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  • haar小波二维图像分解重构matlab代码

    热门讨论 2012-04-18 09:22:50
    mra_mallat_2D_iterate.m实现二维图像的分解,mra_mallat_2D_merge_iterate.m实现二维图像的重构。程序针对2^N*2^M像素的图像设计,可以实现任意次数的分解与重构。也很很方便改写成针对任意像素的程序。
  • 2D haar wavelet源码

    2018-01-10 19:39:53
    从stack搜索到,并经过整理可用的比较核心代码,希望对大家有用。
  • mra_mallat_2D_iterate.m实现二维图像的分解,mra_mallat_2D_merge_iterate.m实现二维图像的重构。程序针对2^N*2^M像素的图像设计,可以实现任意次数的分解与重构。也很很方便改写成针对任意像素的程序。
  • 由此可见,通过上述分解就把由4像素组成的一幅图像用一个平均像素值和三个细节系数表示,这个过程就叫做哈尔小波变换(Haar wavelet transform),也称哈尔小波分解(Haar wavelet decomposition)。这个概念可以推广到...

    小波变换的基本思想是用一组小波函数或者基函数表示一个函数或者信号,例如图像信号。为了理解什么是小波变换,下面用一个具体的例子来说明小波变换的过程。

    1. 求有限信号的均值和差值

    [例8. 1] 假设有一幅分辨率只有4个像素 的一维图像,对应的像素值或者叫做图像位置的系数分别为:
    [9 7 3 5]
    计算它的哈尔小波变换系数。

    计算步骤如下:
    步骤1:求均值(averaging)。计算相邻像素对的平均值,得到一幅分辨率比较低的新图像,它的像素数目变成了2个,即新的图像的分辨率是原来的1/2,相应的像素值为:

    [8 4]

    步 骤2:求差值(differencing)。很明显,用2个像素表示这幅图像时,图像的信息已经部分丢失。为了能够从由2个像素组成的图像重构出由4个像 素组成的原始图像,就需要存储一些图像的细节系数(detail coefficient),以便在重构时找回丢失的信息。方法是把像素对的第一个像素值减去这个像素对的平均值,或者使用这个像素对的差值除以2。在这个 例子中,第一个细节系数是(9-8)=1,因为计算得到的平均值是8,它比9小1而比7大1,存储这个细节系数就可以恢复原始图像的前两个像素值。使用同 样的方法,第二个细节系数是(3-4)=-1,存储这个细节系数就可以恢复后2个像素值。因此,原始图像就可以用下面的两个平均值和两个细节系数表示,

    [8 4 1 -1]

    步骤3:重复第1,2步,把由第一步分解得到的图像进一步分解成分辨率更低的图像和细节系数。在这个例子中,分解到最后,就用一个像素的平均值6和三个细节系数2,1和-1表示整幅图像。

    [6 2 1 -1]

    这个分解过程如表8-1所示。

    表8-1 哈尔变换过程

    分辨率

    平均值

    细节系数

    4

    [9 7 3 5]

    2

    [8 4]

    [1 -1]

    1

    [6]

    [2]

    由此可见,通过上述分解就把由4像素组成的一幅图像用一个平均像素值和三个细节系数表示,这个过程就叫做哈尔小波变换(Haar wavelet transform),也称哈尔小波分解(Haar wavelet decomposition)。这个概念可以推广到使用其他小波基的变换。
    从这个例子中我们可以看到:
    ① 变换过程中没有丢失信息,因为能够从所记录的数据中重构出原始图像。
    ② 对这个给定的变换,我们可以从所记录的数据中重构出各种分辨率的图像。例如,在分辨率为1的图像基础上重构出分辨率为2的图像,在分辨率为2的图像基础上重构出分辨率为4的图像。
    ③ 通过变换之后产生的细节系数的幅度值比较小,这就为图像压缩提供了一种途径,例如去掉一些微不足道的细节系数并不影响对重构图像的理解。

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  • Haar Wavelet Transformation

    千次阅读 2014-09-02 16:39:28
    Discrete Haar Wavelet Tranformation  (HWT). Let's motivate it's construction with the following example: Suppose you had the eight numbers 100, 200, 44, 50, 20, 20, 4, 2 (these could be ...

    原文转载自:http://www.whydomath.org/node/wavlets/hwt.html

    Introduction

    The easiest of all discrete wavelet transformations is the Discrete Haar Wavelet Tranformation (HWT). Let's motivate it's construction with the following example:

    Suppose you had the eight numbers 100, 200, 44, 50, 20, 20, 4, 2 (these could be grayscale intensities) and you wanted to send an approximation of the list to a friend. Due to bandwidth constraints (this is a really old system!), you are only allowed to send your friend four values. What four values would you send your friend that might represent an approximation of the eight given values?

    There are obviously many possible answers to this question, but one of the most common solutions is to take the eight numbers, two at a time, and average them. This computation would produce the four values 150, 47, 20, and 3. This list would represent an approximation to the original eight values.

    Unfortunately, if your friend receives the four values 150, 47, 20, and 3, she has no chance of producing the original eight values from them - more information is needed. Suppose you are allowed to send an additional four values to your friend. With these values and the first four values, she should be able to reconstruct your original list of eight values. What values would you send her?

    Suppose we sent our friend the values 50, 3, 0, and -1. How did we arrive at these values? They are simply the directed distances from the pairwise average to the second number in each pair: 150 + 50 = 200, 47 + 3 = 50, 20 + 0 = 20, and 3 + (-1) = 2. Note that if we subtract the values in this list from the pairwise averages, we arrive at the first number in each pair: 150 - 50 = 100, 47 - 3 = 44, 20 - 0 = 20, and 3 - (-1) = 4. So with the lists (150,47,20,3) and (50,3,0,-1), we can completely reconstruct the original list (100,200,44,50,20,20,4,2).

    Given two numbers a and b, we have the following transformation:

     
    (a, b)   ( (b + a)/2, (b - a)/2 )
     

    We will call the first output the average and the second output the difference.

    So why would we consider sending (150,47,20,3 | 50, 3, 0, -1) instead of (100,200,44,50,20,20,4,2)? Two reasons quickly come to mind. The differences in the transformed list tell us about the trends in the data - big differences indicate large jumps between values while small values tell us that there is relatively little change in that portion of the input. Also, if we are interested in lossy compression, then small differences can be converted to zero and in this way we can improve the efficiency of the coder. Suppose we converted the last three values of the transformation to zero. Then we would transmit (150, 47, 20, 3 | 50, 0, 0, 0). The recipient could invert the process and obtain the list

    (150-50, 150+50, 47-3, 47+3, 20-0, 20+0, 3-0, 3+0) = (100,200,44,50,20,20,3,3)

    The "compressed" list is very similar to the original list!

    Matrix Formulation

    For an even-length list (vector) of numbers, we can also form a matrix product that computes this transformation. For the sake of illustration, let's assume our list (vector) is length 8. If we put the averages as the first half of the output and differences as the second half of the output, then we have the following matrix product:

    W8v=                12 0 0 0 12 0 0 0 12 0 0 0 12 0 0 0 0 12 0 0 0 12 0 0 0 12 0 0 0 12 0 0 0 0 12 0 0 0 12 0 0 0 12 0 0 0 12 0 0 0 0 12 0 0 0 12 0 0 0 12 0 0 0 12                                 v1 v2 v3 v4 v5 v6 v7 v8                 =                (v1+v2)2 (v3+v4)2 (v5+v6)2 (v7+v8)2 (v2v1)2 (v4v3)2 (v6v5)2 (v8v7)2                  =y

    Inverting the Process

    Inverting is easy - if we subtract  y5  from  y1 , we obtain  v1  . If we add  y5  and  y1 , we obtain  v2  . We can continue in a similar manner adding and subtracting pairs to completely recover  v  . We can also write the inverse process as a matrix product. We have:

    W81y=               1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1                                 (v1+v2)2 (v3+v4)2 (v5+v6)2 (v7+v8)2 (v2v1)2 (v4v3)2 (v6v5)2 (v8v7)2                  =               v1 v2 v3 v4 v5 v6 v7 v8                 =v

    The matrix  W8   satisfies another interesting property - we can compute the inverse by doubling the transpose! That is,

     
    W81=2W8T
     

    For those of you who have taken a linear algebra course, you may remember that orthogonal matrices  U  satisfy U1=UT  . We almost have that with our transformation. Indeed if we construct  W8=2W8  , we have

    W81 = = = = = = (2W8)1 (12)W81 (12)2W8T 2W8T (2W8T)T W8T  

    Haar Wavelet Transform Defined

    We will define the HWT as the orthogonal matrix described above. That is, for N even, the Discrete Haar Wavelet Transformation is defined as

    WN=                 22 0  0 22 0  0 22 0 0 22 0 0 0 22 0 0 22 0 0 22 0 0 22 0       0 0 22 0 0 22 0 0  22 0 0  22                   

    and the inverse HWT is  WN1=WNT .

    Analysis of the HWT

    The first N/2 rows of the HWT produce a weighted average of the input list taken two at a time. The weight factor is  2  . The last N/2 row of the HWT produce a weighted difference of the input list taken two at a time. The weight factor is also  2  .

    We define the Haar filter as the numbers used to form the first row of the transform matrix. That is, the Haar filter is  h=h0h1=2222  . This filter is also called a lowpass filter - since it averages pairs of numbers, it tends to reproduce (modulo the  2  ) two values that are similar and send to 0 to numbers that are (near) opposites of each other. Note also that the sum of the filter values is  2  .

    We call the filter that is used to build the bottom half of the HWT a highpass filter. In this case, we have  g=g0g1=2222  . Highpass filters process data exactly opposite of lowpass filters. If two numbers are near in value, the highpass filter will return a value near zero. If two numbers are (near) opposites of each other, then the highpass filter will return a weighted version of one of the two numbers.

    Fourier Series From the Filters

    An important tool for constructing filters for discrete wavelet transformations is Fourier series. To analyze a given filter  h=(h0h1h2hL)  , engineers will use the coefficients to form a Fourier series

    H()=h0+h1ei+h2e2i++hLeLi

    and then plot the absolute value of this series. It turns out that we can identify lowpass filters and highpass filters from these graphs. The plots for the filters for the HWT  H()=22+22ei   and  G()=22+22ei  appear below:

      
      
      

    H() 

      

    G() 

    Note that the first graph has value  2   at 0 and  H()=0 . The graph for the highpass filter is just the opposite - G(0)=0  and  G()=2  . This is typical of lowpass and highpass filters. We can also put other conditions on these graphs and that is often how more sophisticated lowpass/highpass filter pairs for the DWT are defined.

    HWT and Digital Images

    How do we apply the HWT to a digital grayscale image? If the image is stored in matrix  A  with even dimensions M x N, then the natural thing to try is to compute  WMA  . We can view this matrix multiplication as  WM   applied to each column of  A  so the output should be an M x N matrix where each column is M/2 weighted averages followed by M/2 weighted differences. The plots below illustrate the process:

      
      
      

    A digital image. Fullsize version

      

    W160A  .  Fullsize version

    We have used the Haar matrix to process the columns of image matrix  A . It is desirable to process the rows of the image as well. We proceed by multiplying  WMA   on the right by  WNT . Transposing the wavelet matrix puts the filter coefficients in the columns and multiplication on the right by  WNT  means that we will be dotting the rows of  WMA   with the columns of  WNT  (columns of  WN  ). So the two dimensional HWT is defined as:

    B=WMAWNT

    The process is illustrated below.

      
      

    The two-dimensional HWT. Fullsize version

    Analysis of the Two-Dimensional HWT

    You can see why the wavelet transformation is well-suited for image compression. The two-dimensional HWT of the image has most of the energy conserved in the upper left-hand corner of the transform - the remaining three-quarters of the HWT consists primarily of values that are zero or near zero. The transformation is local as well - it turns out any element of the HWT is constructed from only four elements of the original input image. If we look at the HWT as a block matrix product, we can gain further insight about the transformation.

    Suppose that the input image is square so we will drop the subscripts that indicate the dimension of the HWT matrix. If we use  H  to denote the top block of the HWT matrix and  G  to denote the bottom block of the HWT, we can express the transformation as:

    B=WAWT=H G  AH G  T=H G  AHT GT  =HA GA  HT GT  =HAHT GAHT HAGT GAGT   

    We now see why there are four blocks in the wavelet transform. Let's look at each block individually. Note that the matrix  H  is constructed from the lowpass Haar filter and computes weighted averages while  G  computes weighted differences.

    The upper left-hand block is  HAHT  -  HA  averages columns of  A  and the rows of this product are averaged by multiplication with  HT . Thus the upper left-hand corner is an approximation of the entire image. In fact, it can be shown that elements in the upper left-hand corner of the HWT can be constructed by computing weighted averages of each 2 x 2 block of the input matrix. Mathematically, the mapping is

    a c b d  2   ( a + b + c + d )/4

    The upper right-hand block is  HAGT  -  HA  averages columns of  A  and the rows of this product are differenced by multiplication with  GT . Thus the upper right-hand corner holds information about vertical in the image - large values indicate a large vertical change as we move across the image and small values indicate little vertical change. Mathematically, the mapping is

    a c b d  2   ( b + d - a - c)/4

    The lower left-hand block is  GAHT  -  GA  differences columns of  A  and the rows of this product are averaged by multiplication with  HT . Thus the lower left-hand corner holds information about horizontal in the image - large values indicate a large horizontal change as we move down the image and small values indicate little horizontal change. Mathematically, the mapping is

    a c b d  2   ( c + d - a - b )/4

    The lower right-hand block is differences across both columns and rows and the result is a bit harder to see. It turns out that this product measures changes along  45-degree lines. This is diagonal differences. Mathematically, the mapping is

    a c b d  2   ( b + c - a - d )/4

    To summarize, the HWT of a digital image produces four blocks. The upper-left hand corner is an approximation or blur of the original image. The upper-right, lower-left, and lower-right blocks measure the differences in the vertical, horizontal, and diagonal directions, respectively.

    Iterating the Process

    If there is not much change in the image, the difference blocks are comprised of (near) zero values. If we apply quantization and convert near-zero values to zero, then the HWT of the image can be effectively coded and the storage space for the image can be drastically reduced. We can iterate the HWT and produce an even better result to pass to the coder. Suppose we compute the HWT of a digital image. Most of the high intensities are contained in the blur portion of the transformation. We can iterate and apply the HWT to the blur portion of the transform. So in the composite transformation, we replace the blur by its transformation! The process is completely invertible - we apply the inverse HWT to the transform of the blur to obtain the blur. Then we apply the inverse HWT to obtain the original image. We can continue this process as often as we desire (and provided the dimensions of the data are divisible by suitable powers of two). The illustrations below show two iterations and three iterations of the HWT.

      
      
      

    Two iterations of the HWT. Fullsize version

      

    Three iterations of the HWT Fullsize version

      
      

    Energy distribution for the image and HWTs.

    The iterated HWT is an effective tool for conserving the energy of a digital image. The plot below shows the energy distribution for the original image (green), one iteration of the HWT (brown), and three iterations of the HWT (orange). The horizontal scale is pixels (there are 38,400 pixels in the thumbnail of the image). For a given pixel value  p , the height represents the percentage of energy stored in the largest  p  pixels of the image. Note that the HWT gets to 1 (100% of the energy) much faster than the original image and the iterated HWT is much better than either the HWT or the original image.

    Summary

    The HWT is a wonderful tool for understanding how a discrete wavelet tranformation works. It is not desirable in practice because the filters are too short - since each filter is length two, the HWT decouples the data to create values of the transform. In particular, each value of the transform is created from a 2 x 2 block from the original input. If there is a large change between say row 6 and row 7, the HWT will not detect it. The HWT also send integers to irrational numbers and for lossless image compression, it is crucial that the transform send integers to integers. For these reasons, researchers developed more sophisticated filters. Be sure to check out the other subsections to learn more other types of wavelet filters.


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  • Applying the Haar Wavelet Transform to Time Series Information Contents Introduction What a long, strange trips its been The wavelet technique for analyzing a signal or


    Applying the Haar Wavelet Transform to Time Series Information

    Contents
    Introduction
    What a long, strange trips its been
    The wavelet technique for analyzing a signal or time series
    The Language of Wavelets
    Applying Wavelets and Java Source Code
    Financial Time Series
    Why Haar Wavelets?
    Haar Wavelets
    Filtering Spectrum
    Noise Filters
    Wavelets vs. Simple Filters
    Limitations of the Haar Wavelet Transform
    Wavelets and Parallelism
    Java Source Code Download
    Resources
    References, Books
    References, Web published


    Links to sub-pages
    Daubechies Wavelets
    Filtering Using Haar Wavelets
    The Haar Wavelet Transform and Noise Filters
    Wavelet Noise Thresholding
    Wavelets vs. Simple Filters
    Wavelets in Java (includes histogramming and simple statistical algorithms)

    Introduction

    This was the first web page I wrote on Wavelets. From this seed grew other web pages which discuss a variety of wavelet related topics. For a "table of contents" seeWavelets and Signal Processing. This web page applies the wavelet transform to a time series composed of stock market close prices. Later web pages expand on this work in a variety of areas (e.g., compression, spectral analysis and forecasting).

    When I started out I thought that I would implement the Haar wavelet and that some of my colleagues might find it useful. I did not expect signal processing to be such an interesting topic. Nor did I understand who many different areas of computer science, mathematics, and quantitative finance would be touched by wavelets. I kept finding that "one thing lead to another", making it difficult to find a logical stopping place. This wandering path of discovery on my part also accounts for the somewhat organic growth of these web pages. I have tried to tame this growth and organize it, but I fear that it still reflects the fact that I did not know where I was going when I started.

    The Java code published along with this web page reflect the first work I did on wavelets. More sophisticated, lifting scheme based, algorithms, implemented in Java can be found on other web pages. The wavelet lifting scheme code, published on other web pages, is simpler and easier to understand. The wavelet lifting scheme also provides an elegant and powerful framework for implementing a range of wavelet algorithms.

    In implementing wavelet packet algorithms, I switched from Java to C++. The wavelet packet algorithm I used is simpler and more elegant using C++'s operator overloading features. C++ also supports generic data structures (templates), which allowed me to implement a generic class hierarchy for wavelets. This code includes several different wavelet algoriths, including Haar, linear interpolation and Daubechies D4.

    Like the wavelet algorithms, the financial modeling done here represents very early work. When I started working on these web pages I had no experience with modeling financial time series. The work described on this web page lead to more intensive experiments with wavelet filters in financial models, which I continue to work on. On this web page I use stock market close prices. In financial modeling one usually uses returns, since what you are trying to predict is future return.

    I became interested in wavelets by accident. I was working on software involved with financial time series (e.g., equity open and close price), so I suppose that it was an accident waiting to happen. I was reading the February 2001 issue of WIRED magazine when I saw the graph included below. Every month WIRED runs various graphic visualizations of financial data and this was one of them.

    If stock prices do indeed factor in all knowable information, a composite price graph should proceed in an orderly fashon, as new information nudges perceived value against the pull of established tendencies. Wavelet analysis, widely used in communications to separate signal (patterned motion) from noise (random activity), suggests otherwise.

    This image shows the results of running a Haar transform - the fundamental wavelet formula -- on the daily close of the Dow and NASDQ since 1993. The blue mountains constitute signal. The embedded red spikes represent noise, of which the yellow line follows a 50-day moving average.

    Noise, which can be regarded as investor ignorance, has risen along with the value of both indices. But while noise in the Dow has grown 500 percent on average, NASDAQ noise has ballooned 3,000 percent, far outstripping NASDAQ's spectacular 500-percent growth during the same period. Most of this increase has occurred since 1997, with an extraordinary surge since January 2000. Perhaps there was a Y2K glich after all -- one that derailed not operating systems and CPUs, but --> -- investor psychology. - Clem Chambers (clemc@advfn.com).

    Graph and quote from WIRED Magazine, February 2001, page 176

    I am a Platonist. I believe that, in the abstract, there is truth, but that we can never actually reach it. We can only reach an approximation, or a shadow of truth. Modern science expresses this as Heisenberg uncertainty.

    A Platonist view of a financial time series is that there is a "true" time series that is obscured to some extent by noise. For example, a close price or bid/ask time series for a stock moves on the basis of the supply and demand for shares. In the case of a bid/ask time series, the supply/demand curve will be surrounded by the noise created by random order arrival. If, somehow, the noise could be filtered out, we would see the "true" supply/demand curve. Software which uses this information might be able to do a better job because it would not be confused by false movements created by noise.

    The WIRED graph above suggests that wavelet analysis can be used to filter a financial time series to remove the associated noise. Of course there is a vast area that is not addressed by the WIRED quote. What, for example, constitutes noise? What are wavelets and Haar wavelets? Why are wavelets useful in analyzing financial time series? When I saw this graph I knew answers to none of these questions.

    The analysis provided in the brief WIRED paragraph is shallow as well. Noise in the time series increases with trading volume. In order to claim that noise has increased, the noise should be normalized for trading volume.

    What a long, strange trip its been

    Reading is a dangerous thing. It can launch you off into strange directions. I moved from California to Santa Fe, New Mexico because I read a book. That one graph in WIRED magazine launched me down a path that I spent many months following. Like any adventure, I'm not sure if I would have embarked on this one if I had known how long and, at times, difficult, the journey would be.

    Years ago, when it first came out, I bought a copy of the book The World According to Wavelets by Barbara Hubbard, on the basis of a review I read in the magazine Science. The book sat on my shelf unread until I saw the WIRED graph.

    Wavelets have been somewhat of a fad, a buzzword that people have thrown around. Barbara Hubbard started writing The World According to Wavelets when the wavelet fad was starting to catch fire. She provides an interesting history of how wavelets developed in the mathematical and engineering worlds. She also makes a valiant attempt to provide an explanation of what the wavelet technique is. Ms. Hubbard is a science writer, not a mathematician, but she mastered a fair amount of basic calculus and signal processing theory (which I admire her for). When she wrote The World According to Wavelets there were few books on wavelets and no introductory material. Although I admire Barbara Hubbard's heroic effort, I had only a surface understanding of wavelets after reading The World According to Wavelets.

    There is a vast literature on wavelets and their applications. From the point of view of a software engineer (with only a year of college calculus), the problem with the wavelet literature is that it has largely been written by mathematicians, either for other mathematicians or for students in mathematics. I'm not a member of either group, so perhaps my problem is that I don't have a fluent grasp of the language of mathematics. I certianly feel this when ever I read journal articles on wavelets. However, I have tried to concentrate on books and articles that are explicitly introductory and tutorial. Even these have proven to be difficult.

    The first chapter of the book Wavelets Made Easy by Yves Nievergelt starts out with an explaination of Haar wavelets (these are the wavelets used to generate the graph published in WIRED). This chapter has numerous examples and I was able to understand and implement Haar wavelets from this material (links to my Java code for Haar wavelets can be found below). A later chapter discusses the Daubechies wavelet transform. Unfortunately, this chapter of Wavelets Made Easy does not seem to be as good as the material on Haar wavelets. There appear to be a number of errors in this chapter and implementing the algorithm described by Nievergelt does not result in a correct wavelet transform. Among other things, the wavelet coefficients for the Daubechies wavelets seem to be wrong. My web page on the Daubechies wavelet transform can be found here. The book Ripples in Mathematics (see the references at the end of the web page) is a better reference.

    The wavelet technique for analyzing a signal or time series

    There is a vast literature on wavelets. This includes thousands of journal articles and many books. The books on wavelets range from relatively introductory works like Nievergelt's Wavelets Made Easy (which is still not light reading) to books that are accessable only to graduate students in mathematics. There is also a great deal of wavelet material on the Web. This includes a number of tutorials (see Web based reference, below).

    Given the vast literature on wavelets, there is no need for yet another tutorial. But it might be worth while to summarize my view of wavelets as they are applied to 1-D signals or time series (an image is 2-D data). A time series is simply a sample of a signal or a record of something, like temperature, water level or market data (like equity close price).

    Wavelets allow a time series to be viewed in multiple resolutions. Each resolution reflects a different frequency. The wavelet technique takes averages and differences of a signal, breaking the signal down into spectrum. All the wavelet algorithms that I'm familiar with work on time series a power of two values (e.g., 64, 128, 256...). Each step of the wavelet transform produces two sets of values: a set of averages and a set of differences (the differences are referred to as wavelet coefficients). Each step produces a set of averages and coefficients that is half the size of the input data. For example, if the time series contains 256 elements, the first step will produce 128 averages and 128 coefficients. The averages then become the input for the next step (e.g., 128 averages resulting in a new set of 64 averages and 64 coefficients). This continues until one average and one coefficient (e.g., 20) is calculated.

    The average and difference of the time series is made across a window of values. Most wavelet algorithms calculate each new average and difference by shifting this window over the input data. For example, if the input time series contains 256 values, the window will be shifted by two elements, 128 times, in calculating the averages and differences. The next step of the calculation uses the previous set of averages, also shifting the window by two elements. This has the effect of averaging across a four element window. Logically, the window increases by a factor of two each time.

    In the wavelet literature this tree structured recursive algorithm is referred to as a pyramidal algorithm.

    The power of two coefficient (difference) spectrum generated by a wavelet calculation reflect change in the time series at various resolutions. The first coefficient band generated reflects the highest frequency changes. Each later band reflects changes at lower and lower frequencies.

    There are an infinite number of wavelet basis functions. The more complex functions (like the Daubechies wavelets) produce overlapping averages and differences that provide a better average than the Haar wavelet at lower resolutions. However, these algorithms are more complicated.

    The Language of Wavelets

    Every field of specialty develops its own sub-language. This is certainly true of wavelets. I've listed a few definitions here which, if I had understood their meaning would have helped me in my wanderings through the wavelet literature.

    • Wavelet

      A function that results in a set of high frequency differences, or wavelet coefficients. In lifting scheme terms the wavelet calculates the difference between a prediction and an actual value.

      If we have a data sample si, si+1, si+2... the Haar wavelet equations is

      Where ci is the wavelet coefficient.

      The wavelet Lifting Scheme uses a slightly different expression for the Haar wavelet:

    • Scaling Function

      The scaling function produces a smoother version of the data set, which is half the size of the input data set. Wavelet algorithms are recursive and the smoothed data becomes the input for the next step of the wavelet transform. The Haar wavelet scaling function is

      where ai is a smoothed value.

      The Haar transform preserves the average in the smoothed values. This is not true of all wavelet transforms.

    • High pass filter

      In digital signal processing (DSP) terms, the wavelet function is a high pass filter. A high pass filter allows the high frequency components of a signal through while suppressing the low frequency components. For example, the differences that are captured by the Haar wavelet function represent high frequency change between an odd and an even value.

    • Low pass filter

      In digital signal processing (DSP) terms, the scaling function is a low pass filter. A low pass filter suppresses the high frequency components of a signal and allows the low frequency components through. The Haar scaling function calculates the average of an even and an odd element, which results in a smoother, low pass signal.

    • Orthogonal (or Orthonormal) Transform

      The definition of orthonormal (a.k.a. orthogonal) tranforms in Wavelet Methods for Time Series Analysis by Percival and Walden, Cambridge University Press, 2000, Chaper 3, section 3.1, is one of the best I've seen. I've quoted this below:

      Orthonormal transforms are of interst because they can be used to re-express a time series in such a way that we can easily reconstruct the series from its transform. In a loose sense, the "information" in the transform is thus equivalent to the "information" is the original series; to put it another way, the series and its transform can be considered to be two representations of the same mathematical entity.

      In terms of wavelet transforms this means that the original time series can be exactly reconstructed from the time series average and coefficients generated by an orthogonal (orthonormal) wavelet transform.

    • Signal estimation

      This is also referred to as "de-noising". Signal estimation algorithms attempt to characterize portions of the time series and remove those that fall into a particular model of noise.

    Applying Wavelets and Java Source Code

    These Web pages publish some heavily documented Java source code for the Haar wavelet transform. Books like Wavelets Made Easy explain some of the mathematics behind the wavelet transform. I have found, however, that the implemation of this code can be at least as difficult as understanding the wavelet equations. For example, the in-place Haar wavelet transform produces wavelet coefficients in a butterfly pattern in the original data array. The Java source published here includes code to reorder the butterfly into coefficient spectrums which are more useful when it comes to analyzing the data. Although this code is not large, it took me most of a Saturday to implement the code to reorder the butterfly data pattern.

    The wavelet Lifting Scheme, developed by Wim Sweldens and others provides a simpler way to look as many wavelet algorithms. I started to work on Lifting Scheme wavelet implementations after I had written this web page and developed the software. The Haar wavelet code is much simpler when expressed in the lifting scheme. See my web page The Wavelet Lifting Scheme.

    The link to the Java source download Web page is below.

    Financial Time Series

    There are a variety of wavelet analysis algorithms. Different wavelet algorithms are appplied depending on the nature of the data analyzed. The Haar wavelet, which is used here is very fast and works well for the financial time series (e.g., the close price for a stock). Financial time series are non-stationary (to use a signal processing term). This means that even within a window, financial time series cannot be described well by a combination of sin and cos terms. Nor are financial time series cyclical in a predictable fashion (unless you believe in Elliot waves). Financial time series lend themselves to Haar wavelet analysis since graphs of financial time series tend to jagged, without a lot of smooth detail. For example, the graph below shows the daily close price for Applied Materials over a period of about two years.

    Daily close price for Applied Materials (symbol: AMAT), 12/18/97 to 12/30/99.

    The Haar wavelet algorithms I have implemented work on data that consists of samples that are a power of two. In this case there are 512 samples.

    Why Haar Wavelets?

    There are a wide variety of popular wavelet algorithms, including Daubechies wavelets, Mexican Hat wavelets and Morlet wavelets. These wavelet algorithms have the advantage of better resolution for smoothly changing time series. But they have the disadvantage of being more expensive to calculate than the Haar wavelets. The higer resolution provided by these wavlets is not worth the cost for financial time series, which are characterized by jagged transitions.

    Haar Wavelets

    The Haar wavelet algorithms published here are applied to time series where the number of samples is a power of two (e.g., 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64...) The Haar wavelet uses a rectangular window to sample the time series. The first pass over the time series uses a window width of two. The window width is doubled at each step until the window encompasses the entire time series.

    Each pass over the time series generates a new time series and a set of coefficients. The new time series is the average of the previous time series over the sampling window. The coefficients represent the average change in the sample window. For example, if we have a time series consisting of the values v0v1, ... vn, a new time series, with half as many points is calculated by averaging the points in the window. If it is the first pass over the time series, the window width will be two, so two points will be averaged:

       for (i = 0; i < n; i = i + 2)
         si = (vi + vi+1)/2;
    

    The 3-D surface below graphs nine wavelet spectrums generated from the 512 point AMAT close price time series. The x-axis shows the sample number, the y-axis shows the average value at that point and the z-axis shows log2 of the window width.

    The wavelet coefficients are calcalculated along with the new average time series values. The coefficients represent the average change over the window. If the windows width is two this would be:

       for (i = 0; i < n; i = i + 2)
         ci = (vi - vi+1)/2;
    

    The graph below shows the coefficient spectrums. As before the z-axis represents the log2 of the window width. The y-axis represents the time series change over the window width. Somewhat counter intutitively, the negative values mean that the time series is moving upward

     vi is less than vi+1 
          so
     vi - vi+1 will be less than zero
    
    Positive values mean the the time series is going down, since v i  is greater than v i+1 . Note that the high frequency coefficient spectrum (log 2 (windowWidth) = 1) reflects the noisiest part of the time series. Here the change between values fluctuates around zero.

    Plot of the Haar coefficient spectrum. The surface plots the highest frequency spectrum in the front and the lowest frequency spectrum in the back. Note that the highest frequency spectrum contains most of the noise.

    Filtering Spectrum

    The wavelet transform allows some or all of a given spectrum to be removed by setting the coefficients to zero. The signal can then be rebuilt using the inverse wavelet transform. Plots of the AMAT close price time series with various spectrum filtered out are shown here.

    Noise Filters

    Each spectrum that makes up a time series can be examined independently. A noise filter can be applied to each spectrum removing the coefficients that are classified as noise by setting the coefficients to zero.

    This web page shows a histogram analysis of the three highest frequency spectrum of the AMAT close price. The result of a filter that removes the points that fall within a gaussian curve in each spectrum is also shown. The gaussian curve has a mean and standard deviation of the coefficients in that spectrum.

    Another way to remove noise is to use thresholding. My web page outlining one thresholding algorithm can be found here.

    Wavelets vs. Simple Filters

    How do Haar wavelet filters compare to simple filters, like windowed mean and median filters? A plot of the AMAT time series, filtered with a median filter (which in this case is virtually identical to a mean filter) is shown here here. These filters can be compared to the spectrum filters (where a given wavelet coefficient spectrum is filered out) here..

    Whether a wavelet filter is better than a windowed mean filter depends on the application. The wavelet filter allows specific parts of the spectrum to be filtered. For example, the entire high frequency spectrum can be removed. Or selected parts of the spectrum can be removed, as is done with the gaussian noise filter. The power of Haar wavelet filters is that they can be efficiently calculated and they provide a lot of flexibility. They can potentially leave more detail in the time series, compared to the mean or median filter. To the extent that this detail is useful for an application, the wavelet filter is a better choice.

    Limitations of the Haar Wavelet Transform

    The Haar wavelet transform has a number of advantages:

    • It is conceptually simple.
    • It is fast.
    • It is memory efficient, since it can be calculated in place without a temporary array.
    • It is exactly reversible without the edge effects that are a problem with other wavelet trasforms.

    The Haar transform also has limitations, which can be a problem for some applications.

    In generating each set of averages for the next level and each set of coefficients, the Haar transform performs an average and difference on a pair of values. Then the algorithm shifts over by two values and calculates another average and difference on the next pair.

    The high frequency coefficient spectrum should reflect all high frequency changes. The Haar window is only two elements wide. If a big change takes place from an even value to an odd value, the change will not be reflected in the high frequency coefficients.

    For example, in the 64 element time series graphed below, there is a large drop between elements 16 and 17, and elements 44 and 45.

    Since these are high frequency changes, we might expect to see them reflected in the high frequency coefficients. However, in the case of the Haar wavelet transform the high frequency coefficients miss these changes, since they are on even to odd elements.

    The surface below shows three coefficient spectrum: 32, 16 and 8 (where the 32 element coefficient spectrum is the highest frequency). The high frequency spectrum is plotted on the leading edge of the surface. the lowest frequency spectrum (8) is the far edge of the surface.

    Note that both large magnitude changes are missing from the high frequency spectrum (32). The first change is picked up in the next spectrum (16) and the second change is picked up in the last spectrum in the graph (8).

    Many other wavelet algorithms, like the Daubechies wavelet algorithm, use overlapping windows, so the high frequency spectrum reflects all changes in the time series. Like the Haar algorithm, Daubechies shifts by two elements at each step. However, the average and difference are calculated over four elements, so there are no "holes".

    The graph below shows the high frequency coefficient spectrum calculated from the same 64 element time series, but with the Daubechies D4 wavelet algorithm. Because of the overlapping averages and differences the change is reflected in this spectrum.

    The 32, 16 and 8 coefficient spectrums, calculated with the Daubechies D4 wavelet algorithm, are shown below as a surface. Note that the change in the time series is reflected in all three coefficient spectrum.

    Wavelets and Parallelism

    Wavelet algorithms are naturally parallel. For example, if enough processing elements exist, the wavelet transform for a particular spectrum can be calculated in one step by assigning a processor for every two points. The parallelism in the wavelet algorithm makes it attractive for hardware implementation.

    Java Source Code Download

    The Web page for downloading the Haar wavelet source code can be found here. This Java code is extensively documented and this web page includes a link to the Javadoc generated documentation.

    A simpler version of the Haar wavelet algorithm can be found via my web page The Wavelet Lifting Scheme.

    Resources

    • GnuPlot

      The plots above are generated with gnuplot for Windows NT. See my web page of Gnuplot links here. I am only marginally statisified with gnuplot. The software is easy to use and the Windows NT version comes with a nice GUI and a nice help system. However, when it comes to 3-D plots, the software leaves some things to be desired. The hidden line removal consumes vast amounts of virtual memory. When I tried to plot one of the coefficients surfaces with the x and z axes switched, it ran out of memory on a Windows NT system with 256K of virtual memory. Also, the surface would be much easier to understand if it could be colored with a spectrum. If you know of a better 3D plotting package that runs on Windows NT, please drop me a note.

      I have also had a hard time getting gnuplot to generate 2-D plots with multiple lines that have different colors. I have succeeded in doing this only when the data for each line was in a separate file, which can be awkward.

    • ROOT: An Object Oriented Data Analysis Framework

      I was sent the reference to Root by a physicist, Costas A. Root is a data analysis framework that is targeted at the massive amounts of data generated by high energy physics experiments at CERN and elsewhere.

      Although Root leans heavily toward physics, it looks to me like Root would be useful in other areas. Some of the statistical techniques that are used to analyze results in experimental physics is also used in quantitive finance, for example.

      Root has different goals than gnuPlot. It is targeted at a much more challenging data analysis enviroment (terabytes of data). But it has a large learning curve and I'm skeptical if it can be easily used by those who do not have a sophisticated command of C++. In contrast gnuPlot is a simple plotting environment. So my search for a better plotting environment continues. I know that such environments are supported by Matlab and Mathematics, but these packages are too expensive for my limited software budget.

    References

    Books

    • Ripples in Mathematics: the Discrete Wavelet Transform by Jensen and la Cour-Harbo, 2001

      So far this is the best book I've found on wavelets. I read this book after I had spent months reading many of the references that follow, so I'm not sure how easy this book would be for someone with no previous exposure to wavelets. But I have yet to find any "easy" reference. Ripples in Mathematics covers Lifting Scheme wavelets which are easier to implement and understand. The book is written at a relatively introductory level and is aimed at engineers. The authors provide implementations for a number of wavelet algorithms. Ripples also covers the problem of applying wavelet algorithms like Daubechies D4 to finite data sets (e.g., they cover some solutions for the edge problems encountered for Daubechies wavelets).

    • Wavelets and Filter Banks by Gilbert Strang and Truong Nguyen, Wellesley Cambridge Pr, 1996

      A colleague recommend this book, although he could not load it to me since it is packed away in a box. Sadly this book is hard to find. I bought my copy via abebooks.com, used, from a book dealer in Australia. While I was waiting for the book I read a few of Gilbert Strang's journal articles. Gilbert Strang is one of the best writers I've encountered in mathematics. I have only just started working through this book, but it looks like an excellent, although mathematical, book on wavelets.

    • Wavelets Made Easy by Yves Nievergelt, Birkhauser, 1999

      This books has two excellent chapters on Haar wavelets (Chapter 1 covers 1-D Haar wavelets and Chapter 2 covers 2-D wavelets). At least in his coverage of Haar wavelts, Prof. Nievergelt writes clearly and includes plenty of examples. The coverage of Haar wavelets uses only basic mathematics (e.g., algebra).

      Following the chapter on Haar wavelets there is a chapter on Daubechies wavelets. Daubechies wavelets are derived from a general class of wavelet transforms, which includes Haar wavelets. Daubechies wavelets are better for smoothly changing time series, but are probably overkill for financial time series. As Wavelets Made Easy progresses, it gets less easy. Following the chapter on Daubechies wavelets is a discussion of Fourier transforms. The later chapters delve into the mathematics behind wavelets. Prof. Nievergelt pretty much left me behind at the chapter on Fourier transforms. For an approachable discussion of Fourier transforms, see Understanding Digital Signal Processing by Richard G. Lyons (below).

      As Wavelets Made Easy progresses, it becomes less and less useful for wavelet algorithm implementation. In fact, while the mathematics Nievergelt uses to describe Daubechies wavelets is correct, the algorithm he describes to implement the Daubechies transform and inverse transform seems to be wrong.

      Wavelets Made Easy does not live up to the "easy" part of its title. Given this and the apparent errors in the Daubechies coverage, I am sorry to say that I can't recommend this book. Save your money and buy a copy of Ripples in Mathematics.

    • Discovering Wavelets by Edward Aboufadel and Steven Schlicker

      At 125 pages, this is one of the most expensive wavelet books I've purchased, on a per page basis. It sells on Amazon for $64.95 US. I bought it used for $42.50.

      If Discovering Wavelets provided a short, clear description of wavelets, the length would be a virtue, not a fault. Sadly this is not the case. Discovering Waveletsseems to be a book written for college students who have completed calculus and linear algebra. The book is heavy on theorms (which are incompletely explained) and very sort on useful explaination. I found the description of wavelets unnecessarily obscure. For example, Haar wavelets are described in terms of linear algebra. They can be much more simply described in terms of sums, differences and the so called pyramidal algorithm.

      While Discovering Wavelets covers some important material, its coverage is so obscure and cursory that I found the book useless. The book resembles a set of lecture notes and is of little use without the lecture (for their student's sake I hope that Aboufadel and Schlicker are better teachers than writers). This is a book that I wish I had not purchased.

    • Wavelet Methods for Time Series Analysis by Donald B. Percival and Andrew T. Walden, Cambridge University Press, 2000

      I'm not a mathematician and I don't play one on television. So this book is heavy going for me. Never the less, this is a good book. For someone with a better mathematical background this might be an excellent book. The authors provide a clear discussion of wavelets and a variety of time series analsysis techniques. Unlike some mathematicians, Percival and Walden actually coded up the wavelet algorithms and understand the difficulties of implementation. They compare various wavelet families for various applications and chose the simplest one (Haar) in some cases.

      One of the great benifits of Wavelet Methods for Time Series Analysis is that it provides a clear summary of a great deal of the recent research. But Percival and Walden put the research in an applied context. For example Donoho and Johnstone published an equation for wavelet noise reduction. I have been unable to find all of their papers on the Web and I have never understood how to calculate some of the terms in the equation in practice. I found this definition in Wavelet Methods.

    • The World According to Wavelets: The Story of a Mathematical Technique in the Making by Barbara Burke Hubbard, A.K. Peters, 1996

      This book provides an interesting history of the development of wavelets. This includes sketches of many of the people involved in pioneering the application and mathematical theory behind wavelets. Although Ms. Hubbard makes a heroic effort, I found the explaination of wavelets difficult to follow.

    • The Cartoon Guide To Statistics by Larry Gonic and Woollcott Smith, Harper Collins

      I work with a number of mathematicians, so it's a bit embarrassing to have this book on my disk. I never took statistics. In college everyone I knew who took statistics didn't like it. Since it was not required for my major (as calculus was), I did not take statistics. I've come to understand how useful statistics is. I wanted to filter out Gaussian noise, so I needed to understand normal curves. Although the title is a bit embarrassing, The Cartoon Guide to Statistics provided a very rapid and readable introduction to statistics.

    • Understanding Digital Signal Processing by Richard G. Lyons.

      This book is fantastic. Perhaps the best introductory book ever written on digital signal processing. It is the book on signal processing for software engineers like myself with tepid mathematical backgrounds. It provides the best coverage I've ever seen on DFTs and FFTs. In fact, this book has inspired me to try FFTs on financial time series (an interesting experiment, but wavelets produce better results and Fourier transforms on non-stationary time series).

      See my web page A Notebook Compiled While Reading Understanding Digital Signal Processing by Lyons

    Web based references

    • My web page on the wavelet Lifting Scheme. The Haar wavelet algorithm expressed using the wavelet Lifting Scheme is considerably simpler than the algorithm referenced above. The Lifting Scheme also allows Haar wavelet to be extended into a wavelet algorithms that have perfect reconstruction and have better multiscale resolution than Haar wavelets.

    • Haar Wavelet Transform by Emil Mikulic

      Emil Mikulic has published a simple explaination of the Haar transform, for both 1-D and 2-D data. For those who find my explaination obscure, this might be a good resource.

    • The Wavelet Tutorial: The Engineer's Ultimate Guide to Wavelet Analysis, by Robi Polikar.

      The "ultimate guide" to wavelet analysis has yet to be written, at least for my purposes. But Prof. Polikar's Wavelet Tutorial is excellent. When it comes to explaining Wavelets and Fourier transforms, this is one of the best overviews I've seen. Prof. Polikar put a great deal of work into this tutorial and I am greateful for his effort. However, there was not sufficient detail in this tutorial to allow me to create my own wavelet and inverse wavelet tranform software.

    • A Really Friendly Guide to Wavelets

      This Web page (which is also available in PDF) provides a nice overview of the theory behind wavelets. But as with Robi Polikar's web page, its a big step from this material to a software implementation. Whether this Web page is "really friendly" depends on who your friends are. If you friends are calculus and taylor series, then this paper is for you. After working my way through a good part of Wavelets Made Easy this paper filled in some hole for me. But I would not have understood it if I had read it before Wavelets Made Easy.

    • Bell Labs Wavelets Group Home Page

      Wim Sweldens, who has published a lot of material on the Web (he is the editor of Wavelet Digest) and elsewhere on Wavelets is a member of this group. An interesting site with lots of great links to other web resources.

      See also Wim Swelden's Wavelet Cascade Java Applet

    • Lifting Scheme Wavelets

      Win Sweldens and Ingrid Daubechies invented a new wavelet technique known as the lifting scheme. Gabriel Fernandez has published an excellent bibliography on the lifting scheme wavelets which can be found here. This bibliography has a pointer to Wim Sweldens' and Peter Schroder's lifting scheme tutorial Building Your Own Wavelets at Home.

      Clemens Valens has written a tutorial on the fast lifting wavelet transform. This is a rather mathematically oriented tutorial. For many, Wim Sweldens' paper Building Your Ownh Wavlets at Home may be easier to under stand (although I still found this paper heavy going).

      Gabriel Fernandez has developed LiftPack. The LiftPack Home Page publishes the LiftPack software. The bibliography is a sub-page of the LiftPack Home page.

      See also my web page on The Wavelet Lifting Scheme.

    • Wavelets in Computer Graphis

      One of the papers referenced in Gabriel Fernandez's lifting scheme bibliography is Wim Sweldens and Peter Schroder's paper Building Your Own Wavelets at Home. This is part of a course on Wavelets in Computer Graphics given at SigGraph 1994, 1995 and 1996. The sigGraph course coverd an amazing amount of material.Building Your Own Wavelets at Home was apparently covered in a morning. There are a lot of mathematically gifted people in computer graphics. But even for these people, this looks like tough going for a morning. I've spent hours reading and rereading this tutorial before I understood it enough to implement the polynomial interpolation wavelets that it discusses.

    • Wavelet Shrinkage (denoising)

    • CalTech Multi-Resolution Modeling Group Publications

      The Wavelets in Computer Graphics page, referenced above, is one of the links from the CalTech Multi-resolution Modeling Group Publications web page. The wavelet publications referenced on this page concentrate on wavelet applications for computer graphics.

    • Tutorial on Continuous Wavelet Analysis of Experiemental Data by Jacques Lewalle, Syracuse University.

      This is yet another "introductory" tutorial by a mathematician. It gives a feeling for what you can do with wavelets, but there is not enough detail to understand the details of implementing wavelet code.

    • Amara's Wavelet Page

      Amara Graps' web page provides some good basic introductory material on wavelets and some excellent links to other Web resources. There is also a link to the author's (Amara) IEEE Computational Sciences and Engineering article on wavelets.

    • Wave++ from Ryerson Polytechnic University Computational Signals Analysis Group

      Wave++ is a C++ class library for wavelet and signal analysis. This library is provided in source form. I have not examined it in detail yet.

      Wavelet and signal processing algorithms are usually fairly simple (they consist of a relatively small amount of code). My experience has been that the implementation of the algorithms is not as time consuming as understanding the algorithms and how they can be applied. Since one of the best ways to understand the algorithms is to implement and apply them, I'm not sure how much leverage Wave++ provides unless you already understand wavelet algorithms.

    • Wavelet Compression Arrives by Peter Dyson, Seybold Reports, April 1998.

      This is an increasingly dated discussion on wavelet compression products, especially for images. The description of the compression products strengths and weaknesses is good, but the description of wavelets is poor.

    • Web page of Zbigniew R. Struzik

      Prof. Zbigniew R. Struzik of Centrum voor Wiskunde en Informatica in the Netherlands has done some very interesting work with wavelets in a variety of areas, including data mining in finance. This web page has a link to Prof. Struzik's publications (at the bottom of the Web page). Prof. Struzik's work also shows some interesting connections between fractals and wavelets.

    Disclaimer

    This web page was written on nights and weekends, using my computer resources. This Web page does not necessarily reflect the views of my employer (at the time this web page was written). Nothing published here should be interpreted as a reflection on any techniques used by my employer (at that time).

    Ian Kaplan, July 2001
    Revised: February 2004

    Applying the Haar Wavelet Transform to Time Series Information

    Contents
    Introduction
    What a long, strange trips its been
    The wavelet technique for analyzing a signal or time series
    The Language of Wavelets
    Applying Wavelets and Java Source Code
    Financial Time Series
    Why Haar Wavelets?
    Haar Wavelets
    Filtering Spectrum
    Noise Filters
    Wavelets vs. Simple Filters
    Limitations of the Haar Wavelet Transform
    Wavelets and Parallelism
    Java Source Code Download
    Resources
    References, Books
    References, Web published


    Links to sub-pages
    Daubechies Wavelets
    Filtering Using Haar Wavelets
    The Haar Wavelet Transform and Noise Filters
    Wavelet Noise Thresholding
    Wavelets vs. Simple Filters
    Wavelets in Java (includes histogramming and simple statistical algorithms)

    Introduction

    This was the first web page I wrote on Wavelets. From this seed grew other web pages which discuss a variety of wavelet related topics. For a "table of contents" seeWavelets and Signal Processing. This web page applies the wavelet transform to a time series composed of stock market close prices. Later web pages expand on this work in a variety of areas (e.g., compression, spectral analysis and forecasting).

    When I started out I thought that I would implement the Haar wavelet and that some of my colleagues might find it useful. I did not expect signal processing to be such an interesting topic. Nor did I understand who many different areas of computer science, mathematics, and quantitative finance would be touched by wavelets. I kept finding that "one thing lead to another", making it difficult to find a logical stopping place. This wandering path of discovery on my part also accounts for the somewhat organic growth of these web pages. I have tried to tame this growth and organize it, but I fear that it still reflects the fact that I did not know where I was going when I started.

    The Java code published along with this web page reflect the first work I did on wavelets. More sophisticated, lifting scheme based, algorithms, implemented in Java can be found on other web pages. The wavelet lifting scheme code, published on other web pages, is simpler and easier to understand. The wavelet lifting scheme also provides an elegant and powerful framework for implementing a range of wavelet algorithms.

    In implementing wavelet packet algorithms, I switched from Java to C++. The wavelet packet algorithm I used is simpler and more elegant using C++'s operator overloading features. C++ also supports generic data structures (templates), which allowed me to implement a generic class hierarchy for wavelets. This code includes several different wavelet algoriths, including Haar, linear interpolation and Daubechies D4.

    Like the wavelet algorithms, the financial modeling done here represents very early work. When I started working on these web pages I had no experience with modeling financial time series. The work described on this web page lead to more intensive experiments with wavelet filters in financial models, which I continue to work on. On this web page I use stock market close prices. In financial modeling one usually uses returns, since what you are trying to predict is future return.

    I became interested in wavelets by accident. I was working on software involved with financial time series (e.g., equity open and close price), so I suppose that it was an accident waiting to happen. I was reading the February 2001 issue of WIRED magazine when I saw the graph included below. Every month WIRED runs various graphic visualizations of financial data and this was one of them.

    If stock prices do indeed factor in all knowable information, a composite price graph should proceed in an orderly fashon, as new information nudges perceived value against the pull of established tendencies. Wavelet analysis, widely used in communications to separate signal (patterned motion) from noise (random activity), suggests otherwise.

    This image shows the results of running a Haar transform - the fundamental wavelet formula -- on the daily close of the Dow and NASDQ since 1993. The blue mountains constitute signal. The embedded red spikes represent noise, of which the yellow line follows a 50-day moving average.

    Noise, which can be regarded as investor ignorance, has risen along with the value of both indices. But while noise in the Dow has grown 500 percent on average, NASDAQ noise has ballooned 3,000 percent, far outstripping NASDAQ's spectacular 500-percent growth during the same period. Most of this increase has occurred since 1997, with an extraordinary surge since January 2000. Perhaps there was a Y2K glich after all -- one that derailed not operating systems and CPUs, but --> -- investor psychology. - Clem Chambers (clemc@advfn.com).

    Graph and quote from WIRED Magazine, February 2001, page 176

    I am a Platonist. I believe that, in the abstract, there is truth, but that we can never actually reach it. We can only reach an approximation, or a shadow of truth. Modern science expresses this as Heisenberg uncertainty.

    A Platonist view of a financial time series is that there is a "true" time series that is obscured to some extent by noise. For example, a close price or bid/ask time series for a stock moves on the basis of the supply and demand for shares. In the case of a bid/ask time series, the supply/demand curve will be surrounded by the noise created by random order arrival. If, somehow, the noise could be filtered out, we would see the "true" supply/demand curve. Software which uses this information might be able to do a better job because it would not be confused by false movements created by noise.

    The WIRED graph above suggests that wavelet analysis can be used to filter a financial time series to remove the associated noise. Of course there is a vast area that is not addressed by the WIRED quote. What, for example, constitutes noise? What are wavelets and Haar wavelets? Why are wavelets useful in analyzing financial time series? When I saw this graph I knew answers to none of these questions.

    The analysis provided in the brief WIRED paragraph is shallow as well. Noise in the time series increases with trading volume. In order to claim that noise has increased, the noise should be normalized for trading volume.

    What a long, strange trip its been

    Reading is a dangerous thing. It can launch you off into strange directions. I moved from California to Santa Fe, New Mexico because I read a book. That one graph in WIRED magazine launched me down a path that I spent many months following. Like any adventure, I'm not sure if I would have embarked on this one if I had known how long and, at times, difficult, the journey would be.

    Years ago, when it first came out, I bought a copy of the book The World According to Wavelets by Barbara Hubbard, on the basis of a review I read in the magazine Science. The book sat on my shelf unread until I saw the WIRED graph.

    Wavelets have been somewhat of a fad, a buzzword that people have thrown around. Barbara Hubbard started writing The World According to Wavelets when the wavelet fad was starting to catch fire. She provides an interesting history of how wavelets developed in the mathematical and engineering worlds. She also makes a valiant attempt to provide an explanation of what the wavelet technique is. Ms. Hubbard is a science writer, not a mathematician, but she mastered a fair amount of basic calculus and signal processing theory (which I admire her for). When she wrote The World According to Wavelets there were few books on wavelets and no introductory material. Although I admire Barbara Hubbard's heroic effort, I had only a surface understanding of wavelets after reading The World According to Wavelets.

    There is a vast literature on wavelets and their applications. From the point of view of a software engineer (with only a year of college calculus), the problem with the wavelet literature is that it has largely been written by mathematicians, either for other mathematicians or for students in mathematics. I'm not a member of either group, so perhaps my problem is that I don't have a fluent grasp of the language of mathematics. I certianly feel this when ever I read journal articles on wavelets. However, I have tried to concentrate on books and articles that are explicitly introductory and tutorial. Even these have proven to be difficult.

    The first chapter of the book Wavelets Made Easy by Yves Nievergelt starts out with an explaination of Haar wavelets (these are the wavelets used to generate the graph published in WIRED). This chapter has numerous examples and I was able to understand and implement Haar wavelets from this material (links to my Java code for Haar wavelets can be found below). A later chapter discusses the Daubechies wavelet transform. Unfortunately, this chapter of Wavelets Made Easy does not seem to be as good as the material on Haar wavelets. There appear to be a number of errors in this chapter and implementing the algorithm described by Nievergelt does not result in a correct wavelet transform. Among other things, the wavelet coefficients for the Daubechies wavelets seem to be wrong. My web page on the Daubechies wavelet transform can be found here. The book Ripples in Mathematics (see the references at the end of the web page) is a better reference.

    The wavelet technique for analyzing a signal or time series

    There is a vast literature on wavelets. This includes thousands of journal articles and many books. The books on wavelets range from relatively introductory works like Nievergelt's Wavelets Made Easy (which is still not light reading) to books that are accessable only to graduate students in mathematics. There is also a great deal of wavelet material on the Web. This includes a number of tutorials (see Web based reference, below).

    Given the vast literature on wavelets, there is no need for yet another tutorial. But it might be worth while to summarize my view of wavelets as they are applied to 1-D signals or time series (an image is 2-D data). A time series is simply a sample of a signal or a record of something, like temperature, water level or market data (like equity close price).

    Wavelets allow a time series to be viewed in multiple resolutions. Each resolution reflects a different frequency. The wavelet technique takes averages and differences of a signal, breaking the signal down into spectrum. All the wavelet algorithms that I'm familiar with work on time series a power of two values (e.g., 64, 128, 256...). Each step of the wavelet transform produces two sets of values: a set of averages and a set of differences (the differences are referred to as wavelet coefficients). Each step produces a set of averages and coefficients that is half the size of the input data. For example, if the time series contains 256 elements, the first step will produce 128 averages and 128 coefficients. The averages then become the input for the next step (e.g., 128 averages resulting in a new set of 64 averages and 64 coefficients). This continues until one average and one coefficient (e.g., 20) is calculated.

    The average and difference of the time series is made across a window of values. Most wavelet algorithms calculate each new average and difference by shifting this window over the input data. For example, if the input time series contains 256 values, the window will be shifted by two elements, 128 times, in calculating the averages and differences. The next step of the calculation uses the previous set of averages, also shifting the window by two elements. This has the effect of averaging across a four element window. Logically, the window increases by a factor of two each time.

    In the wavelet literature this tree structured recursive algorithm is referred to as a pyramidal algorithm.

    The power of two coefficient (difference) spectrum generated by a wavelet calculation reflect change in the time series at various resolutions. The first coefficient band generated reflects the highest frequency changes. Each later band reflects changes at lower and lower frequencies.

    There are an infinite number of wavelet basis functions. The more complex functions (like the Daubechies wavelets) produce overlapping averages and differences that provide a better average than the Haar wavelet at lower resolutions. However, these algorithms are more complicated.

    The Language of Wavelets

    Every field of specialty develops its own sub-language. This is certainly true of wavelets. I've listed a few definitions here which, if I had understood their meaning would have helped me in my wanderings through the wavelet literature.

    • Wavelet

      A function that results in a set of high frequency differences, or wavelet coefficients. In lifting scheme terms the wavelet calculates the difference between a prediction and an actual value.

      If we have a data sample si, si+1, si+2... the Haar wavelet equations is

      Where ci is the wavelet coefficient.

      The wavelet Lifting Scheme uses a slightly different expression for the Haar wavelet:

    • Scaling Function

      The scaling function produces a smoother version of the data set, which is half the size of the input data set. Wavelet algorithms are recursive and the smoothed data becomes the input for the next step of the wavelet transform. The Haar wavelet scaling function is

      where ai is a smoothed value.

      The Haar transform preserves the average in the smoothed values. This is not true of all wavelet transforms.

    • High pass filter

      In digital signal processing (DSP) terms, the wavelet function is a high pass filter. A high pass filter allows the high frequency components of a signal through while suppressing the low frequency components. For example, the differences that are captured by the Haar wavelet function represent high frequency change between an odd and an even value.

    • Low pass filter

      In digital signal processing (DSP) terms, the scaling function is a low pass filter. A low pass filter suppresses the high frequency components of a signal and allows the low frequency components through. The Haar scaling function calculates the average of an even and an odd element, which results in a smoother, low pass signal.

    • Orthogonal (or Orthonormal) Transform

      The definition of orthonormal (a.k.a. orthogonal) tranforms in Wavelet Methods for Time Series Analysis by Percival and Walden, Cambridge University Press, 2000, Chaper 3, section 3.1, is one of the best I've seen. I've quoted this below:

      Orthonormal transforms are of interst because they can be used to re-express a time series in such a way that we can easily reconstruct the series from its transform. In a loose sense, the "information" in the transform is thus equivalent to the "information" is the original series; to put it another way, the series and its transform can be considered to be two representations of the same mathematical entity.

      In terms of wavelet transforms this means that the original time series can be exactly reconstructed from the time series average and coefficients generated by an orthogonal (orthonormal) wavelet transform.

    • Signal estimation

      This is also referred to as "de-noising". Signal estimation algorithms attempt to characterize portions of the time series and remove those that fall into a particular model of noise.

    Applying Wavelets and Java Source Code

    These Web pages publish some heavily documented Java source code for the Haar wavelet transform. Books like Wavelets Made Easy explain some of the mathematics behind the wavelet transform. I have found, however, that the implemation of this code can be at least as difficult as understanding the wavelet equations. For example, the in-place Haar wavelet transform produces wavelet coefficients in a butterfly pattern in the original data array. The Java source published here includes code to reorder the butterfly into coefficient spectrums which are more useful when it comes to analyzing the data. Although this code is not large, it took me most of a Saturday to implement the code to reorder the butterfly data pattern.

    The wavelet Lifting Scheme, developed by Wim Sweldens and others provides a simpler way to look as many wavelet algorithms. I started to work on Lifting Scheme wavelet implementations after I had written this web page and developed the software. The Haar wavelet code is much simpler when expressed in the lifting scheme. See my web page The Wavelet Lifting Scheme.

    The link to the Java source download Web page is below.

    Financial Time Series

    There are a variety of wavelet analysis algorithms. Different wavelet algorithms are appplied depending on the nature of the data analyzed. The Haar wavelet, which is used here is very fast and works well for the financial time series (e.g., the close price for a stock). Financial time series are non-stationary (to use a signal processing term). This means that even within a window, financial time series cannot be described well by a combination of sin and cos terms. Nor are financial time series cyclical in a predictable fashion (unless you believe in Elliot waves). Financial time series lend themselves to Haar wavelet analysis since graphs of financial time series tend to jagged, without a lot of smooth detail. For example, the graph below shows the daily close price for Applied Materials over a period of about two years.

    Daily close price for Applied Materials (symbol: AMAT), 12/18/97 to 12/30/99.

    The Haar wavelet algorithms I have implemented work on data that consists of samples that are a power of two. In this case there are 512 samples.

    Why Haar Wavelets?

    There are a wide variety of popular wavelet algorithms, including Daubechies wavelets, Mexican Hat wavelets and Morlet wavelets. These wavelet algorithms have the advantage of better resolution for smoothly changing time series. But they have the disadvantage of being more expensive to calculate than the Haar wavelets. The higer resolution provided by these wavlets is not worth the cost for financial time series, which are characterized by jagged transitions.

    Haar Wavelets

    The Haar wavelet algorithms published here are applied to time series where the number of samples is a power of two (e.g., 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64...) The Haar wavelet uses a rectangular window to sample the time series. The first pass over the time series uses a window width of two. The window width is doubled at each step until the window encompasses the entire time series.

    Each pass over the time series generates a new time series and a set of coefficients. The new time series is the average of the previous time series over the sampling window. The coefficients represent the average change in the sample window. For example, if we have a time series consisting of the values v0v1, ... vn, a new time series, with half as many points is calculated by averaging the points in the window. If it is the first pass over the time series, the window width will be two, so two points will be averaged:

       for (i = 0; i < n; i = i + 2)
         si = (vi + vi+1)/2;
    

    The 3-D surface below graphs nine wavelet spectrums generated from the 512 point AMAT close price time series. The x-axis shows the sample number, the y-axis shows the average value at that point and the z-axis shows log2 of the window width.

    The wavelet coefficients are calcalculated along with the new average time series values. The coefficients represent the average change over the window. If the windows width is two this would be:

       for (i = 0; i < n; i = i + 2)
         ci = (vi - vi+1)/2;
    

    The graph below shows the coefficient spectrums. As before the z-axis represents the log2 of the window width. The y-axis represents the time series change over the window width. Somewhat counter intutitively, the negative values mean that the time series is moving upward

     vi is less than vi+1 
          so
     vi - vi+1 will be less than zero
    
    Positive values mean the the time series is going down, since v i  is greater than v i+1 . Note that the high frequency coefficient spectrum (log 2 (windowWidth) = 1) reflects the noisiest part of the time series. Here the change between values fluctuates around zero.

    Plot of the Haar coefficient spectrum. The surface plots the highest frequency spectrum in the front and the lowest frequency spectrum in the back. Note that the highest frequency spectrum contains most of the noise.

    Filtering Spectrum

    The wavelet transform allows some or all of a given spectrum to be removed by setting the coefficients to zero. The signal can then be rebuilt using the inverse wavelet transform. Plots of the AMAT close price time series with various spectrum filtered out are shown here.

    Noise Filters

    Each spectrum that makes up a time series can be examined independently. A noise filter can be applied to each spectrum removing the coefficients that are classified as noise by setting the coefficients to zero.

    This web page shows a histogram analysis of the three highest frequency spectrum of the AMAT close price. The result of a filter that removes the points that fall within a gaussian curve in each spectrum is also shown. The gaussian curve has a mean and standard deviation of the coefficients in that spectrum.

    Another way to remove noise is to use thresholding. My web page outlining one thresholding algorithm can be found here.

    Wavelets vs. Simple Filters

    How do Haar wavelet filters compare to simple filters, like windowed mean and median filters? A plot of the AMAT time series, filtered with a median filter (which in this case is virtually identical to a mean filter) is shown here here. These filters can be compared to the spectrum filters (where a given wavelet coefficient spectrum is filered out) here..

    Whether a wavelet filter is better than a windowed mean filter depends on the application. The wavelet filter allows specific parts of the spectrum to be filtered. For example, the entire high frequency spectrum can be removed. Or selected parts of the spectrum can be removed, as is done with the gaussian noise filter. The power of Haar wavelet filters is that they can be efficiently calculated and they provide a lot of flexibility. They can potentially leave more detail in the time series, compared to the mean or median filter. To the extent that this detail is useful for an application, the wavelet filter is a better choice.

    Limitations of the Haar Wavelet Transform

    The Haar wavelet transform has a number of advantages:

    • It is conceptually simple.
    • It is fast.
    • It is memory efficient, since it can be calculated in place without a temporary array.
    • It is exactly reversible without the edge effects that are a problem with other wavelet trasforms.

    The Haar transform also has limitations, which can be a problem for some applications.

    In generating each set of averages for the next level and each set of coefficients, the Haar transform performs an average and difference on a pair of values. Then the algorithm shifts over by two values and calculates another average and difference on the next pair.

    The high frequency coefficient spectrum should reflect all high frequency changes. The Haar window is only two elements wide. If a big change takes place from an even value to an odd value, the change will not be reflected in the high frequency coefficients.

    For example, in the 64 element time series graphed below, there is a large drop between elements 16 and 17, and elements 44 and 45.

    Since these are high frequency changes, we might expect to see them reflected in the high frequency coefficients. However, in the case of the Haar wavelet transform the high frequency coefficients miss these changes, since they are on even to odd elements.

    The surface below shows three coefficient spectrum: 32, 16 and 8 (where the 32 element coefficient spectrum is the highest frequency). The high frequency spectrum is plotted on the leading edge of the surface. the lowest frequency spectrum (8) is the far edge of the surface.

    Note that both large magnitude changes are missing from the high frequency spectrum (32). The first change is picked up in the next spectrum (16) and the second change is picked up in the last spectrum in the graph (8).

    Many other wavelet algorithms, like the Daubechies wavelet algorithm, use overlapping windows, so the high frequency spectrum reflects all changes in the time series. Like the Haar algorithm, Daubechies shifts by two elements at each step. However, the average and difference are calculated over four elements, so there are no "holes".

    The graph below shows the high frequency coefficient spectrum calculated from the same 64 element time series, but with the Daubechies D4 wavelet algorithm. Because of the overlapping averages and differences the change is reflected in this spectrum.

    The 32, 16 and 8 coefficient spectrums, calculated with the Daubechies D4 wavelet algorithm, are shown below as a surface. Note that the change in the time series is reflected in all three coefficient spectrum.

    Wavelets and Parallelism

    Wavelet algorithms are naturally parallel. For example, if enough processing elements exist, the wavelet transform for a particular spectrum can be calculated in one step by assigning a processor for every two points. The parallelism in the wavelet algorithm makes it attractive for hardware implementation.

    Java Source Code Download

    The Web page for downloading the Haar wavelet source code can be found here. This Java code is extensively documented and this web page includes a link to the Javadoc generated documentation.

    A simpler version of the Haar wavelet algorithm can be found via my web page The Wavelet Lifting Scheme.

    Resources

    • GnuPlot

      The plots above are generated with gnuplot for Windows NT. See my web page of Gnuplot links here. I am only marginally statisified with gnuplot. The software is easy to use and the Windows NT version comes with a nice GUI and a nice help system. However, when it comes to 3-D plots, the software leaves some things to be desired. The hidden line removal consumes vast amounts of virtual memory. When I tried to plot one of the coefficients surfaces with the x and z axes switched, it ran out of memory on a Windows NT system with 256K of virtual memory. Also, the surface would be much easier to understand if it could be colored with a spectrum. If you know of a better 3D plotting package that runs on Windows NT, please drop me a note.

      I have also had a hard time getting gnuplot to generate 2-D plots with multiple lines that have different colors. I have succeeded in doing this only when the data for each line was in a separate file, which can be awkward.

    • ROOT: An Object Oriented Data Analysis Framework

      I was sent the reference to Root by a physicist, Costas A. Root is a data analysis framework that is targeted at the massive amounts of data generated by high energy physics experiments at CERN and elsewhere.

      Although Root leans heavily toward physics, it looks to me like Root would be useful in other areas. Some of the statistical techniques that are used to analyze results in experimental physics is also used in quantitive finance, for example.

      Root has different goals than gnuPlot. It is targeted at a much more challenging data analysis enviroment (terabytes of data). But it has a large learning curve and I'm skeptical if it can be easily used by those who do not have a sophisticated command of C++. In contrast gnuPlot is a simple plotting environment. So my search for a better plotting environment continues. I know that such environments are supported by Matlab and Mathematics, but these packages are too expensive for my limited software budget.

    References

    Books

    • Ripples in Mathematics: the Discrete Wavelet Transform by Jensen and la Cour-Harbo, 2001

      So far this is the best book I've found on wavelets. I read this book after I had spent months reading many of the references that follow, so I'm not sure how easy this book would be for someone with no previous exposure to wavelets. But I have yet to find any "easy" reference. Ripples in Mathematics covers Lifting Scheme wavelets which are easier to implement and understand. The book is written at a relatively introductory level and is aimed at engineers. The authors provide implementations for a number of wavelet algorithms. Ripples also covers the problem of applying wavelet algorithms like Daubechies D4 to finite data sets (e.g., they cover some solutions for the edge problems encountered for Daubechies wavelets).

    • Wavelets and Filter Banks by Gilbert Strang and Truong Nguyen, Wellesley Cambridge Pr, 1996

      A colleague recommend this book, although he could not load it to me since it is packed away in a box. Sadly this book is hard to find. I bought my copy via abebooks.com, used, from a book dealer in Australia. While I was waiting for the book I read a few of Gilbert Strang's journal articles. Gilbert Strang is one of the best writers I've encountered in mathematics. I have only just started working through this book, but it looks like an excellent, although mathematical, book on wavelets.

    • Wavelets Made Easy by Yves Nievergelt, Birkhauser, 1999

      This books has two excellent chapters on Haar wavelets (Chapter 1 covers 1-D Haar wavelets and Chapter 2 covers 2-D wavelets). At least in his coverage of Haar wavelts, Prof. Nievergelt writes clearly and includes plenty of examples. The coverage of Haar wavelets uses only basic mathematics (e.g., algebra).

      Following the chapter on Haar wavelets there is a chapter on Daubechies wavelets. Daubechies wavelets are derived from a general class of wavelet transforms, which includes Haar wavelets. Daubechies wavelets are better for smoothly changing time series, but are probably overkill for financial time series. As Wavelets Made Easy progresses, it gets less easy. Following the chapter on Daubechies wavelets is a discussion of Fourier transforms. The later chapters delve into the mathematics behind wavelets. Prof. Nievergelt pretty much left me behind at the chapter on Fourier transforms. For an approachable discussion of Fourier transforms, see Understanding Digital Signal Processing by Richard G. Lyons (below).

      As Wavelets Made Easy progresses, it becomes less and less useful for wavelet algorithm implementation. In fact, while the mathematics Nievergelt uses to describe Daubechies wavelets is correct, the algorithm he describes to implement the Daubechies transform and inverse transform seems to be wrong.

      Wavelets Made Easy does not live up to the "easy" part of its title. Given this and the apparent errors in the Daubechies coverage, I am sorry to say that I can't recommend this book. Save your money and buy a copy of Ripples in Mathematics.

    • Discovering Wavelets by Edward Aboufadel and Steven Schlicker

      At 125 pages, this is one of the most expensive wavelet books I've purchased, on a per page basis. It sells on Amazon for $64.95 US. I bought it used for $42.50.

      If Discovering Wavelets provided a short, clear description of wavelets, the length would be a virtue, not a fault. Sadly this is not the case. Discovering Waveletsseems to be a book written for college students who have completed calculus and linear algebra. The book is heavy on theorms (which are incompletely explained) and very sort on useful explaination. I found the description of wavelets unnecessarily obscure. For example, Haar wavelets are described in terms of linear algebra. They can be much more simply described in terms of sums, differences and the so called pyramidal algorithm.

      While Discovering Wavelets covers some important material, its coverage is so obscure and cursory that I found the book useless. The book resembles a set of lecture notes and is of little use without the lecture (for their student's sake I hope that Aboufadel and Schlicker are better teachers than writers). This is a book that I wish I had not purchased.

    • Wavelet Methods for Time Series Analysis by Donald B. Percival and Andrew T. Walden, Cambridge University Press, 2000

      I'm not a mathematician and I don't play one on television. So this book is heavy going for me. Never the less, this is a good book. For someone with a better mathematical background this might be an excellent book. The authors provide a clear discussion of wavelets and a variety of time series analsysis techniques. Unlike some mathematicians, Percival and Walden actually coded up the wavelet algorithms and understand the difficulties of implementation. They compare various wavelet families for various applications and chose the simplest one (Haar) in some cases.

      One of the great benifits of Wavelet Methods for Time Series Analysis is that it provides a clear summary of a great deal of the recent research. But Percival and Walden put the research in an applied context. For example Donoho and Johnstone published an equation for wavelet noise reduction. I have been unable to find all of their papers on the Web and I have never understood how to calculate some of the terms in the equation in practice. I found this definition in Wavelet Methods.

    • The World According to Wavelets: The Story of a Mathematical Technique in the Making by Barbara Burke Hubbard, A.K. Peters, 1996

      This book provides an interesting history of the development of wavelets. This includes sketches of many of the people involved in pioneering the application and mathematical theory behind wavelets. Although Ms. Hubbard makes a heroic effort, I found the explaination of wavelets difficult to follow.

    • The Cartoon Guide To Statistics by Larry Gonic and Woollcott Smith, Harper Collins

      I work with a number of mathematicians, so it's a bit embarrassing to have this book on my disk. I never took statistics. In college everyone I knew who took statistics didn't like it. Since it was not required for my major (as calculus was), I did not take statistics. I've come to understand how useful statistics is. I wanted to filter out Gaussian noise, so I needed to understand normal curves. Although the title is a bit embarrassing, The Cartoon Guide to Statistics provided a very rapid and readable introduction to statistics.

    • Understanding Digital Signal Processing by Richard G. Lyons.

      This book is fantastic. Perhaps the best introductory book ever written on digital signal processing. It is the book on signal processing for software engineers like myself with tepid mathematical backgrounds. It provides the best coverage I've ever seen on DFTs and FFTs. In fact, this book has inspired me to try FFTs on financial time series (an interesting experiment, but wavelets produce better results and Fourier transforms on non-stationary time series).

      See my web page A Notebook Compiled While Reading Understanding Digital Signal Processing by Lyons

    Web based references

    • My web page on the wavelet Lifting Scheme. The Haar wavelet algorithm expressed using the wavelet Lifting Scheme is considerably simpler than the algorithm referenced above. The Lifting Scheme also allows Haar wavelet to be extended into a wavelet algorithms that have perfect reconstruction and have better multiscale resolution than Haar wavelets.

    • Haar Wavelet Transform by Emil Mikulic

      Emil Mikulic has published a simple explaination of the Haar transform, for both 1-D and 2-D data. For those who find my explaination obscure, this might be a good resource.

    • The Wavelet Tutorial: The Engineer's Ultimate Guide to Wavelet Analysis, by Robi Polikar.

      The "ultimate guide" to wavelet analysis has yet to be written, at least for my purposes. But Prof. Polikar's Wavelet Tutorial is excellent. When it comes to explaining Wavelets and Fourier transforms, this is one of the best overviews I've seen. Prof. Polikar put a great deal of work into this tutorial and I am greateful for his effort. However, there was not sufficient detail in this tutorial to allow me to create my own wavelet and inverse wavelet tranform software.

    • A Really Friendly Guide to Wavelets

      This Web page (which is also available in PDF) provides a nice overview of the theory behind wavelets. But as with Robi Polikar's web page, its a big step from this material to a software implementation. Whether this Web page is "really friendly" depends on who your friends are. If you friends are calculus and taylor series, then this paper is for you. After working my way through a good part of Wavelets Made Easy this paper filled in some hole for me. But I would not have understood it if I had read it before Wavelets Made Easy.

    • Bell Labs Wavelets Group Home Page

      Wim Sweldens, who has published a lot of material on the Web (he is the editor of Wavelet Digest) and elsewhere on Wavelets is a member of this group. An interesting site with lots of great links to other web resources.

      See also Wim Swelden's Wavelet Cascade Java Applet

    • Lifting Scheme Wavelets

      Win Sweldens and Ingrid Daubechies invented a new wavelet technique known as the lifting scheme. Gabriel Fernandez has published an excellent bibliography on the lifting scheme wavelets which can be found here. This bibliography has a pointer to Wim Sweldens' and Peter Schroder's lifting scheme tutorial Building Your Own Wavelets at Home.

      Clemens Valens has written a tutorial on the fast lifting wavelet transform. This is a rather mathematically oriented tutorial. For many, Wim Sweldens' paper Building Your Ownh Wavlets at Home may be easier to under stand (although I still found this paper heavy going).

      Gabriel Fernandez has developed LiftPack. The LiftPack Home Page publishes the LiftPack software. The bibliography is a sub-page of the LiftPack Home page.

      See also my web page on The Wavelet Lifting Scheme.

    • Wavelets in Computer Graphis

      One of the papers referenced in Gabriel Fernandez's lifting scheme bibliography is Wim Sweldens and Peter Schroder's paper Building Your Own Wavelets at Home. This is part of a course on Wavelets in Computer Graphics given at SigGraph 1994, 1995 and 1996. The sigGraph course coverd an amazing amount of material.Building Your Own Wavelets at Home was apparently covered in a morning. There are a lot of mathematically gifted people in computer graphics. But even for these people, this looks like tough going for a morning. I've spent hours reading and rereading this tutorial before I understood it enough to implement the polynomial interpolation wavelets that it discusses.

    • Wavelet Shrinkage (denoising)

    • CalTech Multi-Resolution Modeling Group Publications

      The Wavelets in Computer Graphics page, referenced above, is one of the links from the CalTech Multi-resolution Modeling Group Publications web page. The wavelet publications referenced on this page concentrate on wavelet applications for computer graphics.

    • Tutorial on Continuous Wavelet Analysis of Experiemental Data by Jacques Lewalle, Syracuse University.

      This is yet another "introductory" tutorial by a mathematician. It gives a feeling for what you can do with wavelets, but there is not enough detail to understand the details of implementing wavelet code.

    • Amara's Wavelet Page

      Amara Graps' web page provides some good basic introductory material on wavelets and some excellent links to other Web resources. There is also a link to the author's (Amara) IEEE Computational Sciences and Engineering article on wavelets.

    • Wave++ from Ryerson Polytechnic University Computational Signals Analysis Group

      Wave++ is a C++ class library for wavelet and signal analysis. This library is provided in source form. I have not examined it in detail yet.

      Wavelet and signal processing algorithms are usually fairly simple (they consist of a relatively small amount of code). My experience has been that the implementation of the algorithms is not as time consuming as understanding the algorithms and how they can be applied. Since one of the best ways to understand the algorithms is to implement and apply them, I'm not sure how much leverage Wave++ provides unless you already understand wavelet algorithms.

    • Wavelet Compression Arrives by Peter Dyson, Seybold Reports, April 1998.

      This is an increasingly dated discussion on wavelet compression products, especially for images. The description of the compression products strengths and weaknesses is good, but the description of wavelets is poor.

    • Web page of Zbigniew R. Struzik

      Prof. Zbigniew R. Struzik of Centrum voor Wiskunde en Informatica in the Netherlands has done some very interesting work with wavelets in a variety of areas, including data mining in finance. This web page has a link to Prof. Struzik's publications (at the bottom of the Web page). Prof. Struzik's work also shows some interesting connections between fractals and wavelets.

    Disclaimer

    This web page was written on nights and weekends, using my computer resources. This Web page does not necessarily reflect the views of my employer (at the time this web page was written). Nothing published here should be interpreted as a reflection on any techniques used by my employer (at that time).

    Ian Kaplan, July 2001
    Revised: February 2004

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  • haar wavelet 塔式算法

    2012-04-24 18:14:24
    在MATLAB中,采用塔式算法,标准haar小波和非标准haar小波,对一组随机生成数进行小波分解和重构。
  • 定义 Haar 滤波器矩阵 { 1/sqrt(2)*[1 1; 1 -1] } 4. 执行过滤沿着 Colms 然后沿着 Rows 并向下采样 2 迭代更新输出图像5. 多分辨率图像的显示6. 执行恢复沿行然后沿 Colms 并按 2 上采样迭代更新输出图像7. 显示...
  • Haar-like featuresaredigital imagefeaturesused inobject recognition. They owe their name to their intuitive similarity withHaar waveletsand were used in the first real-time face detector.[...

    Haar-like features are digital image features used in object recognition. They owe their name to their intuitive similarity with Haar wavelets and were used in the first real-time face detector.[1]

    Historically, working with only image intensities (i.e., the RGB pixel values at each and every pixel of image) made the task of feature calculation computationally expensive. A publication by Papageorgiou et al.[2] discussed working with an alternate feature set based on Haar wavelets instead of the usual image intensities. Viola and Jones[1] adapted the idea of using Haar wavelets and developed the so-called Haar-like features. A Haar-like feature considers adjacent rectangular regions at a specific location in a detection window, sums up the pixel intensities in each region and calculates the difference between these sums. This difference is then used to categorize subsections of an image. For example, let us say we have an image database with human faces. It is a common observation that among all faces the region of the eyes is darker than the region of the cheeks. Therefore a common Haar feature for face detection is a set of two adjacent rectangles that lie above the eye and the cheek region. The position of these rectangles is defined relative to a detection window that acts like a bounding box to the target object (the face in this case).

    In the detection phase of the Viola–Jones object detection framework, a window of the target size is moved over the input image, and for each subsection of the image the Haar-like feature is calculated. This difference is then compared to a learned threshold that separates non-objects from objects. Because such a Haar-like feature is only a weak learner or classifier (its detection quality is slightly better than random guessing) a large number of Haar-like features are necessary to describe an object with sufficient accuracy. In the Viola–Jones object detection framework, the Haar-like features are therefore organized in something called a classifier cascade to form a strong learner or classifier.

    The key advantage of a Haar-like feature over most other features is its calculation speed. Due to the use of integral images, a Haar-like feature of any size can be calculated in constant time (approximately 60 microprocessor instructions for a 2-rectangle feature).

    转载于:https://www.cnblogs.com/2008nmj/p/9568927.html

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  • 小波变换及matlab原始码此配置文件旨在实现:使用小波变换的数字图像模糊检测,童杭航,李明京,张洪江 我使用了两种编程语言(matlab和C ++)来实现它。 使用Matlab源代码只需执行脚本start.m ...
  • haar_wavelet_spectrum

    2014-01-28 15:59:34
    haar_wavelet_spectrum
  • 该包包含两个函数 Watermark.m 用于为图像添加水印,以及 ext_watermark.m 用于从带水印的图像中提取水印。 在函数本身中给出了如何使用该函数的说明。
  • 基于Haar小波挖掘多个数据流的相关性,陈安龙,唐常杰,在涉及多个流数据的应用中,流之间的相关性非常重要, 此文的工作包括 (1)引入了带过滤的全序概念,利用小波的压缩特性,描述数据流
  • Haar小波变换

    万次阅读 2018-08-23 17:28:03
    最简单的基函数是哈尔基函数(Haar basis function)。哈尔基函数在1909年提出,它是由一组分段常值函数组成的函数集。这个函数集定义在半开区间[0,1)上,每一个分段常值函数的数值在一个小范围里是1,其他地方为0,...
  • 小波变换二之Haar变换

    千次阅读 多人点赞 2019-01-18 05:16:43
    文章目录Haar变换原理说明实例演示MATLAB实现 Haar变换 这是小波变换的第二篇,我们继续谈Haar变换。在第一篇中,我们介绍了一位情况下的Haar变换,这篇博文中主要介绍二维Haar变换。最后,通过一个图像压缩的案例...
  • Haar小波变换 ... Processing One Dimensional Haar Wavelet Transformation Input : 9.0, 7.0, 3.0, 5.0 Output : 6.0, 2.0, 1.0, -1.0 二维哈尔小波变换 让我们看下面的例子:我们有一个二维数组。 double
  • 图小波神经网络 ⠀ 图小波神经网络的PyTorch实现(ICLR 2019)。 抽象 我们提出了图小波神经网络(GWNN),一种新颖的图卷积神经网络(CNN),它利用图小波变换来解决依赖于图傅立叶变换的先前频谱图CNN方法的缺点...
  • SVD and FT and Haar Wavelet

    2011-11-03 05:15:00
    http://amath.colorado.edu/courses/5720/2000Spr/Labs/openingpage.html 转载于:https://www.cnblogs.com/stoneresearch/archive/2011/11/03/4336786.html
  • atrous_haar

    2015-10-10 16:18:40
    采用haar小波实现二维图像的分解与重构(à trous算法)-Two-dimensional image using haar wavelet decomposition and reconstruction (trous algorithm)
  • adaptive Haar-like MCTF based wavelet video coding scheme
  • 基于haar小波变换的模糊检测算法 2004 Blur Detection for Digital Images Using Wavelet Transform
  • 小波变换三之Haar变换

    千次阅读 2019-01-30 03:01:45
    文章目录小波变换三之Haar变换什么是基(Basis)Haar小波基第一层的基第二层的基母小波和父小波 小波变换三之Haar变换 什么是基(Basis) 数学上有一个常用神秘专有名词“基”,那么什么是“基”呢?举个例子:在...
  • 三、Wavelet Denoising(小波去噪)

    千次阅读 2019-01-07 22:07:11
    is performed only in the wavelet coefficients that do not correspond to any image features • Successful applications of denosing via wavelet shrinkage:    reduction of speckles in radar ...
  • 我这里使用的haar小波,缩放函数是[1 1],小波函数是[1 -1]。是最简单的小波了。 先看看分解的效果,这次我选用了大图: 尺度为2的全分解小波包: 下面是matlab代码: main.m clear all; close all;...
  • matlab实现haar小波分解

    2012-05-01 09:31:21
    从源代码的角度实现了小波的haar分解,有利于初学者对小波分解的理解,不单纯的使用matlab wavelet工具箱
  • PostgreSQL的图像搜索插件使用了非常主流的Haar wavelet技术对图像进行变换后存储,可以参考WIKI和一篇关于HW的文献。 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haar_wavelet http://www.cs.toronto.edu/~kyros/courses/...
  • 【小波变换】小波变换入门----haar小波

    万次阅读 多人点赞 2018-12-05 16:01:39
    首先,以haar小波变换过程为例来理解小波变换。 例:求有限信号的均值和差值 假设有一幅分辨率只有4个像素 的一维图像,对应的像素值或者叫做图像位置的系数分别为:[9 7 3 5],计算它的哈尔小波变换系数。 计算步骤...
  • Research Journal of Applied Sciences Year: 2010 | Volume: 5 | Issue: 5 | Page No.: 352-360 DOI: 10.3923/rjasci.2010.352.360 ...A Comparison Between Haar Wavelet Transform a
  • Haar Daubechies Biorthogonal Coiflets Symlets Morlet Mexican Hat Meyer Other Real Wavelets Complex Wavelets References 2 Using Wavelets Introduction to Wavelet Toolbox GUIs and ...

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