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  • Reducing the Size of Your Core ML App Reduce the storage used by the Core ML model inside your app bundle. Overview Bundling your machine learning model in your app is the easiest way to g...

    Article

    Reducing the Size of Your Core ML App

    Reduce the storage used by the Core ML model inside your app bundle.

    Overview

    Bundling your machine learning model in your app is the easiest way to get started with Core ML. As models get more advanced, they can become large and take up significant storage space. For a neural-network based model, consider reducing its footprint by using a lower precision representation for its weight parameters. If your model isn’t a neural network that can use half precision or you need to further reduce your app’s size, add functionality to download and compile your models on the user’s device instead of bundling the models with your app.

    Convert to a Half-Precision Model

    The Core ML Tools provide a conversion function to convert a neural network model’s floating point weights from full-precision into half-precision values (reducing the number of bits used in the representation from 32 down to 16). This type of conversion can significantly reduce a network’s size, most of which often comes from the connection weights within the network.

    Listing 1 

    Converting a model to lower precision with Core ML Tools

    # Load a model, lower its precision, and then save the smaller model.
    model_spec = coremltools.utils.load_spec('./exampleModel.mlmodel')
    model_fp16_spec = coremltools.utils.convert_neural_network_spec_weights_to_fp16(model_spec)
    coremltools.utils.save_spec(model_fp16_spec, 'exampleModelFP16.mlmodel')
    

    You can only convert neural networks or pipeline models embedding neural networks to half precision. All full-precision weight parameters in a model must be converted to half-precision. 

    Using half-precision floating point values not only reduces the accuracy of the floating point values, but the range of possible values is also reduced. Before deploying this option to your users, confirm that the behavior of your model is not degraded. 

    Models that are converted to half precision require these OS versions or later: iOS 11.2, macOS 10.13.2, tvOS 11.2, or watchOS 4.2.

    Convert to a Lower Precision Model

    Core ML Tools 2.0 introduced new utilities to reduce the precision of a model down to 8, 4, 2, or 1 bit. The tools include functions to gauge the differences in behavior between the original model and the lower precision model. For more information about using these utilities, see the Core ML Tools Neural Network Quantization documentation. 

    Lower precision models require these OS versions or later: iOS 12, macOS 10.14, tvOS 12, or watchOS 5.

    Download and Compile a Model

    Another option to reduce the size of your app is to have the app download the model onto the user’s device and compile it in the background. For example, if users use only a subset of the models your app supports, you don’t need to bundle all the possible models with your app. Instead, the models can be downloaded later based on user behavior. See Downloading and Compiling a Model on the User's Device.

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  • The plugin changes your size sometimes depending of the current date. For example: The text "00:00" has no same width than "11:11" then the plugin changes your size hint. <p>If you ...
  • <div><p>ExecuteBuffer for that case if you already know the size of your rendered template. In some cases it can save up to 28% of execution time.</p><p>该提问来源于开源项目:flosch/pongo2</p></...
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  • <ul><li>Select your size from chart</li></ul> <h2>Expected Result(s) <ul><li>Select your size from the list</li></ul> <h2>Frequency <ul><li>5/5</li></ul> <h2>Environment Details <ul><li><strong>Device...
  • 启动.ini文件出错 出错原因!!! 竟然是在.ini文件最上边忘记加[uwsgi]!! 复制粘贴落下的。。。

    启动.ini文件出错

    出错原因!!!

    竟然是在.ini文件最上边忘记加[uwsgi]!!

    复制粘贴落下的。。。

    展开全文
  • 1. Java Heap SizePlace to store objects created by your Java application, this is where Garbage Collection takes place, the memory used by your Java application. For a heavy Java process, insufficient...

    1. Java Heap Size

    Place to store objects created by your Java application, this is where Garbage Collection takes place, the memory used by your Java application. For a heavy Java process, insufficient Heap size will cause the popularjava.lang.OutOfMemoryError: Java heap space.

    -Xms - Set initial Java heap size

    -Xmx - Set maximum Java heap size

    2. Perm Gen Size

    Place to store your loaded class definition and metadata. If a large code-base project is loaded, the insufficient Perm Gen size will cause the popular Java.Lang.OutOfMemoryError: PermGen.

    -XX:PermSize - Set initial PermGen Size.

    -XX:MaxPermSize - Set the maximum PermGen Size.

    3. Java Stack Size

    Size of a Java thread. If a project has a lot of threads processing, try reduce this stack size to avoid running out of memory.

    -Xss = set java thread stack size

    $ java -Xss512k JavaApp

    Note

    The default value for heap size, perm gen, or stack size is differ from different JVMs. The best practice is always defining your own value.

    2. Ubuntu

    This is the testing environment :

    OS  : Ubuntu 13 (64 bits) (Under VirtualBox)RAM : 4G

    CPU : 1 x Processors

    JDK : 1.7.0_51

    $ java -XX:+PrintFlagsFinal -version | grep -iE 'HeapSize|PermSize|ThreadStackSize'

    uintx InitialHeapSize                          := 64781184        {product}

    uintx MaxHeapSize                              := 1038090240      {product}

    uintx PermSize                                  = 21757952        {pd product}

    uintx MaxPermSize                               = 174063616       {pd product}

    intx ThreadStackSize                           = 1024            {pd product}          java version "1.7.0_51"OpenJDK Runtime Environment (IcedTea 2.4.4) (7u51-2.4.4-0ubuntu0.13.10.1)OpenJDK 64-Bit Server VM (build 24.45-b08, mixed mode)

    In above environment, JVM allocated following default values :

    Java heap size

    InitialHeapSize = 64781184 bytes (61.7M) and MaxHeapSize = 1038090240 bytes (990M).

    PermGen Size

    PermSize = 21757952 bytes (20.75M), MaxPermSize = 174063616 bytes (166M)

    Thread Stack Size

    ThreadStackSize = 1024 kilobytes (1M)

    The allocated heap memory size is quite close to the ergonomics result.

    #ergonomics algorithm

    Initial heap size = 4096M/64 = 64M

    Maximum heap size = 4096M/4 = 1024M

    3. Mac OSX

    This is the testing environment :

    OS  : Mac OSX 10.9RAM : 8G

    CPU : 4 x Processors

    JDK : 1.7.0_05

    $ java -XX:+PrintFlagsFinal -version | grep -iE 'heapsize|permsize|threadstacksize'

    uintx InitialHeapSize                          := 20655360        {product}

    uintx MaxHeapSize                              := 331350016       {product}

    uintx PermSize                                  = 21757952        {pd product}

    uintx MaxPermSize                               = 85983232        {pd product}

    intx ThreadStackSize                           = 1024            {pd product}java version "1.7.0_05"Java(TM) SE Runtime Environment (build 1.7.0_05-b05)Java HotSpot(TM) 64-Bit Server VM (build 23.1-b03, mixed mode)

    Java heap size

    InitialHeapSize = 20655360 bytes (19.69M) and MaxHeapSize = 331350016 bytes (316M).

    PermGen Size

    PermSize = 21757952 bytes (20.75M), MaxPermSize = 85983232 bytes (82M).

    Java Stack Size

    ThreadStackSize = 1024 kilobytes (1M)

    The allocated heap memory size is totally irrelevant if compare to the following ergonomics result.

    #ergonomics algorithm

    Initial heap size = 8192M/64 = 128M

    Maximum heap size = 8192M/4 = 2048M

    4. Windows

    There is no grep in Windows, instead, we use findstr.

    This is the testing environment :

    OS  : Windows 8RAM : 16G

    CPU : 8 x Processors

    JDK : 1.7.0_40

    C:\>java -XX:+PrintFlagsFinal -version | findstr /i "HeapSize PermSize ThreadStackSize"

    uintx InitialHeapSize                          := 266634176       {product}

    uintx MaxHeapSize                              := 4267704320      {product}

    uintx PermSize                                  = 21757952        {pd product}

    uintx MaxPermSize                               = 85983232        {pd product}

    intx ThreadStackSize                           = 0               {pd product}java version "1.7.0_40"Java(TM) SE Runtime Environment (build 1.7.0_40-b43)Java HotSpot(TM) 64-Bit Server VM (build 24.0-b56, mixed mode)

    Java heap size

    InitialHeapSize = 266634176 bytes (256M) and MaxHeapSize = 4266146816 bytes (4068M).

    PermGen Size

    PermSize = 21757952 bytes (20.75M), MaxPermSize = 85983232 bytes (823. M).

    Java Stack Size

    ThreadStackSize = 0 kilobytes. (weird…)

    The allocated heap memory size is almost same with the ergonomics result :

    #ergonomics algorithm

    Initial heap size = 16384/64 = 256M

    Maximum heap size = 16384/4 = 4096M

    5. Suggested Java Memory

    Below is my suggested value for a small to medium Java application :)

    Heap = -Xms512m -Xmx1024m

    PermGen = -XX:PermSize=64m -XX:MaxPermSize=128m

    Thread = -Xss512k

    P.S For most Java projects, 512k for a thread is sufficient.

    $ java -XX:+PrintFlagsFinal -Xms512m -Xmx1024m -Xss512k -XX:PermSize=64m -XX:MaxPermSize=128m-version | grep -iE 'HeapSize|PermSize|ThreadStackSize'

    uintx InitialHeapSize                          := 536870912       {product}

    uintx MaxHeapSize                              := 1073741824      {product}

    uintx PermSize                                 := 67108864        {pd product}

    uintx MaxPermSize                              := 134217728       {pd product}

    intx ThreadStackSize                          := 512             {pd product}

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  • What is the configuration of your computer, such as GPU model and GPU memory size? I'm looking forward to your reply.</p><p>该提问来源于开源项目:zylo117/Yet-Another-EfficientDet-Pytorch</p>...
  • t stuck with just the size we force you to use). What size labels (and what Avery number, if you have that available) do you use?</p><p>该提问来源于开源项目:snipe/snipe-it</p></div>
  • Place to store objects created by your Java application, this is where Garbage Collection takes place, the memory used by your Java application. For a heavy Java process, insufficient Heap size will ...

    1. Java Heap Size
    Place to store objects created by your Java application, this is where Garbage Collection takes place, the memory used by your Java application. For a heavy Java process, insufficient Heap size will cause the popularjava.lang.OutOfMemoryError: Java heap space.

    -Xms<size> - Set initial Java heap size
    -Xmx<size> - Set maximum Java heap size

    2. Perm Gen Size
    Place to store your loaded class definition and metadata. If a large code-base project is loaded, the insufficient Perm Gen size will cause the popular Java.Lang.OutOfMemoryError: PermGen.

    -XX:PermSize<size> - Set initial PermGen Size.
    -XX:MaxPermSize<size> - Set the maximum PermGen Size.

    3. Java Stack Size
    Size of a Java thread. If a project has a lot of threads processing, try reduce this stack size to avoid running out of memory.
    -Xss = set java thread stack size

    $ java -Xss512k JavaApp

    Note
    The default value for heap size, perm gen, or stack size is differ from different JVMs. The best practice is always defining your own value.

    2. Ubuntu

    This is the testing environment :

    OS  : Ubuntu 13 (64 bits) (Under VirtualBox)RAM : 4G
    CPU : 1 x Processors
    JDK : 1.7.0_51
    $ java -XX:+PrintFlagsFinal -version | grep -iE 'HeapSize|PermSize|ThreadStackSize' 
        uintx InitialHeapSize                          := 64781184        {product}   
        uintx MaxHeapSize                              := 1038090240      {product} 
        uintx PermSize                                  = 21757952        {pd product}
        uintx MaxPermSize                               = 174063616       {pd product}
         intx ThreadStackSize                           = 1024            {pd product}          java version "1.7.0_51"OpenJDK Runtime Environment (IcedTea 2.4.4) (7u51-2.4.4-0ubuntu0.13.10.1)OpenJDK 64-Bit Server VM (build 24.45-b08, mixed mode)

    In above environment, JVM allocated following default values :

    1. Java heap size
      InitialHeapSize = 64781184 bytes (61.7M) and MaxHeapSize = 1038090240 bytes (990M).

    2. PermGen Size
      PermSize = 21757952 bytes (20.75M), MaxPermSize = 174063616 bytes (166M)

    3. Thread Stack Size
      ThreadStackSize = 1024 kilobytes (1M)

    The allocated heap memory size is quite close to the ergonomics result.

    #ergonomics algorithm 
    Initial heap size = 4096M/64 = 64M
    Maximum heap size = 4096M/4 = 1024M

    3. Mac OSX

    This is the testing environment :

    OS  : Mac OSX 10.9RAM : 8G
    CPU : 4 x Processors
    JDK : 1.7.0_05
    $ java -XX:+PrintFlagsFinal -version | grep -iE 'heapsize|permsize|threadstacksize' 
        uintx InitialHeapSize                          := 20655360        {product}
        uintx MaxHeapSize                              := 331350016       {product}
        uintx PermSize                                  = 21757952        {pd product}
        uintx MaxPermSize                               = 85983232        {pd product}
         intx ThreadStackSize                           = 1024            {pd product}java version "1.7.0_05"Java(TM) SE Runtime Environment (build 1.7.0_05-b05)Java HotSpot(TM) 64-Bit Server VM (build 23.1-b03, mixed mode)
    1. Java heap size
      InitialHeapSize = 20655360 bytes (19.69M) and MaxHeapSize = 331350016 bytes (316M).

    2. PermGen Size
      PermSize = 21757952 bytes (20.75M), MaxPermSize = 85983232 bytes (82M).

    3. Java Stack Size
      ThreadStackSize = 1024 kilobytes (1M)

    The allocated heap memory size is totally irrelevant if compare to the following ergonomics result.

    #ergonomics algorithm 
    Initial heap size = 8192M/64 = 128M
    Maximum heap size = 8192M/4 = 2048M

    4. Windows

    There is no grep in Windows, instead, we use findstr.

    This is the testing environment :

    OS  : Windows 8RAM : 16G
    CPU : 8 x Processors
    JDK : 1.7.0_40
    C:\>java -XX:+PrintFlagsFinal -version | findstr /i "HeapSize PermSize ThreadStackSize" 
        uintx InitialHeapSize                          := 266634176       {product}
        uintx MaxHeapSize                              := 4267704320      {product}
        uintx PermSize                                  = 21757952        {pd product}
        uintx MaxPermSize                               = 85983232        {pd product}
         intx ThreadStackSize                           = 0               {pd product}java version "1.7.0_40"Java(TM) SE Runtime Environment (build 1.7.0_40-b43)Java HotSpot(TM) 64-Bit Server VM (build 24.0-b56, mixed mode)
    1. Java heap size
      InitialHeapSize = 266634176 bytes (256M) and MaxHeapSize = 4266146816 bytes (4068M).

    2. PermGen Size
      PermSize = 21757952 bytes (20.75M), MaxPermSize = 85983232 bytes (823. M).

    3. Java Stack Size
      ThreadStackSize = 0 kilobytes. (weird…)

    The allocated heap memory size is almost same with the ergonomics result :

    #ergonomics algorithm
    Initial heap size = 16384/64 = 256M
    Maximum heap size = 16384/4 = 4096M

    5. Suggested Java Memory

    Below is my suggested value for a small to medium Java application :)

    1. Heap = -Xms512m -Xmx1024m

    2. PermGen = -XX:PermSize=64m -XX:MaxPermSize=128m

    3. Thread = -Xss512k

    P.S For most Java projects, 512k for a thread is sufficient.

    $ java -XX:+PrintFlagsFinal -Xms512m -Xmx1024m -Xss512k -XX:PermSize=64m -XX:MaxPermSize=128m	-version | grep -iE 'HeapSize|PermSize|ThreadStackSize' 
        uintx InitialHeapSize                          := 536870912       {product}
        uintx MaxHeapSize                              := 1073741824      {product}
        uintx PermSize                                 := 67108864        {pd product}  
        uintx MaxPermSize                              := 134217728       {pd product}  
         intx ThreadStackSize                          := 512             {pd product}



    转载于:https://my.oschina.net/u/1412027/blog/265409

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