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  • 本文导语每一个项目在投标前都会经设计院设计工艺流程图,然后投标者依据流程图上标识的DCS控制点及设备连接线路和连锁来分析控制原理。但是对于刚刚接触DCS行业的人员,或非自动化专业人员,难免会遇到无法正确识别...

    本文

    导语每一个项目在投标前都会经设计院设计工艺流程图,然后投标者依据流程图上标识的DCS控制点及设备连接线路和连锁来分析控制原理。但是对于刚刚接触DCS行业的人员,或非自动化专业人员,难免会遇到无法正确识别DCS工艺流程图中图形符号的困扰,导致无法正确读图。

    针对该现象,小编特提供以下常见图形符号及代码表示,方便大家学习。管道符号识别

    1、主要物料管道、辅助物料管道、引线、管件、阀门、仪表线和设备轮廓线一般均用直线表示。

    区别在于线宽,一般主要物料管道用较粗线宽,辅助物料管道稍细, 引线、管件、阀门、仪表线和设备轮廓线用普通细线,最细。例如下图

    2、隔热管(热保温)

    3、隔冷管(冷保温)

    4、伴热管

    5、夹套管

    6、物料流向

    有时箭头会改用其他形式,但是总体是这样的表示方式

    7、进或出装置去向标记

    8、进或出图纸去向标记(箭头内注图纸序号)

    9、管道相连

    10、管道交叉

    阀门类符号识别

    1、止回阀

    2、气动切断阀

    3、气动薄膜调节阀

    4、蝶阀

    管件符号识别

    1、管道法兰盖

    2、放空管

    3、Y型过滤器

    4、金属软管

    5、阻火器

    6、视盅

    7、膨胀节

    8、水表

    9、快接头

    特殊阀门、管件识别

    1、安全阀

    2、爆破片

    3、减压阀

    4、疏水器

    5、回流比调节器

    连接(过程连接或机械连接线)和电动信号线识别均用直线表示

    测量点图形符号的表示方法识别

    仪表安装位置的图形符号识别

    1、就地安装仪表

    2、控制室内DCS显示仪表

    塔器等设备类符号识别

    1、塔

    吸收塔

    萃取塔

    2、换热器

    再沸器

    冷凝器

    蒸发器

    3、泵

    (1)循环泵(一般泵)

    (2)真空泵

    (3)真空泵组

    4、反应器

    反应釜

    5、容器

    槽、罐

    6、过滤器

    英文字母代号及编号识别

    1、程度符号识别

    2、故障符号识别

    3、管道编号识别

    (1)物料代号识别

    (2)管道等级号识别

    管道公称压力符号识别

    管道材质符号识别

    (3)隔热、隔声代号识别

    4、设备位号识别

    设备类别代号符号识别

    5、被测变量和仪表功能的字母代号识别

    DCS符号含义

    SH: PV scale high limit  标度高极限

    SL:PV scale low limit标度低限度

    PV:presses variable现场值

    SV:setpoint value设定值

    MV:manipulated output value开度

    DV:control deviation value控制偏差值

    SAM:totalizer value计算值

    OPHI:output high-limit index产品高极限索引

    OPLO:output low-limit index产品低限度索引

    HH:high-high limit alarm setpoint调整点高高极限的警报

    PH:high limit alarm setpoint调整点高极限的警报

    PL:low limit alarm setpoint调整点低限度的警报

    LL:low-low limit alarm setpoint调整点低低极限的警报

    VL:velocity alarm setpoint调整点速度的警报

    DL:deviation alarm setpoint调整点偏差的警报

    SVH:setpoint high limit调整点高极限

    SVL:setpoint low limit调整点低限度

    MH:manipulated variable high-limit setpoint调整点操纵量的高极限

    ML:manipulated variable low-limit setpoint调整点操纵量的低限度

    P:proportional band成比例范围

    I:integral time积分时间

    D:derivative time衍生时间

    GW:gap width空隙宽度

    DB:dead死带

    CF:compensation gain报偿获取

    CB:compensation bias报偿偏差

    展开全文
    weixin_35738080 2020-12-29 00:00:12
  • 首先找到流程图的起点,终点,再仔细看过程。所谓流程嘛,肯定有一条线让你写的。2. 其次找到图上已标出的那些英文单词,如果出现生词,尽量猜测。无词,用自己的语言。进行改写,一般是讲名词改成...

    929c7c4fce88bedd688e6f88d9c4c472.png

    流程图比较少考,话说平时一个月必须考一次流程或是地图题。相对其他的类型小作文,很多人会觉得流程图和地图题比较难写,这两天给大家整理了一下这类题的写法。

    【干货篇】——你们的魔鬼,地图题来啦!

    流程图6点写作要领:

    1. 首先找到流程图的起点,终点,再仔细看过程。所谓流程嘛,肯定有一条线让你写的。2. 其次找到图上已标出的那些英文单词,如果出现生词,尽量猜测。无词,用自己的语言。进行改写,一般是讲名词改成动词,或反之。3. 按照步骤,分段描述,千万不能省略任何一步。4. 句子之间一定记得流畅合理的表示顺序的关联词。要不然就成了一对字的流水账了。5. 句型可以搭配被动,西方写作中比较中意用被动,以及主语从句(例如:It can be seen from the graph that…)。6. 时态要使用一般现在时

    例文分析1:

    21cd01a9eb4b3029ada1488eaa9bbde0.png

    以下就是写作顺序以及词汇案例,大家可以模仿参考以下写作逻辑:

    开头:The diagram shows the stages in the process of making chocolate.

    (所有的小作文第一句话都要用一般现在时。流程图必备三个词:process整个过程;stage阶段;step步骤)

    起点:Chocolate comes from the cacao tree, which is grown in parts of South America, Africa and Indonesia.(开头不能一上来就直接介绍cacao tree,而是通过主题词chocolate引出,否则显得太唐突)

    流程图特点之一:介绍过程要使用一般现在时】【流程图特点之二:多多使用定语从句,将有关联的两句话连接。】【流程图特点之三:大量使用被动语态】The tree produces large red pods which contain white cocoa beans.

    流程图特点之四:使用一些表示顺序的连接词】when the pods are ripe, they are harvested, the beans are removed and they are fermented for several days in large wooden boxes.(三个句子的并列:“句子A,句子B and 句子C”。)During the fermenting process, the beans turn brown.

    流程图特点之五:要适当地添加个别图中没有交代但能从图片中直接读出来的一些内容,否则可能达不到字数要求。但是一定要把握尺度,千万不要加上自己的主观观点,否则会扣分】Next, the brown beans are spread in the sun to dry. They are then put in large sacks and transported by train or lorry. After this, the beans are taken to a chocolate factory where they are roasted in an oven at temperatures of between 250 and 350 degree Celsius.终点:After being roasted, the beans are crushed and the outer shell is removed. This part is not needed for making chocolate. Finally, the inner part of the bean is pressed and liquid chocolate is produced.

    流程图特点之六:一般不需要写总结】

    以下帮大家整理的一些流程图常用表达:

    1.雅思流程图的重点词汇解析:

    表述时间:in 10 daysduring the period of 10 daysThe process lasts for up to 10 daysafter 10 days10 days passed until something happened.

    表示然后:then, next, in the next state, following that, after that, the next step in the stage is ....表示过程:process, procedure, formation, development

    表示步骤:step, stage, phase时间阶段:after a period of …months/days/minutes, during…

    顺序连词:first, first of all, in the first stage, initially, to begin withsecond, then, next, alsoafter that, at the same time, in the meantime, meanwhileprior to, untilthe first stage involves … / in the second stage / in the third stage /in the last stage / The next step in the stage is that…

    目的连词:in order to / in order that; so as to / so that

    2.常见动词:

    produce生产,lay放置,accumulate积累,gather/collect收集,obtain获得,heat up加热,expand膨胀,bend弯曲,turn off关闭,cool down冷却,

    disconnect断开连接,spin旋转/纺,strike打击, compress压缩,release释放, expand膨胀, move/flow流动, accelerate加速, form形成,

    press按压, adjust调整, absorb吸收, form形成, process加工, rotate旋转, chop坎, grind磨(碎)/碾(碎),light点燃, burn燃烧,

    ignite点燃, reflect反光,turn转,starts开始, stops结束,records录音, turns up调高, turns down调低,winds缠绕, unwinds解开,revolves旋转,

    fold折叠,unfold打开,reverse颠倒/倒转,adapt适应,adjust调整,alter改变,cure治愈,disappear消失,dissolve溶化/解散,exchange交换,

    expand扩张/膨胀,fade退色,increase增长,promote促进/升职, reduce减少,renew使更新/使恢复,renovate革新/更新/修复,replace取代,

    swell肿胀,switch改变,transform完全改变,vary改变,swap交换,shrink收缩,melt溶解,heal/cure治愈,form/come into being/take shape形成,

    produce生产,gain/get/acquire获取,evaporate蒸发,volatilize挥发,draw提取,recycle回收,extract拔,absorb吸收,collect收集,

    meet相遇,be made up of由...组成, be made of由...制成,be made from由…制成, feed on以...为食,depend on/rely on依赖,

    release/send out释放,sort分类,separate分开,conveyed运送,cut into切成,poured into倒入,heated加热,melted into融化成,flows into流入

    地图题地图题写作在很多书上都没有系统的指导,它有别于数据图,构思方面没有数据图那么复杂,但在语言驾驭,很多学生都感到很陌生。

    地图题分两种,一种为地理变迁题,一种为选址题。首先我们来看地理变迁题,它描述的是一个地方(多为一个城镇)在一段时间的发展变化。下面我们来总结地理变迁题的写作要点。

    地图题注意要点:1 .地图的起始点2 .方向很重要3 .认真阅读并尽量记住图中已有的信息

    考察点:1 .方向方位路线顺序的把握2 .相对位置关系的描述和辨别3 .表方位的词或者词组主要是介词的用法4 .图中关键词的定位

    开始写作注意点:(1)时态,不再像流程图那样锁定是一般现在时如果地图题反映的是一个地方在过去的一段时间的变化,文章用一般过去时。如果地图题反映的是一个地方在将来一段时间的变化趋势,文章用一般将来时或表“估计”的词汇。如果地图题反映的是一个地方从过去到现在的变化,可用现完成时。

    (2)读题:读图标的含义,哪个是铁路,哪个是村庄等等都读明白了。要看清哪个是公路,哪个是铁路。有没有交叉点等等。确定写的顺序,是按变化写还是按位置写,还是两个的综合体。如果是要求描述变化,把明显的变化先划出,最好用词在图旁边描述,确定自己要写几点。句型多用被动语态。记得用关联的词和句子:

    366b9808ade9c444bcf382ea5b5c1ecc.gif

    帮大家整理的以下列表达:

    l be predicted/be expected to do…l It is obvious/notable/noticeableIt is easy to locate/to find that…It can be seen from the graph that…

    A 在B 的东方/西方/南方/北方A is/ lies/ is located/ is situated in/on / to the east/west/south/north of B(in 表A 在B 内部, ON 表A 和B接壤,TO 表A 和B 分开)

    A 在B 内部的某个部位A is in the eastern/ southern/ western/ northern part of B.

    A在B 西北部的120 千米处

    A lies 120 km to the northwest of B.

    A 在B…..角落

    A is at/in the south-eastern corner of B ( at 表示A 在B 外部, in表A 在B 内部)

    在河流或道路的南边/北边等On the south/southern side of the riverOn both sides of the roadOn the other side

    临近马路的地区

    The area adjacent to/ near /next to/ just off the road

    在道路或河流的最南端At the southern end of the river

    A 在B 的对面A is on the opposite side of BA is opposite B

    A 在B 东部的边界上(A 在B外部)A is on the eastern border of B

    A 在B 东部边缘上 (A 在B 内部)A is on/ along the eastern edge of B

    纵观历次雅思地图题写作,不难发现无非两位置方案的二选一或“某处事物新旧变迁的过程描述”两种。请注意,一定不要忘了要结合地图中所体现的“人文与地理环境”进行相互的“比较与对比”,且体现“比对结果”;而这里的比对,前者是“横向比对”,强调各自“优缺点比对”,后者则是“纵向比对”,强调“新旧变化”。解题思路有了,那么剩下的是语言上的事情了。

    在语言上,请你注意以下几个方面:首先平时要多积累表示“方位、比对、变化”等方面的词汇和句子表达;其次,要注意时态的选择,“二选一”型常用一般现在时态,而“过程描述”型则要视题目而定,往往综合运用一般过去时态、一般现在时态和现在完成时态;

    最后,要注意语态的把握,要主动与被动相互结合运用,记住适当被动能给考官好印象,但切忌出现人称代词。

    c89cca97851bfaa27560a6f1eed55400.gif

    下面是历年的一些流程图+地图题的考试原题目,还有精品范文哦,大家参考参考!~

    1、流程图:软干酪的制作

    出处:2014年5月10日雅思考试The flow chart shows the process of making soft cheese.

    fdd808d9a7bcca39569d96b6f4a7e1f9.png

    范文:The diagram provided demonstrates the process of soft cheese production, which includes several facilities and two raw materials.

    The whole process consists of five main stages. In the first step, water and milk are poured into a mixer to be spun. Then, the mixed liquid is conveyed to a cooling container by a pipe. The mixture is cooled down at five degree Celsius in two hours. Next, salt is added to the mixture before the fermentation stage, where the temperature is adjusted to 37 degree centigrade. This stage lasts for 50 hours, during which the mixture becomes thicker.

    In the fourth step, the thicker mixture is evaporated at 100 degree centigrade for 8 hours, while the steam comes out from the pipe above. In the last stage, the evaporated mixture is filtered and the water drips out, after which the soft cheese is finally produced.

    Overall, the mixed liquid of milk and water becomes thicker along the stages and finally turns into soft cheese, with strict control of time and temperature.

    备考建议流程图的过程注意分段,即分阶段。这个图有四个步骤,可以分两段,第一阶段到发酵前,发酵后液体变得粘稠,进入第二阶段。另外高分学员注意句型的变化和句子间的连接多样性。

    2、流程图:玻璃的回收

    出处:2014年1月11日雅思考试

    The chart shows the process of glass recycling.

    4c742835cdd2e20fde9b918b9e1a9d11.png

    范文:

    The flow chart illustrates how glass is recycled. The process is divided into three stages.

    At the first stage, used glasses in various forms are dumped into a recycled bin. They are collected at a collection point and then transported by a truck to a cleaning plant.

    At the processing stage, there are several steps to go. Firstly, at the cleaning plant, the dirty glass products have to be washed by high pressure water.Then they are classified according to their colours, namely brown, green or clear, before they are transferred to a recycling plant where they are heated in a furnace at an extremely high temperature until they are melted. The liquid recycled glass is added with a new one and the mixture is poured into a mould to be reshaped. After the liquid gets cool, it becomes solid and is packed carefully in a box.

    At the final stage, the packed glasses in different shapes are delivered to supermarkets, ready for being sold to potential customers.

    3、题型分类:流程图题目出处:2015年5月16日雅思考试

    a72d3aaef9be3e86e82ed2e7514cdf6d.png

    范文:The flow-chart gives information about how the whole beans are processed into the final products for the customers.

    There are altogether three steps from picking beans to collecting the final products. Initially, the whole beans are picked from trees and their shells are removed, after which those beans are dried. At the next stage, we press the processed products in two ways: further pressing and further refining respectively. For the first method, after the additional pressing, cocoa cake would be ground. For the other, industrial chocolate with the combination of sugar would turn to final processing. At the last stage, after being ground, the cocoa powder would be for the consumers. The completed chocolate products, on the other hand, are for consumers as well. Besides, there is cocoa liquor for the industry of cakes and drinks.

    Overall, the beans are altered into the final products with the above three phases.

    4、题型分类:流程图

    题目出处:2013年10月12日雅思考试

    The graph shows the process of driving license application in the US.

    fec59449ad437fa2a9ba7bcfd8670ee3.png

    范文:The flow chart given illustrates the process of applying for a driving license in the USA.

    In the first stage, applicants have to visit the license center to fill an application form to apply for a driving license. After this, the candidates have to be tested about their eyesight for free. If they fail to meet the minimum requirement, no license is certificated.

    If the eye test is passed, candidates need to pay fee for the following tests. First, a writing test about the traffic rules in America has to be taken, which is followed by a road test. Clearing both tests, the candidates can receive their driving license.

    Unfortunately, some people may fail the writing test, and then another two writing tests can be sat. Passing any one of the two would send the test sitter back to the right track to take the driving test. However, in the case of three fails of the writing test, another round of payment and tests have to be done. This is also the case when someone stumbles at the last step—failing the driving test.

    5、流程图:招聘的三种方式

    出处:2014年3月8日雅思考试

    The diagrams below give information of three methods to recruit new employees.

    313532ecf82d0d6eee73d84563399caa.png

    范文The diagrams demonstrate three approaches of recruitment, which includes both in-house and outsourcing processes.

    The first and simplest method consists of three steps. Initially, the employer releases advertisements within the company. Following that, competent applicants are shortlisted for the interview, and then, those who successfully pass it are provided with job offers.

    Similarly, the second strategy begins with advertising job vacancies in the press. After the screening phase, shortlisted candidates are divided into two groups who are either tested or interviewed. In the last stage, applicants who are selected by the company receive offers.

    Different from the other two approaches, the company outsources the recruitment process to an external agency in the third method. Applicants are attracted through searches conducted by headhunters and advertisements published by the agency. Next, a list of candidates is presented to the employer, who conducts the following interview and sends offers to the qualified individuals.

    To conclude, the first two methods are undertaken internally, while the third method is very complicated and involves external efforts.

    相关练习素材及备考建议:最近的两次流程图出现在13年10月12日和14年的1月11日。流程图注意分段;时态为一般现在时,被动语态比较多用。

    95139a245112937d95ae429a19e2cd09.png

    6、地图题:城市布局变迁

    出处:2014年5月17日雅思考试

    The two maps show the changes of a city from 1960 to now.

    d4839c709ced71f5ef389b5c53a07a01.png

    范文The two maps show the development of a city from 1960 to the present.

    In 1960, the city was mainly based on the harbour and freight ships were moored in the northeast dock. To the east of the harbour was a business area, which was connected with the harbor and a stadium on the southern side of the river by trams. Moreover, two residential blocks were constructed at both the northern and southern ends of the city.

    Several major changes to the city have been observed since then. In 2014, the residential area in the north has given way to an extended business area of the one in the east. The previous dock has been occupied by some newly built restaurants and bars. The original intersecting tram frame has been simplified to a single line. Some sports facilities have been constructed between the southern residential area and the stadium, which is now also linked with the old business area by a footbridge over the river.

    To summarise, the landscape of the city has been rearranged, with more business replacing industry around the bay.

    相关练习素材及备考建议地图题通常是地理变迁图,重点写变化。按照时间分段,两幅图两段。第一段主要是位置描述,时态为一般过去时,第二段主要写变化,时态为现在完成时或一般现在时。剑9 test 1属于类似的图表。

    7、地图题:公园的过去和现在

    出处:2014年6月21日雅思考试The two maps below give information of a village park between 10 years ago and now.

    1aa6e1af5d295c192dc7d449de1edde8.png

    范文:The two maps show the changes of a village park between 2004 and 2014 after some construction.

    In 2004, the entrance of the park faced to the northwestern. A large football pitch was sited in the middle of the park with other facilities around. Two tennis courts could be seen to the north. To the west of the pitch was located a car park, while to the east side was a children play area. A small pound and an area of woods were situated to the south.

    Now, circled by a cycle path, the village shows several changes except the central football pitch. Two tennis courts and one children play area have been added to the previous ones and the parking area has been extended to be able to hold another 50 cars. On the contrary, the woods have been cleared and give way to a café and a toilet. Besides, the original small pound has been converted to a boating lake.

    To conclude, the layout of the village has been rearranged in the decade, and consequently more leisure activities can be participated in the park.

    8、地图题:学院布局变化

    出处:2014年3月1日雅思考试

    The map below gives information about a college at presentand its future view in 2015 after reconstruction.

    3fb12079defc459801859043ab5f9259.png

    范文

    The two figures demonstrate the estimated changes of a college between 2014 and 2015.

    At present, a garden lies in the northern part of the college and five car parks are located in the west. Both of them are linked to the school building by a footpath, while its entrance is in front of the garden. Inside the building, a lunch area and two classrooms lie in the western side, while one more classroom, a reception and a library are in the eastern part. For the southern edge, there is a toilet in the middle, and a bus stop on the southwestern corner, accessed by a road.

    In 2015, several changes are expected to be witnessed. The garden and the footpath will be removed, since the teaching building will be extended. A new shop will be established in the building’s northwestern corner, and the library will be moved to the southwestern end. Between them, there will be the original lunch area and one classroom, while other four classrooms will be seen in the opposite side. The entrance will be rebuilt in the middle southern edge, adjacent to the bus stop, and the corridor behind it will be replaced by a reception.

    To summarize, more rooms and car parks will be constructed in the college during the period.

    (由于是在14年的考题,所以时态上和现在不同)

    9、地图题:学院布局变化

    题目出处:2014年8月16日雅思考试

    The diagram shows the fire plan for the second floor of a student dorm building in a university. Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features and make comparison where relevant.

    6a5dcf4cdecd9716460c50a5656dc09b.png

    地图题常用词组:

    be divided into 被分割为

    A is located on the north/south/east/west of B A坐落在B的北/南/东/西边

    A is situated next to B A位于B的旁边

    A is close to B A与B相邻

    A is adjacent to B A 与B相邻

    A is on the opposite side of B A在B对面

    A is just off the main road A就在路边

    A is newly built A是新建的

    A is replaced by B A被B取代

    A is located in the middle/centre/central area of B A在B的中间

    范文:

    The map illustrates the escape routes in case of fire on the second floor of a university dormitory. There are one lift, two stairways and seven bedrooms on this rectangle shape floor, all with access to the corridor in the center. 

    Once the building is on fire, the stairs on the south-west corner is convenient for the students living in the west part of the floor, specifically, Bedroom 1, 2 and 3 to escape through the corridor because Bedroom 1 and 2 are located in the northwest corner and Bedroom 3 is right opposite the stairway. When they rush out of the building, they can meet the others at the Meeting Point 1 outside the stairway.

    Another stairway which is sited at the north side of floor, with the lift at the west and Bedroom 7 the east, offers another escaping way in case of fire. Bedroom 4, and 6 are on the south side of the corridor but face to this stairway, and Bedroom 5 is at the east side of the floor, next to Bedroom 6, therefore it is also easy for the dwellers in these three rooms to rush out. Once they get out of the building, they would meet at the Meeting Point 2 near the stair room.

    地图题需要先分析布局特点,找出描述线索。然后分段。每幅图的结构特点不同,因此描述线索也不同。

    展开全文
    weixin_39610721 2020-12-23 01:55:49
  • 首先找到流程图的起点,终点,再仔细看过程。所谓流程嘛,肯定有一条线让你写的。2. 其次找到图上已标出的那些英文单词,如果出现生词,尽量猜测。无词,用自己的语言。进行改写,一般是讲名词改成...

    376ab6b0a2793ab067521bdbe8a2c37f.png

    流程图比较少考,话说平时一个月必须考一次流程或是地图题。相对其他的类型小作文,很多人会觉得流程图和地图题比较难写,这两天给大家整理了一下这类题的写法。

    【干货篇】——你们的魔鬼,地图题来啦!

    流程图6点写作要领:

    1. 首先找到流程图的起点,终点,再仔细看过程。所谓流程嘛,肯定有一条线让你写的。2. 其次找到图上已标出的那些英文单词,如果出现生词,尽量猜测。无词,用自己的语言。进行改写,一般是讲名词改成动词,或反之。3. 按照步骤,分段描述,千万不能省略任何一步。4. 句子之间一定记得流畅合理的表示顺序的关联词。要不然就成了一对字的流水账了。5. 句型可以搭配被动,西方写作中比较中意用被动,以及主语从句(例如:It can be seen from the graph that…)。6. 时态要使用一般现在时

    例文分析1:

    39a3eebd8fc0f1d13c16a01c93aa87f0.png

    以下就是写作顺序以及词汇案例,大家可以模仿参考以下写作逻辑:

    开头:The diagram shows the stages in the process of making chocolate.

    (所有的小作文第一句话都要用一般现在时。流程图必备三个词:process整个过程;stage阶段;step步骤)

    起点:Chocolate comes from the cacao tree, which is grown in parts of South America, Africa and Indonesia.(开头不能一上来就直接介绍cacao tree,而是通过主题词chocolate引出,否则显得太唐突)

    流程图特点之一:介绍过程要使用一般现在时】【流程图特点之二:多多使用定语从句,将有关联的两句话连接。】【流程图特点之三:大量使用被动语态】The tree produces large red pods which contain white cocoa beans.

    流程图特点之四:使用一些表示顺序的连接词】when the pods are ripe, they are harvested, the beans are removed and they are fermented for several days in large wooden boxes.(三个句子的并列:“句子A,句子B and 句子C”。)During the fermenting process, the beans turn brown.

    流程图特点之五:要适当地添加个别图中没有交代但能从图片中直接读出来的一些内容,否则可能达不到字数要求。但是一定要把握尺度,千万不要加上自己的主观观点,否则会扣分】Next, the brown beans are spread in the sun to dry. They are then put in large sacks and transported by train or lorry. After this, the beans are taken to a chocolate factory where they are roasted in an oven at temperatures of between 250 and 350 degree Celsius.终点:After being roasted, the beans are crushed and the outer shell is removed. This part is not needed for making chocolate. Finally, the inner part of the bean is pressed and liquid chocolate is produced.【流程图特点之六:一般不需要写总结】

    fa5889abe6dfe59d804870c81b8d69fe.gif

    以下帮大家整理的一些流程图常用表达:

    1.雅思流程图的重点词汇解析:

    表述时间:in 10 daysduring the period of 10 daysThe process lasts for up to 10 daysafter 10 days10 days passed until something happened.

    表示然后:then, next, in the next state, following that, after that, the next step in the stage is ....表示过程:process, procedure, formation, development

    表示步骤:step, stage, phase时间阶段:after a period of …months/days/minutes, during…

    顺序连词:first, first of all, in the first stage, initially, to begin withsecond, then, next, alsoafter that, at the same time, in the meantime, meanwhileprior to, untilthe first stage involves … / in the second stage / in the third stage /in the last stage / The next step in the stage is that…

    目的连词:in order to / in order that; so as to / so that

    2.常见动词:

    produce生产,lay放置,accumulate积累,gather/collect收集,obtain获得,heat up加热,expand膨胀,bend弯曲,turn off关闭,cool down冷却,

    disconnect断开连接,spin旋转/纺,strike打击, compress压缩,release释放, expand膨胀, move/flow流动, accelerate加速, form形成,

    press按压, adjust调整, absorb吸收, form形成, process加工, rotate旋转, chop坎, grind磨(碎)/碾(碎),light点燃, burn燃烧,

    ignite点燃, reflect反光,turn转,starts开始, stops结束,records录音, turns up调高, turns down调低,winds缠绕, unwinds解开,revolves旋转,

    fold折叠,unfold打开,reverse颠倒/倒转,adapt适应,adjust调整,alter改变,cure治愈,disappear消失,dissolve溶化/解散,exchange交换,

    expand扩张/膨胀,fade退色,increase增长,promote促进/升职, reduce减少,renew使更新/使恢复,renovate革新/更新/修复,replace取代,

    swell肿胀,switch改变,transform完全改变,vary改变,swap交换,shrink收缩,melt溶解,heal/cure治愈,form/come into being/take shape形成,

    produce生产,gain/get/acquire获取,evaporate蒸发,volatilize挥发,draw提取,recycle回收,extract拔,absorb吸收,collect收集,

    meet相遇,be made up of由...组成, be made of由...制成,be made from由…制成, feed on以...为食,depend on/rely on依赖,

    release/send out释放,sort分类,separate分开,conveyed运送,cut into切成,poured into倒入,heated加热,melted into融化成,flows into流入

    地图题

    地图题写作在很多书上都没有系统的指导,它有别于数据图,构思方面没有数据图那么复杂,但在语言驾驭,很多学生都感到很陌生。

    地图题分两种,一种为地理变迁题,一种为选址题。首先我们来看地理变迁题,它描述的是一个地方(多为一个城镇)在一段时间的发展变化。下面我们来总结地理变迁题的写作要点。

    地图题注意要点:1 .地图的起始点2 .方向很重要3 .认真阅读并尽量记住图中已有的信息

    考察点:1 .方向方位路线顺序的把握2 .相对位置关系的描述和辨别3 .表方位的词或者词组主要是介词的用法4 .图中关键词的定位

    开始写作注意点:(1)时态,不再像流程图那样锁定是一般现在时如果地图题反映的是一个地方在过去的一段时间的变化,文章用一般过去时。如果地图题反映的是一个地方在将来一段时间的变化趋势,文章用一般将来时或表“估计”的词汇。如果地图题反映的是一个地方从过去到现在的变化,可用现完成时。

    (2)读题:读图标的含义,哪个是铁路,哪个是村庄等等都读明白了。要看清哪个是公路,哪个是铁路。有没有交叉点等等。确定写的顺序,是按变化写还是按位置写,还是两个的综合体。如果是要求描述变化,把明显的变化先划出,最好用词在图旁边描述,确定自己要写几点。句型多用被动语态。记得用关联的词和句子:

    90ba969bb8c30a10849b2ea139448522.gif

    帮大家整理的以下列表达:

    l be predicted/be expected to do…l It is obvious/notable/noticeableIt is easy to locate/to find that…It can be seen from the graph that…

    A 在B 的东方/西方/南方/北方A is/ lies/ is located/ is situated in/on / to the east/west/south/north of B(in 表A 在B 内部, ON 表A 和B接壤,TO 表A 和B 分开)

    A 在B 内部的某个部位A is in the eastern/ southern/ western/ northern part of B.

    A在B 西北部的120 千米处

    A lies 120 km to the northwest of B.

    A 在B…..角落

    A is at/in the south-eastern corner of B ( at 表示A 在B 外部, in表A 在B 内部)

    在河流或道路的南边/北边等On the south/southern side of the riverOn both sides of the roadOn the other side

    临近马路的地区

    The area adjacent to/ near /next to/ just off the road

    在道路或河流的最南端At the southern end of the river

    A 在B 的对面A is on the opposite side of BA is opposite B

    A 在B 东部的边界上(A 在B外部)A is on the eastern border of B

    A 在B 东部边缘上 (A 在B 内部)A is on/ along the eastern edge of B

    纵观历次雅思地图题写作,不难发现无非两位置方案的二选一或“某处事物新旧变迁的过程描述”两种。请注意,一定不要忘了要结合地图中所体现的“人文与地理环境”进行相互的“比较与对比”,且体现“比对结果”;而这里的比对,前者是“横向比对”,强调各自“优缺点比对”,后者则是“纵向比对”,强调“新旧变化”。解题思路有了,那么剩下的是语言上的事情了。

    在语言上,请你注意以下几个方面:首先平时要多积累表示“方位、比对、变化”等方面的词汇和句子表达;其次,要注意时态的选择,“二选一”型常用一般现在时态,而“过程描述”型则要视题目而定,往往综合运用一般过去时态、一般现在时态和现在完成时态;

    最后,要注意语态的把握,要主动与被动相互结合运用,记住适当被动能给考官好印象,但切忌出现人称代词。

    ecd815b47c5e9ce3156ceb7ddf572626.gif

    下面是历年的一些流程图+地图题的考试原题目,还有精品范文哦,大家参考参考!~

    1、流程图:软干酪的制作出处:2014年5月10日雅思考试The flow chart shows the process of making soft cheese.

    f12656fc19f9a5865dd41f4b5919cb20.png

    范文:The diagram provided demonstrates the process of soft cheese production, which includes several facilities and two raw materials.The whole process consists of five main stages. In the first step, water and milk are poured into a mixer to be spun. Then, the mixed liquid is conveyed to a cooling container by a pipe. The mixture is cooled down at five degree Celsius in two hours. Next, salt is added to the mixture before the fermentation stage, where the temperature is adjusted to 37 degree centigrade. This stage lasts for 50 hours, during which the mixture becomes http://thicker.In the fourth step, the thicker mixture is evaporated at 100 degree centigrade for 8 hours, while the steam comes out from the pipe above. In the last stage, the evaporated mixture is filtered and the water drips out, after which the soft cheese is finally produced.Overall, the mixed liquid of milk and water becomes thicker along the stages and finally turns into soft cheese, with strict control of time and temperature.

    备考建议流程图的过程注意分段,即分阶段。这个图有四个步骤,可以分两段,第一阶段到发酵前,发酵后液体变得粘稠,进入第二阶段。另外高分学员注意句型的变化和句子间的连接多样性。

    2、流程图:玻璃的回收,出处:2014年1月11日雅思考试 The chart shows the process of glass recycling.

    407dbf28c1d06422aaf671c93cc62f7d.png

    范文:

    The flow chart illustrates how glass is recycled. The process is divided into three stages.

    At the first stage, used glasses in various forms are dumped into a recycled bin. They are collected at a collection point and then transported by a truck to a cleaning plant.

    At the processing stage, there are several steps to go. Firstly, at the cleaning plant, the dirty glass products have to be washed by high pressure water.Then they are classified according to their colours, namely brown, green or clear, before they are transferred to a recycling plant where they are heated in a furnace at an extremely high temperature until they are melted. The liquid recycled glass is added with a new one and the mixture is poured into a mould to be reshaped. After the liquid gets cool, it becomes solid and is packed carefully in a box.

    At the final stage, the packed glasses in different shapes are delivered to supermarkets, ready for being sold to potential customers.

    3、题型分类:流程图题目出处:2015年5月16日雅思考试

    c89a1018e063d98f255ac6930e87583d.png

    范文:The flow-chart gives information about how the whole beans are processed into the final products for the customers.There are altogether three steps from picking beans to collecting the final products. Initially, the whole beans are picked from trees and their shells are removed, after which those beans are dried. At the next stage, we press the processed products in two ways: further pressing and further refining respectively. For the first method, after the additional pressing, cocoa cake would be ground. For the other, industrial chocolate with the combination of sugar would turn to final processing. At the last stage, after being ground, the cocoa powder would be for the consumers. The completed chocolate products, on the other hand, are for consumers as well. Besides, there is cocoa liquor for the industry of cakes and drinks.Overall, the beans are altered into the final products with the above three phases.

    4、题型分类:流程图、题目出处:2013年10月12日雅思考试,The graph shows the process of driving license application in the US.

    92d0ec0f5959bd6888e9671ed7c41e6e.png

    范文:The flow chart given illustrates the process of applying for a driving license in the http://USA.In the first stage, applicants have to visit the license center to fill an application form to apply for a driving license. After this, the candidates have to be tested about their eyesight for free. If they fail to meet the minimum requirement, no license is certificated.If the eye test is passed, candidates need to pay fee for the following tests. First, a writing test about the traffic rules in America has to be taken, which is followed by a road test. Clearing both tests, the candidates can receive their driving license.Unfortunately, some people may fail the writing test, and then another two writing tests can be sat. Passing any one of the two would send the test sitter back to the right track to take the driving test. However, in the case of three fails of the writing test, another round of payment and tests have to be done. This is also the case when someone stumbles at the last step—failing the driving test.

    5、流程图:招聘的三种方式、出处:2014年3月8日雅思考试,The diagrams below give information of three methods to recruit new employees.

    f4f9a6b9078ec36583b14a1120e3feb2.png

    范文The diagrams demonstrate three approaches of recruitment, which includes both in-house and outsourcing processes.The first and simplest method consists of three steps. Initially, the employer releases advertisements within the company. Following that, competent applicants are shortlisted for the interview, and then, those who successfully pass it are provided with job offers.Similarly, the second strategy begins with advertising job vacancies in the press. After the screening phase, shortlisted candidates are divided into two groups who are either tested or interviewed. In the last stage, applicants who are selected by the company receive offers.Different from the other two approaches, the company outsources the recruitment process to an external agency in the third method. Applicants are attracted through searches conducted by headhunters and advertisements published by the agency. Next, a list of candidates is presented to the employer, who conducts the following interview and sends offers to the qualified individuals.To conclude, the first two methods are undertaken internally, while the third method is very complicated and involves external efforts.

    相关练习素材及备考建议:最近的两次流程图出现在13年10月12日和14年的1月11日。流程图注意分段;时态为一般现在时,被动语态比较多用。

    6、地图题:城市布局变迁出处:2014年5月17日雅思考试,The two maps show the changes of a city from 1960 to now

    范文The two maps show the development of a city from 1960 to the http://present.In 1960, the city was mainly based on the harbour and freight ships were moored in the northeast dock. To the east of the harbour was a business area, which was connected with the harbor and a stadium on the southern side of the river by trams. Moreover, two residential blocks were constructed at both the northern and southern ends of the city.Several major changes to the city have been observed since then. In 2014, the residential area in the north has given way to an extended business area of the one in the east. The previous dock has been occupied by some newly built restaurants and bars. The original intersecting tram frame has been simplified to a single line. Some sports facilities have been constructed between the southern residential area and the stadium, which is now also linked with the old business area by a footbridge over the river.To summarise, the landscape of the city has been rearranged, with more business replacing industry around the bay.

    相关练习素材及备考建议地图题通常是地理变迁图,重点写变化。按照时间分段,两幅图两段。第一段主要是位置描述,时态为一般过去时,第二段主要写变化,时态为现在完成时或一般现在时。剑9 test 1属于类似的图表。

    7、地图题:公园的过去和现在出处:2014年6月21日雅思考试,The two maps below give information of a village park between 10 years ago and now.

    e8c26b04268e4320b6c9b7542a687e12.png

    范文:The two maps show the changes of a village park between 2004 and 2014 after some http://construction.In 2004, the entrance of the park faced to the northwestern. A large football pitch was sited in the middle of the park with other facilities around. Two tennis courts could be seen to the north. To the west of the pitch was located a car park, while to the east side was a children play area. A small pound and an area of woods were situated to the south.Now, circled by a cycle path, the village shows several changes except the central football pitch. Two tennis courts and one children play area have been added to the previous ones and the parking area has been extended to be able to hold another 50 cars. On the contrary, the woods have been cleared and give way to a café and a toilet. Besides, the original small pound has been converted to a boating lake.To conclude, the layout of the village has been rearranged in the decade, and consequently more leisure activities can be participated in the park.

    8、地图题:学院布局变化出处:2014年3月1日雅思考试,The map below gives information about a college at presentand its future view in 2015 after reconstruction.

    278280ce632f058781441a497e3c8fd4.png

    范文

    The two figures demonstrate the estimated changes of a college between 2014 and 2015.

    At present, a garden lies in the northern part of the college and five car parks are located in the west. Both of them are linked to the school building by a footpath, while its entrance is in front of the garden. Inside the building, a lunch area and two classrooms lie in the western side, while one more classroom, a reception and a library are in the eastern part. For the southern edge, there is a toilet in the middle, and a bus stop on the southwestern corner, accessed by a road.

    In 2015, several changes are expected to be witnessed. The garden and the footpath will be removed, since the teaching building will be extended. A new shop will be established in the building’s northwestern corner, and the library will be moved to the southwestern end. Between them, there will be the original lunch area and one classroom, while other four classrooms will be seen in the opposite side. The entrance will be rebuilt in the middle southern edge, adjacent to the bus stop, and the corridor behind it will be replaced by a reception.

    To summarize, more rooms and car parks will be constructed in the college during the period.

    (由于是在14年的考题,所以时态上和现在不同)

    9、地图题:学院布局变化题目出处:2014年8月16日雅思考试

    The diagram shows the fire plan for the second floor of a student dorm building in a university. Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features and make comparison where relevant.

    b136d2aaf9a3700d2b31d6a7d49f5e5b.png

    地图题常用词组:be divided into 被分割为A is located on the north/south/east/west of B A坐落在B的北/南/东/西边A is situated next to B A位于B的旁边A is close to B A与B相邻A is adjacent to B A 与B相邻A is on the opposite side of B A在B对面A is just off the main road A就在路边A is newly built A是新建的A is replaced by B A被B取代A is located in the middle/centre/central area of B A在B的中间

    范文:

    The map illustrates the escape routes in case of fire on the second floor of a university dormitory. There are one lift, two stairways and seven bedrooms on this rectangle shape floor, all with access to the corridor in the center. Once the building is on fire, the stairs on the south-west corner is convenient for the students living in the west part of the floor, specifically, Bedroom 1, 2 and 3 to escape through the corridor because Bedroom 1 and 2 are located in the northwest corner and Bedroom 3 is right opposite the stairway. When they rush out of the building, they can meet the others at the Meeting Point 1 outside the stairway.Another stairway which is sited at the north side of floor, with the lift at the west and Bedroom 7 the east, offers another escaping way in case of fire. Bedroom 4, and 6 are on the south side of the corridor but face to this stairway, and Bedroom 5 is at the east side of the floor, next to Bedroom 6, therefore it is also easy for the dwellers in these three rooms to rush out. Once they get out of the building, they would meet at the Meeting Point 2 near the stair room.

    地图题需要先分析布局特点,找出描述线索。然后分段。每幅图的结构特点不同,因此描述线索也不同。

    展开全文
    weixin_39836876 2020-12-18 21:11:28
  • Visual Paradigm是包含设计共享、线框图和数据库设计新特性的企业项目设计工具。现在你只需要这样单独的一款模型软件 Visual Paradigm就可以完成用UML设计软件,用BPMN去执行业务流程分析...通过绘制数据流程图,您可以

    Visual Paradigm是包含设计共享、线框图和数据库设计新特性的企业项目设计工具。现在你只需要这样单独的一款模型软件 Visual Paradigm就可以完成用UML设计软件,用BPMN去执行业务流程分析,用ERD企业设计数据库的任务。Visual Paradigm年终钜惠来袭,Visual Paradigm Modeler 订阅1年只需666元,现在抢购立享优惠!

    点击下载Visual Paradigm最新试用版

    数据流图(DFD)提供了系统内信息(即数据)流的直观表示。通过绘制数据流程图,您可以了解由参与系统流程的人员提供并传递给其的信息,完成流程所需的信息以及需要存储和访问的信息。数据流程图在软件工程中有广泛的用途。本文以视频租赁系统为例,介绍和解释数据流程图(DFD)。

    视频租赁系统示例

    上下文DFD

    下图显示了为视频租赁系统绘制的上下文数据流程图。它包含一个过程(形状),代表要建模的系统,在本例中为“视频租赁商店”。它还显示了将与系统交互的参与者,称为外部实体。在此示例中,有两个外部实体,即Customer和Manager。在流程与外部实体之间,有数据流连接器,指示客户与系统之间存在信息交换。
    在这里插入图片描述

    上下文DFD是数据流模型的入口。它仅包含一个进程,并且不显示任何数据存储,这使该图变得简单。

    1级DFD
    下图显示了1级DFD,这是上下文DFD中显示的视频租赁系统的分解(即分解)。通读该图,然后我们将基于此图介绍一些关键概念。

    在这里插入图片描述

    视频租赁系统数据流程图示例包含三个过程,两个外部实体和两个数据存储。尽管没有设计指南来控制数据流程图中形状的位置,但是我们倾向于将过程放在中间,将数据存储和侧面的外部实体放在一边,以便于理解。

    根据该图,我们知道客户向“租借视频”流程发出了视频请求。该租金视频过程也接收视频信息。从视频库数据存储中。结果,该过程向客户生成账单,并存储租赁信息。到租赁数据存储中。
    一个客户可以返回视频提供视频及租赁信息。该过程存储视频信息。进入视频库数据存储和租赁信息。到租赁数据存储中。结果,退货收据已交付给客户。尽管我们说收据是作为“返回视频”过程的结果发送的,但“数据流程图”并不表示有这种事情。我们的常识使我们以自然理解图表的方式来解释它。严格来说,该图仅告诉我们返回视频过程视频和租赁信息。并产生视频信息。,租赁信息。,以及未指定订单的回执。请注意,数据流图不会以什么方式和以什么顺序来回答整个系统中使用的信息。如果此信息很重要且值得一提,请考虑使用诸如BPMN业务流程图或UML活动图之类的图对其进行建模。

    最后,经理可以从“生成租赁报告”过程中接收租赁报告,并且所涉及的信息由租赁数据存储区提供。

    数据流程图提示和注意事项

    注意细节级别

    在此数据流程图示例中,标记数据时多次使用单词“ info”。我们有“租赁信息”和“视频信息”。如果我们将其明确写为“租赁日期,租借的视频,人的租金”,“视频ID,视频名称和视频状态”怎么办?这个对吗?好吧,这个问题没有确定的答案,但是在做出决定时尝试问自己一个问题。为什么要绘制DFD?

    在大多数情况下,数据流程图是在系统开发的早期阶段绘制的,其中许多细节尚待确认。诸如“详细信息”,“信息”,“凭证”之类的通用术语的使用无疑为讨论留下了空间。但是,使用通用术语可能会缺少细节,并使设计失去实用性。因此,这实际上取决于您的设计目的。

    不要混淆数据流和流程流

    有些设计人员看到连接器从数据存储连接到流程时可能会感到不舒服,而看不到图中以某种方式显示数据请求的步骤。其中一些会尝试通过在流程和数据存储之间添加连接器来表示请求,将其标记为“请求”或“对某物的请求”,这是错误的。

    请记住,数据流程图是为表示信息交换而设计的。数据流程图中的连接器用于表示数据,而不用于表示流程,步骤或其他任何内容。当我们将以数据存储结尾的数据流标记为“请求”时,从字面上看,这意味着我们正在将请求作为数据传递到数据存储中。尽管在实现级别可能是这种情况,因为某些DBMS确实支持使用函数,这些函数会吸收一些值作为参数并返回结果,但在Data Flow Diagram中,我们倾向于将数据存储视为唯一的数据持有人,不具备任何处理能力。如果要对系统流或流程进行建模,请使用UML活动图或BPMN业务流程图代替。如果要对数据存储的内部结构建模,请使用Entity Relationship Diagram。

    想要购买Visual Paradigm正版授权请点击【商城购买】,想了解更多产品信息请点击【咨询在线客服】

    本文章转载自【慧都科技】evget欢迎任何形式的转载,但请务必注明出处、不得修改原文相关链接,尊重他人劳动成果
    原文链接:https://www.evget.com/article/2020/12/23/39797.html

    展开全文
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