MYSQL搭建主从服务器,实现双机同步。

一、实施环境

虚拟机环境:Vmare8.0

操作系统环境:Redhat 6.0(32)两台

主服务器:192.168.137.10/24

从服务器:192.168.137.30/24

采用nat方式网络互连

Mysql版本。5.1.62

二、实施步骤

主服务器步骤(192.168.137.10

解压mysql

        # tar -zxf mysql-5.1.62.tar.gz

        # cd mysql-5.1.62.tar.gz

编译安装,去掉debug模式(安装目录能少20~30Mb

        # ./configure --without-debug --with-mysqld-ldflags=--all-static

--with-client-ldflags=--all-static  --prefix=/usr/local/mysql/ ;make ;make install

mysql目录用户和组改为mysql

        #chown -R mysql:mysql /usr/local/mysql/

初始化数据库

  #/usr/local/mysql/bin/mysql_install_db --user=mysql

复制数据库的中等配置文件

  #cp -pr support-files/my-medium.cnf /etc/init.d/my.cnf

 复制数据库的启动配置文件

   #cp -pr support-files/mysql.server /etc/init.d/mysqld

 赋予root用户执行读写权限

   #chmod 700 /etc/init.d/mysqld

 起mysql服务

   service mysqld start

 修改mysqlroot 用户密码

    /usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqladmin -u root password '123456'

进入mysql数据库

    /usr/local/mysql/bin/mysql -u root –p(会提示输入密码)

  创建数据库

150633151.jpg

   以上步骤从属服务器(192.168.137.30)使用同样配置

############################################################3

切换到主服务器(192.168.137.10),进入数据库;

  创建一个用户使得从服务器用于同步,

150908498.jpg

修改主服务器的mysql配置文件my.cnf

  其实最主要的是加上server-id=1;以及log-bin=mysql-bin;

  贴上自己的配置文件

# Example MySQL config file for medium systems.

#

# This is for a system with little memory (32M - 64M) where MySQL plays

# an important part, or systems up to 128M where MySQL is used together with

# other programs (such as a web server)

#

# MySQL programs look for option files in a set of

# locations which depend on the deployment platform.

# You can copy this option file to one of those

# locations. For information about these locations, see:

# http://dev.mysql.com/doc/mysql/en/option-files.html

#

# In this file, you can use all long options that a program supports.

# If you want to know which options a program supports, run the program

# with the "--help" option.

# The following options will be passed to all MySQL clients

[client]

#password       = your_password

port            = 3306

socket          = /tmp/mysql.sock

# Here follows entries for some specific programs

# The MySQL server

[mysqld]

port            = 3306

socket          = /tmp/mysql.sock

skip-locking

key_buffer_size = 16M

max_allowed_packet = 1M

table_open_cache = 64

sort_buffer_size = 512K

net_buffer_length = 8K

read_buffer_size = 256K

read_rnd_buffer_size = 512K

myisam_sort_buffer_size = 8M

binlog-do-db=abc                        ###需要同步的数据库

# Don't listen on a TCP/IP port at all. This can be a security enhancement,

# if all processes that need to connect to mysqld run on the same host.

# All interaction with mysqld must be made via Unix sockets or named pipes.

# Note that using this option without enabling named pipes on Windows

# (via the "enable-named-pipe" option) will render mysqld useless!

#

#skip-networking

# Replication Master Server (default)

# binary logging is required for replication

log-bin=mysql-bin              #应用于二进制同步,必须有

# binary logging format - mixed recommended

binlog_format=mixed

# required unique id between 1 and 2^32 - 1

# defaults to 1 if master-host is not set

# but will not function as a master if omitted

server-id       = 1        #设置主服务器,必须有

# Replication Slave (comment out master section to use this)

#

# To configure this host as a replication slave, you can choose between

# two methods :

#

# 1) Use the CHANGE MASTER TO command (fully described in our manual) -

#    the syntax is:

#

#    CHANGE MASTER TO MASTER_HOST=<host>, MASTER_PORT=<port>,

#    MASTER_USER=<user>, MASTER_PASSWORD=<password> ;

#

#    where you replace <host>, <user>, <password> by quoted strings and

#    <port> by the master's port number (3306 by default).

#

#    Example:

#

#    CHANGE MASTER TO MASTER_HOST='125.564.12.1', MASTER_PORT=3306,

#    MASTER_USER='joe', MASTER_PASSWORD='secret';

#

# OR

#

# 2) Set the variables below. However, in case you choose this method, then

#    start replication for the first time (even unsuccessfully, for example

#    if you mistyped the password in master-password and the slave fails to

#    connect), the slave will create a master.info file, and any later

#    change in this file to the variables' values below will be ignored and

#    overridden by the content of the master.info file, unless you shutdown

#    the slave server, delete master.info and restart the slaver server.

#    For that reason, you may want to leave the lines below untouched

#    (commented) and instead use CHANGE MASTER TO (see above)

#

# required unique id between 2 and 2^32 - 1

# (and different from the master)

# defaults to 2 if master-host is set

# but will not function as a slave if omitted

#server-id       = 2

#

# The replication master for this slave - required

#master-host     =   <hostname>

#

# The username the slave will use for authentication when connecting

# to the master - required

#master-user     =   <username>

#

# The password the slave will authenticate with when connecting to

# the master - required

#master-password =   <password>

#

# The port the master is listening on.

# optional - defaults to 3306

#master-port     =  <port>

#

# binary logging - not required for slaves, but recommended

log-bin=mysql-bin    ########这个必须有

# Uncomment the following if you are using InnoDB tables

#innodb_data_home_dir = /usr/local/mysql/var

#innodb_data_file_path = ibdata1:10M:autoextend

#innodb_log_group_home_dir = /usr/local/mysql/var

# You can set .._buffer_pool_size up to 50 - 80 %

# of RAM but beware of setting memory usage too high

#innodb_buffer_pool_size = 16M

#innodb_additional_mem_pool_size = 2M

# Set .._log_file_size to 25 % of buffer pool size

#innodb_log_file_size = 5M

#innodb_log_buffer_size = 8M

#innodb_flush_log_at_trx_commit = 1

#innodb_lock_wait_timeout = 50

[mysqldump]

quick

max_allowed_packet = 16M

[mysql]

no-auto-rehash

# Remove the next comment character if you are not familiar with SQL

#safe-updates

[myisamchk]

key_buffer_size = 20M

sort_buffer_size = 20M

read_buffer = 2M

write_buffer = 2M

[mysqlhotcopy]

interactive-timeout

[mysql_safe]

log-error=/var/log/mysqld.log                            #日志也很重要,出错了我们可以有据可查

pid-file=/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.pid

##########################################################3

从属服务器my.cnf配置文件

# Example MySQL config file for medium systems.

#

# This is for a system with little memory (32M - 64M) where MySQL plays

# an important part, or systems up to 128M where MySQL is used together with

# other programs (such as a web server)

#

# MySQL programs look for option files in a set of

# locations which depend on the deployment platform.

# You can copy this option file to one of those

# locations. For information about these locations, see:

# http://dev.mysql.com/doc/mysql/en/option-files.html

#

# In this file, you can use all long options that a program supports.

# If you want to know which options a program supports, run the program

# with the "--help" option.

# The following options will be passed to all MySQL clients

[client]

#password       = your_password

port            = 3306

socket          = /tmp/mysql.sock

# Here follows entries for some specific programs

# The MySQL server

[mysqld]

port            = 3306

socket          = /tmp/mysql.sock

skip-locking

key_buffer_size = 16M

max_allowed_packet = 1M

table_open_cache = 64

sort_buffer_size = 512K

net_buffer_length = 8K

read_buffer_size = 256K

read_rnd_buffer_size = 512K

myisam_sort_buffer_size = 8M

user=mysql

old_passwords=1

# Don't listen on a TCP/IP port at all. This can be a security enhancement,

# if all processes that need to connect to mysqld run on the same host.

# All interaction with mysqld must be made via Unix sockets or named pipes.

# Note that using this option without enabling named pipes on Windows

# (via the "enable-named-pipe" option) will render mysqld useless!

#

#skip-networking

# Replication Master Server (default)

# binary logging is required for replication

#log-bin=mysql-bin

# binary logging format - mixed recommended

binlog_format=mixed

# required unique id between 1 and 2^32 - 1

# defaults to 1 if master-host is not set

# but will not function as a master if omitted

#server-id      = 1

# Replication Slave (comment out master section to use this)

#

# To configure this host as a replication slave, you can choose between

# two methods :

#

# 1) Use the CHANGE MASTER TO command (fully described in our manual) -

#    the syntax is:

#

#    CHANGE MASTER TO MASTER_HOST=<host>, MASTER_PORT=<port>,

#    MASTER_USER=<user>, MASTER_PASSWORD=<password> ;

#

#    where you replace <host>, <user>, <password> by quoted strings and

#    <port> by the master's port number (3306 by default).

#

#    Example:

#

#    CHANGE MASTER TO MASTER_HOST='125.564.12.1', MASTER_PORT=3306,

#    MASTER_USER='joe', MASTER_PASSWORD='secret';

#

# OR

#

# 2) Set the variables below. However, in case you choose this method, then

#    start replication for the first time (even unsuccessfully, for example

#    if you mistyped the password in master-password and the slave fails to

#    connect), the slave will create a master.info file, and any later

#    change in this file to the variables' values below will be ignored and

#    overridden by the content of the master.info file, unless you shutdown

#    the slave server, delete master.info and restart the slaver server.

#    For that reason, you may want to leave the lines below untouched

#    (commented) and instead use CHANGE MASTER TO (see above)

#

# required unique id between 2 and 2^32 - 1

# (and different from the master)

# defaults to 2 if master-host is set

# but will not function as a slave if omitted

server-id       = 2                         #开启从属服务器配置若有多个,累加1

#

# The replication master for this slave - required

master-host     =192.168.137.10        #主服务器ip地址

#

# The username the slave will use for authentication when connecting

# to the master - required

master-user     =test1         #主服务器用户名即授权同步的用户

#

# The password the slave will authenticate with when connecting to

# the master - required

master-password =test1        #授权同步用户的密码

#

# The port the master is listening on.

# optional - defaults to 3306

master-port     =3306   #授权同步的端口号

#

# binary logging - not required for slaves, but recommended

log-bin=mysql-bin                               #开启二级制同步

master-connect-retry=10                     #尝试连接次数

replicate-do-db=abc                            #同步的数据库

replicate-ignore-db=mysql                    #不同步的数据库

[mysqld_safe]

log_error=/var/log/mysqld.log                 #日志文件

pid-file=/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.pid         #mysql运行时的pid

# Uncomment the following if you are using InnoDB tables

#innodb_data_home_dir = /usr/local/mysql/var

#innodb_data_file_path = ibdata1:10M:autoextend

#innodb_log_group_home_dir = /usr/local/mysql/var

# You can set .._buffer_p         ool_size up to 50 - 80 %

# of RAM but beware of setting memory usage too high

#innodb_buffer_pool_size = 16M

#innodb_additional_mem_pool_size = 2M

# Set .._log_file_size to 25 % of buffer pool size

#innodb_log_file_size = 5M

#innodb_log_buffer_size = 8M

#innodb_flush_log_at_trx_commit = 1

#innodb_lock_wait_timeout = 50

[mysqldump]

quick

max_allowed_packet = 16M

[mysql]

no-auto-rehash

# Remove the next comment character if you are not familiar with SQL

#safe-updates

[myisamchk]

key_buffer_size = 20M

sort_buffer_size = 20M

read_buffer = 2M

write_buffer = 2M

[mysqlhotcopy]

interactive-timeout

配置完后重启mysql


进入主服务器mysql数据库abc test1表内插入数据;

150753591.jpg

后进入从服务器,进入mysql,输入slave start

150753191.jpg

进入abc数据库查看

150753590.jpg

已经同步成功;

最后,总结:

利用mysql的主从功能,可以实现磁盘raid1功能,节省成本,提高资源利用率;但也有敝处,例如受制于网络环境,网络不通,会造成数据不通,应该适合于企业级用户使用。