精华内容
下载资源
问答
  • 目录ros是什么前期准备开始安装...我是在联想笔记本双系统的ubuntu18.04下安装的ros,即便是用的官方推荐系统,依然是各种出错,已经能想象到如果用windows安装ros的话肯定会更爆炸。ros有很多个版本,本文安装的是r
  • 主要介绍了在Ubuntu20.04中安装ROS Noetic的方法,文中通过示例代码介绍的非常详细,对大家的学习或者工作具有一定的参考学习价值,需要的朋友们下面随着小编来一起学习学习吧
  • Ubuntu18 qtcreator-ros

    2021-01-07 11:47:52
    Ubuntu18的qtcreator-ros插件
  • 本教程将在Ubuntu18安装ros, px4工具链, 以及gazebo仿真环境 参考此教程可以在Ubuntu16的环境安装ros, px4工具链, 以及gazebo仿真环境 首先,我们来看下Ubuntu各版本对应的gazebo关系,在Ubuntu18中已经安装gazebo...
  • Ubuntu 16.04 安装 ROS

    2018-07-28 12:38:22
    该文档详细介绍了在Ubuntu操作系统下,如何一步步搭建ROS操作系统,然后并在ubuntu系统上顺利运行程序的过程。
  • Ubuntu安装ROS系统

    千次阅读 2020-11-20 12:48:31
    Ubuntu安装ROS系统步骤一、设置sources.list(设置软件源)二、设置key(公钥)三、更新package四、安装ROS五、初始化rosdep六、配置ROS环境七、安装依赖项八、测试ROS是否安装成功总结 步骤 提示: 使用中科大的源...


    步骤

    提示:
    使用中科大的源会相对快很多。


    一、设置sources.list(设置软件源)

    使用Ctrl Alt+T启动terminal命令行界面;

    推荐采用中科大的源(优点:速度快。比官方的源速度快很多。)

    sudo sh -c '. /etc/lsb-release && echo "deb http://mirrors.ustc.edu.cn/ros/ubuntu/ $DISTRIB_CODENAME main" > /etc/apt/sources.list.d/ros-latest.list'
    

    或者可以采用官方的源码,下载速度会慢很多,官方的源码经过测试在下面第五步骤rosdep过程中会出现一些问题。
    官方的源添加如下:

    sudo sh -c 'echo "deb http://packages.ros.org/ros/ubuntu $(lsb_release -sc) main" > /etc/apt/sources.list.d/ros-latest.list'
    

    二、设置key(公钥)

    sudo apt-key adv --keyserver 'hkp://keyserver.ubuntu.com:80' --recv-key C1CF6E31E6BADE8868B172B4F42ED6FBAB17C654
    

    三、更新package

    sudo apt-get update
    

    四、安装ROS

    • ubuntu16.04,安装kinetic桌面完整版本
    sudo apt-get install ros-kinetic-desktop-full
    

    • ubuntu18.04,安装melodic桌面完整版本
    sudo apt-get install ros-melodic-desktop-full
    

    五、初始化rosdep

    注意:在使用ROS之前需要初始化rosdep,在使用过程中只要有输入过初始化一次就可以

    sudo rosdep init
    rosdep update
    

    注意:sudo rosdep init 找不到命令解决办法

     sudo apt install python-rosdep2 -y
    

    其中加-y省去在安装过程中输入y+回车的时间


    注意:输入sudo rosdep init如果出现 ERROR: cannot download default sources list from:
    https://raw.githubusercontent.com/ros/rosdistro/master/rosdep/sources.list.d/20-default.list
    Website may be down.
    解决方法1:在终端命令行输入

    sudo gedit /etc/hosts
    

    然后在host文件中添加

    199.232.28.133 raw.githubusercontent.com
    151.101.228.133 raw.github.com
    

    最后保存就好了。再运行上面的命令。


    解决方法2:将相关资源备份到 gitee,修改 rosdep 源码,重新定位资源。成功率是百分百。

    步骤1
    进入到 sources.list.d 文件夹(如果没有,则新建)
    修改 gedit 20-default.list

    cd /etc/ros/rosdep/sources.list.d
    sudo gedit 20-default.list
    

    将里面所有的
    raw.githubusercontent.com/ros/rosdistro/master
    替换成
    gitee.com/wybros/rosdistro/raw/master

    修改前

    # os-specific listings first
    yaml https://raw.githubusercontent.com/ros/rosdistro/master/rosdep/osx-homebrew.yaml osx
    
    # generic
    yaml https://raw.githubusercontent.com/ros/rosdistro/master/rosdep/base.yaml
    yaml https://raw.githubusercontent.com/ros/rosdistro/master/rosdep/python.yaml
    yaml https://raw.githubusercontent.com/ros/rosdistro/master/rosdep/ruby.yaml
    gbpdistro https://raw.githubusercontent.com/ros/rosdistro/master/releases/fuerte.yaml fuerte
    
    # newer distributions (Groovy, Hydro, ...) must not be listed anymore, they are being fetched from the rosdistro index.yaml instead
    

    修改后

    # os-specific listings first rosdep update
    yaml https://gitee.com/wybros/rosdistro/raw/master/rosdep/osx-homebrew.yaml osx
    
    # generic
    yaml https://gitee.com/wybros/rosdistro/raw/master/rosdep/base.yaml
    yaml https://gitee.com/wybros/rosdistro/raw/master/rosdep/python.yaml
    yaml https://gitee.com/wybros/rosdistro/raw/master/rosdep/ruby.yaml
    gbpdistro https://gitee.com/wybros/rosdistro/raw/master/releases/fuerte.yaml fuerte
    
    # newer distributions (Groovy, Hydro, ...) must not be listed anymore, they are being fetched from the rosdistro index.yaml instead
    

    步骤2
    进入到 rosdep2 文件夹,
    修改 gbpdistro_support.py

    cd /usr/lib/python2.7/dist-packages/rosdep2/
    sudo gedit gbpdistro_support.py
    

    将里面所有的
    raw.githubusercontent.com/ros/rosdistro/master
    替换成
    gitee.com/wybros/rosdistro/raw/master
    修改后如下

    FUERTE_GBPDISTRO_URL = 'https://gitee.com/wybros/rosdistro/raw/' \
       'master/releases/fuerte.yaml'
    

    步骤3
    进入到 rosdep2 文件夹,
    修改 rep3.py

    cd /usr/lib/python2.7/dist-packages/rosdep2/
    sudo gedit rep3.py
    

    将里面所有的
    raw.githubusercontent.com/ros/rosdistro/master
    替换成
    gitee.com/wybros/rosdistro/raw/master
    修改后如下

    REP3_TARGETS_URL = 'https://gitee.com/wybros/rosdistro/raw/master/releases/targets.yaml'
    

    步骤4
    进入到 rosdep2 文件夹,
    修改 sources_list.py

    cd /usr/lib/python2.7/dist-packages/rosdep2/
    sudo gedit sources_list.py
    

    将里面所有的
    raw.githubusercontent.com/ros/rosdistro/master
    替换成
    gitee.com/wybros/rosdistro/raw/master
    修改后如下

    DEFAULT_SOURCES_LIST_URL = 'https://gitee.com/wybros/rosdistro/raw/master/rosdep/sources.list.d/20-default.list'
    

    步骤5
    进入到 rosdistro 文件夹
    修改 __ init__.py

    cd /usr/lib/python2.7/dist-packages/rosdistro/
    sudo gedit __init__.py
    

    将里面所有的
    raw.githubusercontent.com/ros/rosdistro/master
    替换成
    gitee.com/wybros/rosdistro/raw/master
    修改后如下

    DEFAULT_INDEX_URL = 'https://gitee.com/wybros/rosdistro/raw/master/index-v4.yaml'
    

    最后运行上面rosdep update的命令

    sudo rosdep init
    rosdep update
    

    六、配置ROS环境

    kinetic版本环境如下

    echo "source /opt/ros/kinetic/setup.bash" >> ~/.bashrc
    source ~/.bashrc
    

    melodic版本环境如下

    echo "source /opt/ros/melodic/setup.bash" >> ~/.bashrc
    source ~/.bashrc
    

    七、安装依赖项

    sudo apt-get install python-rosinstall python-rosinstall-generator python-wstool build-essential
    

    八、测试ROS是否安装成功

    • 1)Ctrl Alt+T打开终端(Termial),输入以下命令,初始化ROS环境
      roscore
      
    • 2)Ctrl Shift+T开启一个新的终端(Termial),输入以下命令,弹出一个小乌龟窗口
      rosrun turtlesim turtlesim_node
      
    • 3)出现一个小乌龟的LOGO后,再Ctrl Shift+T开启另外一个新的终端(Termial),输入以下命令查看节点信息
      rosrun rqt_graph rqt_graph
      

    在终端使用roscore是出现相关问题及解决办法

    相关问题描述: 在安装melodic版本的ROS后,使用roscore 下的启动ROS时,出现以下报错情况:(目前只在Ubuntu18.04下安装melodic时发现
    “Command ‘roscore’ not found, but can be installed with: sudo apt install python-roslaunch”

    根据对应的情况输入:sudo apt install python-roslaunch发现并未解决问题。出现了以下的情况:

    正在读取软件包列表… 完成
    正在分析软件包的依赖关系树
    正在读取状态信息… 完成
    有一些软件包无法被安装。如果您用的是 unstable 发行版,这也许是
    因为系统无法达到您要求的状态造成的。该版本中可能会有一些您需要的软件
    包尚未被创建或是它们已被从新到(Incoming)目录移出。
    下列信息可能会对解决问题有所帮助:
    下列软件包有未满足的依赖关系:
    python-roslaunch : 依赖: python-roslib 但是它将不会被安装
    E: 无法修正错误,因为您要求某些软件包保持现状,就是它们破坏了软件包间的依赖关系。
    

    解决办法:
    首先通过查看ROS文件夹中的bin文件,发现该文件中缺少许多相关可执行文件。
    查看方法:

    cd /opt/ros/melodic/bin
    ls -l
    

    发现改文件夹中没有roscore的可执行文件。(应该是在rosdep update步骤时将部分可执行文件删除)
    解决办法:只需要重新安装一下ros-melodic-desktop文件就可以将其补充完整。

    sudo apt-get install ros-melodic-desktop
    

    然后再验证一下所安装的完成

    source ~/.bashrc
    
    roscore
    

    这时候就能完成所有的ROS启动。


    总结

    安装过程中尽量采用中科源,速度比较快。整个安装过程采用中科源大约时间为40分钟左右。

    展开全文
  • ROS:Ubuntu 16.04 安装 ROS

    万次阅读 2019-06-01 23:15:44
    Ubuntu 16.04 安装 ROS https://blog.csdn.net/tq08g2z/article/details/79209435 Robot Operating System (ROS) 是一个得到广泛应用机器人系统的软件框架,它包含了一系列的软件库和工具用于构建机器人应用。...

    Ubuntu 16.04 安装 ROS

     

    https://blog.csdn.net/tq08g2z/article/details/79209435

     

    Robot Operating System (ROS) 是一个得到广泛应用机器人系统的软件框架,它包含了一系列的软件库和工具用于构建机器人应用。从驱动到最先进的算法,以及强大的开发者工具,ROS 包含了开发一个机器人项目所需要的所有东西。且它们都是开源的。

    ROS 虽然名为机器人操作系统,但它与我们一般概念中的操作系统,如 Windows,Linux,iOS 和 Android 这些。Windows,Linux,iOS 和 Android 这些操作系统为我们管理计算机的物理硬件资源,如 CPU、内存、磁盘、网络及外设,提供如进程、线程和文件这样的抽象,并提供如读文件、写文件、创建进程、创建线程及启动线程这样的操作。ROS 所工作的层级并没有这么低,它基于一般概念中的操作系统来运行,官方推荐基于 Ubuntu Linux 运行,并在 Ubuntu Linux 操作系统提供的抽象和操作的基础之上,提供了更高层的抽象,如节点、服务、消息、主题等,以及更高层的操作,如主题的发布、主题的订阅、服务的查询与连接等操作。同时 ROS 还提供开发机器人项目所需的工具和功能库。

    ROS 发行版是一个版本标识的 ROS 包集合,这些与 Linux 发行版(如 Ubuntu)类似。ROS 发行版的目的是让开发者可以基于一个相对稳定的代码库来工作,直到他们可以平稳地向前演进。一旦发行版发布,官方就会限制对其的改动,而仅仅提供对于核心包的 bug fixes 和非破坏性的增强。

    当前(2018-01-28) ROS 系统已经发布了多个版本。ROS 最新的一些版本如下:

    ROS 系统版本时间发布支持时间
    ROS Lunar LoggerheadMay 23rd, 2017May, 2019
    ROS Kinetic KameMay 23rd, 2016LTS,April, 2021 (Xenial EOL)
    ROS Jade TurtleMay 23rd, 2015May, 2017
    ROS Indigo IglooJuly 22nd, 2014LTS,April, 2019(Trusty EOL)
    ROS Hydro MedusaSeptember 4th, 2013May, 2015

    ROS 基本上保持每年一个新版本,每两年一个长期发行版的发布节奏。关于 ROS 版本发布的更多内容,如更多的发行版的介绍,发布的计划等,可以参考 ROS 官方站点的 Distributions 主页。

    目前官方推荐使用最近的一个长期支持版本,即 ROS Kinetic Kame,求新的同时兼顾稳定性无疑应该采用这一版本,如果想要尝试最新的功能特性则可以使用最新的发行版 ROS Lunar Loggerhead

    ROS 的安装步骤如下。

    配置 Ubuntu 仓库

    配置 Ubuntu 仓库,以允许 “restricted”,”universe” 和 “multiverse”。打开 新立得包管理器,如下图:

    新立得包管理器

    选择 设置 -> 软件库(R),弹出如下对话框:

    Ubuntu 仓库

    打开 “Ubuntu 软件” Tab 页,勾选 “restricted”,”universe” 和 “multiverse” 等选项,如上图所示。通常情况下,这些选项都是默认选中的,因此这一步一般不会遇到什么问题。

    设置 sources.list

    为 Ubuntu 的包管理器增加源,设置计算机接受来自于 packages.ros.org 的软件。

    sudo sh -c 'echo "deb http://packages.ros.org/ros/ubuntu $(lsb_release -sc) main" > /etc/apt/sources.list.d/ros-latest.list'
    • 1

    这一步会根据 Ubuntu Linux 发行版本的不同,添加不同的源。Ubuntu 的版本通过 lsb_release -sc 获得。

    一旦添加了正确的软件库,操作系统就知道去哪里下载程序,并根据命令自动安装软件。

    设置密钥

    这一步是为了确认源代码是正确的,并且没有人在未经所有者授权的情况下,修改任何程序代码。通常情况下,当添加完软件库时,已经添加了软件库的密钥,并将其添加到操作系统的可信任列表中。

    设置密钥的命令如下:

    sudo apt-key adv --keyserver hkp://ha.pool.sks-keyservers.net:80 --recv-key 421C365BD9FF1F717815A3895523BAEEB01FA116
    • 1

    如果在连接密钥服务器时遇到了问题,可以尝试在上面的命令中用 hkp://pgp.mit.edu:80hkp://keyserver.ubuntu.com:80 来替换。

    安装

    首先,需要确保包管理器的索引已经更新至最新:

    sudo apt-get update
    • 1

    ROS 中有非常多不同的库和工具。官方提供了四种默认的配置来安装 ROS。也可以独立地安装 ROS 包。

    桌面完整安装(推荐采用):ROS,rqtrviz,机器人通用库,2D/3D 仿真器,导航及 2D/3D 感知

    $ sudo apt-get install ros-kinetic-desktop-full
    正在读取软件包列表... 完成
    正在分析软件包的依赖关系树       
    正在读取状态信息... 完成       
    . . . . . .
    将会同时安装下列软件:
      binfmt-support blt cpp-5 docutils-common docutils-doc fltk1.3-doc fluid fonts-lyx freeglut3 freeglut3-dev g++-5
      g++-5-multilib gazebo7 gazebo7-common gazebo7-plugin-base gcc-5 gcc-5-base gcc-5-base:i386 gcc-5-multilib
      gfortran gfortran-5 hddtemp hdf5-helpers lib32asan2 lib32atomic1 lib32cilkrts5 lib32gcc-5-dev lib32gomp1
      lib32itm1 lib32mpx0 lib32quadmath0 lib32stdc++-5-dev lib32stdc++6 lib32ubsan0 libaec-dev libaec0 libapr1-dev
      libaprutil1-dev libarmadillo6 libarpack2 libasan2 libassimp-dev libassimp3v5 libatomic1 libavcodec-dev
      libavformat-dev libavutil-dev libblas-dev libboost-all-dev libboost-atomic-dev libboost-atomic1.58-dev
      libboost-atomic1.58.0 libboost-chrono-dev libboost-chrono1.58-dev libboost-chrono1.58.0 libboost-context-dev
      libboost-context1.58-dev libboost-context1.58.0 libboost-coroutine-dev libboost-coroutine1.58-dev
      libboost-coroutine1.58.0 libboost-date-time-dev libboost-date-time1.58-dev libboost-dev libboost-exception-dev
      libboost-exception1.58-dev libboost-filesystem-dev libboost-filesystem1.58-dev libboost-graph-dev
      libboost-graph-parallel-dev libboost-graph-parallel1.58-dev libboost-graph-parallel1.58.0
      libboost-graph1.58-dev libboost-graph1.58.0 libboost-iostreams-dev libboost-iostreams1.58-dev
      libboost-locale-dev libboost-locale1.58-dev libboost-locale1.58.0 libboost-log-dev libboost-log1.58-dev
      libboost-log1.58.0 libboost-math-dev libboost-math1.58-dev libboost-math1.58.0 libboost-mpi-dev
      libboost-mpi-python-dev libboost-mpi-python1.58-dev libboost-mpi-python1.58.0 libboost-mpi1.58-dev
      libboost-mpi1.58.0 libboost-program-options-dev libboost-program-options1.58-dev libboost-python-dev
      libboost-python1.58-dev libboost-python1.58.0 libboost-random-dev libboost-random1.58-dev libboost-random1.58.0
      libboost-regex-dev libboost-regex1.58-dev libboost-regex1.58.0 libboost-serialization-dev
      libboost-serialization1.58-dev libboost-serialization1.58.0 libboost-signals-dev libboost-signals1.58-dev
      libboost-signals1.58.0 libboost-system-dev libboost-system1.58-dev libboost-test-dev libboost-test1.58-dev
      libboost-test1.58.0 libboost-thread-dev libboost-thread1.58-dev libboost-timer-dev libboost-timer1.58-dev
      libboost-timer1.58.0 libboost-tools-dev libboost-wave-dev libboost-wave1.58-dev libboost-wave1.58.0
      libboost1.58-dev libboost1.58-tools-dev libbulletcollision2.83.6 libbulletdynamics2.83.6 libcc1-0 libcilkrts5
      libcollada-dom2.4-dp-dev libcollada-dom2.4-dp0 libconsole-bridge-dev libconsole-bridge0.2v5
      libcurl4-openssl-dev libdap-dev libdap17v5 libdapclient6v5 libdapserver7v5 libeigen3-dev libepsilon1
      libflann-dev libflann1.8 libfltk-cairo1.3 libfltk-forms1.3 libfltk-gl1.3 libfltk-images1.3 libfltk1.3
      libfltk1.3-dev libfreeimage-dev libfreeimage3 libfreexl1 libgazebo7 libgazebo7-dev libgcc-5-dev libgdal-dev
      libgdal1i libgeos-3.5.0 libgeos-c1v5 libgeos-dev libgfortran-5-dev libgfortran3 libgif-dev libgl2ps-dev
      libgl2ps0 libglade2-0 libgomp1 libgtest-dev libgts-0.7-5 libgts-bin libgts-dev libhdf4-0-alt libhdf4-alt-dev
      libhdf5-10 libhdf5-cpp-11 libhdf5-dev libhdf5-mpi-dev libhdf5-openmpi-10 libhdf5-openmpi-dev libhwloc-dev
      libhwloc-plugins libhwloc5 libibverbs-dev libibverbs1 libignition-math2 libignition-math2-dev libinput-bin
      libinput-dev libinput10 libitm1 libjasper-dev libjbig-dev libjs-jquery-ui libjsoncpp-dev libjxr0 libkmlbase1
      libkmldom1 libkmlengine1 liblapack-dev libldap2-dev liblinearmath2.83.6 liblog4cxx-dev liblog4cxx10-dev
      liblog4cxx10v5 liblsan0 liblz4-dev liblzma-dev libminizip1 libmpx0 libmysqlclient-dev libmysqlclient20
      libnetcdf-c++4 libnetcdf-cxx-legacy-dev libnetcdf-dev libnetcdf11 libnuma-dev libodbc1 libogdi3.2 libogg-dev
      libogre-1.9-dev libogre-1.9.0v5 libopenjp2-7 libopenmpi-dev libopenmpi1.10 libopenni-dev
      libopenni-sensor-pointclouds0 libopenni0 libpcl-apps1.7 libpcl-common1.7 libpcl-dev libpcl-features1.7
      libpcl-filters1.7 libpcl-io1.7 libpcl-kdtree1.7 libpcl-keypoints1.7 libpcl-octree1.7 libpcl-outofcore1.7
      libpcl-people1.7 libpcl-recognition1.7 libpcl-registration1.7 libpcl-sample-consensus1.7 libpcl-search1.7
      libpcl-segmentation1.7 libpcl-surface1.7 libpcl-tracking1.7 libpcl-visualization1.7 libpcl1.7 libpoco-dev
      libpococrypto9v5 libpocodata9v5 libpocofoundation9v5 libpocomysql9v5 libpoconet9v5 libpoconetssl9v5
      libpocoodbc9v5 libpocosqlite9v5 libpocoutil9v5 libpocoxml9v5 libpocozip9v5 libpq-dev libproj-dev libproj9
      libprotoc-dev libprotoc9v5 libpyside-py3-2.0 libpyside2-dev libpyside2.0 libqhull-dev libqhull7 libqt4-dev
      libqt4-dev-bin libqt4-help libqt4-opengl-dev libqt4-scripttools libqt4-test libqt5clucene5 libqt5concurrent5
      libqt5core5a libqt5dbus5 libqt5designer5 libqt5designercomponents5 libqt5gui5 libqt5help5
      libqt5multimediaquick-p5 libqt5network5 libqt5opengl5 libqt5opengl5-dev libqt5printsupport5
      libqt5quickparticles5 libqt5scripttools5 libqt5sql5 libqt5svg5-dev libqt5test5 libqt5webkit5-dev libqt5widgets5
      libqt5x11extras5-dev libqt5xml5 libqt5xmlpatterns5 libqt5xmlpatterns5-dev libqt5xmlpatterns5-private-dev
      libqtwebkit-dev libquadmath0 libsdformat4 libsdformat4-dev libshiboken-py3-2.0 libshiboken2-dev libshiboken2.0
      libsimbody-dev libsimbody3.5v5 libspatialite-dev libspatialite7 libspnav0 libstdc++-5-dev libstdc++6
      libstdc++6:i386 libsuperlu4 libswresample-dev libswscale-dev libsz2 libtar-dev libtar0 libtbb-dev libtheora-dev
      libtiff5-dev libtiffxx5 libtinyxml-dev libtinyxml2-2v5 libtinyxml2-dev libtsan0 libubsan0 liburdfdom-dev
      liburdfdom-headers-dev liburdfdom-model-state0.4 liburdfdom-model0.4 liburdfdom-sensor0.4 liburdfdom-tools
      liburdfdom-world0.4 liburiparser1 libusb-1.0-0-dev libusb-1.0-doc libuuid1 libvtk-java libvtk5.10 libvtk6-dev
      libvtk6-java libvtk6-qt-dev libvtk6.2 libvtk6.2-qt libwacom-bin libwacom-common libwacom2 libwebp-dev
      libwebpdemux1 libx32asan2 libx32atomic1 libx32cilkrts5 libx32gcc-5-dev libx32gomp1 libx32itm1 libx32quadmath0
      libx32stdc++-5-dev libx32stdc++6 libx32ubsan0 libxerces-c-dev libxerces-c3.1 libxmu-dev libxmu-headers
      libyaml-cpp-dev libzzip-0-13 mpi-default-bin mpi-default-dev ocl-icd-libopencl1 odbcinst odbcinst1debian2
      openmpi-bin openmpi-common openni-utils proj-bin proj-data pyqt5-dev python-attr python-autobahn
      python-catkin-pkg python-catkin-pkg-modules python-chardet python-concurrent.futures python-cycler
      python-defusedxml python-docutils python-ecdsa python-empy python-glade2 python-gobject-2 python-gtk2
      python-imaging python-lz4 python-matplotlib python-matplotlib-data python-mpi4py python-msgpack
      python-netifaces python-nose python-opengl python-pam python-paramiko python-pil python-pyasn1-modules
      python-pydot python-pygments python-pyqt5 python-pyqt5.qtopengl python-pyqt5.qtsvg python-pyqt5.qtwebkit
      python-pyside2 python-pyside2.qtconcurrent python-pyside2.qtcore python-pyside2.qtgui python-pyside2.qthelp
      python-pyside2.qtnetwork python-pyside2.qtprintsupport python-pyside2.qtqml python-pyside2.qtquick
      python-pyside2.qtquickwidgets python-pyside2.qtscript python-pyside2.qtsql python-pyside2.qtsvg
      python-pyside2.qttest python-pyside2.qtuitools python-pyside2.qtwebkit python-pyside2.qtwebkitwidgets
      python-pyside2.qtwidgets python-pyside2.qtx11extras python-pyside2.qtxml python-roman python-rosdep
      python-rosdistro python-rosdistro-modules python-rospkg python-rospkg-modules python-serial
      python-service-identity python-sip python-sip-dev python-snappy python-tk python-trollius python-twisted
      python-twisted-bin python-twisted-core python-txaio python-vtk6 python-wxgtk3.0 python-wxtools python-wxversion
      python-zope.interface qt4-linguist-tools qt4-qmake qt5-qmake qtbase5-dev qtbase5-dev-tools qtbase5-private-dev
      qtdeclarative5-dev qtdeclarative5-private-dev qtmultimedia5-dev qtscript5-dev qtscript5-private-dev
      qttools5-dev qttools5-dev-tools qttools5-private-dev ros-kinetic-actionlib ros-kinetic-actionlib-msgs
      ros-kinetic-actionlib-tutorials ros-kinetic-angles ros-kinetic-bond ros-kinetic-bond-core ros-kinetic-bondcpp
      ros-kinetic-bondpy ros-kinetic-camera-calibration ros-kinetic-camera-calibration-parsers
      ros-kinetic-camera-info-manager ros-kinetic-catkin ros-kinetic-class-loader ros-kinetic-cmake-modules
      ros-kinetic-collada-parser ros-kinetic-collada-urdf ros-kinetic-common-msgs ros-kinetic-common-tutorials
      ros-kinetic-compressed-depth-image-transport ros-kinetic-compressed-image-transport ros-kinetic-control-msgs
      ros-kinetic-cpp-common ros-kinetic-cv-bridge ros-kinetic-depth-image-proc ros-kinetic-desktop
      ros-kinetic-diagnostic-aggregator ros-kinetic-diagnostic-analysis ros-kinetic-diagnostic-common-diagnostics
      ros-kinetic-diagnostic-msgs ros-kinetic-diagnostic-updater ros-kinetic-diagnostics
      ros-kinetic-dynamic-reconfigure ros-kinetic-eigen-conversions ros-kinetic-eigen-stl-containers
      ros-kinetic-executive-smach ros-kinetic-filters ros-kinetic-gazebo-dev ros-kinetic-gazebo-msgs
      ros-kinetic-gazebo-plugins ros-kinetic-gazebo-ros ros-kinetic-gazebo-ros-pkgs ros-kinetic-gencpp
      ros-kinetic-geneus ros-kinetic-genlisp ros-kinetic-genmsg ros-kinetic-gennodejs ros-kinetic-genpy
      ros-kinetic-geometric-shapes ros-kinetic-geometry ros-kinetic-geometry-msgs ros-kinetic-geometry-tutorials
      ros-kinetic-gl-dependency ros-kinetic-image-common ros-kinetic-image-geometry ros-kinetic-image-pipeline
      ros-kinetic-image-proc ros-kinetic-image-publisher ros-kinetic-image-rotate ros-kinetic-image-transport
      ros-kinetic-image-transport-plugins ros-kinetic-image-view ros-kinetic-interactive-marker-tutorials
      ros-kinetic-interactive-markers ros-kinetic-joint-state-publisher ros-kinetic-kdl-conversions
      ros-kinetic-kdl-parser ros-kinetic-laser-assembler ros-kinetic-laser-filters ros-kinetic-laser-geometry
      ros-kinetic-laser-pipeline ros-kinetic-librviz-tutorial ros-kinetic-map-msgs ros-kinetic-media-export
      ros-kinetic-message-filters ros-kinetic-message-generation ros-kinetic-message-runtime ros-kinetic-mk
      ros-kinetic-nav-msgs ros-kinetic-nodelet ros-kinetic-nodelet-core ros-kinetic-nodelet-topic-tools
      ros-kinetic-nodelet-tutorial-math ros-kinetic-octomap ros-kinetic-opencv3 ros-kinetic-orocos-kdl
      ros-kinetic-pcl-conversions ros-kinetic-pcl-msgs ros-kinetic-pcl-ros ros-kinetic-perception
      ros-kinetic-perception-pcl ros-kinetic-pluginlib ros-kinetic-pluginlib-tutorials ros-kinetic-polled-camera
      ros-kinetic-python-orocos-kdl ros-kinetic-python-qt-binding ros-kinetic-qt-dotgraph ros-kinetic-qt-gui
      ros-kinetic-qt-gui-cpp ros-kinetic-qt-gui-py-common ros-kinetic-qwt-dependency ros-kinetic-random-numbers
      ros-kinetic-resource-retriever ros-kinetic-robot ros-kinetic-robot-model ros-kinetic-robot-state-publisher
      ros-kinetic-ros ros-kinetic-ros-base ros-kinetic-ros-comm ros-kinetic-ros-core ros-kinetic-ros-tutorials
      ros-kinetic-rosbag ros-kinetic-rosbag-migration-rule ros-kinetic-rosbag-storage ros-kinetic-rosbash
      ros-kinetic-rosboost-cfg ros-kinetic-rosbuild ros-kinetic-rosclean ros-kinetic-rosconsole
      ros-kinetic-rosconsole-bridge ros-kinetic-roscpp ros-kinetic-roscpp-core ros-kinetic-roscpp-serialization
      ros-kinetic-roscpp-traits ros-kinetic-roscpp-tutorials ros-kinetic-roscreate ros-kinetic-rosgraph
      ros-kinetic-rosgraph-msgs ros-kinetic-roslang ros-kinetic-roslaunch ros-kinetic-roslib ros-kinetic-roslint
      ros-kinetic-roslisp ros-kinetic-roslz4 ros-kinetic-rosmake ros-kinetic-rosmaster ros-kinetic-rosmsg
      ros-kinetic-rosnode ros-kinetic-rosout ros-kinetic-rospack ros-kinetic-rosparam ros-kinetic-rospy
      ros-kinetic-rospy-tutorials ros-kinetic-rosservice ros-kinetic-rostest ros-kinetic-rostime ros-kinetic-rostopic
      ros-kinetic-rosunit ros-kinetic-roswtf ros-kinetic-rqt-action ros-kinetic-rqt-bag ros-kinetic-rqt-bag-plugins
      ros-kinetic-rqt-common-plugins ros-kinetic-rqt-console ros-kinetic-rqt-dep ros-kinetic-rqt-graph
      ros-kinetic-rqt-gui ros-kinetic-rqt-gui-cpp ros-kinetic-rqt-gui-py ros-kinetic-rqt-image-view
      ros-kinetic-rqt-launch ros-kinetic-rqt-logger-level ros-kinetic-rqt-moveit ros-kinetic-rqt-msg
      ros-kinetic-rqt-nav-view ros-kinetic-rqt-plot ros-kinetic-rqt-pose-view ros-kinetic-rqt-publisher
      ros-kinetic-rqt-py-common ros-kinetic-rqt-py-console ros-kinetic-rqt-reconfigure
      ros-kinetic-rqt-robot-dashboard ros-kinetic-rqt-robot-monitor ros-kinetic-rqt-robot-plugins
      ros-kinetic-rqt-robot-steering ros-kinetic-rqt-runtime-monitor ros-kinetic-rqt-rviz
      ros-kinetic-rqt-service-caller ros-kinetic-rqt-shell ros-kinetic-rqt-srv ros-kinetic-rqt-tf-tree
      ros-kinetic-rqt-top ros-kinetic-rqt-topic ros-kinetic-rqt-web ros-kinetic-rviz
      ros-kinetic-rviz-plugin-tutorials ros-kinetic-rviz-python-tutorial ros-kinetic-self-test
      ros-kinetic-sensor-msgs ros-kinetic-shape-msgs ros-kinetic-simulators ros-kinetic-smach ros-kinetic-smach-msgs
      ros-kinetic-smach-ros ros-kinetic-smclib ros-kinetic-stage ros-kinetic-stage-ros ros-kinetic-std-msgs
      ros-kinetic-std-srvs ros-kinetic-stereo-image-proc ros-kinetic-stereo-msgs ros-kinetic-tf
      ros-kinetic-tf-conversions ros-kinetic-tf2 ros-kinetic-tf2-eigen ros-kinetic-tf2-geometry-msgs
      ros-kinetic-tf2-kdl ros-kinetic-tf2-msgs ros-kinetic-tf2-py ros-kinetic-tf2-ros
      ros-kinetic-theora-image-transport ros-kinetic-topic-tools ros-kinetic-trajectory-msgs
      ros-kinetic-turtle-actionlib ros-kinetic-turtle-tf ros-kinetic-turtle-tf2 ros-kinetic-turtlesim
      ros-kinetic-urdf ros-kinetic-urdf-parser-plugin ros-kinetic-urdf-tutorial ros-kinetic-vision-opencv
      ros-kinetic-visualization-marker-tutorials ros-kinetic-visualization-msgs ros-kinetic-visualization-tutorials
      ros-kinetic-viz ros-kinetic-webkit-dependency ros-kinetic-xacro ros-kinetic-xmlrpcpp sbcl sdformat-sdf
      shiboken2 sip-dev tango-icon-theme tcl-dev tcl-vtk6 tcl8.6-dev tk-dev tk8.6-blt2.5 tk8.6-dev ttf-bitstream-vera
      ttf-liberation unixodbc unixodbc-dev uuid-dev vtk6
    建议安装:
      blt-demo gcc-5-locales gcc-5-doc libstdc++6-5-dbg lib32stdc++6-5-dbg libx32stdc++6-5-dbg gazebo7-doc
      libgomp1-dbg libitm1-dbg libatomic1-dbg libasan2-dbg liblsan0-dbg libtsan0-dbg libubsan0-dbg libcilkrts5-dbg
      libmpx0-dbg libquadmath0-dbg gfortran-multilib gfortran-doc gfortran-5-multilib gfortran-5-doc libgfortran3-dbg
      ksensors liblapack-doc-man liblapack-doc libboost-doc libboost1.58-doc gccxml libmpfrc++-dev libntl-dev doxygen
      default-jdk fop libbullet2-dev libbullet2 libcurl4-doc libcurl3-dbg libidn11-dev librtmp-dev libeigen3-doc
      libmrpt-dev libgdal-doc libgts-doc libhdf4-doc hdf4-tools libnetcdf4 libhdf5-doc libhwloc-contrib-plugins
      libjs-jquery-ui-docs liblog4cxx-doc liblzma-doc netcdf-bin netcdf-doc libmyodbc odbc-postgresql tdsodbc
      unixodbc-bin ogdi-bin ogre-1.9-doc libogre-1.9.0v5-dbg opennmpi-doc openni-doc libpcl-doc libpoco-doc
      libpococrypto9v5-dbg libpocodata9v5-dbg libpocofoundation9v5-dbg libpocomysql9v5-dbg libpoconet9v5-dbg
      libpoconetssl9v5-dbg libpocoodbc9v5-dbg libpocosqlite9v5-dbg libpocoutil9v5-dbg libpocoxml9v5-dbg
      libpocozip9v5-dbg postgresql-doc-9.5 firebird-dev libsqlite0-dev qt4-dev-tools qt4-doc libqt5libqgtk2
      qt5-image-formats-plugins spacenavd libstdc++-5-doc tbb-examples libtbb-doc libtinyxml-doc java-virtual-machine
      libvtk5-dev vtk-doc vtk-examples vtk6-doc vtk6-examples libxerces-c-doc opencl-icd openmpi-checkpoint
      texlive-latex-recommended texlive-latex-base texlive-lang-french fonts-linuxlibertine | ttf-linux-libertine
      python-gtk2-doc python-gobject-2-dbg dvipng inkscape ipython python-cairocffi python-configobj
      python-excelerator python-gobject python-matplotlib-doc python-qt4 python-scipy python-tornado python-traits
      texlive-extra-utils texlive-latex-extra ttf-staypuft python-coverage python-nose-doc libgle3 python-pam-dbg
      python-pil-doc python-pil-dbg python-pyqt5-dbg python-sip-doc tix python-tk-dbg python-twisted-bin-dbg
      python-qt3 python-txaio-doc mayavi2 sbcl-doc sbcl-source slime gnome-icon-theme kdelibs-data tcl-doc tcl8.6-doc
      tk-doc tk8.6-doc
    下列软件包将被【卸载】:
      libcurl4-gnutls-dev
    下列【新】软件包将被安装:
      binfmt-support blt docutils-common docutils-doc fltk1.3-doc fluid fonts-lyx freeglut3 freeglut3-dev gazebo7
      gazebo7-common gazebo7-plugin-base gfortran gfortran-5 hddtemp hdf5-helpers libaec-dev libaec0 libapr1-dev
      libaprutil1-dev libarmadillo6 libarpack2 libassimp-dev libassimp3v5 libavcodec-dev libavformat-dev
      libavutil-dev libblas-dev libboost-all-dev libboost-atomic-dev libboost-atomic1.58-dev libboost-atomic1.58.0
      libboost-chrono-dev libboost-chrono1.58-dev libboost-chrono1.58.0 libboost-context-dev libboost-context1.58-dev
      libboost-context1.58.0 libboost-coroutine-dev libboost-coroutine1.58-dev libboost-coroutine1.58.0
      libboost-date-time-dev libboost-date-time1.58-dev libboost-dev libboost-exception-dev
      libboost-exception1.58-dev libboost-filesystem-dev libboost-filesystem1.58-dev libboost-graph-dev
      libboost-graph-parallel-dev libboost-graph-parallel1.58-dev libboost-graph-parallel1.58.0
      libboost-graph1.58-dev libboost-graph1.58.0 libboost-iostreams-dev libboost-iostreams1.58-dev
      libboost-locale-dev libboost-locale1.58-dev libboost-locale1.58.0 libboost-log-dev libboost-log1.58-dev
      libboost-log1.58.0 libboost-math-dev libboost-math1.58-dev libboost-math1.58.0 libboost-mpi-dev
      libboost-mpi-python-dev libboost-mpi-python1.58-dev libboost-mpi-python1.58.0 libboost-mpi1.58-dev
      libboost-mpi1.58.0 libboost-program-options-dev libboost-program-options1.58-dev libboost-python-dev
      libboost-python1.58-dev libboost-python1.58.0 libboost-random-dev libboost-random1.58-dev libboost-random1.58.0
      libboost-regex-dev libboost-regex1.58-dev libboost-regex1.58.0 libboost-serialization-dev
      libboost-serialization1.58-dev libboost-serialization1.58.0 libboost-signals-dev libboost-signals1.58-dev
      libboost-signals1.58.0 libboost-system-dev libboost-system1.58-dev libboost-test-dev libboost-test1.58-dev
      libboost-test1.58.0 libboost-thread-dev libboost-thread1.58-dev libboost-timer-dev libboost-timer1.58-dev
      libboost-timer1.58.0 libboost-tools-dev libboost-wave-dev libboost-wave1.58-dev libboost-wave1.58.0
      libboost1.58-dev libboost1.58-tools-dev libbulletcollision2.83.6 libbulletdynamics2.83.6
      libcollada-dom2.4-dp-dev libcollada-dom2.4-dp0 libconsole-bridge-dev libconsole-bridge0.2v5
      libcurl4-openssl-dev libdap-dev libdap17v5 libdapclient6v5 libdapserver7v5 libeigen3-dev libepsilon1
      libflann-dev libflann1.8 libfltk-cairo1.3 libfltk-forms1.3 libfltk-gl1.3 libfltk-images1.3 libfltk1.3
      libfltk1.3-dev libfreeimage-dev libfreeimage3 libfreexl1 libgazebo7 libgazebo7-dev libgdal-dev libgdal1i
      libgeos-3.5.0 libgeos-c1v5 libgeos-dev libgfortran-5-dev libgif-dev libgl2ps-dev libgl2ps0 libglade2-0
      libgtest-dev libgts-0.7-5 libgts-bin libgts-dev libhdf4-0-alt libhdf4-alt-dev libhdf5-10 libhdf5-cpp-11
      libhdf5-dev libhdf5-mpi-dev libhdf5-openmpi-10 libhdf5-openmpi-dev libhwloc-dev libhwloc-plugins libhwloc5
      libibverbs-dev libibverbs1 libignition-math2 libignition-math2-dev libinput-bin libinput-dev libjasper-dev
      libjbig-dev libjs-jquery-ui libjsoncpp-dev libjxr0 libkmlbase1 libkmldom1 libkmlengine1 liblapack-dev
      libldap2-dev liblinearmath2.83.6 liblog4cxx-dev liblog4cxx10-dev liblog4cxx10v5 liblz4-dev liblzma-dev
      libminizip1 libmysqlclient-dev libmysqlclient20 libnetcdf-c++4 libnetcdf-cxx-legacy-dev libnetcdf-dev
      libnetcdf11 libnuma-dev libodbc1 libogdi3.2 libogg-dev libogre-1.9-dev libogre-1.9.0v5 libopenjp2-7
      libopenmpi-dev libopenmpi1.10 libopenni-dev libopenni-sensor-pointclouds0 libopenni0 libpcl-apps1.7
      libpcl-common1.7 libpcl-dev libpcl-features1.7 libpcl-filters1.7 libpcl-io1.7 libpcl-kdtree1.7
      libpcl-keypoints1.7 libpcl-octree1.7 libpcl-outofcore1.7 libpcl-people1.7 libpcl-recognition1.7
      libpcl-registration1.7 libpcl-sample-consensus1.7 libpcl-search1.7 libpcl-segmentation1.7 libpcl-surface1.7
      libpcl-tracking1.7 libpcl-visualization1.7 libpcl1.7 libpoco-dev libpococrypto9v5 libpocodata9v5
      libpocofoundation9v5 libpocomysql9v5 libpoconet9v5 libpoconetssl9v5 libpocoodbc9v5 libpocosqlite9v5
      libpocoutil9v5 libpocoxml9v5 libpocozip9v5 libpq-dev libproj-dev libproj9 libprotoc-dev libprotoc9v5
      libpyside-py3-2.0 libpyside2-dev libpyside2.0 libqhull-dev libqhull7 libqt4-dev libqt4-dev-bin libqt4-help
      libqt4-opengl-dev libqt4-scripttools libqt4-test libqt5clucene5 libqt5concurrent5 libqt5designer5
      libqt5designercomponents5 libqt5help5 libqt5multimediaquick-p5 libqt5opengl5-dev libqt5quickparticles5
      libqt5scripttools5 libqt5svg5-dev libqt5webkit5-dev libqt5x11extras5-dev libqt5xmlpatterns5
      libqt5xmlpatterns5-dev libqt5xmlpatterns5-private-dev libqtwebkit-dev libsdformat4 libsdformat4-dev
      libshiboken-py3-2.0 libshiboken2-dev libshiboken2.0 libsimbody-dev libsimbody3.5v5 libspatialite-dev
      libspatialite7 libspnav0 libsuperlu4 libswresample-dev libswscale-dev libsz2 libtar-dev libtar0 libtbb-dev
      libtheora-dev libtiff5-dev libtiffxx5 libtinyxml-dev libtinyxml2-2v5 libtinyxml2-dev liburdfdom-dev
      liburdfdom-headers-dev liburdfdom-model-state0.4 liburdfdom-model0.4 liburdfdom-sensor0.4 liburdfdom-tools
      liburdfdom-world0.4 liburiparser1 libusb-1.0-0-dev libusb-1.0-doc libvtk-java libvtk5.10 libvtk6-dev
      libvtk6-java libvtk6-qt-dev libvtk6.2 libvtk6.2-qt libwebp-dev libwebpdemux1 libxerces-c-dev libxerces-c3.1
      libxmu-dev libxmu-headers libyaml-cpp-dev libzzip-0-13 mpi-default-bin mpi-default-dev ocl-icd-libopencl1
      odbcinst odbcinst1debian2 openmpi-bin openmpi-common openni-utils proj-bin proj-data pyqt5-dev python-attr
      python-autobahn python-catkin-pkg python-catkin-pkg-modules python-chardet python-concurrent.futures
      python-cycler python-defusedxml python-docutils python-ecdsa python-empy python-glade2 python-gobject-2
      python-gtk2 python-imaging python-lz4 python-matplotlib python-matplotlib-data python-mpi4py python-msgpack
      python-netifaces python-nose python-opengl python-pam python-paramiko python-pil python-pyasn1-modules
      python-pydot python-pygments python-pyqt5 python-pyqt5.qtopengl python-pyqt5.qtsvg python-pyqt5.qtwebkit
      python-pyside2 python-pyside2.qtconcurrent python-pyside2.qtcore python-pyside2.qtgui python-pyside2.qthelp
      python-pyside2.qtnetwork python-pyside2.qtprintsupport python-pyside2.qtqml python-pyside2.qtquick
      python-pyside2.qtquickwidgets python-pyside2.qtscript python-pyside2.qtsql python-pyside2.qtsvg
      python-pyside2.qttest python-pyside2.qtuitools python-pyside2.qtwebkit python-pyside2.qtwebkitwidgets
      python-pyside2.qtwidgets python-pyside2.qtx11extras python-pyside2.qtxml python-roman python-rosdep
      python-rosdistro python-rosdistro-modules python-rospkg python-rospkg-modules python-serial
      python-service-identity python-sip python-sip-dev python-snappy python-tk python-trollius python-twisted
      python-twisted-bin python-twisted-core python-txaio python-vtk6 python-wxgtk3.0 python-wxtools python-wxversion
      python-zope.interface qt4-linguist-tools qt4-qmake qt5-qmake qtbase5-dev qtbase5-dev-tools qtbase5-private-dev
      qtdeclarative5-dev qtdeclarative5-private-dev qtmultimedia5-dev qtscript5-dev qtscript5-private-dev
      qttools5-dev qttools5-dev-tools qttools5-private-dev ros-kinetic-actionlib ros-kinetic-actionlib-msgs
      ros-kinetic-actionlib-tutorials ros-kinetic-angles ros-kinetic-bond ros-kinetic-bond-core ros-kinetic-bondcpp
      ros-kinetic-bondpy ros-kinetic-camera-calibration ros-kinetic-camera-calibration-parsers
      ros-kinetic-camera-info-manager ros-kinetic-catkin ros-kinetic-class-loader ros-kinetic-cmake-modules
      ros-kinetic-collada-parser ros-kinetic-collada-urdf ros-kinetic-common-msgs ros-kinetic-common-tutorials
      ros-kinetic-compressed-depth-image-transport ros-kinetic-compressed-image-transport ros-kinetic-control-msgs
      ros-kinetic-cpp-common ros-kinetic-cv-bridge ros-kinetic-depth-image-proc ros-kinetic-desktop
      ros-kinetic-desktop-full ros-kinetic-diagnostic-aggregator ros-kinetic-diagnostic-analysis
      ros-kinetic-diagnostic-common-diagnostics ros-kinetic-diagnostic-msgs ros-kinetic-diagnostic-updater
      ros-kinetic-diagnostics ros-kinetic-dynamic-reconfigure ros-kinetic-eigen-conversions
      ros-kinetic-eigen-stl-containers ros-kinetic-executive-smach ros-kinetic-filters ros-kinetic-gazebo-dev
      ros-kinetic-gazebo-msgs ros-kinetic-gazebo-plugins ros-kinetic-gazebo-ros ros-kinetic-gazebo-ros-pkgs
      ros-kinetic-gencpp ros-kinetic-geneus ros-kinetic-genlisp ros-kinetic-genmsg ros-kinetic-gennodejs
      ros-kinetic-genpy ros-kinetic-geometric-shapes ros-kinetic-geometry ros-kinetic-geometry-msgs
      ros-kinetic-geometry-tutorials ros-kinetic-gl-dependency ros-kinetic-image-common ros-kinetic-image-geometry
      ros-kinetic-image-pipeline ros-kinetic-image-proc ros-kinetic-image-publisher ros-kinetic-image-rotate
      ros-kinetic-image-transport ros-kinetic-image-transport-plugins ros-kinetic-image-view
      ros-kinetic-interactive-marker-tutorials ros-kinetic-interactive-markers ros-kinetic-joint-state-publisher
      ros-kinetic-kdl-conversions ros-kinetic-kdl-parser ros-kinetic-laser-assembler ros-kinetic-laser-filters
      ros-kinetic-laser-geometry ros-kinetic-laser-pipeline ros-kinetic-librviz-tutorial ros-kinetic-map-msgs
      ros-kinetic-media-export ros-kinetic-message-filters ros-kinetic-message-generation ros-kinetic-message-runtime
      ros-kinetic-mk ros-kinetic-nav-msgs ros-kinetic-nodelet ros-kinetic-nodelet-core
      ros-kinetic-nodelet-topic-tools ros-kinetic-nodelet-tutorial-math ros-kinetic-octomap ros-kinetic-opencv3
      ros-kinetic-orocos-kdl ros-kinetic-pcl-conversions ros-kinetic-pcl-msgs ros-kinetic-pcl-ros
      ros-kinetic-perception ros-kinetic-perception-pcl ros-kinetic-pluginlib ros-kinetic-pluginlib-tutorials
      ros-kinetic-polled-camera ros-kinetic-python-orocos-kdl ros-kinetic-python-qt-binding ros-kinetic-qt-dotgraph
      ros-kinetic-qt-gui ros-kinetic-qt-gui-cpp ros-kinetic-qt-gui-py-common ros-kinetic-qwt-dependency
      ros-kinetic-random-numbers ros-kinetic-resource-retriever ros-kinetic-robot ros-kinetic-robot-model
      ros-kinetic-robot-state-publisher ros-kinetic-ros ros-kinetic-ros-base ros-kinetic-ros-comm
      ros-kinetic-ros-core ros-kinetic-ros-tutorials ros-kinetic-rosbag ros-kinetic-rosbag-migration-rule
      ros-kinetic-rosbag-storage ros-kinetic-rosbash ros-kinetic-rosboost-cfg ros-kinetic-rosbuild
      ros-kinetic-rosclean ros-kinetic-rosconsole ros-kinetic-rosconsole-bridge ros-kinetic-roscpp
      ros-kinetic-roscpp-core ros-kinetic-roscpp-serialization ros-kinetic-roscpp-traits ros-kinetic-roscpp-tutorials
      ros-kinetic-roscreate ros-kinetic-rosgraph ros-kinetic-rosgraph-msgs ros-kinetic-roslang ros-kinetic-roslaunch
      ros-kinetic-roslib ros-kinetic-roslint ros-kinetic-roslisp ros-kinetic-roslz4 ros-kinetic-rosmake
      ros-kinetic-rosmaster ros-kinetic-rosmsg ros-kinetic-rosnode ros-kinetic-rosout ros-kinetic-rospack
      ros-kinetic-rosparam ros-kinetic-rospy ros-kinetic-rospy-tutorials ros-kinetic-rosservice ros-kinetic-rostest
      ros-kinetic-rostime ros-kinetic-rostopic ros-kinetic-rosunit ros-kinetic-roswtf ros-kinetic-rqt-action
      ros-kinetic-rqt-bag ros-kinetic-rqt-bag-plugins ros-kinetic-rqt-common-plugins ros-kinetic-rqt-console
      ros-kinetic-rqt-dep ros-kinetic-rqt-graph ros-kinetic-rqt-gui ros-kinetic-rqt-gui-cpp ros-kinetic-rqt-gui-py
      ros-kinetic-rqt-image-view ros-kinetic-rqt-launch ros-kinetic-rqt-logger-level ros-kinetic-rqt-moveit
      ros-kinetic-rqt-msg ros-kinetic-rqt-nav-view ros-kinetic-rqt-plot ros-kinetic-rqt-pose-view
      ros-kinetic-rqt-publisher ros-kinetic-rqt-py-common ros-kinetic-rqt-py-console ros-kinetic-rqt-reconfigure
      ros-kinetic-rqt-robot-dashboard ros-kinetic-rqt-robot-monitor ros-kinetic-rqt-robot-plugins
      ros-kinetic-rqt-robot-steering ros-kinetic-rqt-runtime-monitor ros-kinetic-rqt-rviz
      ros-kinetic-rqt-service-caller ros-kinetic-rqt-shell ros-kinetic-rqt-srv ros-kinetic-rqt-tf-tree
      ros-kinetic-rqt-top ros-kinetic-rqt-topic ros-kinetic-rqt-web ros-kinetic-rviz
      ros-kinetic-rviz-plugin-tutorials ros-kinetic-rviz-python-tutorial ros-kinetic-self-test
      ros-kinetic-sensor-msgs ros-kinetic-shape-msgs ros-kinetic-simulators ros-kinetic-smach ros-kinetic-smach-msgs
      ros-kinetic-smach-ros ros-kinetic-smclib ros-kinetic-stage ros-kinetic-stage-ros ros-kinetic-std-msgs
      ros-kinetic-std-srvs ros-kinetic-stereo-image-proc ros-kinetic-stereo-msgs ros-kinetic-tf
      ros-kinetic-tf-conversions ros-kinetic-tf2 ros-kinetic-tf2-eigen ros-kinetic-tf2-geometry-msgs
      ros-kinetic-tf2-kdl ros-kinetic-tf2-msgs ros-kinetic-tf2-py ros-kinetic-tf2-ros
      ros-kinetic-theora-image-transport ros-kinetic-topic-tools ros-kinetic-trajectory-msgs
      ros-kinetic-turtle-actionlib ros-kinetic-turtle-tf ros-kinetic-turtle-tf2 ros-kinetic-turtlesim
      ros-kinetic-urdf ros-kinetic-urdf-parser-plugin ros-kinetic-urdf-tutorial ros-kinetic-vision-opencv
      ros-kinetic-visualization-marker-tutorials ros-kinetic-visualization-msgs ros-kinetic-visualization-tutorials
      ros-kinetic-viz ros-kinetic-webkit-dependency ros-kinetic-xacro ros-kinetic-xmlrpcpp sbcl sdformat-sdf
      shiboken2 sip-dev tango-icon-theme tcl-dev tcl-vtk6 tcl8.6-dev tk-dev tk8.6-blt2.5 tk8.6-dev ttf-bitstream-vera
      ttf-liberation unixodbc unixodbc-dev uuid-dev vtk6
    下列软件包将被升级:
      cpp-5 g++-5 g++-5-multilib gcc-5 gcc-5-base gcc-5-base:i386 gcc-5-multilib lib32asan2 lib32atomic1
      lib32cilkrts5 lib32gcc-5-dev lib32gomp1 lib32itm1 lib32mpx0 lib32quadmath0 lib32stdc++-5-dev lib32stdc++6
      lib32ubsan0 libasan2 libatomic1 libcc1-0 libcilkrts5 libgcc-5-dev libgfortran3 libgomp1 libinput10 libitm1
      liblsan0 libmpx0 libqt5core5a libqt5dbus5 libqt5gui5 libqt5network5 libqt5opengl5 libqt5printsupport5
      libqt5sql5 libqt5test5 libqt5widgets5 libqt5xml5 libquadmath0 libstdc++-5-dev libstdc++6 libstdc++6:i386
      libtsan0 libubsan0 libuuid1 libwacom-bin libwacom-common libwacom2 libx32asan2 libx32atomic1 libx32cilkrts5
      libx32gcc-5-dev libx32gomp1 libx32itm1 libx32quadmath0 libx32stdc++-5-dev libx32stdc++6 libx32ubsan0
    升级了 59 个软件包,新安装了 653 个软件包,要卸载 1 个软件包,有 394 个软件包未被升级。
    需要下载 445 MB 的归档。
    解压缩后会消耗 2,139 MB 的额外空间。
    您希望继续执行吗? [Y/n] Y
    •  

    这种方式的安装,所需要安装的包非常多。

    桌面安装:ROS,rqtrviz,机器人通用库

    sudo apt-get install ros-kinetic-desktop
    • 1

    ROS-Base (Bare Bones):ROS 包,构建和通信库。没有 GUI 工具。

    sudo apt-get install ros-kinetic-ros-base
    • 1

    独立的包安装:可以安装一个特定的 ROS 包(用实际的包名来替换下面的命令中的 “PACKAGE”)。

    sudo apt-get install ros-kinetic-PACKAGE
    • 1

    如:

    sudo apt-get install ros-kinetic-slam-gmapping
    • 1

    要找到可用的包,可以使用:

    apt-cache search ros-kinetic
    • 1

    通常在做开发时,采用 桌面完整安装 比较方便一点,可以一股脑将所有有可能用到的软件包都安装进来。对于实际的机器,则通常采用 ROS-Base (Bare Bones) + 独立的包 的方式进行安装。

    初始化 rosdep

    在使用 ROS 之前,需要先初始化 rosdeprosdep 使得你可以为你想要编译的源码,以及需要运行的 ROS 核心组件,简单地安装系统依赖。

    sudo rosdep init
    rosdep update
    • 1
    • 2

    环境设置

    如果在每次一个新的终端启动时,ROS 环境变量都能自动地添加进你的 bash 会话是非常方便,这可以通过如下命令来实现:

    echo "source /opt/ros/kinetic/setup.bash" >> ~/.bashrc
    source ~/.bashrc
    • 1
    • 2

    如果安装了多个 ROS 发行版,则 ~/.bashrc 必须只 source 当前正在使用的那一版的 setup.bash

    如果你只想要修改当前 shell 的环境,则输入如下的命令来替换上面的命令:

    source /opt/ros/kinetic/setup.bash
    • 1

    构建包所需的依赖

    到这一步,应该已经安装好了运行核心 ROS 包的所有东西。要创建和管理你自己的 ROS workspace,还有单独发布的许多的工具。比如,rosinstall 是一个常用的命令行工具,使你可以通过一个命令为 ROS 包简单地下载许多源码树。

    要安装这个工具及其它的依赖以构建 ROS 包,则运行:

    sudo apt-get install python-rosinstall python-rosinstall-generator python-wstool build-essential
    • 1

    完成完整的 ROS 安装之后,可以对安装做一个简单的测试。可以通过 roscoreturtlesim 来做测试。

    roscore 测试如下:

    $ roscore
    ... logging to /home/hanpfei0306/.ros/log/3e61b674-03cf-11e8-ac54-9cb70ddc3658/roslaunch-hanpfei0306-31481.log
    Checking log directory for disk usage. This may take awhile.
    Press Ctrl-C to interrupt
    Done checking log file disk usage. Usage is <1GB.
    
    started roslaunch server http://hanpfei0306:44979/
    ros_comm version 1.12.12
    
    
    SUMMARY
    ========
    
    PARAMETERS
     * /rosdistro: kinetic
     * /rosversion: 1.12.12
    
    NODES
    
    auto-starting new master
    process[master]: started with pid [31495]
    ROS_MASTER_URI=http://hanpfei0306:11311/
    
    setting /run_id to 3e61b674-03cf-11e8-ac54-9cb70ddc3658
    process[rosout-1]: started with pid [31508]
    started core service [/rosout]

    turtlesim 测试如下:
    Turtlesim

    注意 turtlesim 的运行依赖于 roscore 的运行,因此在测试 turtlesim 需要同时运行 roscore

    参考文档
    ROS Distributions
    Ubuntu install of ROS Kinetic

    Done.

    展开全文
  • ROS——Ubuntu16.04环境下ROS Kinetic的安装

    万次阅读 多人点赞 2018-07-14 17:10:42
    1. Ubuntu版本和ROS版本的对应关系 (安装什么版本Ubuntu就安装什么版本的ROSRos发布时间 Ros版本 相对应的Ubuntu版本 2016.3 ROS Kinetic Kame Ubuntu 16.04 (Xenial) / Ubuntu 15.10 (Wily) ...

    1. Ubuntu版本和ROS版本的对应关系

    (安装什么版本Ubuntu就安装什么版本的ROS)

     

    Ros发布时间Ros版本相对应的Ubuntu版本
    2016.3ROS Kinetic KameUbuntu 16.04 (Xenial) / Ubuntu 15.10 (Wily)
    2015.3ROS Jade TurtleUbuntu 15.04 (Wily) / Ubuntu LTS 14.04 (Trusty)
    2014.7ROS Indigo IglooUbuntu 14.04 (Trusty)
    2013.9ROS Hydro MedusaUbuntu 12.04 LTS (Precise)
    2012.12ROS Groovy GalapagosUbuntu 12.04 (Precise)
     

    2.Ubuntu 16.04 64bit+ROS Kinetic的安装

    (如果是 Ubuntu 14.04,只需要把下面所有出现 *-kinetic-* 的地方换成 *-indigo-* 就好了)

     

    2.1 软件中心配置

           在 Ubuntu 最左上角的搜索按钮中搜索"软件和更新"/"software and update"。

           打开后按照下图进行配置确保你的"restricted", "universe," 和 "multiverse."前是打上勾的),本人下载自主服务器,国内服务器下载了几次有问题

    配置完成后就可以关闭该窗口了。

     

    2.2 添加源

            打开一个终端(Ctrl + Alt + T), 输入如下指令:

    $ sudo sh -c 'echo "deb http://packages.ros.org/ros/ubuntu $(lsb_release -sc) main" > /etc/apt/sources.list.d/ros-latest.list'

           设置秘钥:

    $ sudo apt-key adv --keyserver hkp://ha.pool.sks-keyservers.net:80 --recv-key 0xB01FA116

     

    2.3 安装 ROS

          更新系统软件处于最新版:

    $ sudo apt-get update

           然后开始安装 ROS,安装全功能版指令如下:

    $ sudo apt-get install ros-kinetic-desktop-full

          本人安装过程大概五分钟,看个人网络,等着ROS安装完成,如果出现BUG跟据具体情况而定,有可能是网络问题,有时候宽带就是不行,用手机热点就可以。

         安装完成后,可以用下面的命令来查看可使用的包:

    $ apt-cache search ros-kinetic

          到现在,虽然是安装完了,但是还不能用。

     

    2.4 初始化ROS

            首先需要先初始化 rosdep,具体如下:

    $ sudo rosdep init
    $ rosdep update
          然后初始化环境变量(重要):
    
    $ echo "source /opt/ros/kinetic/setup.bash" >> ~/.bashrc
    $ source ~/.bashrc

           开发过程中,如果找不到 Package, 找不到node, 很多情况下都是没有添加source或者失败了;如果安装失败,可以再试一次。

           你可以安装一个非常常用的插件(有的同学可能不需要安装,这个插件已经存在了):

    $ sudo apt-get install python-rosinstall

    3 测试ROS

    首先,启动ROS环境

    $ roscore

    目录/opt/ros/kinect,文件夹如下:

    安装成功。

    4.检查环境变量配置

    命令:

    $ export | grep ROS

     

     

    5、ROS常用命令

     

    6、ROS应用框架

    展开全文
  • Ubuntu18.04下安装ROS

    万次阅读 多人点赞 2018-11-19 17:42:39
    本文就是为Ubuntu18.04安装ROS Melodic 首先ubuntu不同的版本对应ROS不同的版本,我们需要在安装过程中找到对应的版本进行在终端里的安装操作; 图片转自http://f.dataguru.cn/thread-903259-1-1.html Melodic...

    本文就是为Ubuntu18.04安装ROS Melodic

    首先ubuntu不同的版本对应ROS不同的版本,我们需要在安装过程中找到对应的版本进行在终端里的安装操作;

    图片转自http://f.dataguru.cn/thread-903259-1-1.html

    Melodic 主要对应:Ubuntu Artful (17.10), Bionic (18.04 LTS) 以及Debian Stretch

    其次保证一个良好的网络环境十分重要,必要时就开热点吧,网络不稳定也是安装失败的一大因素。

    当你装好双系统在linux操作系统下(Ubuntu18.04)时,打开终端开始操作

    命令都可参考wiki百科Ubuntu install of ROS Melodic

    配置Ubuntu软件库

    • 配置Ubuntu存储库以允许 "restricted," "universe," and "multiverse."

    设置sources.list

    将电脑设置为接受来自packages.ros.org的软件,官网是这一句

    sudo sh -c 'echo "deb http://packages.ros.org/ros/ubuntu $(lsb_release -sc) main" > /etc/apt/sources.list.d/ros-latest.list'

    但是我使用这一句再往后操作就会出现无法定位软件包的错误所以推荐如下这一句,使用国内的镜像 :

    sudo sh -c '. /etc/lsb-release && echo "deb http://mirrors.ustc.edu.cn/ros/ubuntu/ $DISTRIB_CODENAME main" > /etc/apt/sources.list.d/ros-latest.list'

    设置密钥

    中间的hkp://keyserver.ubuntu.com:80是我成功时使用的,如果不行可替换为

    hkp://ha.pool.sks-keyservers.net:80   或   hkp://pgp.mit.edu:80
    
    sudo apt-key adv --keyserver hkp://keyserver.ubuntu.com:80 --recv-key 421C365BD9FF1F717815A3895523BAEEB01FA116

     

    安装

    有时候这一步之后会执行不完全成功或者显示无法定位软件包

    可以在一开始软件库的位置添加apt

     具体添加可以试一试https://blog.csdn.net/zhwisdom0427/article/details/72898772 的这一句deb http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ trusty main universe restricted multiverse

    sudo apt-get update

     

        桌面完整安装:(推荐):ROS,rqt,rviz,机器人通用库,2D / 3D模拟器,导航和2D / 3D感知

    sudo apt-get install ros-melodic-desktop-full

       

     然后是漫长的等待,加载很多东西

    初始化rosdep

    需要先初始化rosdep。rosdep能够轻松地安装要编译的源代码的系统依赖关系,并且需要在ROS中运行一些核心组件。

    sudo rosdep init

     然后

    rosdep update

    后面的步骤我完全按照https://blog.csdn.net/zhangrelay/article/details/80241758 做的十分顺畅没有出现前面的我自己存在的问题,可以继续参考这个进行对安装的完善和验证就结束了。

    添加ros环境变量

    echo "source /opt/ros/melodic/setup.bash" >> ~/.bashrc
    source ~/.bashrc

    如果安装了多个ROS分发,则〜/ .bashrc必须仅为您当前使用的版本提供setup.bash。

    rosinstall是一种常用的命令行工具可安装上

    sudo apt install python-rosinstall python-rosinstall-generator python-wstool build-essential

    小海龟例子

    一个终端

    roscore

    第二个终端

    rosrun turtlesim turtlesim_node


    再开起一个终端控制

    rosrun turtlesim turtle_teleop_key
    

    在第三个终端里键盘控制上下左右小海龟就能运动了。

    如果自己测试出现了ERROR如下:

    [ERROR] [1542765270.211635192]: [registerPublisher] Failed to contact master at [localhost:11311].  Retrying...

    那么首先检查是否打开roscore,执行命令如下:

    然后再进行小海龟的测试,或者有时解决如下:

    详细还可参考wiki关于这个ERROR的解决Failed to contact master at [localhost:11311]

    基本上只要打开了roscore都能执行命令看到这只小海龟

     

    展开全文
  • Ubuntu安装ROS详细教程

    2021-03-29 20:12:07
    Ubuntu安装ROS详细教程 今天弄了好久的ROS,总算是装好了,发现网上好多文章都还是Ubuntu老版本的,小白又不懂的怎么按Ubuntu版本灵活变换,所以我写下了这篇教程. 1. 换源 1. 打开 软件和更新(Software and update),...
  • 前段时间有不少安装了ROS melodic的小伙伴update的时候发现出现如下问题...获取:1 http://packages.ros.org/ros/ubuntu bionic InRelease [4,669 B] 错误:1 http://packages.ros.org/ros/ubuntu bionic InRelease ...
  • Ubuntu20.04/18.04配置ROS系统及报错解决
  • Ubuntu20.04系统安装ROS完整教程

    千次阅读 2021-08-14 16:58:29
    sudo sh -c 'echo "deb http://packages.ros.org/ros/ubuntu $(lsb_release -sc) main" > /etc/apt/sources.list.d/ros-latest.list' 2. 设置密钥 两种方法: 1)官网提供命令 sudo apt install curl curl -s ...
  • ROS ubuntu20.0 noetic 古月居gazebo模型倒入脱坑 在学习古月老师课程时,因为用的noetic版本,所以好多地方不兼容,下面就是对于代码进行了调整!!!roslaunch mbot_gazebo view_mbot_gazebo_empty_world.launch这...
  • UbuntuROS版本对应关系及官方支持结束时间,加粗的为还在支持的版本。 Ubuntu ROS End of Life 14.04 LTS indigo lgloo April, 2019 16.04 LTS Kinetic Kame April, 2021 18.04 LTS Melodic Morenia ...
  • 简述ROSUbuntu,raspbian的关系

    千次阅读 2020-07-14 16:59:28
    有很多刚刚接触ROS的朋友们搞不清楚ROSUbuntu,raspbian的关系,想这些不都是系统吗?为什么会有三个系统?电脑上装的是Ubuntu,那树莓派上装的是ROS吗?那raspbian呢? 现在来帮大家理清楚一下这三者的关系。 ...
  • 不同的ubuntu版本对应着不同的ros版本所以安装前先找到自己的ubuntu版本。 配置好下载类型 找到软件更新 打开后设置如下 二.选择合适的镜像源 源 官网源 sudo sh -c 'echo "deb ...
  • ubuntu20.04安装ros

    2021-02-06 20:56:17
    ubuntu20.04安装ros
  • Ubuntu版本 对应 ros版本

    千次阅读 2020-09-25 10:37:23
    Ubuntu版本 ros版本 Ubuntu18.04 melodic Ubuntu16.04 kinetic Ubuntu14.04 indigo
  • Ubuntu18.04安装ROS(详细有图)

    千次阅读 2021-01-23 16:44:37
    最近在自己的笔记本上折腾了个ubuntu18.04,安装ROS方便自己以后的学习。 第一、明确自己安装的ROS版本 Ubuntu18.04对应Melodic,如图所示。 如果你的是Ubuntu16.04则需要安装 Kinetic。 第二、更换镜像源 用阿里云的...
  • Ubuntu20.04.1上安装Ros

    千次阅读 2020-09-26 14:41:36
    前两天在电脑上装了ROS遇到了一些问题,以此用作记录遇到的问题 我的操作系统是:Ubuntu20.04.1 ROS的版本是:noetic 2.ROS的安装 2.1配置Ubuntu软件仓库 在Ubuntu中打开终端 选择前四个 配置网络 2.2安装预备...
  • ubuntu18.04安装ROS Melodic(最详细配置)

    万次阅读 多人点赞 2019-08-10 15:41:00
    sudo sh -c 'echo "deb http://packages.ros.org/ros/ubuntu $(lsb_release -sc) main" > /etc/apt/sources.list.d/ros-latest.list' 国内的,速度快: sudo sh -c '. /etc/lsb-release && ec...
  • 安装ros(Ubuntu20.4精简教程)

    千次阅读 2020-09-23 23:05:59
    安装ros1、换源2、下载安装ros3、启动ros,运行turtle示例 1、换源 1.把focal之前的换成下列 sudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ 2.更新软件源 sudo apt-get update 3.更新软件 ...
  •    2020年的10月份,我整理写了一篇名为:详细介绍如何在ubuntu20.04中安装ROS系统,以及安装过程中出现的常见错误的解决方法,填坑!!!的博客,已经经过了很多小伙伴的验证,确实是可行的,该篇博客链接如下:...
  • Ubuntu20.04中安装ROS Noetic

    万次阅读 多人点赞 2020-05-25 10:10:36
    申明:由于项目需要用到ros环境,所以在此记录一下ubuntu20.04下的ROS Noetic安装过程,全程顺序执行一次性安装成功,当然执行下一步的时候上一步必须执行成功,在网络不好的时候可以多尝试几次,以下是我亲自实践的...
  • 1 Ubuntu版本和ROS系统

    2020-09-02 21:13:29
    1 Ubuntu版本和ROS系统1.1配置各版本Ubuntu1.2Ubuntu16.04与ROS-kinetic的安装1.2.1Ubuntu16.04配置1.2.2安装ROS-kinetic版1.3Ubuntu18.04安装1.3.1Ubuntu18.04与ROS-melodic安装1.3.2ROS-melodic安装1.3ROS系统框架...
  • Ubuntu14.04安装ROS

    千次阅读 2019-01-26 11:50:58
    因为工作需要接触了ROS,感觉ROS是一个挺不错的系统对于做机器人的小伙伴们,我使用的ROS的indigo版本的,官方推荐的开发平台是Ubuntu 14.04 LTS版本,前两天因为Ubuntu系统崩溃了,不得不重新安装Ubuntu系统和ROS。...
  • ubuntu18.04 LTS安装ROS图文教程

    万次阅读 多人点赞 2020-02-20 15:37:50
    没有安装Ubuntu18.04LTS的自行安装,安装过程祥见我的另一篇文章,地址如下 https://blog.csdn.net/u014453443/article/details/88049804 下面开始记录ubuntu18.04 LTS安装ROS的详细图文教程 ...
  • ROS安装,Ubuntu20.04装noetic

    千次阅读 2020-10-11 20:59:34
    ROS目前主要支持Ubuntu操作系统,其他操作系统可查看相应wiki的安装说明。 目前,ROS已经发布了如下多个版本,安装时一定要注意版本对应关系。由于我是Ubuntu20.04系统,所以选择安装noetic。 ROS安装方式有两种:1...

空空如也

空空如也

1 2 3 4 5 ... 20
收藏数 32,221
精华内容 12,888
关键字:

rosubuntu