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  • CMOS内存信息

    2011-01-12 14:10:00
    emiconductor In the 286 and up, the CMOS memory chip holds 64 bytes of data. The data is held in the chip by the battery. This is so that when you turn your machine off, the machine can still keep ...

    The CMOS memory information

    CMOS stands for: Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor

    In the 286 and up, the CMOS memory chip holds 64 bytes of data. The data is held in the chip by the battery. This is so that when you turn your machine off, the machine can still keep track of the time, data, disk type(s) and so one.

    The CMOS memory is accessed via 2 I/O ports, at addresses 70h and 71h. A program writes the config. address (00h through 3Fh) to I/O port 70h and then writes a new byte value or reads the current byte value at I/O port 71h. I strongly suggest that you don't write to these ports unless you know what you are doing. You could severely mess up your machine

    The following table specifies the information in the CMOS memory:

    address (hex)		Contents
    	00h		Current Second   (either in BCD or hex format, see bit 2 of offset 0Bh below)
    	01h		Second Alarm
    	02h		Current Minute   
    	03h		Minute Alarm
    	04h		Current Hour     (see bit 1 of offset OBh below)
    	05h		Hour Alarm
    	06h		Day of the Week
    	07h		Day of the Month
    	08h		Month
    	09h		Year (00-99)   (see offset 32h)
    	0Ah		Clock Register A
    	0Bh		Clock Register B
    			bits:	76543210	Meaning
    				X.......	1 = enable clock setting by freezing updates
    				.X......	1 = enable periodic interrupt
    				..X.....	1 = enable alarm interrupt
    				...X....	1 = enable update-ended interrupt
    				....X...	1 = enable square wave output
    				.....X..	1 = Data Mode - 0: BCD, 1: Binary
    				......X.	1 = 24/12 hour selection - 1 enables 24 hour mode
    				.......X	1 = Daylight Savings Enable
    							=1 enables automatic switching to/from DST
    								in April and October
    
    	0Ch		Clock Register C
    	0Dh		Clock Register D
    	0Eh		Diagnostic byte (got during Power On Self Test)
    			bits:	76543210	Meaning
    				X.......	1 = CMOS battery Dead
    				.X......	1 = checksum incorrect
    				..X.....	1 = config. byte incorrect
    				...X....	1 = memory size incorrect
    				....X...	1 = hard disk or controller error
    				.....X..	1 = date or time incorrect
    				......XX	Not used
    	0Fh		Power-down system status  ?what was last boot?
    	10h		Bits 4-7: first floppy disk type
    				0000 = no disk drive
    				0001 = 5.25" 320k or 360k
    				0010 = 5.25" 1.2m
    				0011 = 3.5"  720k
    				0100 = 3.5"  1.44m
    				0110 = 3.5"  2.88m
    			Bits 0-3: second floppy disk type
    				same as above
    	11h		reserved
    	12h		Bits 4-7: first Hard Drive type
    	  		Bits 3-0: second Hard Drive type
    	13h		reserved
    	14h		Configuration byte
    			bits:	76543210	Function		 Meaning
    				XX......	number of disk drives	00 = 1 drive
    								01 = 2 drives
    				..XX....	Primary display type		00 = display has its own BIOS
    								01 = 40-column CGA
    								10 = 80-column CGA
    								11 = MDA
    
    				....XX..	not used
    				......X.			1 = math coprocessor installed
    				......X.			0 = no floppy drives
    								1 = floppy drives available
    	15h		Low byte of base memory size
    				100h = 256k
    				200h = 512k
    				280h = 640k
    	16h		High byte of 15h above
    	17h		Low expansion memory byte
    	18h		High expansion memory byte
    				200h = 512k
    				400h = 1024k
    				600h-3C00h = 1536-15,360k
    	19h		Extended type byte: Hard drive 1
    	1Ah		Extended type byte: Hard drive 2
    	1Bh-2Dh		reserved
    	2Eh		check-sum for addresses 10h-2Dh  (word)
    	2Fh		  see above
    	30h		Low expansion memory byte
    	31h		High expansion memory byte
    				200h = 512k
    				400h = 1024k
    				600h-3C00h = 1536-15,360k
    	32h		Centry in BCD (19 or 20)  (see offset 09h)
    	33h		Information flag
    


    You may also use INT 11h to get some of this data.

    For more detailed information, download the following zip file: CMOSINFO.ZIP

    For a sample assembler program to print the date and time, download the following asm file: cmosdt.asm (3k)

    This was extracted from Peter Norton's PC Programmers Bible


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  • 常见电脑硬件和设备英文名

    千次阅读 2014-01-26 20:36:57
    emiconductor的缩写,含义为互补金属氧化物半导体(指互补金属氧化物半导体存储器)。 CMOS是目前绝大多数电脑中都使用的一种用电池供电的存储器(RAM)。 它是确定系统的硬件配置,优化微机整体性能,进行系统维护...

     

    引用ifrcnI01~ 常见电脑硬件和设备英文名

    CPU:Central Processing Unit,中央处理单元,又叫中央处理器或微处理器,被喻为电脑的心脏。
                        
    RAM:Random Access Memory,随机存储器,即人们常说的“内存”。
                        
    ROM:Read-Only Memory,只读存储器。
                        
    EDO:Extended Data
                     
    Output,扩充数据输出。当CPU的处理速度不断提高时,也相应地要求不断提高DRAM传送数据速度,一般来说,FPM

    (Fast
                     
    Page Model)DRAM传送数据速度在60-70ns,而EDO
                     
    DRAM比FPM快3倍,达20ns。目前最快的是SDRAM(Synchronous
                     
    DRAM,同步动态存储器),其存取速度高达10ns。
                        
    SDRAM:Synchronous Dynamic Random Access
                     
    Memory,同步动态随机存储器,又称同步DRAM,为新一代动态存储器。它可以与CPU总线使用同一个时钟,因此,SDRAM

    存储器较EDO存储器能使计算机的性能大大提高。

                        
    Cache:英文含义为“(勘探人员等贮藏粮食、器材等的)地窖,藏物处”。电脑中为高速缓冲存储器,是位于CPU和主

    存储器DRAM(Dynamic
                     
    Randon Access Memory)之间,规模较小,但速度很高的存储器,通常由SRAM(Static Random
                     
    Access Memory静态存储器)组成。
                        
    CMOS:是Complementary Metal Oxide
                      S
    emiconductor的缩写,含义为互补金属氧化物半导体(指互补金属氧化物半导体存储器)。
    CMOS是目前绝大多数电脑中都使用的一种用电池供电的存储器(RAM)。
    它是确定系统的硬件配置,优化微机整体性能,进行系统维护的重要工具。它保存一些有关系统硬件设置等方面的信息

    ,在关机以后,这些信息也继续存在(这一点与RAM完全不同)。开机时,电脑需要用这些信息来启动系统。如果不慎

    或发生意外而弄乱了CMOS中保留的信息,电脑系统将不能正常启动。
                        
    PCI:Peripheral Component Interconnection,局部总线(总线是计算机用于把信息从一个设备传送到另一个设备的

    高速通道)。PCI总线是目前较为先进的一种总线结构,其功能比其他总线有很大的提高,可支持突发读写操作,最高

    传输率可达132Mbps,是数据传输最快的总线之一,可同时支持多组外围设备。PCI不受制于CPU处理器,并能兼容现有

    的各种总线,其主板插槽体积小,因此成本低,利于推广。

                        
    Seagate:美国希捷硬盘生产商。Seagate英文意思为“通往海洋的门户”,常指通海的运河等。
                        
    Quantum:英文含意为“定量,总量”。著名硬盘商标,美国昆腾硬盘生产商(Quantum Corporation)。
                        
    Maxtor:“水晶”,美国Maxtor硬盘公司。
                        
    LD:Laser Disk,镭射光盘,又称激光视盘。
                        
    CD:Compact Disc,压缩光盘,又称激光唱盘。
                        
    CD-ROM:Compact Disc-Read Only Memory,压缩光盘-只读记忆(存储),又叫“只读光盘”。

                        
    VCD:Video Compact Disc,视频压缩光盘,即人们通常所说的“小影碟”。
                        
    DVD:至今有许多人把DVD视为Digital Video Disc(数字视频光盘)的缩写,事实上,从1995年9月,索尼/飞利浦和

    东芝/时代华纳两大DVD开发集团达成DVD统一标准后,DVD的内涵有了很大的变化,它已成了数字通用光盘,即Digital

    Versatile Disc的英文缩写。Versatile“通用”的含义表明了DVD用途的多元化,它不仅可用于影视娱乐,还可用于多

    媒体计算机等领域。
    目前按其用途可分为5种类型:
    1计算机用只读光盘--DVD-ROM;
    2家用型影音光盘--DVD-Movie;
    3专供音乐欣赏的DVD Audio;
    4只写一次的光盘--DVD-R;
    5可读写多次的光盘--DVD-RAM。
                        
    Modem:调制解调器,家用电脑上Internet(国际互联网)网的必备工具,在一般英汉字典中是查不到Modem这个词的,

    它是调制器(MOdulator)与解调器(DEModulator)的缩写形式。Modem是实现计算机通信的一种必不可少的外部设备

    。因为计算机的数据是数字信号,欲将其通过传输线路(例如电话线)传送到远距离处的另一台计算机或其它终端(如

    电传打字机等),必须将数字信号转换成适合于传输的模拟信号(调制信号)。在接收端又要将接收到的模拟信号恢复

    成原来的数字信号,这就需要利用调制解调器。

                        
    UPS:为Uninterruptible Power Supply(不间断电源)的英文缩写。它是伴随着计算机的诞生而出现的,是电脑的重

    要外围设备之一。UPS是一种含有储能装置,以逆变器为主要组成的恒压恒频的不间断电源,用以保护电脑在突然断电

    时不会丢失重要的数据。

                        
    TFT:有源矩阵彩色显示器,简称TFT显示器,专用于笔记本电脑。TFT显示器具有

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