    并且我们表示完了谱子。
    One limitation of XML’s document type definitions is that if you want to limit the number of elements within another element, you generally must also restrict how they are ordered as well.
    一个XML文档类型定义的限制是,如果你想限制元素在其他元素中的数量,你通常也必须限制他们的顺序。
    In the attributes, for instance, we want to no more than one divisions element;
    例如,在attributes元素中,我们不希望有多个divisions元素。
    for the note’s pitch, we want to one and only one step element and octave element.
    比如note的pitch元素,我们想有且只有一个step和octave元素。
    In order to do this, the order in which these elements appear must to be constrained as well.
    为了实现以上限定,这些元素出现的顺序也必须被限定好。
    Thus the order in which elements appear in these examples does matter.
    所以,这些例子中元素出现的顺序很重要。
    The DTD definitions should make it clear what ordering is required;
    DTD定义应该把需要的顺序定义清楚。
    we will not spell that out in detail during the tutorial.
    我们不会在教程中详细说明。

    The Structure of MusicXML Files MusicXML文件结构

    Adapting Musical Scores to a Hierarchy 根据层级调整乐谱

    Say we have a piece of music for two or more people to play.
    假设我们有一段需要两个或者更多的人弹奏的音乐。
    It has multiple parts, one per player, and multiple measures.
    对每个弹奏者,这首曲子有多个章节,多个小节。
    XML represents data in a hierarchy, but musical scores are more like a lattice.
    XML使用层级表示数据,但是乐谱更接近与格子框架。
    How do we reconcile this?
    我们是怎样协调这个?
    Should the horizontal organization of musical parts be primary, or should the vertical organization of musical measures?
    横向组织乐谱的章节应该是首要的吗?或者应不应该垂直组织小节?

    The answer is different for every music application.
    答案是每个音乐软件都各不相同。
    David Huron, a music cognition specialist and the inventor of Humdrum, advised us to make sure we could represent music both ways, and be able to switch them easily.
    音乐认知专家、音乐鼓的发明者大卫·休伦建议我们要确保我们能够以两种方式表现音乐,并且能够轻松地转换它们。

    This is why MusicXML has two different top-level DTDs, each with its own root element.
    这就是为什么MusicXML有两种不同的顶层DTDs,每个都有它自己的根元素。
    If you use the partwise DTD, the root element is <score-partwise>.
    如果你使用partwise DTD,根元素就是<score-partwise>
    The musical part is primary, and measures are contained within each part.
    乐章就是主体,小节包含在乐章中。
    If you use the timewise DTD, the root element is <score-timewise>.
    如果你使用timewise DTD,那么根元素就是<score-timewise>
    The measure is primary, and musical parts are contained within each measure.
    小节就是主体,乐章就包含在小节中。
    The MusicXML XSD includes both of the top-levle document elements in a single XSD file.
    MusicXML XSD在一个XSD文档中就包含这两种顶层的文档元素。

    Having two different structures does not work well if there is no automatic way to switch between them.
    如果没有自动的方式来切换它们,那么有这两种格式就不怎么起作用了。
    MusicXML provides two XSLT stylesheets to convert back and forth between the two document types.
    MusicXML提供了两种XSLT样式表来切换这两种文档形式。
    The partwise.xsl stylesheet converts from <score-partwise> to <score-timewise>, while the timepart.xsl stylesheet converts from <score-timewise> to <score-partwise>.
    partwise.xsl样式表从<score-partwise>转化为<score-timewise>,timepart.xsl样式表从<score-timewise>转化为<score-partwise>。

    An application reading MusicXML can choose which format is primary, and check for that document type.
    应用在解析MusicXML时可以选择主要格式,并且检查文档类型。
    If it is your root element, just proceed.
    如果它是你的根元素,继续即可。
    If not, check to see if it is the other MusicXML root element.
    如果不是,检测查看是否是另外一种MusicXML根元素。
    If so, apply the appropriate XSLT stylesheet to create a new MusicXML document in your preferred format, and then proceed.
    如果是的话,使用适当的XSLT样式表创建首选格式的MusicXML文档,然后继续即可。
    If it is neither of the two top-level document types, you do not have a MusicXML score, and can return an appropriate error message.
    如果不是这两种顶级文档格式,那么文档就不是MusicXML乐谱,并且可以返回适当的错误信息。

    When your application writes to MusicXML, simply write to whichever format best meets your needs.
    当你的应用在编写MusicXML文档时,根据你自己的需要写入任何一种格式都可。
    Let the program reading the MusicXML convert it if necessary.
    如果需要,让读取MusicXML的程序转换它即可。
    If you have a two-dimensional origanization in your program so that either format is truly equally easy to write, consider using the score-partwise format.
    如果在你的工程中你使用两种维度的组织形式,哪一种实际上编辑起来更简单,那么考虑使用score-partwise格式。
    Most of today’s MusicXMl software uses this format, so if all else is equal, conversion times should be lower overall.
    今天大多数的MusicXML软件都是用这种格式,如果所有其他都相同,那么转换次数应该更少比其他重要。

    Top-Level Document Elements 顶层的文档元素

    The score.mod file defines the basic structure of a MusicXML file.
    score.mod文件定义了MusicXML文档的基本结构。
    The primary definition of the file is contained in these lines:
    主要的文档定义都包含在这几行中:

    <![ %partwise; [
    <!ELEMENT score-partwise ( %score-header;, part+)>
    <!ELEMENT part (measure+)>
    <!ELEMENT measure (%music-data;)>
    ]]>
    <![ %timewise; [
    <!ELEMENT score-timewise (%score-header;, measure+)>
    <!ELEMENT measure (part+)>
    <!ELEMENT part (%music-data;)>
    ]]>
    

    The %partwise and %timewise entities are set in the top-level DTDs partwise.dtd and timewise.dtd.
    %partwise和%timewise实体是在partwise.dtd和timewise.dtd顶层DTDs设置的。
    The <![ lines indicate a conditional clause like the #ifdef statement in C.
    <![ 表示条件语句就像 #ifdef 在C语言中一样。
    So if partwise.dtd is used, the <score-partwise> element is defined, while if timewise.dtd is used, the <score-timewise> element is defined.
    所以partwise.dtd被使用的话,<score-partwise>元素就定义好了,当然如果timewise.dtd被使用的话,<score-timewies>元素就被定义好了。

    You can see that the only difference between the two formats is the way that the part and measure elements are arranged.
    你会发现这两种格式的唯一区别就是part和measure元素的排列方式不同
    A score-partwise document contains one or more part elements, and each part element contains one or more measure elements.
    score-partwise文档包含一个或者更多章节元素,并且每个章节元素包含一个或者多个measure元素。
    The score-timewise document reverses this ordering.
    score-timewise文档翻转这个顺序。

    In either case, the lower-level elements are filled with a music-data entity.
    在任何情况下,最低层级的元素放入音乐数据实体。
    This contains the actual music in the score, and is defined as:
    这包含乐谱中的实际音乐信息,定义如下:

    <! ENTITY % music-data
            "(note | backup | forward | direction | attributes |
            harmony | figured-bass | print | sound | barline |
            grouping | link | bookmark )*">
    

    In addition, each MusicXML file contains a %score-header entity, defined as:
    另外,每个MusicXML文件都包含一个 %score-header实体,定义如下:

    <! ENTITY % score-header
            "(work?, movement-number?, movement-title?,
            identification?, defaults?, credit?, part-list)">
    

    We will now look at the score-header entity in more detail.
    我们将详细看下score-header实体。
    If the example in the preceding “Hello world” section gave you enough information, you may want to skip ahead to the next section that starts describing music-data.
    如果前面“Hello World”部分中的示例提供了足够的信息,您可能希望跳到下一个开始描述音乐数据的部分。

    The Score Header Entity 乐谱顶部实体

    The score header contains some basic metadata about a musical score, such as the title and composer.
    乐谱的头部包含一些乐谱的基础元数据,就像标题和作曲家。
    It also contains the part-list, which lists all the parts or instruments in a musical score.
    它也包含part-list,列举了乐谱中的所有章节和乐器。

    As an example, take our MusicXML encoding of “Mut”, the 22nd song from Franz Schubert’s song cycle Winterreise.
    以MusicXML编码的“mut”为例,它是弗朗茨·舒伯特的第22首歌曲,是温特瑞丝的歌曲。
    Here is a sample score header for that work.
    例子如下:

        <work>
            <work-number>D. 911</work-number>
            <work-title>Winterreise</work-title>
        </work>
        <movement-number>22</movement-number>
        <movement-title>Mut</movement-title>
        <identification>
            <creator type="composer">Franz Schubert</creator>
            <creator type="poet">Wilhelm Muller</creator>
            <rights>Copyright 2001 Recordare LLC</rights>
            <encoding>
                <encoding-date>2002-02-16</encoding-date>
                <encoder>Michael Good</encoder>
                <software>Finale 2002 for Windows</software>
                <encoding-description>MusicXML 1.0 example</encoding-description>
            </encoding>
            <source>Based on Breitkopf &amp; Hartel edition of 1895</source>
        </identification>
        <part-list>
            <score-part id="P1">
                <part-name>Singstimme.</part-name>
            </score-part>
            <score-part id="P2">
                <part-name>Pianoforte.</part-name>
            </score-part>
        </part-list>
    

    You see that this score-header has all five of the possible top-level elements in the score-header entity: the work, movement-number, identification and part-list.
    你会发现这个乐谱的开头实体包含了所有五种顶层元素:work(作品),乐章号,说明,章节列表。
    Only the part-list is required, all other elements are optional.
    只有part-list是必须要有的,其他的元素都是可选的。

    Let’s look at each part in turn:
    ‘让我们逐行看下每部分。’

        <work>
            <work-number>D. 911</work-number>
            <work-title>Winterreise</work-title>
        </work>
    

    In MusicXML, individual movements are usually represented as separate files.
    在MusicXML中,独立的乐章通常使用单独的文件来表示。
    The work element is used to identify the larger work of which this movement is a part.
    work元素通常用来标识长作品中的哪一章节的。
    Schubert’s works are more commonly referred to via D. numbers than opus number, so that is what we use in the work-number element.
    舒伯特的作品通常是通过D. 数字而不是作品编号来引用的,所以这就是我们在作品编号元素中所使用的。
    the work-title is the name of the larger work.
    work-title是整个作品的名字。

    If you have all the movements in a work represented, you can use the opus element to link to the MusicXML opus file that in turn contains link to all the movements in the work.
    如果你有了作品中的所有乐章,你可以使用作品元素把MusicXML的作品文件关联起来,同样也可以关联作品中所有的乐章。

        <movement-number>22</movement-number>
    

    Winterreise is a cycle of 24 songs.
    Winterreise 是24首歌曲循环。
    We use the movement-number to identify that “Mut” is the 22nd song in the cycle-it is not restricted to use for movements in a symphony.
    我们使用乐章编号来识别“mut”是周期中的第22首歌,它不限于用于交响乐中的乐章。

        <movement-title>Mut</movement-title>
    

    similarly, we are use the movement-title element for the title of the individual song.
    同时,我们使用movement-title元素来表示单曲标题。
    If you have a single song that is not part of a collection, you will usually put the title of the song in the movement-title element and not use either the work or movement-number elements.
    如果一首单曲没有很多部分组成,你通常把标题放到movement-title元素中并且不必使用work或者movement-number元素。

        <identification>
            <creator type="composer">Franz Schubert</creator>
            <creator type="poet">Wilhem Muller</creator>
    

    The identification element is defined in the identity.mod file.
    身份认证元素定义在indentify.mod文件中。
    It contains basic metadata elements based on the Dublin Core.
    它包含了核心的元素数据。
    In this song, as many others, there are two creators: in this case, the composer and the poet.
    在这首曲目中有两个创造者:作曲家,诗人。
    Therefore, we use two creator elements, and distinguish their roles with the type attribute.
    所以我们使用了两个元素,并且使用type属性来区分它们。
    For an instruments work with just one composer, there is no need to use the type attribute.
    如果作品只有作曲家,那么就没有必要使用type属性了。

        <rights>Copyright 2001 Recordare LLC</rights>
    

    The rights element contains the copyright notice.
    rights元素包含了版权声明。
    You may have multiple rights elements if multiple copyrights are involved, say for the words and the music.
    如果包含多个版权的话,你可能有多个rights元素,例如词和曲。
    As with the creator element, these can have type attributes to indicate what type of copyright is involved.
    跟creator元素一样,这些元素也可以有type属性来说明版权的类型。
    In this example, both the words and music to Mut are in the public domain, but we are copyrighting our electronic edition of the work.
    在这个例子中,Mut的词曲都是共用的了,但是我们正在版权保护我们的电子音乐。

        <encoding>
            <encoding-date>2002-02-16</encoding-date>
            <encoder>Michael Good</encoder>
            <software>Finale 2002 for Windows</software>
            <encoding-description>MusicXML 1.0 example</encoding-description>
        </encoding>
    

    The encoding element contains information about how the MusicXML file was created.
    encoding元素包含了MusicXML文件是怎样被创建出来的信息。
    Here we are using all four of the available sub-elements to describe the encoding.
    我们使用所有四个可用的子元素来描述encoding。
    You can have multiple instance of these elements and they can appear in any order.
    你可以多次使用这些元素,并且他们顺序无所谓。

        <source>Based on Breitkopf &amp; Hartel edition of 1985</source>
    </identification>
    

    The source element is useful for music that is encoded from a paper published score or manuscript.
    source元素对于那些纸质发布的乐谱或者是人工编写的都很有用。
    Different editions of music will contain different musical information.
    不同版本的音乐包含了不同的音乐信息。
    In our case, we used the Dover reprint of the Breitkopf & Hartel edition of Winterreise as our starting point, correcting some errors in that published score.
    在我们的例子中,我们使用了多佛再版的Breitkopf&Hartel版本的Winterreise作为我们的出发点,修正了该出版的分数中的一些错误。

    The identification element also may contain a miscellaneous element.
    identification元素也可以包含其他的元素。
    This in turn contains miscellaneous-field elements, each with a name attribute.
    反过来每个其他的元素都要有一个属性名。
    This can be helpful if your software contains some identification information not present in the MusicXML DTD that you want to preserve when saving and reading from MusicXML.
    如果你的软件包含了很多MusicXML的DTD中没有给出的但又想保留的identification信息,这(添加属性)对你从MusicXML中保存和加载信息很有帮助。

        <part-list>
            <score-part id="P1">
                <part-name>Singstimme.</part-name>
            </score-part>
            <score-part id="P2">
                <part-name>Pinaoforte.</part-name>
            </score-part>
        </part-list>
    

    The part-list is the one part of the score header that is required in all MusicXML scores.
    part-list是所有MusicXML曲谱头部的必须的要有的一部分。
    It is made up of a series of score-part elements, each with a required id attribute and part-name element.
    它由score-part元素组成,,每个都有一个id属性和part-name元素。
    By convention, our software simply numbers the parts as “P1”, “P2”, etc. to create the id attributes.
    按照惯例,我们的软件使用简单的数字“P1” ”P2“来创建id属性。
    You may use whatever technique you like as long as it produces unique names for each score-part.
    你也可以使用任何你想用的记法只要这种记法给每个score-part提供唯一标识就好。

    In addition to the part-name, there are many optional elements that can be included in a score-part:
    除了part-name之外,socre-part也可以包含很多可选的元素。

    • An identification element, helpful if individual parts come from different sources.
    • identification元素,如果有多个章节来自不同的资源。
    • A part-abbreviation element. Often, you will use the part-name for the name used at the start of the score, and the part-abbreviation for the abbreviated name used in succeeding systems.
    • part-abbreviation元素。通常,我们使用part-name作为乐谱开头的名字,在后续体系里我们也使用part-abbreviation标识名字缩写。
    • A group element, used when different parts can be used for different purposes. In MuseData, for instance, there will often be different pars used for printed score, a printed part, a MIDI soud file, or for data analysis.
    • group元素,当每部分有不同作用时使用。通常在音乐中,经常会有不同的部分来标识显示谱面,显示章节,MIDI音频文件或者数据分析。
    • One or more score-instrument elements, used to describe instrument sounds and virtual instrument settings, as well as to define multiple instruments within a score-part. This element serves as a reference for MIDI instrument changes.
    • score-instrument元素,用来描述乐器声音和虚拟设置,也支持在一个score-part中定义多个乐器。这个元素是给MIDI乐器在变化是提供服务的。
    • One or more midi-device elements for identifying the MIDI devices or ports that are being useding in a multi-port configuration. Multiple devices let you get beyond MIDI’s 16-channel barrier.
    • midi-device元素,用于识别多端口配置中使用的MIDI设备或端口。多个设备让您超越了MIDI的16通道屏障。
    • One or more midi-instrument elements, specifying the initial MIDI setup for each score-instrument within a part.
    • midi-instrument元素,为一个part中的每个计分仪指定初始MIDI设置。

    The MIDI-Compatible Part of MusicXML MusicXML中MIDI兼容的部分

    MusicXML music data contains two main types of elements.
    MusicXML中的音乐数据主要包两种类型的元素。
    One set of elements is used primarily to represent how a piece of music should sound.
    一部分元素主要用来标识音乐听起来是什么样的。
    These are the elements that are used when creating a MIDI file form MusicXML.
    这些元素是在从MusicXML导出MIDI文件时使用的。
    The other set is used primarily to represent how a piece of music should look.
    另外的部分主要用来标识这部分音乐看起来是什么样的。
    These elements are used when creating a Finale file from MusicXML.
    这些元素是在从MusicXML创建Finale文件时使用的。

    We encourage programs writing MusicXML to write as much accurate data as they can.
    我们建议写MusicXML的工程项目应该尽可能的写入最准确的数据。
    The only elements that are required, though, are the sounding elements that relate directly to writing a MIDI file from MusicXML.
    尽管从MusicXML导出MIDI文件只需要音频部分的数据。
    This is where we will start in introducing the musical elements of a MusicXML file.
    我们从这开始介绍MuscicXML文件的音乐元素。
    As an example, we will use the first four bars of “Apres un reve” by Gabriel Faure:
    例子中,我们使用Gabriel Faure创作的Apres un reve的前四部分:

    Attributes 属性

    The attributes element contains information about time signatures, key signatures, transpositions, clefs and other musical data that is usually specified at the beginning of a piece or at the start of a measure.
    attributes元素包含信息有节拍,调号,换位,谱号和其他数据,通常定义在作品开始或者小节开始。
    We discuss the MIDI-compatible elements here;
    这里,我们探讨MIDI-兼容元素。
    the rest are discussed in the following sections.
    其他部分后面再讨论。

    In this example, our Finale translator produces the following MIDI-compatible attributes:
    例子中,Finale提供了下面的MIDI兼容属性:

        <attributes>
            <divisions>24</divisions>
            <key>
                <fifths>-3</fifths>
                <mode>minor</mode>
            </key>
            <time>
                <beats>3</beats>
                <beat-type>4</beat-type>
            </times>
        </attributes>
    

    Divisions

    Musical durations are commonly referred to as fractions: whole notes, half notes, quarter notes, and the like.
    音乐时值通常被标识为分数:全音符,二分音符,四分音符等等。
    While each musical note could have a fraction associated with it, MusicXML instead of follows MIDI by specifying the number of divisions per quarter note at the start of a musical part, and then specifying note durations in terms of these divisions.
    尽管每个音符都有一个分数来表示,但MusicXML通过在音乐章节开始定义一个四分音符的divisions的值,然后定义其他音符的durations为divisions的倍数来表示MIDI。

    MusicXML allows divisions to change in the middle of a part, but most software will probably find it easiest to compute one divisions value per part and put that at the beginning of the first measure.
    MusicXML允许在中间部分改变divisions的值,但是大部分软件最简便计算divsions的值是把它放在第一小节的开始。
    The divisions value of 24 in this example allows for both triplet eighth notes(duration of 8) and regular sixteenth notes(duration of 6).
    例子中divisions的值为24,支持三重八分音符(duration为8)和16分音符(duration为6)。

    Key 调号

    Standard key signatures are represented very much like MIDI key signatures.
    标准调号的表示和MIDI的调号表示很相似。
    The fifths element specifies the number of flats or sharps in the key signatures - negative for flats, positive of sharps.
    fifths元素定义升降调号的数字-负数为降调,正数为升调。
    The fifths name indicates that this value represent the key signature’s position on the circle of fifths.
    fifths的名字表明调号是这五个数的循环。
    MusicXML uses the mode element to indicate major or minor key signatures.
    MusicXML使用mode元素来表示大调和小调。

    Time 拍号

    Standard time signatures are represented more simply in MusicXML than in MIDI.
    标准拍号在MusicXML表示起来比MIDI简单。
    The beats element represent the time signature numerator and the beat-type element represent the time signature denominator(vs. a log denominator in MIDI).
    beats元素表示拍号的分子,beat-type元素表示拍号的分母。

    Transpose

    If you are writing a part for a transposing instrument, the transposition must be specified in MusicXML in order for the sound output to be correct.
    如果你整编写变调部分,变调必须要在MusicXML中定义,以便输出的音频是正确的。
    The transpose element represenets what must be added to the written pitch to get the correct sounding pitch.
    transpose元素表示必须写入音中来获取正确的音频。

    The chromatic element, representing the number of chromatic steps to add to the written pitch, is the one required element.
    chromatic元素表示写入的音阶数字,是一个必要的元素。
    The diatonic, octave-change and double elements are elements.
    全音阶、八度变化和双元素都是元素。

    Say we have a part written for a trumpet in B-falt.
    例如我们有一个小号部分是降B调。
    A written “C” on this part will sound as a B-flat on a pinao.
    写入的C调在这部分听上去是降B调,在钢琴上。
    This transposition is one diatonic step down(C to B) and two chromatic half steps down(C to B to B-flat).
    调号调节1个音调(C到B)并且降两个半音阶(C到B到降B)。
    In MusicXML it would be represented as:
    在MusicXML中这样表示:

        <transpose>
            <diatonic>-1</diatonic>
            <chromatic>-2</chromatic>
        </transpose>
    

    The diatonic element is not needed for correct MIDI output, but it helps get transposition notation correct and programs encouraged to use it wherever possible.
    diatonic元素对输出正确的MIDI不是必须的,但是它有助于获取正确的调号调节标识,并且我们建议尽可能的使用它。
    The octave-change element is used when transpositions exceed an octave in either direction.
    octave-change元素使用在当任何一个方向上超过一个八度时。
    The double element is used when the part should be doubled an octave lower, as when a single part is used for both cello and string bass.
    double元素使用在当这部分出现低两个八度时,当一个单元被用于大提琴和弦乐低音时。

    Pitch 音高

    Pitch, duration, ties, and lyrics are all represented within the MusicXML note element.
    pitch,duration,ties,和lyrics元素都包含在MusicXML的note元素中。
    For example, the E-flat that starts bar 3 in the voice part has the following MIDI-compatible elements:
    例如,开始于第三栏的降E有如下MIDI兼容元素:

        <note>
            <pitch>
                <step>E</step>
                <alter>-1</alter>
                <octave>5</octave>
            </pitch>
            <duration>24</duration>
            <tie type="start"/>
            <lyric>
                <syllabic>end</syllabic>
                <text>meil</text>
                <extend/>
            </lyric>
        </note>
    

    In MIDI, a pitch is represented by a single number.
    在MIDI中,pitch使用一个数字表示。
    MusicMXL divides pitch up into three parts: the step element(A,B,C,D,E,F or G),an optional alter element(-1 for flat, 1 for sharp), and an octave element(4 for the octave starting with middle C).
    MusicXML中将pitch分为三个部分:step元素(A,B,C,D,E,F和G),可选的alter元素(-1表示降调,1表示升调)和octave元素(4表示中央C)。

    The pitch represents the sound, not what is notated, so an alter element must be included even if represent a flat or sharp that is part of the key signature.
    pitch表示音高,不一定是它注明的,所以必须包含alter元素来表示升降,作为音高的一部分。
    This is why the E-flat contains an alter element, though there is no accidental on the note.
    这就是为什么降E包含alter元素,尽管音符中没有accidental。

    Alter values of -2 and 2 can be used for double-flat and double-sharp.
    alter的值-2和2表示重降和重升。
    Decimal values can be used for microtones(e.g. 0.5 for a quarter-tone sharp),but not all programs may convert this into MIDI pitch-bend data.
    小数值可以用来表示微音调(如:0.5表示四分之一的升调)但是并不是所有的工程都能够将他装换为MIDI音高数据。
    For rests, a rest element is used instead of the pitch element.
    对于休止符来书,rest元素来代替pitch元素。
    The whole rest in 3/4 that begins the voice part is represented as:
    四三拍的全休止表示为:

        <note>
            <rest/>
            <duration>72</duration>
        </note>
    

    Duration 时值

    The duration element is an integer that represents a note’s duration in terms of divisions per quarter note.
    duration元素是一个整数,divisions的倍数表示一个音符的时值。
    Since our example has 24 divisions per quarter note, a quarter note has a duration of 24.
    因为我们例子中一个四分音符的divisions值为24,所以一个四分音符的duration值是24。
    The eighth-note triplet have a duration of 8, while the eighth notes have a duration of 12.
    八分三连音中的一个音符duration是8,一个八分音符duration值为12。

    Tied Notes 延音

    The sounding part of a tied note is indicated by the tie element.
    音频中延音部分使用tie元素来表示。
    The tie element has a type of start for the starting of a tie, and a type of stop for the ending note in a tie.
    tie元素有一个start类型表示延音的开始,和一个stop类型表示延音的结束音符。
    A note element can have two tie elements.
    一个note元素可以有两个tie元素。
    If a note is tied to the notes both before and after it, place the tie to the previous note, <tie type=“stop”>, before the <tie type=“start”> to the next note.
    如果一个音符既是前一个音符的延音又是后一个音符的延音,那么将<tie type="stop">放在<tie type="start">前边。

    Chords 和旋

    The duration elements in MusicMXL move a musical counter.
    MusicXML中的duration元素移动音乐计数器。
    To play chords, we need to indicate that a note should start at the same time as the previous note, rather than following the previous note.
    演奏和旋,我们需要确保音符跟前一个音符出现在同一时间,而不是在前一个音符后边。
    To do this in MusicMXL, add a chord element to the note.
    为了在MusicXML中实现它,给note添加一个chord元素。

    In our example, the piano part does not have rhythms more complex than eighth notes, so our converter set the divisions value to 2.
    在我们例子中,钢琴部分没有比八分音符更复杂的音符了,所以我们的转换器设置divisions的值为2。
    With 2 divisions per quarter note, the sound portion of the first chrod in the piano part is represented as:
    使用四分音符的divisions值为2,和弦的声音部分如下:

        <note>
            <pitch>
                <step>C</step>
                <octave>4</octave>
            </pitch>
            <duration>1<duration>
        </note>
        <note>
            <chord/>
            <pitch>
                <step>E</step>
                <alter>-1</alter>
                <octave>4</octave>
            </pitch>
            <duration>1</duration>
        </note>
        <note>
            <chord/>
            <pitch>
                <step>G</step>
                <octave>4<octave>
            </pitch>
        </note>
    

    Each note in the chord following the first one includes a chord element before the pitch element.
    每个和旋note在pitch元素前的第一个元素都是chord元素。

    If you find that you have notes in a chord with different durations, you are probably better representing this as multi-part music rather than a chord.
    如果你发现和旋中有不同的时值,那么你可能最好把他替换为音乐的多部分而不是表示为一个和旋。
    If you must have notes with different durations in the chord, the longest note must be the first note in the chord.
    如果在和旋中不可避免的有不同时值的音符,那么和旋中时值最长的必须是和旋的第一个音符。

    Lyrics

    While lyrics are not yet used in sound generation, they are included in Standard MIDI files, so we will discuss them here with the other MIDI-compatible features of MusicXML.
    虽然lyrics在音频中并不使用,但是他们被包含在了标准MIDI文件中,所以我们也探讨下MusicXML中对lyrics的MIDI兼容特性。

    Lyrics in MusicXML use an optional syllabic element to indicate how a syllabic fits into a word, rather than having conventions based on hyphens and spaces as some other formats do.
    MusicXML中的lyrics使用可选的syllabic元素来指示音节如何与单词匹配,而不是像某些其他格式那样具有基于连字符和空格的约定。
    The values for syllabic can be “single”, “begin”, “end” or “middle”.
    syllabic的值可以是:single,begin,end,middle。
    We saw earlier that the E-flat starting the third measure had a syllabic value of “end”, since “meil” was the end of a two-syllable word.
    我们之前的降E在开始的第三小节由一个syllabic值为end的例子,因为meil是两个音节的结束部分。
    The “ma” syllable in “image” has a syllabic value of “middle”, in the second measure, the notes are:
    “image”中的“ma”音节的音节值为“middle”,在第二小节,音符为:

        <note>
            <pitch>
                <step>G</step>
                <octave>4</octave>
            </pitch>
            <duration>24</duration>
            <lyric>
                <syllabic>single</syllabic>
                <text>Dans</text>
            </lyric>
        </note>
        <note>
            <pitch>
                <step>C</step>
                <octave>5</octave>
            </pitch>
            <duration>24</duration>
            <lyric>
                <syllabic>single</syllabic>
                <text>un</text>
            </lyric>
        </note>
        <note>
            <pitch>
                <step>D</step>
                <octave>5</octave>
            </pitch>
            <duration>24</duration>
            <lyric>
                <syllabic>begin</syllabic>
                <text>som</text>
            </lyric>
        </note>
    

    The actual text of the lyric is specified in the text element.
    真正的词文本是在text元素中的。
    A note may have multiple syllables, in which case the multiple syllabic/text element pairs should be separated by an elision element.
    一个音符可能有多个音节,在这种情况下多个syllabic/text元素应该使用elision元素区分。
    Word extensions may be indicated by using the extend element, as in the “meil” syllable above.
    词的扩展也许可以使用extend元素表示,就像上面的”meil”音节。

    Multiple verses are indicating using multiple lyric elements.
    多个词句使用多个lyric元素表示。
    The number and name attributes can be used to distinguish them: <lyric number=“1”>for the first verse,<lyric number=“2”>for the second.
    number和name属性能够区分他们:<lyric number="1">表示第一句,<lyric number="2">表示第二句。

    MusicXML has end-line and end-paragraph elements to support Standard MIDI File Lyric meta-events specified in RP-017.
    MusicXML有end-line和end-paragraph元素来支持标准MIDI文件词的meta-events定义在RP-017中。
    These are used for karaoke and similar applications.
    这些被用作K啦OK和相似的应用中。
    Elements for humming and lauging may also be included, though they do not have MIDI equivalents.
    哼唱和大笑元素也可以被包含,尽管MIDI中没有等效的元素。
    These lyric elements have not yet been implemented in MusicXML software.
    这些元素在MusicXML的软件中还没有实现。

    展开全文
  • 流利说 Level 3 全文

    万次阅读 多人点赞 2019-05-22 10:51:17
    Lesson 4 Types of Words Dialogue Lesson 5 Good News & Bad News 4/4 Listening Lesson 1 Leonardo da Vinci 1-2 Vocabulary Lesson 3 Sources of Pollution Lesson 4 Historical Figures...

    Level 3

    Unit1

    1/4

    Listening

    Lesson 1 An Unusual Day

    Lesson 2 Bus Schedule

    Vocabulary

    Lesson 3 Activities &Food

    Lesson 4 Spatial Relations

    Dialogue

    Lesson 5 Meeting at the Airport

    Lesson 6 Staying up late

    2/4

    Listening

    Lesson 1 Time Zones

    Lesson 2 Kim’s Movie Star Dream

    Vocabulary

    Lesson 3 Action & Comparisons

    Lesson 4 Seasons & Weather

    Dialogue

    Lesson 5 Missing the Flight

    Lesson 6 A Going Away Party

    3/4

    Listening

    Lesson 1 Buying a New Car 1-2

    Vocabulary

    Lesson 3 Spatial Relations & Needs

    Lesson 4 Places of Business

    Dialogue

    Lesson 5 Ordering Food from Home

    Lesson 6 Are Selfies Good or Bad?

    4/4

    Listening

    Lesson 1 Christina’s Future Plans 1-2

    Vocabulary

    Lesson 3 Jobs & Weather

    Lesson 4 Things to Read

    Dialogue

    Lesson 5 Foot Injury

    Lesson 6 Discussing Eating out

    Unit2

    1/4

    Listening

    Lesson 1 Stats of Matter

    Lesson 2 Test Results

    Vocabulary

    Lesson 3 Emotions

    Lesson 4 Hobbies

    Dialogue

    Lesson 5 Ready for the Meeting

    Lesson 6 Discussing Test Results

    2/4

    Listening

    Lesson 1 Paul’s Trip Plan 1-2

    Vocabulary

    Lesson 3 Sports

    Lesson 4 Injuries

    Dialogue

    Lesson 5 A Nightmare

    Lesson 6 Toilet Trouble

    3/4

    Listening

    Lesson 1 Paul’s Overseas Trip 1-2

    Vocabulary

    Lesson 3 Emergency Vehicles

    Lesson 4 Weather & Activities

    Dialogue

    Lesson 5 Checking up on Ada

    4/4

    Listening

    Lesson 1 Overview of Earth

    Lesson 2 Water on Earth

    Vocabulary

    Lesson 3 Things We Enjoy Doing

    Lesson 4 Continents

    Dialogue

    Lesson 5 A Driverless Car

    Lesson 6 Calling Customer Service

    Unit 3

    1/4

    Listening

    Lesson 1 Life & Conditions 1-2

    Vocabulary

    Lesson 3 Forms of Life

    Lesson 4 Instruments

    Dialogue

    Lesson 5 Dating Anniversary

    Lesson 6 Fine Dining

    2/4

    Listening

    Lesson 1 Quick Serve 1-2

    Vocabulary

    Lesson 3 Sciences

    Lesson 4 Disasters

    Dialogue

    Lesson 5 Desk Assembly

    Lesson 6 Life and the Universe

    3/4

    Listening

    Lesson 1 Harry’s Business Trip 1-2

    Vocabulary

    Lesson 3 Sources of Energy

    Lesson 4 Types of Words

    Dialogue

    Lesson 5 Good News & Bad News

    4/4

    Listening

    Lesson 1 Leonardo da Vinci 1-2

    Vocabulary

    Lesson 3 Sources of Pollution

    Lesson 4 Historical Figures

    Dialogue

    Lesson5 An Urgent Call

    Lesson 6 Setting the Bill

     

     

    Level 3

    Unit1

    1/4

    Listening

    Lesson 1 An Unusual Day

    Kathy usually gets up at 6:30, but this morning, she didn’t hear her alarm.

    As a result, she overslept.

    She didn’t get up until 7:00, 30 minutes later than usual.

    As a result, she didn’t have time to cook breakfast for her children.

     

    -Why did she oversleep? –She didn’t hear her alarm.

    -Why didn’t she cook breakfast? –She didn’t have time.

     

    Today Kathy and her kids left home early.

    They usually leave home at 7:30, but today they left at 7:15.

    They left early because they had to buy breakfast on their way to school.

     

    -Why did they leave home early? –They had to buy breakfast on their way to school.

    -What did they have to buy on their way to school? –their breakfast.

     

    It usually takes 45 minutes to drive her kids to school, but today it took longer.

    It took them longer because they stopped for breakfast along the way.

    It took 15 minutes for them to have breakfast.

    They ate at a little coffee shop along the side of the road.

     

    -How long does it usually take to drive her kids to school? –It usually takes 45 minutes.

    -How long did it take them to have breakfast? –It took 15 minutes.

     

    After eating breakfast, they got back into their car.

    On most days the traffic isn’t too bad in the morning.

    But this morning, it was much worse than usual.

    The cars were moving very slowly.

    As a result it took them longer than usual to get to school.

     

    -What did they do after eating breakfast? –They got back into their car.

     

    One of her children got to school on time, but the other two were late.

    They were late because their schools are farther away.

    They were both about 10 minutes late to school.

     

    -How late were two of her children? –They were about 10 minutes late.

     

    When Kathy finally got home she cleaned her house as usual.

    She vacuumed the living room and cleaned the bathroom.

    Then she talked with her friend on the phone as usual.

    When she finished talking with her friend she got into her car.

    She put the key into the ignition, and tried to start the engine.

    But the car’s engine didn’t start.

    Her car battery was dead, so she had to call for help.

     

    -What happened when she tried to start her car? –The car’s engine didn’t start.

    -Why did she have to call for help? –to get a new battery.

     

    After getting a new battery for her car, the engine started.

    Then Kathy drove to the mall to meet her friend.

    She arrived to the mall an hour late but her friend was waiting for her.

    They had lunch together and then they went shopping.

    They both bought new shoes and some things for their kids.

    Kathy bought a new tie for her husband.

     

    -What did Kathy buy for her husband? –a new tie.

    -Who was waiting for her at the mall? –Her friend was waiting for her.

     

    It’s now 3:00 and everything is going as usual.

    Kathy doesn’t want anything else to go wrong.

    She wants the rest of the day to go as usual.

    She doesn’t want any more surprises.

    And tomorrow she won’t oversleep.

    She never wants to oversleep again.

     

    -What doesn’t Kathy want? –more surprises.

    Lesson 2 Bus Schedule

    Here is a bus schedule at a bus stop.

    On most days the buses come on schedule but sometimes they don’t.

    Yesterday for example, several buses were late.

    This is because the traffic yesterday was much heavier than usual.

     

    -How was the traffic yesterday? –It was much heavier than usual.

    -Why were several buses late? –The traffic was heavier than usual.

     

    Bus number 38 was supposed to come at 8:40, but it was 5 minutes late.

    It didn’t come until 8:45.

    Bus number 60 was supposed to come at 8:30.

    But yesterday it didn’t come until 8:40.

    It was 10 minutes late.

    Not one bus come early.

     

    -How many buses came early? –Not one bus came early.

     

    As a result of the delays one man got on the wrong bus.

    He wanted to go to the airport so he wanted to get on bus number 38.

    He expected it to come at 8:40.

    Instead he got on bus number 60, which came at 8:40.

    He didn’t notice that it was the wrong bus.

    It didn’t go to the airport.

    As a result he missed his flight.

     

    -What time was bus number 38 supposed to come? -8:40.

    -Why did the man miss his flight? –He got on the wrong bus.

    Vocabulary

    Lesson 3 Activities &Food

    Weddings are where two people get married.

    This man and woman are getting married.

    The building in the middle is an office building.

    Many people come to work here during the week.

    These people are at a dance party.

    The woman in the green dress is dancing with her boyfriend.

    These two people are meeting for the first time.

    They are shaking hands.

    This young boy is brushing his teeth.

    He brushes his teeth several times a day.

     

    -Who are shaking hands? –They are shaking hands.

    Candies and cakes are sweet because they are made with lots of sugar.

    Eating too many sweets is not good for your teeth.

    Lemons and great food take a little sour so some people don’t like them.

    Some sour tasting foods have a lot of vitamin C.

    These red peppers are very hot and spicy.

    Eating hot or spicy food rises body temperature so don’t eat them before going into bed.

    These foods are deep-fried and greasy.

    Greasy foods have a lot of calories, so don’t eat them if you want to lose weight.

    Healthy foods are usually nature and don’t include dangerous chemical. Fruits and vegetables are examples of healthy foods.

     

    -How do lemons and great food taste? –a little sour.

    Lesson 4 Spatial Relations

     

    The triangle is inside the square.

    The square is around the triangle.

    The triangle is inside the circle.

    The circle is around the triangle.

    The square is inside the triangle.

    The triangle is around the square.

    The circle is between two small squares.

    There is a square on either side of the circle.

    The circle is on the left of the rectangle.

    The rectangle is on the right of the circle.

     

    Dialogue

    Lesson 5 Meeting at the Airport

    W: Hey, where are you? I don’t see you anywhere.

    M: I’m on the subway.

    W: My flight arrived early and I’m tired.

    M: I’m sorry to be late. I’ll be there as fast as I can.

     

    -Where is she? –She is at the airport.

     

    W: Where are you now?

    M: There are three more stops. I’ll be there in ten minutes.

    W: I’ll meet you at the bus stop in front of terminal 2. Then we can get a taxi.

    M: OK. I’ll look for you in front of terminal 2. See you soon.

     

    -What are they going to do after they meet? –Take a taxi.

    Lesson 6 Staying up late

    Lisa: What’s the matter, Tom?

    Tom: I don’t feel well.

    Lisa: Are you sick?

    Tom: No, I don’t think so. I’m just tired.

    Lisa: Didn’t you get enough sleep?

    Tom: No, I didn’t. I went to bed later than usual last night.

     

    -Why didn’t he get enough sleep? –He went to bed later than usual.

     

    Lisa: What time did you go to bed?

    Tom: I didn’t go to bed until 12:00.

    Lisa: Why did you stay up so late?

    Tom: I was watching some videos on line.

     

    -He didn’t go to bed until when? - He didn’t go to bed until 12:00.

     

    Lisa: What kind of videos?

    Tom: Music videos from all over the world.

    Lisa: Really?

    Tom: Sure, I’ll send you some links if you like.

    Lisa: Thanks, I like music videos too. They are really fun.

    Tom: Just don’t stay up too late.

    Lisa: Don’t worry, I won’t stay up too late. I need my sleep.

     

    -Why won’t she stay up too late? –She needs enough sleep.

    He was watching videos.

    He didn’t go to bed until 12:00.

    2/4

    Listening

    Lesson 1 Time Zones

    Our planet, the earth, is the third planet from the sun.

    It is a beautiful, rotating sphere.

    The side facing the sun is in daylight.

    The side facing away from the sun is in darkness.

    For example, when it’s daytime in the US, it’s nighttime in China.

    In fact, there’s a 12-hour time difference between Boston and Shanghai.

    When it’s midnight in Shanghai,it’s noon in Boston.

     

    -Which side of the earth is in daylight? –the side facing the sun.

    -What is the shape of our planet? –a sphere.

    -What time of the day is noon? –It’s 12:00 pm.

    -Which side of the earth is in darkness? –the side facing away from the sun.

     

    The earth rotates from west to east.

    To know which direction is east or west, watch the sun.

    The sun travels through the sky from east to west.

    The sun comes up in the east and goes down in the west.

    Again, this is because the earth rotates.

    It takes 24 hours for the earth to make a complete rotation.

    And that is the length of one day.

     

    -The sun comes up in which direction? –It comes up in the east.

     

    Because of the earth’s rotation, the earth is divided into time zones.

    Some countries, such as the US, have several time zones.

    When it’s 10 am in New York, it’s 7 am in San Francisco.

    Europe and the US are separated by several time zones.

    When it’s 5 pm in Paris, it’s 11 am in Boston.

    So there is a 6-hour difference between Paris and Boston.

    One large country, China, has just one time zone for the whole country.

    As a result, at the same time, some parts of the country can be dark and other parts can be light.

     

    -Which large country has only one time zone? –China.

    -Why is the earth divided into time zones? –It rotates.

     

    As you travel around the earth, the time changes.

    The time of day depends on your location on the planet.

    When you travel east or west, you may cross several time zones.

    For example, if you travel from Beijing to Los Angeles, you cross 8 time zones.

    That means, when it’s noon on Sunday in China, it’s 8 pm on Saturday in Los Angeles.

    For travelers, this means it can be very difficult to sleep after a long flight.

    The clock may say 8 pm, but for your body, it’s noon.

    This is called jet lag.

     

    -What causes jet lag? –crossing several time zones.

    -What happens if you travel east or west? –You may cross several time zones.

    -What changes as you travel around the earth? –the time.

    -What happens if you travel from Beijing to Los Angeles? –You will cross several time zones.

    It depends on how far east or west you travel.

    Crossing several time zones causes jet lag.

    Lesson 2 Kim’s Movie Star Dream

    Kim is a popular Korea actress.

    She’s 28 years old, slim, and beautiful.

    She has a large fan club, and her movies are very popular.

    Everywhere she goes, her fans want her autograph.

    But Kim wants more.

    She wants to be popular all over the world.

     

    -What does Kim do? –She is an actress.

    -What does Kim want? –She wants to be more popular.

    -What do her fans want? –Her autograph.

     

    Tomorrow is a special day for her.

    She’s leaving for Hollywood.

    She’s going to Hollywood to meet with some top movie executives.

    The meeting is scheduled the day after tomorrow.

    If the meeting goes well, she’ll be in a Hollywood movie.

    This is her chance to become a star.

     

    -When is she leaving for Holly Wood? –tomorrow.

    -What will happen if the meeting goes well? –She’ll be in a Hollywood movie.

    -When is she going to meet with executives? –the day after tomorrow.

     

    She met the movie’s director last year.

    He came to Korea and saw her latest movie.

    After that he decided to use her in his new movie.

    Fortunately, Kim’s English is excellent, so she can play the role.

     

    -Who did she meet in Korea last year? –the movie’s director.

    -What did the movie director decide to do? -He decided to use her in his new movie.

     

    The director wants her to play a major role in the movie.

    The movie story will take place in the future.

    At that time the world will be a very different place.

    Unfortunately, much of world will be polluted.

    Robots will do much of the work, and only the very rich can have a good life.

     

    -In the movie, who can have a good life? –the very rich.

    -What are robots? –machines.

     

    The ending of the movie is still a secret.

    Even Kim doesn’t know how it will end.

    But she hopes it will have a happy ending.

    She wants people to have hope for a better future.

     

    -What doesn’t Kim know? –the ending of the movie.

    Vocabulary

    Lesson 3 Action & Comparisons

    These people are having a meeting.

    The woman is giving a presentation.

    This person is having a scary dream.

    In his dream, something is chasing him, so he is running as fast as he can.

    This old man is a tourist.

    He is looking out the window of his tour bus.

    This young couple is in an art museum.

    They are looking at a famous painting.

    The sun is setting behind the mountains.

    The sky is turning red.

     

    Some buses, like this one, take tourists to places like the Great Wall.

    She’s giving a presentation at a meeting.

     

    The longest line is the one on the top.

    The top line is the longest of the three lines.

    The shortest line is the one in the middle.

    The line in the middle is shorter than the other two.

    The bottom line is the shortest.

    The shortest of these three lines is the one on the bottom.

    The shirt on the left is more expensive than the shirt on the right.

    The shirt on the right is less expensive than the shirt on the left.

    The shirt on the left isn’t as expensive as the one on the right.

    The shirt on the left costs less than the one on the right.

     

    The shirt on the left is more expensive than the shirt on the right.

    Lesson 4 Seasons & Weather

    Winter is the coldest season because the sun is at its lowest point in the sky.

    Winter sports include skiing and ice skating.

    Summer is the hottest season because the sun is at its highest point in the sky.

    Many people like to go swimming in the summer because of the hot weather.

    Spring is the season when the weather gets warmer each day.

    For many animals new life begins in the spring.

    Autumn is the season when the weather begins to cool and the days begin to shorten.

    Autumn is when trees turn many colors and leaves fall to the ground.

    Rainy season is the season when some countries get most of the rainfall.

    Rainy season usually lasts for one or two months.

    Dialogue

    Lesson 5 Missing the Flight

    M: Hi, I’m sorry to be late.

    W: What happened? You were supposed to be here an hour ago.

    M: Yes, I know, but I missed my flight.

     

    -How late is he? –H’s an hour late.

     

    W: You missed your flight? How did that happen?

    M: I got on the wrong bus this morning, so I was late to the airport.

    By the time I arrived, the gate was closed.

    W: What did you do then?

    M: I had to rebook my flight and get on the waiting list.

     

    -Why was he late to the airport? –He got on the wrong bus.

    -What did he do when he got to the airport? –He rebooked his flight.

    He had to get on a waiting list because other people were also trying to get on the flight.

     

    W: Oh, that’s too bad. At least you got here.

    M: Yes, it wasn’t easy getting on the next flight. I had to run to the gate.

    W: This kind of thing happens a lot lately. Last week I missed a flight, too.

     

    -What wasn’t easy? –It wasn’t easy getting on the next flight.

     

    M: What happened?

    W: There was a traffic accident near the airport.

    M: You were driving?

    W: No, I wasn’t. I was in a taxi. But it took a long time to get to the airport.

    The traffic was stopped for nearly 15 minutes.

     

    -Why did it take a long time to get to the airport? –The traffic was stopped because of an accident.

     

    W: By the time I got there, it was too late to get on the flight.

    The next flight wasn’t for another 3 hours, so it was a long wait.

    From now on, I’ll try to get to the airport much earlier.

    M: Me too.

     

    -How long did she have to wait for the next flight? –She had to wait three hours. She had to wait three hours for the next flight.

    Lesson 6 A Going Away Party

    M: What’s the matter? Why do you look so sad?

    W: Ada has a new job. She’s going to Beijing.

    M: Really? When is she leaving?

    W: She’s leaving at the end of next week.

    M: That soon?

    W: Yes, she just told me.

    M: That’s too bad. I really enjoy working with her.

    W: Me too, I’m going to miss her.

     

    -When is Ada leaving? –She is leaving at the end of next week.

     

    W: Let’s have a going-away party for her.

    M: Good idea. How about this weekend?

    W: Friday evening would be better. We can have it after work.

    M: Yes, Friday is better.

     

    -When are they going to have the party? –They’re going to have it on Friday evening.

    -Why is Friday evening better than the weekend? –They can have the party after work.

     

    W: Let’s go to her favorite restaurant, okay?

    M: Which one? The Italian one, or the German one?

    W: The Italian one has better food, so let’s go there. Their pizzas are awesome.

     

    -How good are the pizzas at the Italian restaurant? –They are awesome.

    -Why did they decide on the Italian restaurant? –They think it has better food.

     

    M: OK, I’ll make the reservations. 

    W: Let me check with Ada first. We don’t want her to miss her party.

    M: Yeah, that’s for sure. And could you please invite everyone in the office?

    W: Sure, no problem. Nobody will want to miss it.

     

    -What are they going to check with Ada? –They need to confirm that she can come to the party.

    3/4

    Listening

    Lesson 1 Buying a New Car 1-2

    Paul is a very successful businessman.

    He owns several restaurants.

    All of them are doing well.

    In fact, they are very profitable.

    To be profitable means that their income is more than their expenses.

    As a result, he is making a lot of money.

     

    -What does Paul do? –He is a businessman.

    -Why is he making a lot of money? –His restaurants are profitable.

    He is making money because his restaurants are profitable.

     

    Paul wants to buy a new car.

    He’s trying to decide which car to buy.

    He has plenty of money.

    As a result, he isn’t worried about the cost.

    He can afford an expensive car.

     

    -Why isn’t he worry about the cost? –He has plenty of money.

    -As a result is the same as saying… -so

     

    On the other hand, he doesn’t want to waste money.

    He wants a car he can rely on.

    It has to be safe and reliable, especially in cold winter weather.

    If a car breaks down in bad weather, it can be very dangerous.

     

     

    -What kinds of car does he want? –a safe, reliable car.

     

    Paul wants to help reduce pollution and smog.

    He would like to buy a clean car, something good for the environment.

    He is thinking about buying a Tesla.

    The Tesla is an all-electric car.

    It used batteries instead of gasoline.

    There is no exhaust so it doesn’t pollute the air.

     

    -What kind of car is Tesla? –It is a clean, electric car.

    -Why doesn’t the Tesla pollute the air? –It doesn’t exhaust.

     

    However, the car can’t go very far without recharging the battery.

    To charge the battery you can plug it in to an electrical outlet.

    Recharging the battery takes time.

     

    -What takes time? –Recharging the battery.

     

    One of Paul’s friends has one and he is quite happy with it.

    He says it’s reliable and well-engineered.

    There’re also several charging station near Paul’s office.

    So he isn’t worried about that.

    The cost for charging the battery is low.

    It’s less expensive than buying gasoline.

    His wife, Kathy, also likes the idea of buying an electric car.

    She likes the idea of driving a clean car.

    So it makes sense.

     

    -What’s less expensive than buying gasoline? –charging the battery.

    -Why isn’t Paul worried about finding charging stations? –There’re several charging stations near Paul’s office.

     

    In the future there may be driverless cars.

    This may be very safe, but Paul doesn’t like them.

    He enjoys driving.

    He likes to be in control of his car.

     

    -What does Paul enjoy doing? –He enjoys driving.

    Vocabulary

    Lesson 3 Spatial Relations & Needs

    The man in the middle is the heaviest.

    The man in the middle is heavier than the other two.

    The woman on the left is smarter than the man on the right.

    The man isn’t as smart as the woman is.

    The woman is standing under a bridge.

    The bridge is above the woman.

    There is a bridge over the river.

    The river is flowing beneath the bridge. The water is flowing over a waterfall.

    The waterfall is very high and beautiful.

    People need passports to travel internationally.

    Without a passport, you cannot leave your country or enter another country.

    You need a driver’s license to drive a car.

    It is against the law to drive without a driver’s license.

    Many people use credit cards to buy things on credit.

    When you have a credit card, you don’t need to carry cash.

    Smart phones are very useful and can do many things.

    You can use them to make phone calls, play games, or go shopping on the internet.

    We need to buy tickets in order to take a train, or watch a sport event.

    You can often buy tickets on line and sometimes you can get a discount.

     Lesson 4 Places of Business

    Banks are where people can deposit or withdraw money.

    You can also use online bank to pay bills, such as your credit card bill.

    Hotels are where travelers can stay overnight or for several days.

    If you plan to stay at a hotel you should make a reservation.

    Restaurants are where people go to eat with friends and family.

    There are many different kinds of restaurants, such as Indian, Italian, or Chinese restaurants.

    Repair shops are where people go to fix things which are broken or not working right.

    This repair shop fixes cars and can check to see if it’s safe to drive.

    Coffee shops are favorite place to meet new people or take a break from the office. They are usually less expensive than restaurants.

    Dialogue

    Lesson 5 Ordering Food from Home

    M: I’m tired of going out to eat. Let’s eat at home tonight.

    W: OK, are you going to cook?

    M: No, it’s too late, you know I’m not a good cook. Let’s order something.

     

    -What are they going to do? –They are going to order food.

    -Why does he want to eat at home? –He’s tired of going out to eat.

     

    W: What do you have in mind?

    M: I was thinking about a nice big pizza.

    W: Again? I had pizza last night. So, please, no pizza.

     

    -What was he thinking about ordering? –He was thinking about ordering a pizza.

    -Why doesn’t she want pizza? –She’s tired of eating pizza.

     

    M: OK, no pizza. Let’s order Chinese food, okay?

    W: Sweet and sour? You always like sweet and sour. I feel like eating something hot and spicy.

    M: OK, you order something hot and spicy, and I order sweet and sour. I don’t want anything spicy.

    My stomach doesn’t feel good. It’s a bit upset.

     

    -What does she feel like eating? –something hot and spicy.

    -Why doesn’t he want something hot and spicy? –His stomach doesn’t feel good.

     

    W: OK, if you want sweet and sour then I’ll have that too. And I’ll make a salad with lots of tomatoes.

    How long will it take for the food to get here.

    M: I don’t know. I’ll call and find out.

    W: Thanks. Hopefully it won’t take longer than an hour. I’m getting hungry.

     

    -What do they finally decide to order? –They decide to order sweet and sour.

    -How long will it take for the food to be delivered? –They don’t know.

    Lesson 6 Are Selfies Good or Bad?

    M: Hey, what did you do last night?

    W: I took a long walk from my hotel.

    M: You didn’t get lost?

    W: No, I didn’t.

     

    -What did she do last night? –She took a long walk.

    -What is she staying? –She is staying at a hotel.

     

    M: Where did you go, anywhere interesting?

    W: I walked to river. There were thousands of people there.

    M: You went to the river? How long did it take you to walk there.

    W: It took around 20 minutes.

    M: Did you see anything interesting?

    W: I was really surprised by how many people were there.

     

    -How did she get to the river? –She walked to the river.

    -What did she see at the river? –She saw thousands of people there.

     

    W: Many of them were taking pictures and selfies, Lots of selfies.

    M: Do you take selfies?

    W: Sure, don’t you?

    M: Sometimes, but my girlfriend takes a lot of selfies. Then she shares them with her friends on line.

    I don’t understand why people like to take so many pictures of themselves.

    W: That’s because you are old-fashioned.

     

    -What does his girlfriend put on line? –She puts her selfies on line.

    -What does it mean to take a selfies? –It means to take a picture of yourself with your smart phone.

     

    M: Hmm, I guess you are right. There are too many social media for me.

    When I go to a restaurant, I see many people looking at their smart phones.

    They don’t even look at the people they are with.

    W: Times are changing, my friend, whether you like it or not.

     

    -What are the people doing in the restaurant? –They are looking at their smart phones.

    4/4

    Listening

    Lesson 1 Christina’s Future Plans 1-2

    Christina sells women’s clothing in a department store.

    She usually works six days a week, but this week she’s going to take three days off.

    She’s taking time off so that she can visit her parents.

    Her parents live in the mountains, about three hours away by train.

    They are looking forward to seeing her.

    They haven’t seen her for almost a year.

    Christina is their only child.

     

    -What does Christina sell? –Women’s clothing.

    -When was the last time Christina saw her parents? –It was almost a year ago.

    -Why is she taking time off? –She is taking time off to visit her parents.

     

    Christina isn’t going on the trip by herself.

    Her boyfriend is going with her.

    She is going to introduce him to her parents.

    She and her boyfriend want to get married.

    If everything goes well, they plan to get married in 6 months.

     

    -What is the purpose of the trip? –To introduce her boyfriend to her parents.

    -When do they plan to get married? –In 6 months.

     

    After they get married, Christina plans to quit her job.

    She wants to spend more time designing clothes.

    She wants to set up her own business.

    This will take time.

    Her boyfriend thinks it’s a good idea.

    He is also thinking about starting his own business.

     

    -What does Christina plan to do after she gets married? –She plans to quit her job.

    -What does her boyfriend think it’s a good idea? –Start her own business.

     

    They don’t plan to have children right away.

    In fact, they may decide not to have children.

    They don’t know yet.

    It’s going to be a big decision.

     

    -What’s going to be a big decision? –To have children or not.

    -What may they decide not to do? –They may decide not to have children.

     

    Christina’s parents want her to marry and have children.

    They are looking forward to have grandchildren.

    They don’t want her to start her own business.

    They think it’s more important to have children.

    In fact, they would like her to live closer to them.

    They want to be close to their grandchildren.

     

    -What do Christina’s parents want? –They want her to marry and have children.

    -Where would Christina’s parents like her to live? –They would like her to live nearby.

     

    So Christina doesn’t plan to tell her parents everything.

    For now, she just wants them to meet her boyfriend.

    She wants them to be happy that she is going to get married.

    She wants them to like him and see her happiness.

    She wants her parents to accept her way of life.

    Life isn’t the same now as it used to be.

    Times are changing.

     

    -What does Christina want her parents to do for now? –She just wants them to meet her boyfriend.

    Vocabulary

    Lesson 3 Jobs & Weather

    Mechanics, like this one, fix cars.

    He is working in a repair shop.

    A delivery person delivers things, such as pizzas.

    This person works for a restaurant.

    A pharmacist sells medicines.

    Pharmacists, like this woman, work in a pharmacy.

    Thieves, like this one, steal things.

    This thief is stealing a television from a home.

    A musician, like this one, plays music.

    This musician is playing a guitar.

     

    Stealing things is against the law.

     

    These people are wearing masks because of the smog.

    One cause of smog is automobile exhaust.

    It’s raining hard so you need an umbrella.

    Heavy rain like this can cause flooding and mud slides.

    When the sky is overcast we can’t see the sun because of the clouds.

    A cloudy sky means that it might rain.

    We need to wear a coat when it’s cold and windy.

    In a very strong wind, it’s difficult to use an umbrella.

    We need to drink water or other liquids when it’s hot outside.

    When it’s really hot most people turn on the air conditioning.

    Lesson 4 Things to Read

    Here are some different types of things to read.

    Works or fictions include novels, short stories and plays, such as Shakespeare.

    We read fiction to enjoy stories of imagination and adventure.

    People read the news to learn about what’s happening in the world.

    We can get the news in newspapers and online.

    When we buy something, we often need to read an instruction manual.

    Instruction manuals show us how to put together or install things.

    Non-fiction works include biographies and books about science and history.

    We read non-fiction to learn about different subjects and real people.

    We can learn about the latest scientific research in journals and academic papers.

    Many online universities courses give a list of research papers to read.

    Dialogue

    Lesson 5 Foot Injury

    M1: What’s wrong?

    M2: I can’t walk. My left foot hurts.

    M1: Is it broken?

    M2: I don’t know if it’s broken, but it sure hurts.

     

    -What hurts? –His left foot hurts.

     

    M1: There’s one way to find out if it’s broken.

    M2: How?

    M1: You need to see a doctor. The doctor can X-ray your foot.

     

    -How can they find out if his foot is broken? –They need to see a doctor.

    -Who can X-ray his foot? –a doctor.

     

    M2: OK, let’s go. I can’t walk by myself. Can you help me into a taxi?

    M1: Sure, I’ll call a taxi. I’ll get you to a hospital as soon as possible.

    M2: Thanks. I sure hope it isn’t broken.

    M1: We’ll find out soon enough.

     

    -Where do they want to go? –They want to go to a hospital.

    Lesson 6 Discussing Eating out

    W: I don’t feel like cooking tonight. Let’s go out.

    M: Where would you like to go?

    W: I feel like eating some great Italian food.

    M: How about AI’s Italian, it’s always good.

     

    -What doesn’t she feel like doing? –cooking.

     

    W: We went there last week. Let’s try something new. You have no imagination.

    You always want to go to the same place.

    M: Right, I don’t like unpleasant surprises. I just want things to be simple.

     

    -What does she want to do? –She wants to try something new.

    -Why doesn’t she want to go to AI’s Italian? –They went there last week.

     

    W: OK, let’s compromise.

    M: What does that mean? What do you mean by compromise?

    W: Let’s go 50-50.

    This time we’ll go someplace new and new and next time we can go to one of your favorites.

    M: OK, I’ll compromise and make you halfway.

    W: Good, I’ll look for something new and make reservations.

     

    -What does she suggest? –She suggests that they compromise.

     

    M: Great, let’s not go too late.

    W: I’ll make reservations for 8. Is that okay?

    M: Yes, perfect.

     

    He doesn’t like unpleasant surprises.

    Unit2

    1/4

    Listening

    Lesson 1 Stats of Matter

    Matter is made of atoms and molecules.

    Water, for example, is the H2O molecule.

    This means that a molecule of water has 3 atoms.

    A water molecule has 2 hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom.

    Substances like sugar have many atoms in their molecules.

    A molecule of sugar has many atoms, including carbine, hydrogen and oxygen.

     

    -What is H2O? –The water molecule.

    -What is matter made of? –Atoms and molecules.

     

    Matter is made of molecules such as the H2O which is the water molecule.

    Matter can be in one of 3 states, solid, liquid or gas.

    Water and ice are the same substance, but they are in different states.

    These states depend on the temperature of the molecules.

    When we heat a substance, the molecules move faster and try to take up more space.

    When we cool a substance, the molecules move more slowly.

    When we cool a substance to its freezing point, it becomes a solid.

     

    -How many states of matter are there? –Three.

    -What happens when we heat a substance? –the molecules move faster and try to take up more space.

    -What happens if we cool a liquid to its freezing point? –It becomes a solid.

     

    In a solid, the molecules move very little.

    Their positions are almost fixed.

    To be fixed means that their positions don’t change.

    If we heat the molecules, they move faster and away from each other.

    The solid begins to melt, like ice cream on a hot day.

     

    -How can we change a solid into a liquid? –heat it up.

    -How can we change a liquid into a solid? –cool it down.

     

    At a certain temperature, a solid begins to change into a liquid.

    The temperature at which a solid changes into a liquid depends on the substances.

    For water, the solid begins to change into a liquid when its temperature rises to above 100 degrees Celsius.

    For some substances, such as steel, the temperature at which it becomes a liquid is much higher.

    Steel often melts at around 1370 degrees Celsius.

     

    -At what temperature does ice begin to melt? –Above 0 degree Celsius.

    -What does the temperature at which a substance begins to melt depend on? –The substances.

     

    If we continue to heat a liquid, the molecules move even faster.

    At a certain temperature, the liquid begins to change into a gas.

    For water, the liquid begins to change into a gas at 100 degrees Celsius. This is the boiling point of water.

     

    -What happens if we continue to heat a liquid? –Molecules move even faster.

     

    Inside a star, such as our sun, the temperature is very high.

    Everything inside the sun is a gas.

    According to scientists, there are over 65 elements inside the sun.

    These include oxygen and iron.

    Over 90% of the sun is hydrogen gas.

     

    -How many elements are inside the sun? –More than 65.

     

     Lesson 2 Test Results

    Yesterday there was an important science test.

    Lisa, Tom and 20 other classmates took the test.

    The test was about the states of matter and how they are different.

    There were 25 questions on the test, and they had 45 minutes to take it.

     

    Here are some of the test results.

    Two students got perfect scores.

    The lowest score was 68 out of a hundred.

    The average score was 86.3

    Eleven students scored higher than average.

    Eleven students had below average scores.

     

    Tom missed two questions on the test, so his score was 92.

    His score was the eighth highest in the class.

    Lisa missed two and a half questions, so her score was 90.

    Her score was the tenth highest score.

    Her score was 4 points higher than the average score.

     

    Lisa was disappointed with her test results.

    She studied hard for the test, but she still didn’t do well.

    As a result, she plans to study harder for the next test.

    The next test will be in about two weeks.

     

    Tom was surprised and happy with his test results.

    He didn’t study hard, so his result was better than he expected.

    He was also happy that he did better than Lisa did.

     

     

    Vocabulary

    Lesson 3 Emotions

    She is screaming because she is really scared.

    Something is chasing her so she is screaming for help.

    He is shouting because he is angry.

    When he’s really angry he often shouts like this.

    She is sleeping because she’s tired.

    Last night she didn’t get enough sleep, so today she has no energy.

    She’s crying because she’s sad.

    She got some bad news a few minutes ago.

    She’s smiling because she’s happy.

    Her boyfriend just called and he’s returning from a long trip.

     

    Who is smiling because she got some good news?

    Lesson 4 Hobbies

    This man is hiking up a mountain trail.

    He is wearing hiking boots and is carrying a pack on his back.

    This man enjoys cooking.

    He attends a cooking class once a week.

    This woman enjoys gardening.

    She grows flowers, such as roses, and vegetables, such as tomatoes, in her garden.

    This boy loves playing games.

    He likes all kinds of games, including this video games on his computer.

    This old couple enjoys travelling.

    They take several trips a year, often to different countries.

    Dialogue

    Lesson 5 Ready for the Meeting

    W: Oh, there you are, finally.

    M: Yeah, I’m sorry.

    W: Why are you so late? You were supposed to be here 30 minutes ago.

    M: I got on the wrong subway by mistake.

     

    -When was he supposed to be there? -30 minutes ago.

    -Why was he late? –He took the wrong subway.

     

    W: Why didn’t you call? I was really worried.

    M: I don’t have my phone. I left it in the office because I was in such a hurry to get here.

    W: OK, well, you’re here now. We don’t have much time.

    M: Yes, we’ll have to hurry. The meeting starts in 15 minutes, right?

    W: Yes, it’s supposed to, if everyone gets here on time.

     

    -When is the meeting supposed to start? –in 15 minutes.

    -To hurry means.. –To go fast.

     

    W: Did you read my presentation?

    M: Yes, I do. It’s good, but it’s a bit too long. I’m afraid there won’t be enough time for questions.

    W: Do you have any suggestions?

    M: Yes, I do. I think the company introduction can be cut in half. They know what we do.

    W: OK, I won’t show the video. It’s about 2 minutes long.

    M: That’s a good idea. The video is on our website and is not that good any way.

     

    -What is she going to cut from her presentation? –the video.

    -Why is the presentation a bit too long? –There isn’t enough time for questions.

     

    W: Do you have any other suggestions?

    M: No, I don’t. I’m sure you’re doing a great job. Are you ready?

    W: Yes, I’m ready. The meeting room is on the 21st floor.

    M: OK, let’s go.

     

    -Where is the meeting going to be? –in a meeting room.

    She’s ready to give her presentation at the meeting.

    Lesson 6 Discussing Test Results

    Lisa: How did you do on yesterday’s science test?

    Tom: I did better than expected. How about you?

    Lisa: I didn’t do very well. I expected to do better than I did.

    Tom: What was your score?

    Lisa: I got a 90. What about you?

    Tom: I got a 92. I only missed two questions.

     

    -How well did he do on the test? –He did better than expected.

    She didn’t do as well as she expected.

     

    Lisa: So you did better than I did. And I really study for it too.

    Tom: That is a surprise. You usually do better than I do.

    Lisa: Yes, I wasn’t careful. I made one really stupid mistake.

    Tom: What was it?

    Lisa: I said 90% of the sun is Helium instead of Hydrogen.

    Tom: Wow. That was a stupid mistake.

     

    -Why was he surprised by the result? –He did better than she did.

     

    Tom: What was the average score for the class, do you know?

    Lisa: The average score was 86.3 and the lowest was 68.

    Tom: Do you know who got the lowest test score?

    Lisa: No, I don’t. I don’t know who got the lowest score.

    Tom: It’s probably a secret. Did anyone get a perfect score?

    Lisa: I think Ada and Sandi both got perfect score.

    Tom: Yes, they always do well. I wish I were as smart as they are.

     

    -What was the average test score? -86.3.

     

    2/4

    Listening

    Lesson 1 Paul’s Trip Plan 1-2

    In six weeks Paul is going on a trip.

    He is going to Japan and China.

    There are a couple of reasons for the trip.

    One reason is for business.

    He is thinking about starting restaurants in both countries.

    The other reason is for pleasure.

    He enjoys travelling and he’d like to visit some friends.

     

    -What’s going to happen in six weeks? –He is going on a trip.

    -What is he thinking about starting in both countries? –He is thinking about starting restaurants.

     

    Yesterday he went online and made airline reservations.

    There were plenty of seats on the plane, so it was easy.

    He also got a good discount.

    Unfortunately, he needs a new passport.

    His old passport is expiring next week.

    This is something he didn’t expect.

    Getting a new passport will take at least a week.

    He needs to apply for one right away.

     

    -Why did he need to get a new passport? –His old one is expiring soon.

    -What did he need to do right away? –apply for a new passport.

    -How long will it take to get a new passport? –At least a week.

     

    Paul also needs a visa to enter China.

    The last time he went to China was 3 years ago.

    Getting a visa may also take a week or even two.

    So he doesn’t have much time.

    He needs to hurry.

    He can’t get the visa until he gets his new passport.

    He’ll have to go to the Chinese consulate in Toronto.

    Hopefully there won’t be any delays.

     

    -What may take a week or two? –getting a visa.

    -When was the last time he went to China? -3 years ago.

     

    Paul has several friends in each country.

    One of his best friends lives near Mountain Fuji.

    His friend lives near a beautiful lake about 3 hours from Tokyo.

    His friend is a great cook and owns a little restaurant.

    The restaurant is located on a hill above the lake.

    It has a wonderful view and the food is wonderful.

    Paul is looking forward to eating there.

    Then he will spend the night at his friend’s house.

     

    -Where is Paul going to stay? –He’ll stay at his friend’s house.

    -What does his friend do? –He owns a restaurant.

     

    One way to get to his friend’s house is to go by train.

    If he takes a train his friend will meet him at the train station.

    There’s a train station about half an hour from his friend’s house.

    On the other hand he may decide to go by car.

    He can rent a car for a few days and see more of the country.

    He can use a GPS to help him with directions.

    He doesn’t speak Japanese so the directions need to be in English.

     

    -Why do the directions need to be in English? –He doesn’t speak Japanese.

    -If he takes a train, who will meet him? –His friend.

     

    In China Paul has a good friend who lives in Beijing.

    They studied at the same university in Canada more than 15 years ago.

    His Chinese friend wants to help Paul with his business.

    His friend has lots of business experiences.

    His friend can help Paul learn about doing business in China.

    Paul knows there is a lot to learn.

    He will certainly need his friend’s help.

     

    -Where did Paul meet his Chinese friend? –At a university in Canada.

    -What does Paul want to learn? –About doing business in China.

     

    While in Beijing, they plan to visit several Italian restaurants.

    They may meet with some of the owners too, but it isn’t certain yet.

    Most of the owners are Chinese.

    One or two of them may want to do business with Paul.

    If he has time he may go to the Great Wall of China.

    It’s a few hours outside Beijing by car.

     

    -Who may want to do business with Paul? –One or two restaurant owners.

     

    Altogether, the trip may take three or more weeks.

    Paul still isn’t sure how long he will stay in each country.

    He may spend a week in Japan and two weeks in China.

    He may decide to stay longer.

    Everything depends on his friends.

    He expects to get more information from them in the next day or two.

     

    -When does he expect to hear from his friends? –In a couple of days.

    -What do his plans depend on? –His friends.

    Vocabulary

    Lesson 3 Sports

    In basketball, players score points by shooting a basketball through a hoop.

    Each side has 5 players and the game is played on a basketball court.

    Football is probably the world’s most popular sport.

    Each team tries to score a goal by kicking the ball into a net.

    Baseball is a team sport where each side has 9 players.

    Baseball players use a bat to try to hit the ball and get on base.

    Golf is an individual sport where players try to hit the ball into a hole in the ground.

    The game is played on a golf course with 18 holes.

    In boxing the two boxers stand in a boxing ring and hit each other.

    Sometimes a boxer, like this one, knocks the other one out.

    Lesson 4 Injuries

    When people fall down, they can break a bone.

    A broken bone can be very painful.

    If someone is cut, they will bleed.

    A knife or sharp object can cut someone and cause bleeding.

    Poisons are very dangerous and cause death.

    Some snakes and spiders are poisonous, so be careful.

    A heart attack can happen very suddenly.

    If someone has a heart attack, call for an ambulance right away.

    If you catch on fire, fall to the ground and roll.

    Getting too close to a fire can be very dangerous.

    Dialogue

    Lesson 5 A Nightmare

    M: What’s the matter? You look really tired today.

    W: I am tired. I didn’t sleep well last night.

    M: Bad dream.

    W: Yes, exactly. I had a terrible dream, a really nightmare.

    M: So it woke you up.

    W: Yes, it woke me up. I was really scared.

    M: I’ve had those kinds of dreams too.

    W: It was so scary that I was afraid to go back to sleep.

     

    -Why didn’t she sleep well last night? –She had a terrible dream.

     

    M: Was something chasing you?

    W: No, nothing was chasing me, but I was falling.

    I was falling faster and faster, and it was dark. I couldn’t see or hear anything.

    M: Can you remember anything else?

    W: Yes, I remember now. In my dream I was screaming, but there was no sound.

    I thought I was going to die at any second.

    M: Wow. That is scary.

     

    -What was she doing in her dream? –falling and screaming.

     

    M: So what did you do when you woke up?

    W: I didn’t want to go back to sleep, so I checked the news online. Then I played the game.

    M: You didn’t go back to sleep?

    W: Actually I got too tired playing the game than I fell asleep.

    M: Well, at least you got some sleep. Some sleep is better than no sleep.

    W: I guess so. But I’m still tired. I hope I can get through the day.

     

    -What did she do when she woke up? –She went online.

    -What was she doing when she fell asleep? –She was playing a game online.

     

    M: Have a good lunch and then work out in the afternoon.

    W: Thanks, I’m already feeling a bit better.

    M: Hey, look, the boss is coming. Look like you’re working hard.

     

    -How is she feeling now? –She’s feeling a bit better.

    She had a terrible dream, and it woke her up.

    Lesson 6 Toilet Trouble

    M: Hey, what’s that awful smell?

    W: The toilet is broken in the men’s bathroom.

    M: Wow. I can’t work when it smells this bad. I need some fresh air.

     

    -What’s causing the awful smell? –a broken toilet.

    -Why can’t he work? –He can’t work because of the bad smell.

     

    W: OK, let’s take a break and go out for a walk. Get your computer and we can work at a coffee shop.

    M: Good idea. When do you think it will be cleaned up?

    W: A plumber is coming and he should be here soon. By the time we get back, the smell should be gone.

     

    -Who is coming to fix the toilet? –a plumber.

    -To take a break means… -To stop working for a while.

     

    M: That’s one job that I wouldn’t want. I hate to be around bad smells. What about you?

    W: Me too. I wouldn’t want to be a plumber.

    M: There are lots of jobs that I wouldn’t want.

    W: We can talk about that later. Get your computer and let’s get out of here.

     

    -What job wouldn’t they want to have? –They wouldn’t want to be a plumber.

    3/4

    Listening

    Lesson 1 Paul’s Overseas Trip 1-2

    Last month Paul went on a trip.

    He went to Japan and China.

    There were a couple of reasons for the trip.

    One reason for the trip was for business.

    He wanted to start some restaurants in both countries.

    The other reason was for pleasure.

    Paul enjoys travelling and he wanted to visit some friends.

     

    -What was he thinking about starting in both countries? –some restaurants.

     

    Before leaving on the trip Paul had several problems.

    First his passport was going to expire.

    As a result he needed to apply for a new passport.

    Second he needed to get a visa to enter China.

    In order to apply for a visa, he needed his new passport.

    He had 6 weeks to get everything done.

     

    -Why did he need a visa? –He needed a visa to enter China.

     

    After applying for a new passport it took 2 weeks to get it.

    Once he got the passport he went to the Chinese consulate in Toronto and applied for a visa.

    He filled out an application form and stood in a long line.

    He was surprised by how many people were applying for visas. It took more than an hour to submit his application.

     

    -How long did it take to submit the application? –It took more than an hour to submit it.

    -Why did he go to the Chinese consulate? –To apply for a visa.

     

    He submitted his application for the visa on a Friday.

    A week later he went back to the consulate to pick up his visa.

    To his surprise, when he got there, the consulate was closed.

    The consulate was closed because it was a Chinese holiday.

    Paul was angry at himself for not checking the consulate’s website.

    On its website the consulate’s schedule was posted.

    There was a notice saying that the consulate would be closed that day.

     

    -Why was the consulate closed? –It was a Chinese holiday.

      

    As a result, Paul had to come back the next Monday.

    This was because the consulate was closed on weekends.

    Finally on Monday, he got the visa and he was ready to go.

     

    -Why did he have to wait until Monday to come back? –The consulate was closed on weekends.

     

    Another problem with the trip was his travel schedule.

    He needed to extend his stay in Japan.

    One week in Japan wasn’t enough.

    3 Japanese restaurant owners wanted to meet with him.

    He needed more time for the meetings than a couple of days.

    And he didn’t want to miss staying with the good friend of his.

     

    -What did he need to do his schedule? –He needed to extend his stay in Japan.

    -What didn’t he want to miss? –Staying with a good friend of his.

     

    His friend lives near Mountain (Mt. for short) Fuji and owns a great restaurant.

    This was one thing Paul didn’t want to miss.

    As a result he extended his stay in Japan.

    Instead of staying for just a week, he decided to stay for 10 days.

     

    -What does his friend own? –He owns a great restaurant.

     

    As a result he had to change the dates for staying in China.

    The meetings in China were delayed by 3 days.

    Instead of arriving on the 1st of the month, he arrived on the 4th.

    Fortunately, there were no problems with his new schedule in China.

     

    -What problems were caused by his new schedule in China? –It didn’t cause any problems.

     

    However there were fewer meetings than he expected.

    There wasn’t much interest in opening new Italian restaurants. Still, he had one very good meeting.

    He met a young Chinese restaurant owner who was interested.

    The young man already has a restaurant, but he wants to improve it.

    He and Paul liked each other right away.

    They met twice in Beijing and are planning to meet again.

     

    -How much interest was there in opening new Italian restaurants? –not much.

    -How many times did Paul meet the young man? –They met twice.

     

    The young Chinese man’s name is G.

    He is planning to come to see Paul.

    They’re going to meet lately next week in Toronto.

    Together they will work on a business plan.

    Paul is glad that he took the trip.

    He thinks it was a successful and enjoyable trip.

     

    -What are they going to work on? –a business plan.

    Vocabulary

    Lesson 3 Emergency Vehicles

    Ambulances are used to transport injured or sick people to a hospital.

    An ambulance is trained medical personal who can treat injured or sick people.

    A wheel chair is for people who can’t walk.

    Wheel chairs have 4 wheels and are often pushed by people from behind.

    Fire engines are used to fight fires.

    Firefighters like this one often rescue people from burning buildings.

    Tow trucks are used to tow cars, this tow truck is towing a car to a repair shop.

    Helicopters are used to rescue people from dangerous places.

    This helicopter is lifting someone from a sinking boat.

     

    If your car won’t start, you should call for a tow truck.

    Lesson 4 Weather & Activities

    This tree is bending over because of the strong wind.

    It’s going to be windy for the next few days.

    It’s a very clear night, so they can look up and see many stars.

    There isn’t a single cloud in the sky.

    It’s very cold today, so they are wearing very warm clothes.

    Without warm clothes, they would freeze to death.

    It’s nice to eat ice cream on a hot day.

    This mother is buying ice cream for her daughter.

    This old man has to wear glasses to read.

    Without reading glasses, he can’t see clearly enough to read.

    Dialogue

    Lesson 5 Checking up on Ada

    M: How was Ada’s new job in Beijing?

    W: It seems to be going well. I talked with her last night.

    M: How much is she getting paid?

    W: I’m not sure. She said she’s earning more, but I don’t know she’s getting.

    M: Where is she living? Has she found a flat?

    W: No, not yet. She’s living with a friend, until she can find one of her own.

    Flats are more expensive there, and the quality isn’t good.

     

    -Who is Ada living with? –She’s living with a friend.

    -How long will Ada be living with her friend? –She’s going to stay until she can find a flat of her own.

     

    M: Did she say anything else?

    W: Her biggest complaint is the air quality. She hates the pollution.

    On some days the pollution is so bad that she is afraid to breathe.

    M: Yeah, I won’t want to live there.

    W: She’s hoping it will get better.

    M: I’m sure we will, but it’ll take time, especially with all the cars.

     

    -What is Ada’s biggest complaint? –the poor air quality.

     

    W: She also said she is still looking for a new boyfriend.

    M: That shouldn’t be difficult. She’s nice and she’s good-looking. Has she met anyone?

    W: No, I don’t think so. She’s looking for someone on the internet.

    M: Maybe she’ll be lucky.

    W: I think I’m going to try that too.

    M: Really?

    W: What other choices do we have? It’s so difficult to meet someone new. I never have any time.

    M: Me too. I’m always working. Maybe I’ll try online dating too.

     

    -Where is she looking for a new boyfriend? –She is looking for someone on the internet.

     

    M: If I’m lucky I may meet someone new, like Steve’s girlfriend.

    W: Oh, come one, you’re joking, right? I hope you can find someone better than her.

    M: Steve seems happy enough.

    W: Yes, but he is blind by love, you know that. I’m sure you won’t last for long.

    As soon as she gets bored, she’ll find someone else.

    M: You may be right. Let’s wait and see.

     

    -What is blinding Steve? –He is blinded by love.

     

    M: Hey, what about dinner? 

    W: Sure, it’s getting late and maybe I’ll be the woman of your dreams.

    M: Well, let’s take one night at a time. Let’s have some Indian food, okay?

    W: OK, tend and chicken for me. And I’m hungry.

     

    -What kind of food are they going to eat? –They are going to have Indian food. She’s earning more, but we don’t know how much she’s being paid.

     

     

    4/4

    Listening

    Lesson 1 Overview of Earth

    Earth is where we all live.

    It is our home in the solar system.

    There is no other place for us to live.

    Earth isn’t just any planet.

    It’s a very special place.

    It’s special because we depend on it for many things.

    Because of its importance we need to take care of it.

     

    -Why is earth so specially? –We depend on it for many things.

     

    We depend on the earth for its air, its water and many of its nature resources.

    Nature resources such as coal and oil give us energy.

    Other nature resources we depend on include forests and soil.

    Forests provide clean air and wood for building houses.

    Soil is needed to grow plants and keep them healthy.

    We need to take care of these resources and not to waste them.

     

    -What are examples of nature resources? –Coal and oil.

    -What don’t we want to do with nature resources? –We don’t want to waste them.

     

    The earth is a large, rotating sphere, about 4.5 billion years old.

    The equator, which divides the earth into two hemispheres, is about 40 thousand kilometers long.

    The earth’s diameter is 12756 kilometers.

    Its radius is half that, or 6378 kilometers.

    The radius is the distance from the earth center to its surface.

    Most of the earth’s surface is covered by water.

    About 75% of the earth’s surface is covered by water.

    The rest of the earth’s surface is land.

     

    -What divides the earth into two hemispheres? –The equator.

    -Besides water, what is the rest of the earth’s surface? –The rest of the earth’s surface is land.

     

    Just above the earth’s surface is the atmosphere.

    The atmosphere is a layer of gases about 500 kilometers thick.

    These gases include oxygen, nitrogen and carbon dioxide.

    This mixture of gases is the air that we breathe.

    As we move about the earth’s surface, the air gets thinner.

    At high altitudes, the air is too thin to breathe.

    At the edge of the atmosphere is space.

    There is no air at all in space.

     

    -Why can’t we breathe at very high altitudes? –The air is too thin.

    -What is at the upper edge of the atmosphere? –Space.

    -About how thick is the atmosphere? –It’s about 500 kilometer thick.

    Lesson 2 Water on Earth

    Most of the earth’s water is in the oceans.

    The two largest oceans are the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans.

    Unfortunately, we can’t drink ocean water.

    This is because ocean water has too much salt.

    Fortunately there is also water in lakes and rivers. These water isn’t salty so we can drink it.

    Only about 2% of the world’s water is fresh water.

    Without fresh drinking water we can’t live.

    A person can’t live for more than a few days without water.

     

    -How is fresh water different from ocean water? –Fresh water isn’t salty.

    -Why can’t we drink ocean water? –It has too much salt.

    One problem with ocean water is that we cannot drink it.

     

    Rivers are important.

    Most rivers begin in mountains and end in the oceans.

    The water flows from high ground to low ground.

    At first rivers are small and are called creeks or streams.

    As water enters from other streams, a river grows.

     

    -Where do most rivers end? –In the oceans.

    -In which diction do rivers flow? –It flows from high ground to low ground.

     

    Some rivers become very large and long.

    The longest river in the world is the Nile River, in Africa.

    It’s almost 6500 kilometers long.

    As for water volume, the Amazon is the largest river.

    The volume of water flowing through it per second is more than in any other river.

     

    -What is the world’s largest river by volume? –The Amazon, in South America.

     

    Another use of rivers is for energy.

    The energy of falling water is used to produce electricity.

    This use of water supplies over 20% of the world’s electricity.

    Rivers are also important for agriculture.

    Without water, farmers cannot grow food.

    And of course rivers can be used for transportation.

    Riverboats are used to carry things to inland cities or lakes.

     

    -How do farmers depend on rivers? –They are needed to grow food.

    Vocabulary

    Lesson 3 Things We Enjoy Doing

    This man goes running 5 days a week if the weather is good.

    On the weekends he runs 10 kilometers unless the weather is bad.

    This woman really enjoys reading, especially works of fiction.

    She has read hundreds of books.

    This young couple enjoys watching old movies, such as Titanic.

    They both cried when it sank and many people went down with the ship.

    These young boys enjoy playing sports on the weekend.

    Sometimes they play basketball and sometimes they play football.

    This young man eats too much sweet so he is overweight. He need to eat fewer sweets and exercises more.

     

    He is overweight because he eats too many sweets.

     Lesson 4 Continents

    Here are six of the earth’s seven continents.

    Asia is the largest continent both in land and in population.

    Asia covers 30% of the earth’s land area.

    Africa is the second largest continent.

    Of all the continent Africa has the youngest population.

    Europe is to the west of Asia, and is second smallest continent.

    Europe is the birthplace of classical music and some of the world’s greatest art and literature.

    North and South America are bordered on the west by the Pacific Ocean and on the east by the Atlantic Ocean.

    The first human beings to live in the Americas came from Asia more the 50000 years ago.

    Australia is the world’s smallest continent and the world’s largest island.

    Australia is surrounded by the Indian and Pacific Oceans.

    Dialogue

    Lesson 5 A Driverless Car

    M1: Hey , look at that.

    M2: Look at what?

    M1: Look out the window. Do you see the young lady in the red dress?

    M2: Yeah, I see her. Wow, she is beautiful and hot. Look at the way she walks.

    M1: Yes, no one behind her. Look in the car that’s following her.

    M2: I’d rather look at the young lady.

     

    -What does his opinion about the young lady? –He thinks she’s beautiful and hot.

    -Where is he supposed to look? –in the car.

     

    M2: So what’s so special about the car?

    M1: Look at the driver, do you see one?

    M2: No, I don’t. There isn’t anybody driving the car.

    M1: Right. It’s one of those new driverless cars.

    M2: Maybe it’s the woman’s car. It’s following her.

    M1: I don’t know. Maybe you are right.

    M2: Now that’s a smart car. Maybe I’ll go outside and follow her too.

    M1: Hey, get back to work.

     

    -Who is driving the car? –no one.

    -What is the car following? –a young lady.

    Lesson 6 Calling Customer Service

    Answering machine: Thank you for calling our customer support.

    Please listen to the following menu to help us direct your call.

    Please say or press 1 to pay your bill.

    Please say or press 2 to upgrade your service plan.

    Please say or press 3 to report a technical problem.

    Please say or press 4 if you want to hear this choice again.

    Customer: I don’t want any of these choices.

     

    -How does the custom feel? -Angry.

     

    Answering machine: You may also go to our website for help.

    Customer: I went to your website but it didn’t help. I want to speak to a human being.

    Answering machine: Your business is very important to us.

     

    -How does the custom feel? –Frustrated.

     

    Answering machine: Please say or press 5 or hang up to end this call.

    Customer: None of these. I want a human being. I want to cancel my service.

    Answering machine: Please wait while we connect you to a service representative.

    Customer: Finally. This is what they call customer service?

     

    -What is the custom trying to do? –He wants to cancel his service.

     

    Answering machine: To assist our representative, please say your first and last name.

    Customer: Tom Smith.

    Answering machine: We hear Tom Smith. If this is correct, say or press 1.

    If this is not correct, say or press 2. Customer: 1.

    Answering machine: Thank you. For security purpose, what was your father’s middle name?

    Customer: he didn’t have a middle name.

    Answering machine: Thank you. A customer service representative will be with you shortly.

     

    -Why did they want the custom’s father’s middle name? –To confirm the customer’s identity.

    -For security purpose means about the same as? –For safety reasons.

     

    Answering machine: I’m sorry but our offices are closed.

    Please call back during business hours.

    Our business offices are open Monday through Friday, from 8:00 am until 6:00 pm.

    Thank you for calling.

    Unit 3

    1/4

    Listening

    Lesson 1 Life & Conditions 1-2

    There are many forms of life on Earth, including human beings.

    Life exists in a variety of conditions.

    Some forms of life live in a watery environment, like the oceans.

    Other forms of life can be found in very dry areas, like deserts.

    However, for any form of life to exist, conditions must be right.

    When conditions are not right, that form of life will become extinct.

    To become extinct means to die out completely.

     

    -What must be right for life to exist?-Conditions.

    -What happens if conditions are not right? –Life cannot exist.

     

    Conditions must be right for life to exist.

    Millions of years ago, there were forms of life that no longer exist.

    When conditions changed, these forms of life died out.

    One extinction event happened about 250 million years ago.

    This was the largest extinction event of all time.

    Many forms of life became extinct.

    96% of all life in the oceans died out.

    Most insects also became extinct.

    This event happened over a period of several million years.

     

    -What happened about 250 million years ago? –Many forms of life became extinct.

    -What happens in an extinction event? –Many forms of life became extinct.

     

    The causes of this extinction event are still unknown.

    Possible causes include large volcanic eruptions and global warming.

    Some scientists believe that there were several causes.

    They believe that a series of events caused the extinctions.

    Scientists are working to better understand what really happened.

     

    -What is the one possible cause of this event? –Volcanic eruptions.

     

    In modern times, we humans face changing conditions.

    For humans to live, we need clean air and clean water.

    Pollution is now a growing problem around the world.

    Pollution poisons the air and water that we depend on.

    Polluted air makes people sick and afraid to go outside. Polluted water poisons our food supply.

    As a result, we never know which foods are safe to eat.

    Human beings cannot live in a poisoned environment.

    Therefore, pollution is a major threat to our existence.

     

    -What do humans need to live? –Clean air and clean water.

    -What poisons the air and water? –Pollution.

     

    Humans need temperatures to be in a comfortable range.

    To be in a comfortable range means to be neither too hot nor too cold.

    With global warming, global temperatures are rising.

    As temperatures rise, the polar icecaps will melt.

    As the polar ice caps melt, ocean levels will rise.

    Areas of some countries will soon be under water.

    People will be forced to relocate from flooded areas.

     

    -As temperatures rise, what will happen to the polar icecaps? –The polar icecaps will melt.

    -As the polar icecaps melt, what will happen? –Ocean levels will rise.

     

    In nature, even small changes can sometimes have large effects.

    It’s difficult to predict what’s going to happen.

    The entire ecosystem that we depend on is changing.

    Some of these changes are irreversible.

    Irreversible changes cannot be undone.

     

    -What can small changes sometimes cause? –Large effects.

    -What is happening to the world’s ecosystem? –Ecosystem is changing.

     

    Let’s hope that humans are smart enough to understand how the world is changing.

    With more understanding, we can make better choices about what to do.

    We can face the challenges of pollution and global warming.

    We need to do this before it’s too late.

    This planet Earth is our only home and we need to protect it.

     

    -What challenges do we need to face? –Pollution and global warming. We need to protect the environment that supports us.

    Vocabulary

    Lesson 3 Forms of Life

    Mammals are covered by hair or fur, have a backbone, and are warm blooded.

    All female mammals produce milk for their young.

    Reptiles are covered by scales, and includes snakes, lizards and turtles.

    Reptiles have a backbone and are cold blooded, which means they often relied on the external source of heat.

    Birds are covered by feathers and are warm blooded.

    Most birds can fly and many types of birds migrate great distances.

    Most insects such as ants and bees have a small three part of body with three pairs of legs.

    Some insects, like mosquitoes, spread diseases that cause the deaths of many humans.

    Unlike animals, plants get the energy that they need from the sun.

    Plants convert light energy, along with carbon dioxide and water, into chemical energy.

     

    Insects don’t have a backbone and most are cooled-blooded.

    Insects such as ants and bees live in well-organized colonies.

    Mosquitoes cause the deaths of more humans than any other animal.

    Mammals include some of the most intelligent animals on earth, such as elephants and human beings.

    Lesson 4 Instruments

    Scales and rulers are used to measure weight and length.

    Units of weight include kilograms and pounds, and units of length include centimeters and inches.

    These instruments are used to observe very large and very small objects.

    Telescopes are used to by astronomers and microscopes are used by biologists and doctors.

    These appliances are used in the kitchens of almost every home.

    Stoves are used to heat food and refrigerators are used to keep foods cool or cold.

    Household tools like these are used to build and repair things.

    Hammers are used to pound in nails and screwdrivers are used to turn a scow.

     

    If you need to pound in a nail, use a hammer.

    Dialogue

    Lesson 5 Dating Anniversary

    W: do you know what day it is today?

    M: what do you mean? Is it a special day?

    W: oh, so you don’t remember.

    M: remember what? What’s so special?

    W: it’s our anniversary. We started dating a year ago today.

    M: oh, really, I’m sorry.

     

    -When did they first start dating? –A year ago.

     

    M: just a minute. What do you think this is?

    W: oh, it’s a necklace.

    M: do you like it?

    W: yes, I do. It’s lovely, especially the red heart. May I put it on?

    M: no, let me do it.

     

    -What did he give her? –A necklace.

     

    W: so you did remember.

    M: of course I remembered. It’s a very special day for both of us.

    W: I have something for you too.

    M: you do?

    W: yes, but it will have to wait until later.

    M: oh, I can’t wait. Tell me what it is.

     

    -What would have to wait until later? –She’s going to give him a gift.

    Do you know what today is?

     

    W: can you guess what it is?

    M: could you give me a hint?

    W: we went there six month ago.

    M: oh, you mean Alfredo’s.

    W: yes, are you excited? You said you really like the food there.

    M: yes, that’s true. I also remember the dessert. Do you?

    W: yes, but let’s not talk about that now. Let’s now ruin the surprise.

     

    -What is Alfredo’s? –A restaurant.

    -What aren’t they going to talk about? –They aren’t going to talk about the desert.

    He remembered that today is their anniversary

    Lesson 6 Fine Dining

    W: That restaurant looks nice.

    M: Yes, but it looks expensive.

    W: Let’s go in and look the menu. Wow the menu looks great, especially the fish.

    M: Yes, it looks good, but look at those prices.

     

    -What doesn’t she like about the menu? –She likes the food choices.

     

    M: Let’s try somewhere else.

    W: Sometimes it’s ok to spend a little money.

    M: Yes, but these prices are a bit too high, don’t you think?

    W: Yes, there are a bit high. But don’t you think I’m worth it? Let’s enjoy ourselves.

    M: Ah, ok, if you put it that way. Let’s see if we can get a table.

    W: I’m glad you have your credit card.

    M: I sure hope the food is good.

    W: Stop worrying. Let’s just enjoy.

     

    -Who is going to pay the bill? –He will pay the bill.

    -How is he going to pay? –He is going to use his credit card. He is worried about spending so much money.

    2/4

    Listening

    Lesson 1 Quick Serve 1-2

    Quick Serve is a home repair company.

    It provides quick, reliable repair services to homes.

    Quick Serve handles plumbing and electrical issues, 24 hours a day.

    It also cleans roofs, fixes internet connections and replaces broken windows.

    For a small fee, customers subscribe to the service.

    Its main customers are the elderly, which means older people.

    Whenever customers have a problem, they can call for help.

    There is also a small service charge for each service call.

     

    -What kind of services does Quick Serve provide? –Home repair services

     

    The company was established 5 years ago and is growing rapidly.

    It started in one city but is now in 5 cities.

    The company plans to expand to 10 cities within the next 24 months.

    In each city there is a small central office in the low-rent area of the city.

    The central office handles the business, advertising, payroll and billing.

    It also takes calls from customers, either on line or by telephone. It takes calls 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.

     

    -When was the company established? –It started five years ago.

    -Where does the company locate its central offices? –They locate in low-rent areas.

     

    60% of the company’s employees work from their homes.

    When a customer calls into central office, a service employee is contracted.

    The service employee then contracts the customer and signs up an appointment.

    These service employees are highly trained and provide excellent service.

    In emergencies, such as a serious plumbing problem, service can be provided within an hour.

    One reason for this is that the service employees live in different parts of the city.

    They are not centrally located so it’s quicker and easier for them to travel to a customer’s home.

     

    -Where do 60% of the company’s employees work? –From their own homes.

     

    Quick Serve has an excellent reputation.

    Its prices are reasonable and its services are quick and efficient.

    The company’s service employees are clean, polite and efficient.

    In this type of business, person to person contact is the key to success.

    With each satisfied customer, more customers subscribe.

    Satisfied customers recommend Quick Serve to their friends.

    This kind of word of mouth advertising is very cost effective.

    Cost effective means that the results are good without paying a high price. In other words, quality service provides its own reward to the company.

     

    -What kind of customers recommend Quick Serve to their friends? –Satisfied customers.

    -What kind of reputation does the company have? –It has an excellent reputation.

     

    The company takes great pride in being honest with its customers.

    There are no hidden charges for their services.

    As a result, the number of customers in each city is growing rapidly.

    With the aging population there are more elderly people who need home repair services.

    These people need to have confidence in the service provider.

    They don’t want to be cheated.

    These people don’t mind to pay a reasonable fee for high quality service. High quality service should be rewarded.

     

    -What should be rewarded? –High quality service.

    -What is the company pride of? –It’s honest with its customers.

     

    The company provides a range of service plans, each with the different subscription plans.

    The least expensive service plan is called the basic plan.

    This plan provides non-emergency services with a very low service charge.

    The most expensive service plan is their VIP plan.

    The VIP plan provides emergency services 24 hours a day with no additional service charge.

    It also provides rebates to customers who don’t call for any services during the year.

    In addition, Quick Serve gives bonus points to customers for each year they subscribe.

    These bonus points can be used to buy new appliances such as stoves and refrigerators.

     

    -What kind of service plans does the company provide? –It has a range of plans.

    -What can bonus points be used for? –Buying new appliances.

     

    If the business continues to grow, the owners may decide to take the company public.

    This means that the public can buy shares of the company.

    It will then change from a privately-owned company to a public company.

    The owners believe that their business is successful and can expand around the world. They also believe that taking their company public can make them rich.

     

    -Why do the owners want to take their company public? –They can become rich.

    Vocabulary

    Lesson 3 Sciences

    Biology is the study of life, including its structure and evolution.

    Biologists study how life survives and reproduces.

    Chemistry is the study of matter, including the structure of atoms and molecule.

    Chemists study how various substances interact with each other.

    Astronomy is one of the oldest sciences.

    Astronomers study the structure and evolution of the universe, including the study of stars, planets, and galaxies.

    Geology is the study of the structure and history of the Earth and the other planets.

    Geologists study different types of rocks, earthquakes, and different layers of the Earth.

    Mathematic is the study of numbers, shapes, patterns and change. Mathematic is used by all other branches of science.

     

    Lesson 4 Disasters

    Here are some types of terrible events that hurt or kill people.

    Earthquakes are caused by forces deep within the Earth.

    During earthquakes, many people are often killed by collapsing buildings and bridges.

    Floods happen when rivers rise and overflow their banks.

    Flood waters damage or destroy many houses and businesses.

    Fires destroy buildings, land and forests.

    There are many causes for fire, including lightning.

    In a hurricane, high winds destroy buildings, and sometime cause flooding.

    Some hurricanes have winds of more than 200 miles an hour.

    Car accidents happen when cars collide, or when drivers lose control of their cars.

    One of the main causes of car accidents is driving too fast.

     

    When people are not careful, they can start fires that can cause a lot of damage.

    Dialogue

    Lesson 5 Desk Assembly

    W: What’s in the big box you are carrying?

    M: It’s a new desk. I just bought it and now I have to put it together.

    W: Do you need any help?

    M: No, I don’t think so. I just need to get my tools. I’ll need a screwdriver and maybe a hammer.

    W: Don’t forget to read the instructions.

     

    -What does he need? –Some tools.

     

    W: How are things going?

    M: I’m almost finished.

    W: Something doesn’t look right to me. The right side is higher than the left side.

    M: Oh, you are right. It looks like I put a couple of screws into the wrong places.

     

    -What doesn’t look right? –The desk.

     

    W: So now you have to take it apart.

    M: Great. And I thought I was almost finished.

    W: I told you to read the instructions. Did you read them?

    M: No, I didn’t read them. I hate to read instructions. I looked them, but they were confusing.

    W: Well, this is what happens when you don’t. You were too impatient. Anyway, what can I do to help you?

    M: Would you get another screwdriver and help me unscrew some of these screws?

    W: Ok, but next time please read the instructions.

     

    -What didn’t he do? –Read the instructions.

    -What was wrong with the instructions? –They were confusing.

    Lesson 6 Life and the Universe

    W: Do you ever look up at the sky and think about life and universe?

    M: I did when I was a kid. But I don’t do that for as much anymore. Why do you ask?

    W: Sometimes I feel like I lost in day-to-day details.

    Then when I look up at the sky, I see the big picture. I appreciate things more, even the little things.

     

    -What happens when she sees the big picture? –She appreciates things more.

    -What doesn’t he do so much anymore? –He doesn’t think about life and universe.

     

    M: You sound like a philosopher or a poet. I felt like that too when I was a kid.

    W: Don’t you feel like that anymore?

    M: No, I don’t. In fact, I try not to. When I think about things too deeply, I get depressed.

    It’s even a bit frightening.

    W: Really? For me, it’s just the opposite. Everything seems like a wonderful miracle.

    M: Doesn’t that frighten you a bit? The universe is so large and we are so small.

     

    -What happens when he thinks too deeply? –He gets depressed.

     

    W: What I realize is how little we understand. We just need to appreciate our lives and not get lost.

    M: Sometimes being lost isn’t so bad. Do you the expression, ignorance is bliss?

    W: Sure, I’ve heard it many times. To be ignorant is to be happy.

     

    -What does the word bliss mean? –Complete happiness.

    -What does she realize? –There is a lot that we don’t understand.

     

    M: Maybe it’s true. Maybe it’s best not to think or know too much.

    W: No, that’s not for me. I want to understand as much as possible. That’s why I became a scientist.

    M: Well, I respect your choice, but it’s not for me. If understanding is painful, I’d rather not understand.

     

    -Why does she become a scientist? –She wants to understand as much as possible. -What doesn’t he agree with? –Her choice.

    3/4

    Listening

    Lesson 1 Harry’s Business Trip 1-2

    Harry is on a business trip.

    Yesterday he was supposed to fly from San Francisco to Shanghai.

    However, things didn’t turn out the way they were supposed to.

    In fact, nothing went the way it was supposed to.

    Everything went wrong and he didn’t get on his flight.

    As a result, he is still in San Francisco.

     

    -What was he supposed to do yesterday? –Fly to Shanghai.

    -When was Harry supposed to fly to Shanghai? –Yesterday.

     

    The following is the summary of what happened.

    Yesterday morning he got up as usual and had breakfast.

    Everything seemed to be fine and he was looking forward to the trip.

    He was just about to check out of his hotel when he felt a pain.

    It was a pain in his lower back.

    It was a doll pain at first, not too bad.

    So he didn’t worry about it and he checked out of the hotel.

    Then he got on a shuttle bus to the airport.

     

    -Where was the pain located? –It was a pain in his lower back.

    -Why didn’t he worry about the pain? –It wasn’t too bad at first.

     

    About half way to the airport, the pain in his back started to get worse.

    It was a growing pain, and he was beginning to worry.

    Soon it was difficult for him to sit in the seat.

    The pain was getting worse.

    He wanted to lie down.

    He started to sweat and breathe quickly.

    He was in real pain then.

    On a scale of 1 to 10, the pain was an 8.

     

    -How was the pain changing? –It was getting worse.

    -Why did he want to lie down? –It was difficult for him to sit in the seat.

     

    When the bus got to the airport the bus driver helped him get off.

    It was difficult for him to walk but he finally made it to the terminal.

    Inside the terminal he went to the man’s bath room. He went to the toilet but that didn’t help.

    Instead of improving he felt dizzy and he threw up.

    By now he was wet for all the sweating.

    He knew he couldn’t get on his flight.

     

    -How did he feel after he went to the toilet? –He felt dizzy and sick.

    -Where did he go once he got inside the terminal? –He went to the men’s bathroom.

     

    He used his phone to call the airline.

    He explained the situation and cancelled his reservation.

    Then he called 911 for emergency help.

    911 is the emergency number to call for help in the United State.

     

    -What did he do to his reservation? –He cancelled it.

    -Why did he call 911? –He called 911 for emergency help.

     

    An ambulance arrived about 10 minutes after he called.

    By then he was in so much pain that he could barely walk.

    Once inside the ambulance they gave him oxygen to help him breathe.

    But the pain was still terrible.

    Then they drove him into a hospital near the airport.

    Luckily the hospital was on his health plan.

    That means his health insurance is supposed to pay for everything.

    Medical costs in the United States are very high.

     

    -Who was supposed to pay for his medicine care? –His health insurance company.

    -What did they give him inside the ambulance? –They gave him oxygen to help him breathe.

     

    When he arrived at the hospital he was taken into the emergency room.

    After some test a doctor told him he had a kidney stone.

    It was a very small stone but it caused a lot of pain.

    It was passing through a small turbine his body from his kidney to his bladder.

    The pain would go away once it got to his bladder.

    Until then he had to get pain medicine to reduce the pain.

     

    -Where was he taken when he got to the hospital? –He was taken to the emergency room.

    -What did he take to control his pain? –Some pain medicine.

     

    Harry didn’t have to stay at the hospital for very long.

    With the pain medicine the pain went away very quickly.

    He took a taxi back to his hotel and checked in for another night.

    Then he called the airline and made reservation for another flight.

    The flight will leave tomorrow.

    Until then he’ll just rest in his hotel.

    There may even be a good movie to watch.

     

    -Where will he be until his next flight? –He’ll stay in his hotel.

    -What is he going to do until his next flight? –He is going to have some rest.

     

    So when you are travelling, please be prepared for emergencies.

    Make sure you have medicine insurance.

    You never know when something like this can happen to you.

    So be prepared.

     

    -What should you have before travelling? –Medicine insurance. It’s a good idea to have medicine insurance before travelling.

    Vocabulary

    Lesson 3 Sources of Energy

    Solar energy is one of the cleanest and most plentiful sources of energy.

    Solar power depends on sunlight, so in cloudy weather and at night, no power is generated.

    Wind energy is nonpolluting but is only useful in place where there is a lot of wind.

    Wind turbines convert the kinetic energy of the wind into mechanical power.

    Nuclear energy is efficient and doesn’t produce carbon gases as a waste product.

    The dangers of nuclear power include deadly radioactive waste products.

    A major source of energy comes from the burning of fossil fuels, such as coal and oil.

    When we burn fossil fuels, waste gases such as CO2 are produced.

    Fossil fuels remain the largest source of energy for most countries.

    Hydropower comes from the kinetic energy of falling water.

    Output is reliable and can be regulated to meet the demand, except during the periods of drought.

     

    One of the main problems we face is how to reduce the use of the fossil fuels to produce energy.

    We need to reduce the use of the fossil fuels to produce energy. Dams are expensive to build and affect wildlife such as fish.

    Lesson 4 Types of Words

    Here are some different types of words in English.

    Words that are nouns or pronouns are used to represent objects.

    A noun or a pronoun can be a person, an animal or a thing, including an idea.

    Verbs are used to express actions, such as to sit down, or stand up.

    We also use verbs to express relationships, such as to love someone or to own something.

    We used adjectives to describe objects, such as a tall building.

    Adjectives are used with nouns and pronouns, but not with verbs.

    We use adverbs to describe actions, such as to run fast or walk slowly.

    Adverbs express the quality of an action, such as how well or poorly something is done.

    We use conjunctions to connect things or actions, such as to read and write.

    Conjunctions include words such as and, or, because, but, and yet.

     

    Nouns and pronouns can be used to represent any object.

    Dialogue

    Lesson 5 Good News & Bad News

    W: Hey, I’ve got some news, some good news and some bad news.

    M: OK, give me the bad news first.

    W: We are moving to a new office.

    M: When is this going to happen?

    W: We are supposed to move at the end of next month.

    M: How far away is the new office?

    W: We are not sure yet. But it will mean a longer commute for most of us.

    The new office will probably be on the other side of the city.

    M: The commute is already too long for me and I’m not going to change flats. We just bought one.

     

    -What did he just but? –He just bought a new flat.

    -How is the move going to affect the commute? –It’ll make the commute longer for most of the employees.

     

    M: Anyway, what’s the good news?

    W: The good news is that we are going to expand.

    The company is growing so we are going to hire more people.

    M: Well, I’ve got some news for you too.

    W: I hope it’s a good news.

    M: Well, that depends on your point of view. I’m planning to start my own business.

    W: Why? I thought you were happy working here.

    M: I like the work, but I’m not learning anything new. I think I can do better on my own.

     

    -Why is the company going to hire more people? –The company is growing.

     

    M: I was planning to wait a few months. But now that the office is moving, I’m ready to make the change.

    W: What is your wife think?

    M: She’s in fever of it and she will help me. She’s already designing a website.

    We’ll work from home at first.

    W: So you really are serious about this? You’re taking a big risk. Most new businesses fail.

    M: Yes, I know, but if I don’t do it now, I never will. I’m tired of working for others.

    W: I know what you mean.

     

    -What does his wife think his decision? –She’s in favor of it.

    -What is he serious about? –He is serious about starting his own business.

     

    M: Don’t tell anyone about this, OK? It’s still a secret.

    W: Sure, I won’t say anything to anybody. I’m sure this will come as a surprise to everyone.

    M: I’m sure changing offices will also come as a surprise to people.

    This is exactly why I want to work on my own. I don’t like these kinds of surprises.

    W: You are right about that. When are you going to let people know?

    M: I’ll make the announcement at the beginning of next month.

     

    -What is a secret? –His decision to leave the company.

    -When is he going to let people know about his decision to leave? –He’ll announce his decision at the beginning of next month.

    4/4

    Listening

    Lesson 1 Leonardo da Vinci 1-2

    Leonardo Da Vinci is one of the greatest geniuses of all time.

    He was a painter, an architect, an engineer and a scientist.

    He was born in Vinci, Italy in 1452.

    Vinci is a town just outside the great Italian city, Florence.

    His name Da Vinci means of Vinci.

    Leonardo’s father was a lawyer and a landowner and his mother was a present.

    Leonardo’s parents were never married to each other.

     

    -How long were his parents married? –They were never married.

    -Where was he born? –In Vinci, Italy.

     

    Leonardo lived with his mother until he was around 5 years old.

    When he was 5, he moved into the home of his father.

    By then, his father had married a 16-year-old girl.

    Leonardo’s mother married another man and moved to another town.

    She had many more children after that, with several different men.

    In the end, Leonardo had more than 15 half-sisters and brothers.

     

    -With whom did he live when he was 5? –His mother.

     

    As a young man, Da Vinci didn’t go to school.

    He was educated at home in reading, writing and mathematics.

    In other subjects, he was mostly self-educated.

    He had access to books at his father’s home.

    Leonardo spent a lot of time outdoors and developed a strong interest in nature.

    He loved to observe things, especially birds.

    He was also interested in the properties of water.

     

    -What did he have access to at home? –Books at his father’s home.

    -In what did he develop a strong interest? –He developed a strong interest in nature.

     

    Leonardo’s early drawings and paintings demonstrated a rare talent.

    His father and his father’s friend recognized his talent and encouraged him.

    When he was 15, he was sent to Florence.

    In Florence, he became an apprentice to a famous master painter.

    For the next few years Leonardo worked at his master’s workshop.

    It wasn’t long before his ability surpassed that of his master.

    Some people say that his master became jealous about Leonardo’s greatest talent.

    They say that the master vowed to never paint again.

    In 1478, with his father’s help, Leonardo set up his own workshop.

     

    -Who became jealous with Leonardo’s talent? –His master in Florence.

     

    In 1482, he entered the service of a powerful man in the city of Milan.

    This man was the duke of Milan.

    For the next few years, Leonardo designed buildings, machinery and weapons of war.

    Weapons were important because Italy was constantly at war during this period.

    From 1485 to 1490, Leonardo produced designs for a variety of weapons.

    In his notes, he predicted the development of advanced weapons such as submarines and flying machines. In 1499, the French invaded Italy, and Leonardo left Milan.

     

    -Why did Leonardo live Milan? –The French invaded Italy.

    -Who did Leonardo work for in Milan? –He worked for the duke of Milan.

     

    All together Leonardo spent 17 years in Milan.

    During this period he spent much of his time studying in nature.

    He dissected bodies, both human and animal, to study an illustrate anatomy.

    His detailed illustrations are masterpieces.

    Leonardo filled many notebooks with drawings and ideas.

    He wrote backwards so you need a mirror to read them.

     

    -Why do you need a mirror to read his notebooks? –He wrote backwards. He left Milan because the French invaded Italy.

     

    After 1500, Leonardo spent time in a number of Italian cities.

    He worked very slowly and the range of his interests was very wide.

    As a result Leonardo left many paintings and projects unfinished.

    One painting that he did finish was the Mona Lisa, one of the world’s most famous paintings.

    People are still interested in this painting, 500 years after he painted it.

    Though there are many theories nobody knows who the woman in the painting really was.

     

    -Why did Leonardo leave so many projects unfinished? –He worked slowly and had a wide range of interests.

    -Who was the woman in the painting? –Nobody knows for sure.

     

    In 1516, Leonardo left Italy for good when the French King, Francis I (the first), offered him a position.

    There he had a freedom to paint and draw whatever he wanted.

    Leonardo died in 1519 at the age of 67.

    Some said that the French king who had become a close friend was with him when he died.

    He was buried in the church which was destroyed during the French revolution.

    The exact location of his remains is unknown.

     

    -How old was he when he died? –He died at the age of 67.

    -Who offered Leonardo a position in 1516? –The king of France.

    Vocabulary

    Lesson 3 Sources of Pollution

    Waste water and carbon gases from farm animals are bad for the environment.

    Animals waste and other chemicals flow into the ground and pollute water supplies.

    Exhaust gases from automobiles are a major cause of air pollution and global warming.

    As a result many companies are trying to produce more efficient and cleaner cars.

    Pesticides and fertilizers are used by farmers to grow crops such as fruits and vegetables.

    These chemicals pollute water supplies when they flow into the ground or rivers.

    Factories like this one allow harmful chemicals to get into the air or water.

    Companies need to try harder to protect the environment and our health.

    Nuclear waste products are radioactive and can pollute the environment for thousands of years. They need to be safely transported and stored in a safe place.

     

    Nuclear waste products need to be stored in a safe place.

    Lesson 4 Historical Figures

    The British writer, Jane Austin, was born in England in 1775, one of seven children.

    She wrote some of the most popular love stories of all time.

    One of the most famous female rulers in history, Cleopatra had affairs with Julius Caesar and later with Mark Antony.

    She was known for her great beauty and charming voice.

    Born in 1756, Mozart composed and performed some of the world’s greatest classical music.

    He was the youngest of 7 children and by the age of 5, he was already composing music.

    The sun of the king, Alexander the great, was the military leader who created one of the largest empires in the ancient world.

    As a youth, Alexander was taught by the Greek philosopher Aristotle.

    Mohandas Gandy was a 20th century leader who used non-violent resistance to lead India to independence. Gandy dedicated his life to the pursuit of truth.

     

    Mozart started writing music as a young child.

    Dialogue

    Lesson5 An Urgent Call

    M: I’d like to speak with Mr. Bennett, please.

    W: I’m sorry, but he’s not here right now. Would you like to leave a voice message?

    M: It’s urgent that I speak with him. It’s an emergency.

    W: Oh, I see. What kind of emergency?

    M: It’s very personal so I can’t give you any details.

     

    -What does the word urgent mean? –Need quick attention.

    -Why doesn’t he want to leave a voice message? –It’s an urgent matter.

     

    W: Without any details I’m afraid I can’t give you his number.

    Give me your number and I’ll let him know about your call.

    Then maybe he’ll call you back, would that be okay?

    M: Sure, my number is 5834987. It would be great if he could call me within the next half hour.

     

    -Why doesn’t she give out Mr. Bennett’s number? –She needs more details.

     

    M1: That was a great dinner. Here, put away your wallet, I’ll the bill.

    M2: You paid last time, this time is my turn to pay.

    M1: Hey, you don’t have a job, and I do, let me pay.

    M2: Thanks for the offer, but I can handle it.

     

    -Why does he want to pay? –It’s his turn to pay.

     

    M1: Wait, let’s flip for it.

    M2: Flip for it? What does that mean?

    M1: Do you see this corn? This side is heads and the opposite is tails. I’ll flip up in the air.

     If it comes down with heads facing up, I’ll pay. If tails are the up, you can pay.

    M2: OK, that’s fine with me.

     

    -How are they going to decide who is going to pay? –They are going to flip a corn.

     

    M1: Look, it’s heads up, so I’ll pay.

    M2: Thanks, it’s very nice of you.

    M1: It’s my pleasure.

    Lesson 6 Setting the Bill

    W: Do you want anything else, Sir? Would you like to see the desserts menu?

    M: No, thanks, I’m ready for the check. Here is my credit card.

    W: I’m sorry, Sir, but we don’t take credit cards.

    M: You’re joking, right?

    W: No, sir. I’m not joking. Do you see that sign? It says cash only.

    M: I didn’t see it when I came in. I don’t have enough cash to pay the bill.

     

    -How did he plan to pay? –He planned to pay by credit card.

    -Why can’t he pay? –He doesn’t have enough cash.

     

    W: There is a bank down the street.

    If you let me hold your driver’s license, you can go and get the cash.

    M: OK, I hope the bank is open.

    W: The bank is closed, but you can use the ATM to get your cash.

     

    -Where can he get the cash? –He can get the cash at an ATM down the street. He has to leave his driver’s license with the waiter.

     

     

    展开全文
  • 本文转载于https://www.sitepoint.com/web-foundations/mime-types-complete-list/点击...The Complete List of MIME Types Suffixes applicable   Media type and subtype(s) .3dm   x-wor

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    The Complete List of MIME Types


    Suffixes applicable Media type and subtype(s)
    .3dm x-world/x-3dmf
    .3dmf x-world/x-3dmf
    .a application/octet-stream
    .aab application/x-authorware-bin
    .aam application/x-authorware-map
    .aas application/x-authorware-seg
    .abc text/vnd.abc
    .acgi text/html
    .afl video/animaflex
    .ai application/postscript
    .aif audio/aiff
    .aif audio/x-aiff
    .aifc audio/aiff
    .aifc audio/x-aiff
    .aiff audio/aiff
    .aiff audio/x-aiff
    .aim application/x-aim
    .aip text/x-audiosoft-intra
    .ani application/x-navi-animation
    .aos application/x-nokia-9000-communicator-add-on-software
    .aps application/mime
    .arc application/octet-stream
    .arj application/arj
    .arj application/octet-stream
    .art image/x-jg
    .asf video/x-ms-asf
    .asm text/x-asm
    .asp text/asp
    .asx application/x-mplayer2
    .asx video/x-ms-asf
    .asx video/x-ms-asf-plugin
    .au audio/basic
    .au audio/x-au
    .avi application/x-troff-msvideo
    .avi video/avi
    .avi video/msvideo
    .avi video/x-msvideo
    .avs video/avs-video
    .bcpio application/x-bcpio
    .bin application/mac-binary
    .bin application/macbinary
    .bin application/octet-stream
    .bin application/x-binary
    .bin application/x-macbinary
    .bm image/bmp
    .bmp image/bmp
    .bmp image/x-windows-bmp
    .boo application/book
    .book application/book
    .boz application/x-bzip2
    .bsh application/x-bsh
    .bz application/x-bzip
    .bz2 application/x-bzip2
    .c text/plain
    .c text/x-c
    .c++ text/plain
    .cat application/vnd.ms-pki.seccat
    .cc text/plain
    .cc text/x-c
    .ccad application/clariscad
    .cco application/x-cocoa
    .cdf application/cdf
    .cdf application/x-cdf
    .cdf application/x-netcdf
    .cer application/pkix-cert
    .cer application/x-x509-ca-cert
    .cha application/x-chat
    .chat application/x-chat
    .class application/java
    .class application/java-byte-code
    .class application/x-java-class
    .com application/octet-stream
    .com text/plain
    .conf text/plain
    .cpio application/x-cpio
    .cpp text/x-c
    .cpt application/mac-compactpro
    .cpt application/x-compactpro
    .cpt application/x-cpt
    .crl application/pkcs-crl
    .crl application/pkix-crl
    .crt application/pkix-cert
    .crt application/x-x509-ca-cert
    .crt application/x-x509-user-cert
    .csh application/x-csh
    .csh text/x-script.csh
    .css application/x-pointplus
    .css text/css
    .cxx text/plain
    .dcr application/x-director
    .deepv application/x-deepv
    .def text/plain
    .der application/x-x509-ca-cert
    .dif video/x-dv
    .dir application/x-director
    .dl video/dl
    .dl video/x-dl
    .doc application/msword
    .dot application/msword
    .dp application/commonground
    .drw application/drafting
    .dump application/octet-stream
    .dv video/x-dv
    .dvi application/x-dvi
    .dwf drawing/x-dwf (old)
    .dwf model/vnd.dwf
    .dwg application/acad
    .dwg image/vnd.dwg
    .dwg image/x-dwg
    .dxf application/dxf
    .dxf image/vnd.dwg
    .dxf image/x-dwg
    .dxr application/x-director
    .el text/x-script.elisp
    .elc application/x-bytecode.elisp (compiled elisp)
    .elc application/x-elc
    .env application/x-envoy
    .eps application/postscript
    .es application/x-esrehber
    .etx text/x-setext
    .evy application/envoy
    .evy application/x-envoy
    .exe application/octet-stream
    .f text/plain
    .f text/x-fortran
    .f77 text/x-fortran
    .f90 text/plain
    .f90 text/x-fortran
    .fdf application/vnd.fdf
    .fif application/fractals
    .fif image/fif
    .fli video/fli
    .fli video/x-fli
    .flo image/florian
    .flx text/vnd.fmi.flexstor
    .fmf video/x-atomic3d-feature
    .for text/plain
    .for text/x-fortran
    .fpx image/vnd.fpx
    .fpx image/vnd.net-fpx
    .frl application/freeloader
    .funk audio/make
    .g text/plain
    .g3 image/g3fax
    .gif image/gif
    .gl video/gl
    .gl video/x-gl
    .gsd audio/x-gsm
    .gsm audio/x-gsm
    .gsp application/x-gsp
    .gss application/x-gss
    .gtar application/x-gtar
    .gz application/x-compressed
    .gz application/x-gzip
    .gzip application/x-gzip
    .gzip multipart/x-gzip
    .h text/plain
    .h text/x-h
    .hdf application/x-hdf
    .help application/x-helpfile
    .hgl application/vnd.hp-hpgl
    .hh text/plain
    .hh text/x-h
    .hlb text/x-script
    .hlp application/hlp
    .hlp application/x-helpfile
    .hlp application/x-winhelp
    .hpg application/vnd.hp-hpgl
    .hpgl application/vnd.hp-hpgl
    .hqx application/binhex
    .hqx application/binhex4
    .hqx application/mac-binhex
    .hqx application/mac-binhex40
    .hqx application/x-binhex40
    .hqx application/x-mac-binhex40
    .hta application/hta
    .htc text/x-component
    .htm text/html
    .html text/html
    .htmls text/html
    .htt text/webviewhtml
    .htx text/html
    .ice x-conference/x-cooltalk
    .ico image/x-icon
    .idc text/plain
    .ief image/ief
    .iefs image/ief
    .iges application/iges
    .iges model/iges
    .igs application/iges
    .igs model/iges
    .ima application/x-ima
    .imap application/x-httpd-imap
    .inf application/inf
    .ins application/x-internett-signup
    .ip application/x-ip2
    .isu video/x-isvideo
    .it audio/it
    .iv application/x-inventor
    .ivr i-world/i-vrml
    .ivy application/x-livescreen
    .jam audio/x-jam
    .jav text/plain
    .jav text/x-java-source
    .java text/plain
    .java text/x-java-source
    .jcm application/x-java-commerce
    .jfif image/jpeg
    .jfif image/pjpeg
    .jfif-tbnl image/jpeg
    .jpe image/jpeg
    .jpe image/pjpeg
    .jpeg image/jpeg
    .jpeg image/pjpeg
    .jpg image/jpeg
    .jpg image/pjpeg
    .jps image/x-jps
    .js application/x-javascript
    .js application/javascript
    .js application/ecmascript
    .js text/javascript
    .js text/ecmascript
    .jut image/jutvision
    .kar audio/midi
    .kar music/x-karaoke
    .ksh application/x-ksh
    .ksh text/x-script.ksh
    .la audio/nspaudio
    .la audio/x-nspaudio
    .lam audio/x-liveaudio
    .latex application/x-latex
    .lha application/lha
    .lha application/octet-stream
    .lha application/x-lha
    .lhx application/octet-stream
    .list text/plain
    .lma audio/nspaudio
    .lma audio/x-nspaudio
    .log text/plain
    .lsp application/x-lisp
    .lsp text/x-script.lisp
    .lst text/plain
    .lsx text/x-la-asf
    .ltx application/x-latex
    .lzh application/octet-stream
    .lzh application/x-lzh
    .lzx application/lzx
    .lzx application/octet-stream
    .lzx application/x-lzx
    .m text/plain
    .m text/x-m
    .m1v video/mpeg
    .m2a audio/mpeg
    .m2v video/mpeg
    .m3u audio/x-mpequrl
    .man application/x-troff-man
    .map application/x-navimap
    .mar text/plain
    .mbd application/mbedlet
    .mc$ application/x-magic-cap-package-1.0
    .mcd application/mcad
    .mcd application/x-mathcad
    .mcf image/vasa
    .mcf text/mcf
    .mcp application/netmc
    .me application/x-troff-me
    .mht message/rfc822
    .mhtml message/rfc822
    .mid application/x-midi
    .mid audio/midi
    .mid audio/x-mid
    .mid audio/x-midi
    .mid music/crescendo
    .mid x-music/x-midi
    .midi application/x-midi
    .midi audio/midi
    .midi audio/x-mid
    .midi audio/x-midi
    .midi music/crescendo
    .midi x-music/x-midi
    .mif application/x-frame
    .mif application/x-mif
    .mime message/rfc822
    .mime www/mime
    .mjf audio/x-vnd.audioexplosion.mjuicemediafile
    .mjpg video/x-motion-jpeg
    .mm application/base64
    .mm application/x-meme
    .mme application/base64
    .mod audio/mod
    .mod audio/x-mod
    .moov video/quicktime
    .mov video/quicktime
    .movie video/x-sgi-movie
    .mp2 audio/mpeg
    .mp2 audio/x-mpeg
    .mp2 video/mpeg
    .mp2 video/x-mpeg
    .mp2 video/x-mpeq2a
    .mp3 audio/mpeg3
    .mp3 audio/x-mpeg-3
    .mp3 video/mpeg
    .mp3 video/x-mpeg
    .mpa audio/mpeg
    .mpa video/mpeg
    .mpc application/x-project
    .mpe video/mpeg
    .mpeg video/mpeg
    .mpg audio/mpeg
    .mpg video/mpeg
    .mpga audio/mpeg
    .mpp application/vnd.ms-project
    .mpt application/x-project
    .mpv application/x-project
    .mpx application/x-project
    .mrc application/marc
    .ms application/x-troff-ms
    .mv video/x-sgi-movie
    .my audio/make
    .mzz application/x-vnd.audioexplosion.mzz
    .nap image/naplps
    .naplps image/naplps
    .nc application/x-netcdf
    .ncm application/vnd.nokia.configuration-message
    .nif image/x-niff
    .niff image/x-niff
    .nix application/x-mix-transfer
    .nsc application/x-conference
    .nvd application/x-navidoc
    .o application/octet-stream
    .oda application/oda
    .omc application/x-omc
    .omcd application/x-omcdatamaker
    .omcr application/x-omcregerator
    .p text/x-pascal
    .p10 application/pkcs10
    .p10 application/x-pkcs10
    .p12 application/pkcs-12
    .p12 application/x-pkcs12
    .p7a application/x-pkcs7-signature
    .p7c application/pkcs7-mime
    .p7c application/x-pkcs7-mime
    .p7m application/pkcs7-mime
    .p7m application/x-pkcs7-mime
    .p7r application/x-pkcs7-certreqresp
    .p7s application/pkcs7-signature
    .part application/pro_eng
    .pas text/pascal
    .pbm image/x-portable-bitmap
    .pcl application/vnd.hp-pcl
    .pcl application/x-pcl
    .pct image/x-pict
    .pcx image/x-pcx
    .pdb chemical/x-pdb
    .pdf application/pdf
    .pfunk audio/make
    .pfunk audio/make.my.funk
    .pgm image/x-portable-graymap
    .pgm image/x-portable-greymap
    .pic image/pict
    .pict image/pict
    .pkg application/x-newton-compatible-pkg
    .pko application/vnd.ms-pki.pko
    .pl text/plain
    .pl text/x-script.perl
    .plx application/x-pixclscript
    .pm image/x-xpixmap
    .pm text/x-script.perl-module
    .pm4 application/x-pagemaker
    .pm5 application/x-pagemaker
    .png image/png
    .pnm application/x-portable-anymap
    .pnm image/x-portable-anymap
    .pot application/mspowerpoint
    .pot application/vnd.ms-powerpoint
    .pov model/x-pov
    .ppa application/vnd.ms-powerpoint
    .ppm image/x-portable-pixmap
    .pps application/mspowerpoint
    .pps application/vnd.ms-powerpoint
    .ppt application/mspowerpoint
    .ppt application/powerpoint
    .ppt application/vnd.ms-powerpoint
    .ppt application/x-mspowerpoint
    .ppz application/mspowerpoint
    .pre application/x-freelance
    .prt application/pro_eng
    .ps application/postscript
    .psd application/octet-stream
    .pvu paleovu/x-pv
    .pwz application/vnd.ms-powerpoint
    .py text/x-script.phyton
    .pyc application/x-bytecode.python
    .qcp audio/vnd.qcelp
    .qd3 x-world/x-3dmf
    .qd3d x-world/x-3dmf
    .qif image/x-quicktime
    .qt video/quicktime
    .qtc video/x-qtc
    .qti image/x-quicktime
    .qtif image/x-quicktime
    .ra audio/x-pn-realaudio
    .ra audio/x-pn-realaudio-plugin
    .ra audio/x-realaudio
    .ram audio/x-pn-realaudio
    .ras application/x-cmu-raster
    .ras image/cmu-raster
    .ras image/x-cmu-raster
    .rast image/cmu-raster
    .rexx text/x-script.rexx
    .rf image/vnd.rn-realflash
    .rgb image/x-rgb
    .rm application/vnd.rn-realmedia
    .rm audio/x-pn-realaudio
    .rmi audio/mid
    .rmm audio/x-pn-realaudio
    .rmp audio/x-pn-realaudio
    .rmp audio/x-pn-realaudio-plugin
    .rng application/ringing-tones
    .rng application/vnd.nokia.ringing-tone
    .rnx application/vnd.rn-realplayer
    .roff application/x-troff
    .rp image/vnd.rn-realpix
    .rpm audio/x-pn-realaudio-plugin
    .rt text/richtext
    .rt text/vnd.rn-realtext
    .rtf application/rtf
    .rtf application/x-rtf
    .rtf text/richtext
    .rtx application/rtf
    .rtx text/richtext
    .rv video/vnd.rn-realvideo
    .s text/x-asm
    .s3m audio/s3m
    .saveme application/octet-stream
    .sbk application/x-tbook
    .scm application/x-lotusscreencam
    .scm text/x-script.guile
    .scm text/x-script.scheme
    .scm video/x-scm
    .sdml text/plain
    .sdp application/sdp
    .sdp application/x-sdp
    .sdr application/sounder
    .sea application/sea
    .sea application/x-sea
    .set application/set
    .sgm text/sgml
    .sgm text/x-sgml
    .sgml text/sgml
    .sgml text/x-sgml
    .sh application/x-bsh
    .sh application/x-sh
    .sh application/x-shar
    .sh text/x-script.sh
    .shar application/x-bsh
    .shar application/x-shar
    .shtml text/html
    .shtml text/x-server-parsed-html
    .sid audio/x-psid
    .sit application/x-sit
    .sit application/x-stuffit
    .skd application/x-koan
    .skm application/x-koan
    .skp application/x-koan
    .skt application/x-koan
    .sl application/x-seelogo
    .smi application/smil
    .smil application/smil
    .snd audio/basic
    .snd audio/x-adpcm
    .sol application/solids
    .spc application/x-pkcs7-certificates
    .spc text/x-speech
    .spl application/futuresplash
    .spr application/x-sprite
    .sprite application/x-sprite
    .src application/x-wais-source
    .ssi text/x-server-parsed-html
    .ssm application/streamingmedia
    .sst application/vnd.ms-pki.certstore
    .step application/step
    .stl application/sla
    .stl application/vnd.ms-pki.stl
    .stl application/x-navistyle
    .stp application/step
    .sv4cpio application/x-sv4cpio
    .sv4crc application/x-sv4crc
    .svf image/vnd.dwg
    .svf image/x-dwg
    .svr application/x-world
    .svr x-world/x-svr
    .swf application/x-shockwave-flash
    .t application/x-troff
    .talk text/x-speech
    .tar application/x-tar
    .tbk application/toolbook
    .tbk application/x-tbook
    .tcl application/x-tcl
    .tcl text/x-script.tcl
    .tcsh text/x-script.tcsh
    .tex application/x-tex
    .texi application/x-texinfo
    .texinfo application/x-texinfo
    .text application/plain
    .text text/plain
    .tgz application/gnutar
    .tgz application/x-compressed
    .tif image/tiff
    .tif image/x-tiff
    .tiff image/tiff
    .tiff image/x-tiff
    .tr application/x-troff
    .tsi audio/tsp-audio
    .tsp application/dsptype
    .tsp audio/tsplayer
    .tsv text/tab-separated-values
    .turbot image/florian
    .txt text/plain
    .uil text/x-uil
    .uni text/uri-list
    .unis text/uri-list
    .unv application/i-deas
    .uri text/uri-list
    .uris text/uri-list
    .ustar application/x-ustar
    .ustar multipart/x-ustar
    .uu application/octet-stream
    .uu text/x-uuencode
    .uue text/x-uuencode
    .vcd application/x-cdlink
    .vcs text/x-vcalendar
    .vda application/vda
    .vdo video/vdo
    .vew application/groupwise
    .viv video/vivo
    .viv video/vnd.vivo
    .vivo video/vivo
    .vivo video/vnd.vivo
    .vmd application/vocaltec-media-desc
    .vmf application/vocaltec-media-file
    .voc audio/voc
    .voc audio/x-voc
    .vos video/vosaic
    .vox audio/voxware
    .vqe audio/x-twinvq-plugin
    .vqf audio/x-twinvq
    .vql audio/x-twinvq-plugin
    .vrml application/x-vrml
    .vrml model/vrml
    .vrml x-world/x-vrml
    .vrt x-world/x-vrt
    .vsd application/x-visio
    .vst application/x-visio
    .vsw application/x-visio
    .w60 application/wordperfect6.0
    .w61 application/wordperfect6.1
    .w6w application/msword
    .wav audio/wav
    .wav audio/x-wav
    .wb1 application/x-qpro
    .wbmp image/vnd.wap.wbmp
    .web application/vnd.xara
    .wiz application/msword
    .wk1 application/x-123
    .wmf windows/metafile
    .wml text/vnd.wap.wml
    .wmlc application/vnd.wap.wmlc
    .wmls text/vnd.wap.wmlscript
    .wmlsc application/vnd.wap.wmlscriptc
    .word application/msword
    .wp application/wordperfect
    .wp5 application/wordperfect
    .wp5 application/wordperfect6.0
    .wp6 application/wordperfect
    .wpd application/wordperfect
    .wpd application/x-wpwin
    .wq1 application/x-lotus
    .wri application/mswrite
    .wri application/x-wri
    .wrl application/x-world
    .wrl model/vrml
    .wrl x-world/x-vrml
    .wrz model/vrml
    .wrz x-world/x-vrml
    .wsc text/scriplet
    .wsrc application/x-wais-source
    .wtk application/x-wintalk
    .xbm image/x-xbitmap
    .xbm image/x-xbm
    .xbm image/xbm
    .xdr video/x-amt-demorun
    .xgz xgl/drawing
    .xif image/vnd.xiff
    .xl application/excel
    .xla application/excel
    .xla application/x-excel
    .xla application/x-msexcel
    .xlb application/excel
    .xlb application/vnd.ms-excel
    .xlb application/x-excel
    .xlc application/excel
    .xlc application/vnd.ms-excel
    .xlc application/x-excel
    .xld application/excel
    .xld application/x-excel
    .xlk application/excel
    .xlk application/x-excel
    .xll application/excel
    .xll application/vnd.ms-excel
    .xll application/x-excel
    .xlm application/excel
    .xlm application/vnd.ms-excel
    .xlm application/x-excel
    .xls application/excel
    .xls application/vnd.ms-excel
    .xls application/x-excel
    .xls application/x-msexcel
    .xlt application/excel
    .xlt application/x-excel
    .xlv application/excel
    .xlv application/x-excel
    .xlw application/excel
    .xlw application/vnd.ms-excel
    .xlw application/x-excel
    .xlw application/x-msexcel
    .xm audio/xm
    .xml application/xml
    .xml text/xml
    .xmz xgl/movie
    .xpix application/x-vnd.ls-xpix
    .xpm image/x-xpixmap
    .xpm image/xpm
    .x-png image/png
    .xsr video/x-amt-showrun
    .xwd image/x-xwd
    .xwd image/x-xwindowdump
    .xyz chemical/x-pdb
    .z application/x-compress
    .z application/x-compressed
    .zip application/x-compressed
    .zip application/x-zip-compressed
    .zip application/zip
    .zip multipart/x-zip
    .zoo application/octet-stream
    .zsh text/x-script.zsh



    展开全文
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