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  • 句型Where is … Here it is”.doc
  • 幼儿园教案2021-句型Where is … Here it is”.doc
  • 七年级英语上册Unit4Where’smyschoolbag重点短语句型总结新版人教新目标版202005062180
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  • HQL常用句型

    2016-01-27 16:08:03
    HQL常用句型 HQL相比于SQL添加了面向对象思想,包括封装、继承、多态。Select/update/delete…… from …… where …… group by …… having …… order by …… asc/desc from User user where user.age=20; ...

    HQL常用句型

    HQL常用句型
    HQL相比于SQL添加了面向对象思想,包括封装、继承、多态。

    1、Select/update/delete…… from …… where …… group by …… having …… order by …… asc/desc
    2、
    from User user where user.age=20;
    from User user where user.age between 20 and 30;
    from User user where user.age in(20,30);
    from User user where user.name is null;
    from User user where user.name like ‘%zx%’;
    from User user where (user.age%2)=1;
    from User user where user.age=20 and user.name like‘%zx%’;

    3、 user 是User的一个实体对象
    对user的更新操作(下述hql字符串所述)
    Transaction trans=session.beginTransaction(); String hql=”delete from User user where user.age=18”; Query queryupdate=session.createQuery(hql); int ret=queryupdate.executeUpdate(); trans.commit();
    查询实体对象user的部分属性
    4、查询实体对象user的部分属性
    List list=session.createQuery(“select user.name from User user ”).list();
    5、count(),sum(),max(),min(),avg()等函数
    String hql=”select count(user),user.age from User user group by user.age having
    count(user)>10 ”;
    List list=session.createQuery(hql).list();
    6、group by,order by分组与排序功能
    from User user order by user.name asc,user.age desc;

    7、优化参数统计 inner join
    From Customer c inner join c.orders o group by c.age; (1)
    select c.ID,c.name,c.age,o.ID,o.order_number,o.customer_ID
      from Customer c inner join c.orders c group by c.age; (2)
    在开发统计查询系统时,尽量使用通过select语句写出需要查询的属性的方式来返回关系数据,而避免使用第一种查询方式返回持久化对象(这种方式是在有修改需求时使用比较适合),可以提高运行效率并且减少内存消耗。

    展开全文
  • 英语作文句型

    2012-11-06 21:45:56
    1. It’s well known to us that--- 2. As is known to us, --- 3. This is a topic that is being widely talked about. 4.As a proverb says, “Where there is a will, there is a way.”
  • 句型宝典

    千次阅读 2008-10-26 07:45:00
    句型宝典疑問句型What is this?結構︰問句:What+be 動詞+this(that…)? 答句:This(that…)+be 動詞+a book(pen…)。說明︰此句型意為“這(那)是什麼?這(那)是書(鋼筆…)”。what(什麼)叫做...
     句型宝典
    
    疑問句型
    What is this?
    結構︰問句:What+be 動詞+this(that…)?
          答句:This(that…)+be 動詞+a book(pen…)。
    說明︰此句型意為“這(那)是什麼?這(那)是書(鋼筆…)”。what(什麼)叫做“疑問詞”,用於詢問“事物”,通常放在句首,後接 be <動詞>,再接<主詞>,第一個字母 w要大寫,句尾要加問號(?),位置不可排錯。
        What is this? This is a chair.  這是什麼?這是一張椅子。
        What’s this? It’s a book.   這是什麼?它是一本書。
        What is that? That is a desk.  那是什麼?那是一張書桌。
    What are these?
    結構︰問句:What are+these/those…?
          答句:These/Those are+複數名詞(+s/es)。
    說明︰<主詞>與<動詞>的形式要一致,is 後面接單數<名詞>,are 後面要接複數<名詞>。
        What are these? These are books.   這些是什麼?這些是書。
        What are those? Those are cups.   那些是什麼?那些是茶杯。
        What are they? They are glasses.   它們是什麼?它們是玻璃杯。
    What are you?
    結構︰問句:What+be 動詞+主詞(人)…?
          答句:主詞+be 動詞+a student…。
    說明︰此句型意為“你是做什麼事情的?我是學生…”。疑問詞 what 除了詢問事物之外,還可用於詢問“人的職業或身分”。be <動詞>隨<人稱代名詞>的變化而改變形態,如:I am,we are,you are,he is…。
        What are you? I am a student.   你是做什麼事情的?我是一名學生。
        What is she? She is a teacher.   她是做什麼事情的?她是一名教師。
    Are you a ...?
    結構︰問句:Be 動詞(am,are,is)+主詞+…?
                 肯定簡答:Yes,主詞+am(are,is)。
                 否定簡答:No,主詞+am(are,is)not。
    說明︰在否定<簡答句>中,<主詞>和 am,is,are 可以縮寫;在肯定<簡答句>中則不可。
        Is he a student? Yes, he is. (No, he isn’t.)   他是學生嗎?是的,他是。(不,他不是。)
        Are you a teacher? Yes, I am. (No, I’m not.)  你是教師嗎?是的,我是。(不,我不是。)
        Is that a clock? Yes, it is. (No, it isn’t.)  那是鐘錶嗎?是的,它是。(不,它不是。)
    What is your name?
    結構︰問句:What+is+所有格+name?
          答句:所有格+name+is+名字。
    說明︰“my,your,his,her”為單數人稱的<所有格>;<所有格>後面必接<名詞>,即“<所有格>+<名詞>”;<所有格>不可與 a,an,this,that,these 或 those 緊接一起使用。
        What is your name? My name is Sue.   妳叫什麼名字?我的名字叫蘇。
        What is his name? His name is John.   他叫什麼名字?他的名字叫約翰。
        What is her name? Her name is Jean.   她叫什麼名字?她的名字叫珍。
    Who is that ...?
    結構︰問句:Who+be 動詞+that+形容詞+名詞?
          答句:That is+名字。
    說明︰Who 是<疑問代名詞>,詢問人的“姓名”或“關係”;將<形容詞>直接放在<名詞>前面,叫做“前位修飾”。
        Who is that short boy? That is Bill.   那位矮男孩是誰?那位是比爾。
        Who is that tall girl? That is Mary.   那位高女孩是誰?那位是瑪麗。
        Who is that fat man? He is my uncle.  那位胖男子是誰?那位是我叔叔。
    Where is ...?
    結構︰問句:Where+be 動詞(am,are,is)+主詞…?
          答句:主詞+be 動詞+in the+名詞…。
    說明︰問句是“Where ...?”,簡答時可用<副詞片語>“In/On the+<名詞>”。
        Where is Sue? She is in her room.   蘇在那裡?她在她的房間裡。
        Where are your books? On the desk.   你的書在那裡?在書桌上。
        Where is your mother? She is in the kitchen.   你媽嗎在哪裡?她在廚房裡。
    Are you V-ing ...?
    結構︰Am(Are,Is)+主詞+現在分詞…?
    說明︰此句型意為“<主詞>(人,物)正在…嗎?”。這一<句型>轉換的三要素是:be <動詞>移到句首;改為大寫;句尾用問號。
        Is Mary sleeping?   瑪麗正在睡覺嗎?
        Are you reading a book?   你正在看書嗎?
        Is the dog playing?   小狗正在玩耍嗎?
    What are you doing?
    結構︰問句:What+am(are,is)+主詞+現在分詞?
          答句:主詞+am(are,is)+現在分詞…。
    說明︰“<主詞>(人)正在做什麼?<主詞>(人)正在…”。注意:<祈使句>的動詞只能用原形,不可造<現在進行式>;表示“瞬間產生”的動作的<動詞片語>,如 sit down,stand up,不可造<現在進行式>。
        What am I doing? You are reading a book.   我正在做什麼? 你正在閱讀一本書。
        What are the girls doing? They are singing.   姑娘們正在做什麼? 她們在唱歌。
        What is Bill writing? He is writing a letter.   比爾在寫什麼? 他在寫一封信。
    How old are you?
    結構︰問句:How old+be 動詞+主詞(某人)?
                 答句:主詞(某人)+be 動詞+year(s) old。
    說明︰此句型意為“某人幾歲?某人是…歲”。該句型中,<疑問詞>要用 how,不可用 what;且 be <動詞>(am,is,are)要和後面的<主詞>(某人)配合;答句中的“year(s) old”可以省略。
        How old are you? I am twelve (years old).   你幾歲?我十二歲。
        How old is your sister? She is thirteen years old.   你的姊妹幾歲?她十三歲。
        How old is John? He is one year old.  約翰幾歲?他一歲。
    What time is it?
    結構︰問句:What time is it?
                 答句:It is+數字+o’clock。
    說明︰此句型意為“現在是幾點鐘?現在是…點鐘”。問句中 what 當<形容詞>,修飾後面的<名詞> time;time 當時間解時,只能用單數,不可用複數。
        What time is it? It is ten o’clock.   現在是幾點鐘?現在是十點鐘。
        What time is it? It is six o’clock.   現在是幾點鐘?現在是六點鐘。
        What time is it? It is nine o’clock.   現在是幾點鐘?現在是九點鐘。
    Do you + V ...?
    結構︰問句:Do/Does+主詞+原形動詞…?
                 肯定簡答:Yes,主詞+do/does。
                 否定簡答:No,主詞+don’t/doesn’t。
    說明︰肯定句中,如有一般<動詞>(speak,work,teach…),則在句首加<助動詞> do 或 does,並將一般<動詞>改為原形<動詞>(不加s或es),即構成<疑問句>。
        Do you speak English? Yes, I do. (No, I don’t.)
          你講英語嗎?是的,我講英語。(不,我不講英語。)
        Does she have a cat? Yes, she does. (No, she doesn’t.)
          她有一隻貓嗎?是的,她有一隻貓。(不,她沒有一隻貓。)
        Do they work in office? Yes, they do. (No, they don’t.)
          他們在辦公室裡工作嗎?是的,他們在辦公室裡工作。(不,他們不在辦公室裡工作。)
    What time do you + V ...?
    結構︰問句:What time+do/does+主詞+原形動詞…?
                 答句:主詞(某人)+一般動詞…+時間。
    說明︰此句型意為“某人幾點做某事?”<助動詞> do 或 does 的選擇依<主詞>而定,若<主詞>為第三人稱單數,用 does;其它用 do。
        What time do you get up? I usually get up at six.  你幾點起床?我通常六點起床。
        What time does he go to bed? He usually goes to bed at ten.他幾點就寢?他通常十點就寢。
        What time does your class begin? It begins at eight-ten.
        你的課幾點開始?八點十分開始。
    What day is today?
    結構︰問句:What day is today?
                 答句:It’s+Sunday/Monday/…。
    說明︰此句型意為“今天是星期幾?今天是星期日/星期一/…。”it 可用於指“星期的名稱”,但 this或 that 不可以;一星期七天的名稱,都是<專有名詞>,開頭的首字母要大寫,前面不加<冠詞>。
        What day is today? It’s Sunday.   今天是星期幾?今天是星期日。
        What day is today? It’s Wednesday.   今天是星期幾?今天是星期三。
        What day is today? It’s Saturday.   今天是星期幾?今天是星期六。
    How many N are there ...
    結構︰問句:How many+複數名詞+are there in/on+名詞?
                 答句:There is/are+單數(複數)名詞+in/on+名詞。
    說明︰此句型意為“在某處有多少…?在某處有…。”該句型中,many 修飾複數<名詞>;又因本句型是 <疑問句>,故用 are there,不可用 there are。
        How many seasons are there in a year? There are four seasons in a year.
        一年有幾個季節? 一年有四季。
        How many days are there in a week? There are seven days in a week.
        一星期有幾天? 一星期有七天。
        How many lessons are there in this book? There are twelve lessons in this book.
        這本書裡有幾課? 這本書裡有十二課。
    How many ... do you have?
    結構︰問句:How many+複數名詞+do/does+主詞+have?
                 答句:主詞+have/has…+複數名詞+…。
                 答句:主詞+don’t/doesn’t have…+複數名詞…。
    說明︰“How many”後面接複數<可數名詞>,複數<名詞>的前面可用 many,a lot of,a few,some,few,any,no 等修飾。
        How many books do you have? I have a lot of books. (I don’t have any books.)
        你有幾本書? 我有許多書。(我沒有書。)
        How many sweaters do you have? I have three sweaters. (I don’t have any sweaters.)
        你有幾件毛衣? 我有三件毛衣。(我沒有毛衣。)
        How many friends does she have? She has a lot of friends. (She doesn’t have many friends.)
        她有幾個朋友? 她有許多朋友。(她沒有許多朋友。)
    How much ... do you have?
    結構︰問句:How much+單數不可數名詞+do/does+主詞+have?
                 答句:主詞+have/has…+單數不可數名詞。
                 答句:主詞+don’t/doesn’t have…+單數不可數名詞。
    說明︰“How much”後面接單數<不可數名詞>,單數<不可數名詞>前面可用 much, a little,some,little,any,no 等修飾。
        How much tea does he have? He has a lot of tea. (He doesn’t have any tea.)
        他有多少茶? 他有很多茶。(他沒有茶。)
        How much homework do they have? They have a lot of homework. (They don’t have much homework.)  他們有多少家庭作業? 他們有許多家庭作業。(他們沒有許多家庭作業。)
        How much fruit do they have? They have a lot of fruit. (They don’t have a lot of fruit.)
        他們有多少水果? 他們有許多水果。(他們沒有許多水果。)
    How much do(es) ... cost?
    結構︰How much do(es)+某物+cost…?
    說明︰此句型意為“某物值多少錢?”。how much 用來詢問商品的價格。還可以寫作:“How much+ be <動詞>+某物?"。
        How much does this computer cost? (=How much is this computer?)這部電腦值多少錢?
        How much do the vegetables cost?  這些蔬菜值多少錢?
        How much do the movie tickets cost?  這些電影票值多少錢?
    Did ... V ...
    結構︰Did+主詞+原形動詞+…過去時間?
    說明︰將肯定句中的過去式改為“Did+原形<動詞>”,並將 Did 放在句首,句尾用問號,即構成過去式的<疑問句>。
        Did he clean the room yesterday?  他昨天打掃房間嗎?
        Did she wash the skirt yesterday?  她昨天洗這裙子嗎?
        Did your brother play in the park this morning?  你弟弟今天上午在公園玩耍嗎?
        Did he eat lunch yesterday?  他昨天吃午飯嗎?
        Did you see any elephants in the zoo last week?  上星期你在動物園裡看到大象了嗎?
        Did Sue have her breakfast at eight?  蘇在八點鐘吃過早餐了嗎?
    Do you ever + V ...?
    結構︰問句:Do/Does+主詞+ever+原形動詞…?
                 答句:No,主詞+never+一般動詞(加s或es)…。
    說明︰ever 通常用於<疑問句>,never 通常用於否定回答;never 也可放在句首,後接原形 <動詞>,形成否定<祈使句>,如例句4。
        Do you ever use a computer? No, I never use a computer.
          你曾經使用電腦嗎?不,我未曾使用過電腦。
        Does Tom ever get up late? No, Tom never gets up late.
          湯姆曾經晚起床嗎?不,湯姆未曾晚起床過。
        Does Sally ever play the piano? No, Sally never plays the piano.
          薩莉曾經彈鋼琴嗎?不,薩莉未曾彈過鋼琴。
        Never be late for school, Bill.  比爾,上學絕不可遲到。
    What year was he born in?
    結構︰What date/year+was/were+主詞+born+on/in?
    說明︰此句型意為“你出生於幾月幾日(那一年)?”。born 是<原形動詞> bear 的過去<分詞>,在文法上當 <形容詞>,前面常有 was 或 were;中文說“某人出生”,英語應說:“某人+was/were born…”。
        What year were you born in?  你出生於那一年?
        What date was your mother born on?  你母親出生於幾月幾日?
        What month was your sister born in?  你妹妹出生於幾月?
    What will you do on ...?
    結構︰What will/did+主詞+do+on+時間?
    說明︰此句型意為“某人在某時間將做什麼?(未來式)某人在某時做了什麼事?(過去式)”。指特定的日期(如幾月幾日)、星期幾或星期幾的早上(下午,晚上),要用介系詞on。
        What will you do on Teacher’s Day?  你在教師節將做什麼事?
        What will they do on Christmas Eve?  他們在聖誕夜將做什麼事?
        What will Helen do on her birthday?  海倫在她生日那天將做什麼事?
        What did John do on New Year’s Day?  約翰在元旦做了什麼事?
        What did Mary do on Youth Day?  瑪麗在青年節做了什麼事?
        What did the suspect do on July ninth?  嫌疑犯在七月九日做了什麼事情?
    How do you + V ...?
    結構︰問句:How+do+主詞+一般動詞…?
                 答句:主詞+一般動詞…+情狀副詞。
    說明︰How 是問情況的<疑問副詞>,表示“怎樣…?”。用於說明“狀態或性質”的副詞,稱為 <情狀副詞>。當用來修飾<不及物動詞>時,<情狀副詞>位於其後;當用來修飾<及物動詞>時,<情狀動詞>位於<及物動詞>的前面或後面。
    How did you do your work? I did my work happily.
    你怎樣做你的工作? 我很快樂地做了我的工作。
        How did Mrs. Lin look at Mr. Lin? She looked at Mr. Lin coldly.
          林太太怎樣注視林先生? 她冷漠地注視林先生。
        How does Mr. Wang drive his taxi? He drives his taxi carefully.
          王先生怎樣駕駛他的計程車? 他小心地駕駛他的計程車。
    You are ..., aren’t you?
    結構︰肯定句,+否定式助動詞+主詞?
    說明︰這是一種反意<疑問句>,其結構特點是:第一部分是肯定式,第二部分就用否定式。直述句的<主詞>是<名詞>時,附加問句的<主詞>要用<代名詞>代替:it 代替 this, that,<不定詞>(當<主詞>)或<動名詞>(當<主詞>)等;they 代替 these,those, people 等。下列<助動詞>的否定縮寫式較易弄錯:will not->won’t;would not-> wouldn’t;should not->shouldn’t;can not->can’t;could not->couldn’t; might not->mightn’t;ought not->oughtn’t。直述句有一般<動詞>現在式,則附加問句用 do 或 does 代替;有一般<動詞>過去式,則附加問句用 did 代替。
        They’re ready, aren’t they?(讀降調)他們準備好了吧?(讀升調)他們準備好了,不是嗎?
        Mike has a car, doesn’t he?(讀降調)麥克有輛車,是吧?(讀升調)麥克有輛車,不是嗎?
        The secretary typed the letter, didn’t she?   是祕書打了這封信,不是嗎?
        They will go to Europe, won’t they?   他們將去歐洲,不是嗎?
        You are the teacher, aren’t you?   你就是老師,不是嗎?
        I suppose you have been in our woods, haven’t you?我推想你在我們的森林裡呆過,不是嗎?
        I know he had a good time last night, didn’t he? 我知道他昨天晚上玩得很愉快,不是嗎?
        The wall plug is broken, isn’t it?   牆上的插座壞了,不是嗎?
        Clean parks are beautiful, aren’t they?  乾淨的公園是美麗的,不是嗎?
        You can do it, can’t you?    你會做它,不是嗎?
        We should rise early, shouldn’t we?   我們應該早起,不是嗎?
    He isn’t ..., is he?
    結構︰否定句,+肯定式助動詞+主詞?
    說明︰這是另一種反意<疑問句>。否定結構在第一部分,第二部分就要用肯定結構。對反意<疑問句>的回答和對否定式一般<疑問句>一樣,要看答句。
        He isn’t a manager, is he? -- Yes, he is. (No, he isn’t.)
        他不是經理,是吧?--不,他是經理。(是的,他不是經理。)
        Mike doesn’t have a car, does he?  麥克沒有車,是嗎?
        The secretary didn’t type the letter, did she?  祕書沒有打過這封信,是嗎?
        They won’t go to Europe, will they?  他們不會去歐洲,是嗎?
        You aren’t the teacher, are you?   你不是老師,是嗎?
        I don’t think he can answer the question, can he?  我想他無法回答這個問題,是嗎?
    What in the world ...?
    結構︰疑問詞+in the world/on earth/ever+其他
    說明︰此句型意為“究竟…?到底…?”。這是特殊<疑問句>的強調說法。in the world,on earth 和 ever是強調疑問詞的<片語>。
        How in the world will he do it?    他到底將如何做這件事?
        What in the world do you mean?    你的意思究竟是什麼?
        How on earth did you know it?    你到底是怎麼知道的?
        Who on earth told you that?    那件事究竟是誰告訴你的?
        Where ever did you lose it?    你到底在哪兒丟的呀?
        What in the world are they hoping for?   他們到底想要什麼?
    Are you ... or ...?
    結構︰一般疑問句(讀升調)+or+一般疑問句(讀降調)
    說明︰此句型意為“是…還是…?"。這是選擇<疑問句>,前面都是一般<疑問句>,後面的問句如與前面有相同的部分,都可以省略。
    Shall we come to see you or will you come to see us?
    是我們來找你們,還是你們來找我們?
        Are you from the America or from the England?   您是美國人還是英國人?
        Will he go on Monday or on Tuesday?   他是星期一走還是星期二走?
        Would you like coffee or tea?   你是要咖啡還是茶?
    What ..., + A or B?
    結構︰特殊疑問句(讀降調),+A(讀升調)or B(讀降調)
    說明︰這種選擇<疑問句>使用得相當廣泛,其特點是:前面的特殊<疑問句>已經明確地指出了要問的內容,再補充幾項具體事物讓對方做出肯定的答覆。其語調是“降-升-降”調。
        What would you like - coffee or tea?   你要什麼?咖啡還是茶?
        Which would you rather to buy - silk or cotton?  您想買什麼?絲還是棉?
        Where did you go: to Tianjin or to Beijing?  您去了哪裡?天津還是北京?
    When will you go to the Fair, tomorrow or some other day?
      你何時去交易會?明天還是另找哪一天?
    ... what/which ...
    結構︰主要子句+疑問詞(what/how/which/why 等)+子句
    說明︰這是間接<疑問句>。疑問詞後面的語句採用正常詞序,不採用特殊<疑問句>所用的倒裝詞序。全句末尾大多用句點,但也有用問號的。直接問句改為間接問句或間接句時,原先的<疑問句>要改為肯定句或<否定句>的順序;<助動詞>如 will,should,would, must,may,can 等,須照抄,不可去掉;<助動詞>如 do,does,did,必須去掉,再將它後面的原形<動詞>改為適當的形式。
        I’d like to know how old the manager is.   我想知道經理有多大年紀。
        He inquired how it was done.   他問這事做得怎麼樣了。
        Please advise me which item I should buy.   請問我該先買哪個品種。
        Tell me why it is so important?   告訴我為什麼此事這麼重要?
        They do not know what the words mean.  他們不知道這些字的意思是什麼。
        Tell me what happened yesterday.  告訴我昨天所發生的事。
        What they talked about is what we want to know. 他們談論什麼是我們所想要知道的事。
        She washed her hair every night and measured how much it grew in a week.
          她每晚洗頭髮,而且量量看一星期長多少。
        You will never know how much your encouragement meant to me.
          你決不會知道你的鼓勵對我多麼有意義。
    ... whether/if ...
    結構︰主要子句+whether/if+子句
    說明︰此句型意為“…是否…”。口語中使用 if 較為普遍。如果子句中帶有 or not 等詞,則只能用 whether;另外,whether 不能引導否定的間接<疑問句>,而 if 則可以。
        He asked me the question whether the price was too high.  他問我價格是否太高。
        They asked him whether the quality is fine or not.  他們問他質量是否好。
        Tell me whether you like this color.  告訴我你喜不喜歡這種顏色。
        Tell me if it doesn’t rain.  告訴我是否下不了雨。
        Ask him if it is true.   問他那是不是真的。
        I wonder if he is in the school.  我想知道他是否在學校。
    Do you know if/where ...
    結構︰一般疑問句+疑問詞(what/where/when 等)+子句
    說明︰此句為雙重<疑問句>。疑問詞後面採用正常詞序,不用倒裝詞序。
        Can you tell me where the teacher has gone?  你能告訴我老師到哪裡去了嗎?
        Have you any idea where he comes from?  他是哪裡人,您知道不知道?
        Do you know if they like this new item?  你知道他們是否喜歡這個新品種?
        Do you know who wants to go with me?  你知道誰想跟我一起去嗎?
        Do you know when the train will leave?  你知道火車何時開嗎?
        Can you tell me how much you earn a month? 你能告訴我你一個月賺多少嗎?
    He is ..., is he?
    結構︰肯定式陳述句+肯定式反問句
    說明︰這種疑問<句型>的前後一致,都是肯定式結構。後一部分進一步強調前一部分的內容,是不需要回答的一種修辭方式。
        We are old friends, not strangers, right?   我們是老朋友了,不是陌生人,是嗎?
        He’s a capable businessman, is he?   他是一位很有能力的業務員,可不是嗎?
        So you come importing Chinese textiles, do you?  原來你是來進口中國紡織品的,是麼?
        So you’ve been to Shanghai, have you? 原來你去過上海,是吧?
    ... what ...?
    結構︰…疑問詞(在句中任何位置上)…
    說明︰疑問詞不是位於句子開頭,而是在句子中任何位置上,這種方法十分簡單,因此在口語中經常出現。
        Two times what number makes ten?  什麼數的兩倍是十?
        You will go where?   你要到哪裡去?
        You are twenty-what this year?   你今年二十幾歲?
        He’s your who?  他是你什麼人?
    What/How about + N/V-ing?
    結構︰What/How about+名詞/動名詞?
    說明︰此句型意為“…如何?”。這是徵求對方意見或提議的委婉說法。
        What about the name Smith?  史密斯這個名字怎麼樣?
        What about going to a movie?  去看場電影如何?
        What about lending me some money?   借點錢給我如何?
        What about washing the car on Sunday?   禮拜天洗車怎麼樣?
        How about the others?  剩餘的怎麼樣?
        How about a drink?  來一杯吧?
        How about a cup of coffee at a nearby coffee shop?  去附近的咖啡屋喝杯咖啡吧?
    What if ...?
    結構︰What if+主詞+動詞
    說明︰此句型意為“如果…的話怎麼辦呢?”。但經常用於反語,有時也變成“即使…也沒關係”之意。
        What if it is true?   如果這是真的又該如何呢?
        What if he doesn’t agree?  如果他不同意該怎麼辦呢?
        What if he comes back now?  如果他現在回來怎麼辦?
        What if the boy’s parents should die?  如果那男孩的父母死了該怎麼辦呢?
        What if I fail!  即使我失敗了又怎樣!
    What ... for?
    結構︰What+助動詞+主詞+動詞…+for?
    說明︰此句型意為“為什麼…?”。相當於“For what…?”
        What are you running for?  你為什麼在跑步?
        What do you want it for?   你為什麼要那個?
        What did they go there for?  他們為什麼去那裡?
    How else ...?
    結構︰How else+助動詞+主詞+助動詞?
    說明︰此句型意為“…還有別的方法嗎?”。
        How else should a father in this modern world express his affection and concern for his own son?   現代這個世界上,父親還應該有別的方法來對自己的兒子表示愛護和關心嗎?
        How else can the doctor save him?   醫院還有別的方法可以救他嗎?
        How else can I apologize for her?   我還能有別的方法可以向她道歉嗎?
    假設法句型
    If + Present Tense ..., S + will/shall + V ...
    結構︰If+現在式…,S+未來式…
    說明︰if 子句用現在式,表示須具備的條件,主句用未來式表示可能的結果,整句含意為“如果…,那麼…”。will 用於所有的人稱,在 I 和 we 之後可用 shall 代替 will。若主句的主詞為 I 或 we 時,可以用 shall 代替 will。像 if necessary(如果需要),if possible(如果可能),if so(如果這樣)等固定片語實際上是省略了的 if 子句。
        If I lose my job, I will/shall go abroad.   如果我失業了,我就出國。
        If I have a headache, I will take an aspirin.   如果我頭痛,我就服一片阿斯匹林。
        If it rains, we will stay at home.  如果下雨,我們將待在家裡。
        If the weather clears, we’ll go for a walk.  如果天晴,我們就去散步。
        If the weather doesn’t clear, we won’t go for a walk.  如果天不晴,我們就不去散步。
        Inflation may be rising, if (it is) so, prices will go up.
    通貨膨脹率可能上升。如果是這樣,物價就會上漲。
        If possible, She wants to go with us.   可能的話,她想跟我們一起去。
        Sterling may fall, if (this should be) so, interest rates will rise.
          英國貨幣可能貶值,如果果真如此,利率就會上升。
    If + Present Tense ..., S + Modal Verb ...
    結構︰If + 現在式,主詞+情態助動詞
    說明︰本句型實為<If + Present Tense ..., S + will/shall + V ...>句型之變體。之所以用情態助動詞,主要是因為說話者對可能的結果不是太肯定或者是想表達例如必要的意思。
        If it is fine tomorrow, we can go out.   如果明天天氣好,我門可以出門。
        If it is fine tomorrow, we could go out.   如果明天天氣好,我門能夠出門。
        If it is fine tomorrow, we may go out.   如果明天天氣好,我門可能出門。
        If it is fine tomorrow, we might go out.   如果明天天氣好,我門可能出門。
        If it is fine tomorrow, we should go out.   如果明天天氣好,我門宜於出門。
        If it is fine tomorrow, we ought to go out.   如果明天天氣好,我門宜於出門。
        If it is fine tomorrow, we must go out.  如果明天天氣好,我門必須出門。
    If I should ..., Imperative Sentence.
    結構︰If I+should ...+祈使語氣
    說明︰<If + should + V>代替<if + 現在式>,增加了條件的不確定性。本句型常用在想禮貌地提出要求或建議,或者想圓通地告訴他人該做什麼事的場合。用 should 起始句子即可不用 if 而表示條件。這種用法比較正式,常用於諸如公函之中,而不用於日常會話。
        If you should see him, please give him my regards.  如果你見到他,請代我向他致意。
        Should you see him, please give him my regards.  如果你見到他,請代我向他致意。
        If you should happen to see him, please give him my regards.
    如果你萬一見到他,請代我向他致意。
        Should you happen to see him, please give him my regards.
          如果你萬一見到他,請代我向他致意。
        If you should write to her, send her my love.   如果你給她寫信,請代我向她問候。
        Should you not wish our agent to call, please let us know.
          你若不希望我們的代理人去造訪,請告之。
        Should you be interested in our offer, please contact us.
    你若對我們的報價感興趣,請與我們聯繫。
    If I should ..., I will ...
    結構︰If…should…,…would(will)/should(shall)等+原形動詞
    說明︰這是表示與未來事實相反的假設<句型>,if <子句>要用<助動詞> should,譯成“萬一”。should可置於<主詞>前,將 if 省略。<主要子句>的<助動詞>則視可能性做變化:若可能性低,則為過去式,若可能性高,則為現在式。should 可以提前,而將 if 省略。
        If he should come, I would tell him the truth.   萬一他來,我會把真相告訴他。
        If he should come, I will tell him the truth.   萬一他來,我一定會把真相告訴他。
        Should the boy come again, I would throw him out.  要是那男孩在來,我就把他攆出去。
        If it should rain, our plan would be spoiled.  萬一下雨,我們的計劃就泡湯了。
        Should that be true, the contract would be canceled. 假如那是真的,合約就該取消。
        Should another world war break out, what would become of human beings?
          萬一另一次世界大戰爆發,人類將會發生什麼事?
    If I were to ..., I ...
    結構︰If…were to…,…would/should 等+原形動詞
    說明︰這也是表示與未來狀況相反的假設<句型>,與“if ... should, ...”大致相同,但“if ... were to”所表示的可能性更低,通常用以表示“與真理相反”的<假設語氣>。
        If the sun were to rise in the west, he would pass the exam.
          要是太陽從西邊出來,他就會通過考試--他不可能通過考試。
        If I were to be born again, I would like to be a bird.  我要是再活一次,我想當一隻鳥。
        If the sun were to disappear, what would the earth be like?
          萬一太陽消失了,地球會變成什麼樣子?
        Were I to die tomorrow, what would my children do?
          萬一明天我死了,我的孩子們將怎麼辦呢?
    If I + V-ed, I would ...
    結構︰If…+過去式動詞…,主詞+過去式助動詞(would/should 等)+原形動詞
    說明︰這是與現在事實相反的假設句型。if <子句>中的<be><動詞>,不論<主詞>為第幾人稱,一律用 were,were 可置於主詞前面,而省略 if。過去式<助動詞>除用 should(用於第一人稱)、 would(用於第二、三人稱)外,還可用不分人稱的 could,might 和 ought to,它們與<動詞>原形結合起來構成<假設語氣>。
        If I knew his address, I could write to him.   如果我知道他的住址,我會寫信給他。
        If I were free now, I might call on him.  如果我有時間,我可能會去看他。
        If you were in my shoes (=Were you in my shoes), what would you do?
          如果你站在我的立場,你會怎麼做?
        Were I rich enough, I would buy a sports car.  如果我有足夠的錢,我就買一輛賽車了。
        How happy I would be if I were a few inches taller!  要是我再高幾寸,我會好高興。
        If I had a car, I could take her for a drive.  如果我有車, 我就帶她去兜風了。
        If I had binoculars, I could see that comet clearly.
    如果我有望遠鏡,我就可以清楚地看見那顆彗星。
    It is time that ...
    結構︰It is(high)time+(that)+主詞+過去式動詞
    說明︰此句型意為“已經到了…的時間了”。過去式<動詞>處有時亦使用“should+<動詞>原形”。that <子句>也能用 to <不定詞>來表示。
        It is time he went to bed.    該是他睡覺的時間了。
        It is time that you left for the duty.    該你當班了。
        It is time that you reflected upon your mistakes.    該是你反省思過的時候了。
        It is high time he should come to our house for dinner.已經到了他該上咱家吃晚飯的時候了。
        It is time for somebody to teach you to behave yourself.
    該是有人教你應對進退之禮儀的時候了。
    If I had V-ed, I would have ...
    結構︰If…had+過去分詞…,主詞+would/should 等+have+過去分詞
    說明︰這是與過去事實相反的假設<句型>。if <子句>要用<過去完成式>,<主要子句>則要用過去式<助動詞>(would,should,ought to,might,could)+have+過去<分詞>。if <子句>中的 had可置於<主詞>前面,而省略 If。
        If I had seen him, I would have told him the truth.  如果我當時看見他,我會告訴他實情。
        I could have finished the task if I had had more time.
    如果當時我能有多一點時間,我就能完成這項任務。
        If we had known of your departure, we would have seen you off at the airport.
          如果我們事先知道你要離開,我們會到機場送行。
        I someone had been with him, he might not have been drowned.
          如果有人在他旁邊,或許他就不會溺死。
        I might have been incredulous had I not been accustomed to such responses.
          若非我已經習慣了這樣的回答,我可能不敢輕易相信。
        Had he not apologize to her, she would not have forgiven him.
          她(那時)不會原諒他,若非他道了歉。
        Had he not saved me, I might have been drowned.   我可能溺死了,若非他救了我。
        Had I proposed to you, would you have married me?
    我要是當年向你求婚,你會答應嫁給我嗎?
        Had you not helped us, we should have canceled this transaction.
          假如沒有你的幫助,這筆生意早就告吹了。
    If I had V-ed, I would ...
    結構︰If…had+過去分詞…,主詞+would/should 等+原形動詞+now/today
    說明︰這是<時態>不一致時的假設<句型>,亦稱混合假設條件句。即:if <子句>若與過去事實相反,用<過去完成式>表示;而<主要子句>若與現在事實相反,則用過去式<助動詞>表示。此類<主要子句>句尾通常有表現在的<時間副詞>,如 now,today 等。
        If he had worked harder when young, he would be well off now.
          如果他年輕時多努力一點,現在就能過得舒服些。
        If I had been rich ten years ago, I could buy that house today.
          如果十年前我有錢,今天我就能買下那棟房子了。
        Had he told the truth, he wouldn’t be punished now.如果他當時肯說實話,現在就不會受罪了。
        Had he followed the doctor’s advice, he might be alive now.
          當時他要是聽了醫生的建議,現在可能還活著。
    I wish ... + V-ed ...
    結構︰I wish+(that)+主詞+動詞過去式/過去完成式(had+過去分詞)…
    說明︰I wish 之後以 that <子句>為<受詞>時,該<子句>的<動詞>一定要用<假設語氣>:若<動詞>用過去式,表示與現在事實相反的願望;若用<過去完成式>,則表示與過去事實相反的願望。“I wish+that-<子句>”的<句型>也可用“I would rather+that-<子句>”取代。而 I hope 之後以 that <子句>做<受詞>時,該<子句>用一般<時態>。
        I wish there were meadows and lambs.   但願有草地與小羊。
        I wish I were as tall as you.   但願我像你一樣高。
        I wish he could tell us.  但願他能告訴我們。
        I wish (=I would rather) he could come tomorrow.  但願他明天能來。
        I wish you had not been caught in the rain yesterday.  但願昨天你們沒有淋到雨。
        I wish you had not told the truth.  但願你沒有說實話。
        I wish I had known you ten years ago.  真希望十年前就已經認識你。
    If only + V-ed
    結構︰If only+過去式/過去完成式
    說明︰此句型意為“要是…就好了。”用過去式,表示與現在事實相反;若用<過去完成式>,則表示與過去事實相反。
        If only I had a rich father.  要是我有個有錢的爸爸就好了。
        If only he had been here.  要是他當時在這兒就好了。
        If only I had another chance.  要是我再有一次機會就好了。
    ... as if/as though ...
    結構︰…as if/as though…現在式/過去式/過去完成式
    說明︰此句型意為“彷彿…;好像…一樣”。as if,as though 是<副詞><連接詞>,引導<副詞子句>。<子句>中,可用現在式,以表示事實;也可用過去式或<過去完成式>,分別表示與現在或過去事實相反的<假設語氣>。
        He speaks like that as if he doesn’t want to attend the meeting.他那樣說話,似乎不想參加會議。
        He walks as if he is drunk.   他走起路來好像他真的醉了。
        He felt as if he almost wished to kill them.   他感覺彷彿幾乎要殺掉他們。
        The baby opened the book as if he were able to read.  這個嬰兒打開書本彷彿他會念書。
        The nurse attends on the patient as if he were her father.
    這護士照顧這位病人彷彿在照顧她爸爸似的。
        He ran into the room as if he had seen something terrible.
          他跑進屋子,彷彿他看到什麼可怕的東西。
        She looks as if nothing had happened to her.  她當時看起來好像什麼事都沒發生似的。
    It seems/looks as if ...
    結構︰It seems/looks as if…
    說明︰此句型意為“似乎…”。本句型中的 as if <子句>可用以表示事實,或<假設語氣>。
        It looks as if it is going to rain.  好像要下雨了。
        It seems as if he knows everything.  他似乎是個萬事通。
        It seems as if he knew everything, but in reality, he is as stupid as can be.
          他似乎是個萬事通。其實他是再愚蠢不過了。
        It looks as if she had just come back from outer space.
          她看起來彷彿剛從外太空回來似的。
        It seemed as if he had finished the work.  他似乎已經完成了這個工作。
        It seemed as if he would never finish the work.  他似乎永遠完成不了這個工作。
    If it were not for ...
    結構︰if it were not for+名詞/子句,主詞+would/should 等+原形動詞…
    說明︰此句型意為“若非(有)…”。此類句構專門用於表示與現在事實相反的<假設語氣>。亦可用“but for+<名詞>”或“without+<名詞>”代替。were 可以提前,省略 if,如例句3。
        If it were not for his presence, I would punish you.  要不是他在場,我會處罰你的。
        But for your advice, I should have failed.  要不是你的忠告,我會失敗的。
        But for music (=Were it not for music), life would be dull.  要不是音樂,人生會很無聊。
        If it were not for oxygen and nitrogen in the air, no man could live on the earth.
          大氣中如果沒有氧和氮,人就無法生存於地球了。
        Without air, all living things would die.  若非空氣,所有的生物都會死亡。
        Without newspaper, we would get behind the times.  要不是報紙,我們都趕不上時代了。
        I should be lonely, were it not for the birds and the flowers. 我會寂寞,若非有鳥也有花。
        Were it not for his help, I could not finish the work.若非有他的幫助,我就不能完成這件工作。
        Were it not for science, we could not live a comfortable live.
          若非科學,我們無法過著舒適的生活。
    If it had not been for ...
    結構︰if it had not been for+名詞/子句,主詞+would/should 等+原形動詞…
    說明︰此句型意為“若非(有)…”。此類句構專門用於表示與過去事實相反的<假設語氣>。
        If it had not been for his help, I should have failed. 如果沒有他的幫忙,我應該已經失敗。
        Had it not been for your timely help, our company would have been on the verge of bankruptcy.  若非你及時伸出援助之手,本公司將會瀕臨破產的邊緣。
        If it had not been for these experiments, the improvement of the machine would have been impossible.  要不是這些實驗,這部機器也許就不可能改良了。
        Had it not been for the kind guide, I might have got lost in the mountains.
          要不是這位好心的嚮導,我可能就在山中迷路了。
        If it had not been that he was here, I would have punished you.
          要不是他在場,我當時就會處罰你。
    I demand/insist that ...
    結構︰主詞1+意志動詞(demand/insist 等)+(that)+主詞2+(should)+原形動詞
    說明︰意志<動詞>有四類:建議(suggest,recommend,propose,advise,urge 等),要求(desire, ask,demand,require,request,maintain,insist 等),命令(order,command 等),規定( rule,regulate,stipulate 等)。其後接 that-<子句>時,該<子句>裡的<動詞>要用原形或“should+<動詞>”。美式英語通常省略 should。
        The committee moved that the meeting (should) be adjourned.  委員提議休會。
        His parents demanded that he (should) be back by ten.  他的父母要求他十點以前回家。
        The employees demand that their salaries be raised.  員工們要求加薪。
        They ruled that the law (should) not be imposed.  他們規定不應加重法律。
        His father ordered that he (should) keep a diary in English.
          他的父親規定他要用英文寫日記。
        My mother encouraged me and insisted that I continue my education.
          我媽媽鼓勵我,而且堅持我應該繼續我的教育。
        He insisted that I (should) apologize to her.  他堅持我應該向她道歉。
        Recently, many states have insisted that high schools teach students how to drive.
          最近,許多州堅持中學應該教學生如何開車。
        His father insisted that they (should) move to the country. 他爸爸堅持他們應該搬到鄉下。
    It is proper ... that ...
    結構︰It is+意志形容詞(important 等)+(that)+主詞+(should)+原形動詞
    說明︰意志<形容詞>包括 important,necessary,imperative,essential,urgent,desirable, advisable,recommendable,proper 等。that-<子句>中只能用<助動詞> should,不可用 must,而 should 往往予以省略。
        It is necessary that he (should) sort out the information for my reference.
          他有必要整理些資料供我參考。
        It is essential that he get up early.  他有必要早起。
        It is urgent that food and clothing (should) be sent to the sufferers.
          急需將食物和衣服送給災民。
        It is desirable that we (should) provide for the poor at Christmas.
          在聖誕節施捨窮人是可喜的事。
        It is important that he be quiet.  他該保持安靜是有必要的。
        It is important that he not do it.  他不該做那事是有必要的。
        It is requested that all members be present at the party. 全體會員都被要求出席這次晚會。
        It is proper that such a bad man be punished severely.  這麼壞的人受重罰是應該的。
    Imperative Sentence + Conj. + Main Clause
    結構︰祈使句+連接詞+主句
    說明︰<祈使句>表示須具備的條件,主句表示可能的結果。<祈使句>代替 if 子句進行評說,提出要求,訂立協議,提供建議或威脅等。<祈使句>的用法比 if 子句表示的更為緊迫。
        Provide the materials and we’ll do the job.  提供材料,我們就做這活。
        Stop shouting or you’ll wake up the neighbors. 不要喊了,否則你會把鄰居吵醒的。
        Put that down or else I’ll smack you.  把它放下,不然我就揍你。
    Be there on time, otherwise you’ll create a bad impression.
    要準時來,否則你會給人一個壞的印象。
        Fail to pay and they’ll cut off the electricity.  你(如果)不付款,他們就要斷電。
        Stop eating sweets, or you won’t get any dinner.  你如果不停止吃糖,你就不要吃飯。
    Unless ...
    結構︰Unless+子句,主要子句
    說明︰此句型意為“除非…”。unless 引導一個否定假設句,相當於 if ... not ...,有時可以互換使用。總體上看,unless 的語氣強於 if ... not ...,而且有時較為常用,例如在最後通牒中。
        Unless you change your mind (=If you don’t change you mind), I won’t be able to help you.
          除非你改變你的想法,否則我不能幫助你。
        Unless the management improves their offer, there’ll be a strike.
          除非資方做出進一步的建議,否則將舉行罷工。
        I couldn’t have got to the meeting on time - unless I had caught an earlier train.
          我不可能及時趕到會場,除非我趕上了較找的一班火車。
    Provided/Providing (that) ....
    結構︰Provided/provided(that)+子句,S+V ...
    說明︰此句型意為“如果…”。Provided/Providing (that) 引導假設條件句,其功能相當於 if。
        Provided/Providing (that) you clear your desk by this evening, you can have tomorrow off.
        如果你到今晚把手頭上的工作做完,你明天就可以休息。
    As/So long as ...
    結構︰As/So long as +子句,S+V ...
    說明︰此句型意為“如果…,只要…”。As/So long as引導一個條件假設句,其功能相當於 if。
        So (As) long as you clear your desk by this evening, you can have tomorrow leave.
        如果你到今晚把手頭上的工作做完,你明天就可以休息。
        As long as you drive carefully, you will be very safe. 如果你開車小心,你就會很安全。
        You may eat anything, so long as you don’t eat too much.
          只要不吃得太多,你可以吃任何東西。
        As long as live, I will help you.  只要我活著,我都會幫助你。
        As long as you don’t betray me, I’ll do whatever you ask me to (do).
          只要你不出賣我,要我做什麼我都願意。
        We’ll ship the goods at an early time as long as there is a steamer.只要有船,我們就盡早裝貨。
        You will never be good students so long as you goof around.
          如果你們成天游手好閒,就永遠也成不了好學生。
    Suppose/Supposing (that) ...
    結構︰Suppose/Supposing (that)+子句,S+V ...
    說明︰此句型意為“如果…,假使…”。Suppose/Supposing (that) 引導假設條件句,其功能相當於 if。
        Suppose/Supposing (that) we miss the train, what shall we do?
          如果我們誤了火車,我們將怎麼辦?
    What if/Say ...
    結構︰What if/Say+子句,S+V ...
    說明︰此句型意為“假設…”。What if 和 Say 用來引導一個假設條件句,其義相當於 Let us suppose(讓我們假設)。
        What if/Say he goes home before us and can’t get in? What will he do then?
          假設他在我們之前趕到家而又進不去呢?那他怎麼辦呢?
        What if/Say you were to run out of money? What would you do?
          假設你的錢用完了呢?你將怎麼辦呢?
    With luck ...
    結構︰With luck,+主要子句
    說明︰With luck 為含蓄假設條件句(即不用 if 直接引導)。with luck 意為“如果幸運的話,如果運氣好的話”。
        With luck, we’ll be there by tomorrow.幸運的話,我們明天將到達那兒。(=If we are lucky)
        With luck, she will get the job. 如果幸運的話,她將得到那份工作。(=If she is lucky)
    Given time ...
    結構︰Given time,+主要子句
    說明︰此為含蓄假設條件句(即不用 if 直接引導)。Given time 意為“(如果)給以時間的話”。
    Given time, they will probably agree.給以時間的話,他們可能會同意。(=If they are given time/If we give them time)
    To hear him talk, ...
    結構︰To hear him talk,+主要子句
    說明︰此句型意為“聽某人談話(的口氣)…”。從形式上看,To hear him talk 似為不定式片語,但實則為含蓄條件句(即不用 if 直接引導)。To hear him talk 相當於 If you could hear him talk。
        To hear him talk, you’d think he was Prime Minister.
    聽他談話(那口氣),你會以為他是首相呢。
        To hear you talk, I’d think you were Prime Minister.
          聽你談話(那口氣),我還以為你是首相呢。
    Without ..., S + V ...
    結構︰Without …,+主要子句
    說明︰此句型意為“如果沒有…”,是導致主要子句結果發生的必要條件。Without ... 為含蓄假設條件句,此用法在口語表達中最為常見。without 意為“(如果)沒有…的話”。Without 既可以放在句首,也可以放在句尾,放在句首有強調作用。此外,如果主要子句用否定式,則和 without 構成雙重否定,表示特別強調 without 之後項為主要子句動作發生之必備條件。
        Without your help, I couldn’t have done it.
        (如果)沒有你的幫助,我是不會做成的。(=If you hadn’t helped me)
        She can’t solve the problem without his help.如果)沒有他的幫助,她不可能解決這道題。
        We can’t live without air or water.(如果)沒有空氣或水,我們就無法生存。
        Fish cannot live without water.(如果)沒有水,魚兒就無法生存。
    比較句型
    as/so ... as ...
    結構︰as/so+形容詞或副詞原級+as…
    說明︰此句型意為“…和…一樣…”。比較兩件東西,並表示它們的程度一樣。第一個 as 為<副詞>,第二個 as 則為<副詞><連接詞>,引導<副詞子句>,修飾第一個 as。在 as…as 中可插入單數<可數名詞>,即:“as+<形容詞>+a/an+<名詞>+as”。若是複數<名詞>,可用“as many/few+複數 <名詞>+as”;若是<不可數名詞>,則用“as much/little+<不可數名詞>+as”。“as+原級(形、副)+as+原級(形、副)”這形式表示有關同一人(物)的兩種不同的性質、狀態是一樣程度的,譯作“既有…且還有…”。
        He is as handsome as his brother (is).  他和他哥哥一樣英俊。
        Judy goes to the movies as often as Sara does.  朱迪像莎拉一樣時常去看電影。
        Old John goes to sleep as easily as a baby does. 老約翰像嬰兒一樣容易入睡。
        The girls are as busy with their work as bees. 這些女孩子就跟蜜蜂一樣忙著工作。
        He is as nice a boy as Peter (is).  他和彼得一樣都是好男孩。
        She has as many friends as Mary (does).  她和瑪麗一樣有許多朋友。
        He has as much money as John (does).  他和約翰一樣有很多錢。
        He is as clever as (he is) handsome.  他不但英俊而且聰明。
        My teacher is as kind as (she is) intelligent.  我的老師不但善良而且聰慧。
    as many/much ...
    結構︰as many/much+名詞…
    說明︰此句型意為“同數(量)的…;一樣多”。本<片語>旨在用以代替句中前面已提到的相同數字,以避免該數字的重複。
        He was tired enough to make ten errors in as many (=in ten) pages.
          他疲倦得十頁中犯了十個錯誤。
        Mike read five books in as many (=in five) months.  麥克在五個月內看了五本書。
        I didn’t expect that he should have committed three robberies in as many days.
          沒想到(老實的)他居然在三天內犯了三次搶劫罪。
    as many/much as ...
    結構︰as many/much as+數字+複數名詞/不可數名詞
    說明︰此句型意為“多達…”。不要與“as many/much+<名詞>”(同數量的…)混淆。同理,此類<片語>還有:as long as+數字+<名詞>(長達…),as wide as+數字+<名詞>(寬達…), as high as+數字+<名詞>(高達…),as early as+數字+<名詞>(早在…),as late as+數字+<名詞>(遲在…)等。
        She has as many as seven sisters.  她的姊妹有七人之多。
        As many as 100 people were killed in the air crash. 這次空難中多達一百人喪生。
        I gave the beggar as much as 1,000 yen.   我給了這乞丐整整一千元。
        Building costs ran up to as much as NT$ 20 million.  建築費用漲到高達新台幣兩千萬。
        I have been learning English (for) as long as 15 years. 我學英文已有十五年之久。
        He came home as late as two in the morning.  他遲至清晨兩點才回家。
        I saw your brother as late as last week. 上個禮拜我還看到你哥哥。
        The river is as wide as 100 meters.  這條河寬達一百公尺。
        I mailed the letter as early as Friday.  我早在星期五就把信寄了。
    A is as much + N + as B is
    結構︰主詞+be+as+much+名詞+as+(be)+主詞
    說明︰此句型意為“…和…同樣…”。“as much+<名詞>+as+(be)+<主詞>”的 be 通常省略或放句末。
        Comets are just as much members of the sun’s family as (are) the other planets.
          彗星和其他的行星同樣是太陽家族的成員。
        To eat too much is as much a bad thing as to eat nothing.吃太多和什麼都不吃同樣是壞事。
        He is as much a member of the orchestra as Tom. 他和湯姆同樣是管絃樂隊的成員。
    not as/so + ADJ/ADV + as + N
    結構︰not as/so+形容詞/副詞+as+名詞
    說明︰此句型意為“不像…那樣…”。as…as 可用於肯定句或<否定句>,而 so…as 僅可用於<否定句>構中。
        It is not as (so) popular as other foods.  它不像其他食物那樣受歡迎。
        He does not study as (so) hard as John. 他不像約翰那樣用功。
        I am not as (so) careful as Tom. 我不像湯姆那樣細心。
    as far as ...
    結構︰as far as+名詞
    說明︰此句型意為“到…之遠;到…的程度”。而“as far as+<主詞>+<動詞>”則表示“只要…,在…範圍內的話…”。
        Swallows from England go as far as South Africa. 英國來的燕子飛到南非那樣遠的地方。
        We walked as far as the railroad station. 我們走到火車站那樣遠的地方。
        We drove as far south as Kaohsiung.  我們往南開車一直到高雄。
    He went as far as Yokohama to meet his friend from England.
    他遠至橫濱去迎接由英國來的朋友。
        I swam as far as I could.  我盡可能地游遠。
    ... just as ... as ...
    結構︰主詞+動詞+just as+形容詞/副詞+as+(代)名詞/動名詞
    說明︰此句型意為“…就像…一樣…”。第一個 as 是“同樣的;一樣的”,第二個 as 是“像”之意。若<主詞>之後不是 be <動詞>,則 as 之後不用<形容詞>,而要用<副詞>。
        Being a good pedestrian is just as important as being a good driver.
          做一個好的行人就像做一個好的司機一樣重要。
        Writing is just as important as reading.  寫作就像閱讀一樣重要。
        He wrote just as carefully as Tom. 他就像湯姆一樣小心地寫。
    ... as ... as one can
    結構︰…as+形容詞/副詞/名詞+as one can
    說明︰此句型意為“儘可能…”。“as ... as one can”相當於“as ... as possible”。one 要隨<主詞>的人稱而變化,而 can 要隨<時態>變化。
        To speak English fluently, you had better read as many English articles as you can.
          要想把英文講得很流利,你最好盡量多看英文文章。
        Take as much exercise as you can.  盡可能多做運動。
        Be as careful as you can.  盡可能小心。
        Our teacher explained the lesson to us as clearly as he could.
          我們的老師盡可能清楚地為我們解釋這一課。
        She needed to soften her request to make it as polite and courteous as she could.
          她需要使請求語氣柔婉,以便盡可能把它變成有禮貌與客氣。
        You should be as careful as you can in making friends.
          在交朋友方面,你應該盡可能小心。
        We had better learn by heart as many sentence patterns as we can.
          我們最好盡可能多背句型。
        I looked down the road as far as I could.  我盡可能遙望這條路。
        I will try to save as much as I can.  我會設法盡可能多儲蓄。
        You should remain as quiet as you can.  你應盡可能地保持沈默。
    ... as ... as ... can be
    結構︰主詞+be 動詞+as+形容詞+as+(形容詞)+can be
    說明︰此句型意為“極…,不亞於任何人…”。此<句型>借重複同一個<形容詞>而成為強調此<形容詞>的說法。常用的此類<片語>有:as plain as plain can be(再明白不過了),as wise as wise can be(再聰明不過了),as white as white can be(白得不能再白了),as wrong as wrong can be(錯得太離譜)等。
        His failure is as plain as plain can be.  他的失敗是再明白不過了。
        He is as handsome as (handsome) can be.  他瀟灑極了。
        She is as kind as can be.  她極為和顏悅色。
        Mary is as hardworking as can be.  瑪麗在班上之用功不輸任何人。
        He may not be so clever as Peter, but he is as industrious as can be.
          他也許不如彼得聰明,但卻用功極了。
    as ... as ever
    結構︰as+形容詞/副詞+as ever
    說明︰此句型意為“與往常一樣…”。
        He seems to be as busy as ever.  他似乎和往常一樣忙碌。
        He works as hard as ever. 他和往常一樣努力工作。
        She was as beautiful as ever after so many years.  過了那麼多年,她美麗如故。
    ... times as ... as ...
    結構︰倍數詞+as+形容詞/副詞+as…
    說明︰此句型意為“是…的幾倍”。“兩倍”是 twice,而三倍以上的“倍”,通常用 times。
        An ordinary subway train, approaching the station, can be twice as loud as the loudest jet.
          平常的地下火車接近車站時,發出的聲音可能是最大聲的噴射機的兩倍。
        This line is four times as long as that one.  這條線是那條線的四倍長。
        I am twice as old as he.  我的年紀是他的兩倍。
        She studies three times as hard as I.  她用功的程度是我的三倍。
        He earns twice as much as he used to.  他比往常多賺二倍的錢。
        She spent half as much money as you.  她花掉的錢只有你花掉的一半。
    ... times the/my N ...
    結構︰…倍數詞+the(或所有格)+名詞
    說明︰此句型意為“是…的幾倍”。<倍數詞>與<名詞>之間一定有 the 或<所有格>。有時可改為“<倍數詞>+as+<形容詞>”。三倍以上的“倍”,通常用“times”。而“more than+<倍數詞>+the(或<所有格>)+<名詞>”譯為“是…的幾倍還不止”。
        It was over twice the distance of the earth from the sun. 那是地球到太陽的距離的兩倍多。
        Line A is four times the length of line B.  線條 A 是線條 B 的四倍長。
        I have five times the number of Tom’s books.  我有五倍於湯姆的書。
        He has three times my money.  他的錢是我的三倍。
        He has more than three times my money.  他的錢是我的三倍還不止。
        The river is ten times the length of the Tamsui River.  這條河的長度是淡水河的十倍。
        Holland has two-thirds the inhabitants of the state of New York, which is four times the size of Holland. 荷蘭的居民是紐約州的三分之二,而紐約州卻是荷蘭的四倍大。
    more than ... as ... as
    結構︰more than+倍數詞+as+形容詞/副詞+as
    說明︰此句型意為“是…的幾倍還不止”。“兩倍”是twice,而三倍以上的“倍”,通常用times。
        He is more than three times as rich as I. (=He is three times richer than I.)
          他的財富是我的三倍還不止。
        He studies more than three times as hard as I. 他用功的程度是我的三倍還不止。
        I am more than twice as old as he. 我的年齡是他的兩倍還不止。
        He has collected more than three times as many stamps as I (have).
          他搜集的郵票是我的三倍還不止。
    ... times ...er than ...
    結構︰倍數詞+形容詞或副詞比較級+than…
    說明︰此句型意為“比…大幾倍”。“兩倍”是twice,而三倍以上的“倍”,通常用times。
        We now know that X-ray waves are 2,000 to 10,000 times shorter than light waves.
          我們現在知道X光波比光波短二千到一萬倍。
        This street is four times shorter than that one.  這條街道比那條短四倍。
        The mother elephant is one hundred times heavier than the baby elephant.
          這隻母象比小象重一百倍。
        It is ten times louder than another.  它比另外一個的聲音大十倍。
        This street is three times wider than that one.  這條街比那條街寬三倍。
        I am twice older than he.  我的年紀比他大兩倍。
    not so adj. as adj.
    結構︰not so+形容詞/副詞+as+形容詞/副詞
    說明︰此句型意為“與其說是…倒不如說是…”。相當於“<形容詞>/<副詞>+rather than+<形容詞>/<副詞>”。
        She is not so beautiful as charming. (=She is charming rather than beautiful.)
          與其說她美倒不如說她迷人。
        He is not so clever as diligent.  與其說他聰明倒不如說他勤奮。
        She is not so kind as simple.  與其說她善良不如說她單純。
    not so much + N as + N
    結構︰not so much+名詞+as+名詞
    說明︰此句型意為“與其說是…倒不如說是…”。相當於“<名詞>+rather than+<名詞>”。
        He is not so much a writer as a scholar.   與其說他是作家倒不如說他是學者。
        He is not so much a genius as a hard worker.   他的努力勝於天份。
        The Apollo program was not so much a scientific achievement as a technical accomplishment.  阿波羅計劃與其說是一項科學成果,不如說是一項技術成就。
    not so much ... as ...
    結構︰not so much+介系詞片語/不定詞片語+as+介系詞片語/不定詞片語
    說明︰此句型意為“與其說是…倒不如說是…”。相當於“<介系詞片語>/<不定詞片語>+rather than+ <介系詞片語>/<不定詞片語>”。
    Happiness hinges not so much on wealth as on health.
    快樂與其說在於財富倒不如說在於健康。
        One’s greatness lies not so much in his wealth as in his character.
          一個人的偉大與其說是由他的財富來判斷,倒不如說是由他的品德來判斷。
        Success lies not so much as in luck as in hard work.
          與其說成功在於運氣不如說是辛勤努力。
        I lay down not so much to sleep as to think.我躺下來與其說是要睡覺,倒不如說是要思考。
        It is not so helpful to give someone some bread as to teach him how to make a living.
          與其說給人麵包很有幫助,倒不如說教導他如何謀生才重要。
        Our success was attributed not so much to your help as to our cooperation.
          我們的成功與其歸功於您的幫忙,不如歸功於我們的合作。
        The great use of a school education is not so much to teach you things as to teach you the art of learning. 學校教育的最大用處,與其說是教你事物,不如說是教你學習的方法。
        The oceans do not so much divide the world as unite it. (=The oceans do not divide the world so much as unite it.) 與其說是海洋分割這個世界,不如說是統一這個世界。
    not so much as ...
    結構︰not so much as ...
    說明︰此句型意為“甚至都不…”。相當於“not even ...”。本<片語>使用時,要置於<助動詞>之後,即: cannot so much as+原形<動詞>(甚至…都不能),do not so much as+原形<動詞>(甚至…都不),have not so much as+過去<分詞>(甚至…都沒有)。
        He cannot so much as write his own name. (=He cannot even write his own name.)
          他甚至連自己的名字都不會寫。
        He did not so much as thank me.  他甚至都沒謝我。
        He is so stupid that he can’t so much as eat.  他蠢得甚至連吃飯都不會。
        When Mary walked in, she didn’t so much as take a glance at me, which angered me.
          瑪麗進門時,連看我一眼都沒有,真令人生氣。
    the more ..., the more ...
    結構︰the+比較級…,the+比較級…
    說明︰此句型意為“愈…,就愈…”。若句中的<主詞>為一般<名詞>,而非<代名詞>(he,it,you,they)或<專有名詞>(John,Mary),且後面的<動詞>為 be <動詞>時,該 be <動詞>可省略。
    The more you soften a request, the more polite it becomes.
    你愈使請求柔婉,請求就愈變為客氣。
        The longer you stay here, the more you will like the place.
          你在這裡待得愈久,你愈會喜歡這個地方。
        The more careful you are, the fewer mistakes you will make.
          你愈小心,你犯錯就會愈少。
        The more I learn, the less I feel I know.  學而後知不足。
        The closer you stay to nature, the more you will appreciate her beauty.
          你愈接近大自然,就愈能了解它的美。
        The more leisure he has, the less he stays at home.  愈是有空,他愈不肯待在家裡。
        The better the boy (is), the more I like him.  這男孩愈好我愈喜歡他。
        The colder the weather (is), the more comfortable my life (will be).
          天氣愈冷,我的生活就愈舒服。
        The bigger the house (is), the more money it will cost.  房子愈大愈值錢。
        The more haste, the less speed.  欲速則不達。
        The more noble the more humble.  結實愈豐者,其穗愈低。
        More profit and less honor.  捨名逐利。
        The sooner the better.  事不宜遲。
        The more you have, the more you want.  擁有愈多,慾望愈高。
        The more you beat iron the harder it grows.  鐵不煉不成鋼,玉不琢不成器。
    more and more ...
    結構︰比較級+and+比較級
    說明︰此句型意為“愈來愈…”。
        The noise of traffic grows louder and louder.  交通的噪音變得愈來愈大。
        It is getting hotter and hotter.  天氣愈來愈熱。
        You should study harder and harder.  你應該更用功念書。
        The girl became more and more beautiful.  這女孩變得愈來愈漂亮了。
        With the rapid economical development, China’s position on the international stage is getting more and more important.隨著經濟迅速發展,中國在國際舞台上的地位變得愈來愈重要了。
    ... more ... than ...
    結構︰主詞+be 動詞+more…than…
    說明︰此句型意為“…是…而不是…”。在“…”的位置,可以用<名詞>,<形容詞>,或帶有形容詞性的<分詞>。
        You may also find that reading has become more fun than work!
         你或許也會發現閱讀已經變成是有趣的事,而不是工作。
        It is more a made-up story than a real occurrence.那是杜撰的故事,而不是真實發生的事情。
        I was more disappointed than discouraged. 我是失望,而不是洩氣。
        He seems more like a military officer than a business executive.
         他似乎比較像一個軍官,而不像一個商業行政主管。
        He is more a sprinter than a swimmer.  他是短跑健將,而不是游泳選手。
        I am more frightened than hurt. 我嚇壞了而沒有受傷。
        Sue is more beautiful than Jane. 蘇比珍較美。
        The computer is more expensive than the typewriter. 這部電腦比這部打字機更貴。
        People in the country are happier than people in the city.鄉下的人們比城市的人們更快樂。
    N1 more ... than N2
    結構︰名詞1+比較級+than+名詞2
    說明︰此句型意為“比…更為…的…”。
    People have to live on something more nourishing than hope.
    人們必須依賴比希望更滋養的東西來過活。
    I have never seen a girl more beautiful than Mary. 我從未見過比瑪麗更為美麗的女孩子。
        I want some persons more experienced than Tom. 我要一些比湯姆更有經驗的人。
    more N than + ADJ/V-ed
    結構︰比較級+名詞+than+(be 動詞)+形容詞/過去分詞
    說明︰此句型意為“比…來得更多的…”。be <動詞>通常省略。
        Some people give higher priced gifts than necessary for the situation.
         有些人給了比情況所必要來得更高價的禮物。
        I did more work than required. 我做了比所被要求的來得更多的工作。
        We were given more money than necessary for the project.
         我們被給了比計劃所要求來得更多的錢。
    It is better to V1 than V2
    結構︰It is+比較級+to+原形動詞1…than+(to)+原形動詞2…
    說明︰此句型意為“…比…更…”。than 之後的 to 可以省略。
        It is better to laugh than (to) weep.  笑比哭好。
        It is more comfortable to lie on a lawn than (to) sit in the office.
          躺在草坪上比坐在辦公室裡舒服。
        It is harder to teach than (to) study.  教書比讀書辛苦。
    make ... more ... of ...
    結構︰主詞+make+受詞+more+形容詞+of…
    說明︰此句型意為“…使…更加…”。根據不同的情況,句子可以有不同<時態>。
        Darkness would make him more appreciative of sight.  黑暗會使他更加珍惜視力。
        Their sudden attack made us more aware of the danger around us.
          他們突然的攻擊使我們更加注意我們周圍的危險。
    Your encouragement made me more confident of my future.
    你的鼓勵使我對我的未來更加有信心。
    all the more for ...
    結構︰all the+比較級+for+名詞
    說明︰此句型意為“即使…卻更加…;因為…反而更加…”。for 為<介系詞>,之後接<名詞>為其<受詞>。也可寫成“all the+比較級+because-子句”。because 為<副詞><連接詞>,之後接<主詞>+<動詞>,引導<副詞子句>。
        You will enjoy stories all the more for having understood the characters in them.
          你會因為已經瞭解小說中的角色,而更加喜歡小說。
        I love her all the better for her poverty (=because she is poor). 因為她窮,我反而更喜歡她。
        I like the book all the more for its beautiful illustrations. 我因為精美的插圖而更加喜歡這本書。
        He studied all the harder because he had failed (=for his failure).
    因為他失敗了,他反而更用功念書了。
        She is all the more beautiful for her shabby clothing (=because her clothing is shabby).
           即使她衣衫襤褸,卻顯得更美麗了。
        I respect him all the more because he has faults.  因為他有缺點,我反而更尊敬他。
        I like Kyoto all the better for its many narrow streets. 正因為小道多,我反而更喜歡京都。
    none the ...er for ...
    結構︰none the+比較級+for+名詞
    說明︰此句型意為“即使…卻一點也不…”。相當於“none the+比較級+because-子句”。for 為<介系詞>,之後接<名詞>為其<受詞>;because 則為<副詞><連接詞>,之後接<主詞>+<動詞>,引導<副詞子句>。
        His health is none the better for his exercise (=because he takes exercise).
         即使他運動,他的健康狀況卻一點也不好。
        She is none the more beautiful because she wears a fancy dress.
         即使她身穿時髦洋裝,卻一點也不漂亮。
        He is none the happier for his great wealth.  即使他有錢,卻一點也不快樂。
    He is none the wiser because he has read many books.
    他雖然讀了不少書,可是並未因此而聰明些。
    none the less ... for ...
    結構︰none the less+形容詞/副詞+for+名詞
    說明︰此句型意為“即使…卻仍然”。相當於“none the less+形容詞/副詞+because-子句”。none the less 為<副詞>,譯成“仍然”,可修飾<動詞>,<形容詞>或<副詞>;修飾<動詞>時,置於該<動詞>之後;修飾<形容詞>時,置於該<形容詞>之前;修飾<副詞>時,置於該<副詞>之前。
        I love him none the less because he is poor.  即使他窮,我還是愛他。
        She is none the less beautiful for her shabby clothing.  即使她衣衫襤褸,卻仍然美麗。
        He studied none the less hard because he had failed.  即使他失敗了,卻仍然用功念書。
    ... no more ... than ...
    結構︰A+動詞+no more+B+than+C+動詞+D
    說明︰此句型意為“A 不是 B 正如 C 不是 D”。“no more ... than”等於“not ... any more than”。若 than之後的詞類與前面的詞類相同,可以省略;若不同,則不可省略。
        A whale is no more a fish than a horse is.  鯨魚不是魚正如馬不是魚一樣。
        A home without love is no more a home than a body without a soul is a man.
         沒有愛的家不是家,就如同沒有靈魂的身體不是人一樣。
        He is no more able to speak English than I am (able to speak English).
         和我不會說英語一樣,他也不會說英語。
        He is no more considerate of others than his brother is. 他不體諒別人,就跟他弟弟一樣。
        He can no more sing than I can dance. 他不會唱歌正如我不會跳舞一樣。
        We can no more live without sleep than (we can) without water.
         我們沒有睡眠不能活,正如我們沒有水就不能活一樣。
        I am no more out of my mind than you are (out of your mind). 你我兩人都沒有瘋狂。
        Tom was no more surprised than (he was) disappointed at this news.
         湯姆聽見那消息既不驚訝也不失望。
        He is no better (no more good) at English than I am.  他的英文不好,就像我一樣。
    ... no less ... than ...
    結構︰A+動詞+no less+B+than+C+動詞+D
    說明︰此句型意為“A 是 B 和 C 是 D 一樣”。“no less ... than”等於“as ... as”,no less 之後可置<副詞>或 <形容詞>修飾。
        A whale is no less a mammal than a horse is.   鯨魚和馬一樣都是哺乳動物。
        He is no less clever than his elder brother.   他和他的大哥一樣聰明。
        She is no less good at swimming than Mary.   她和瑪麗一樣擅長游泳。
        His parents are no less happy over his engagement than he is (happy over his engagement).
         他的雙親對他訂婚的高興並不亞於他自己。
        He studies no less hard than John.    他和約翰一樣用功。
        Associating with good friends is no less important to us than choosing good books.
         交益友與選擇好書對我們同樣重要。
        A good shirt is no less expensive than a jacket.一件好襯衫的昂貴程度並不比一件夾克衫差。
        Sports wears, no less than suits, are very much saleable.運動服和西服套一樣,非常暢銷。
    not more ... than ...
    結構︰not more…than…
    說明︰此句型意為“沒有比…更多;最多只是和…一樣”。等於“at best as ... as”。
        She is not more beautiful than Mary.  她不比瑪麗美麗--頂多只是和瑪麗一樣美。
        I was not more surprised than he (was).  我不像他那樣驚訝。
        He is not more handsome than I.  他不比我瀟灑--頂多跟我一樣瀟灑。
    not less ... than
    結構︰not less ... than
    說明︰此句型意為“沒有比…更少;至少與…一樣”。等於“at least as ... as”。
        She is not less beautiful than Mary.  她至少和瑪麗一樣美麗。
        He is not less interested in composing music than Jane. 他至少跟珍一樣對譜曲很感興趣。
        He is not less handsome than I.  他至少跟我一樣瀟灑。
    no more than ...
    結構︰no more than+名詞
    說明︰此句型意為“僅僅…”。等於“only+<名詞>”,強調稀少。
        It will take no more than five days to read the book. 不到五天,我就會把這本書讀完。
        It is no more than ten minutes’ walk from the station. 由車站走到這裡只有十分鐘的路程。
        I had no more than 2 or 3 mistakes on my English assignment.
         我的英文作業中只有兩三處錯誤。
    no less than ...
    結構︰no less than+名詞
    說明︰此句型意為“多達…;足足有…之多”。等於“as many/much as ...”,強調多。
        I received no less than ten thousand yen for my work.   我的工資多達一萬元。
        The audience was no less than five thousand.  聽眾有五千人之多。
        That hotel probably costs no less than 20 dollars a night.
    那間旅館的住宿費大約要20元一晚呢。
        No less than ten students flunked the exam.  整整有十位學生在這次考試中不及格。
    not more than ...
    結構︰not more than+名詞
    說明︰此句型意為“最多不超過…”。等於“at most+<數詞>+<名詞>”。
        It is not more than ten minutes’ walk from the station.  由車站走到這裡最多十分鐘的路程。
        I’ll stay here not more than three days.  我將待在這裡最多不超過三天。
        For safety’s sake, don’t drive more than 30 kilometers per hour in the city.
         為了安全起見,在市內開車時速不要超過三十公里。
    not less than ...
    結構︰not less than+名詞
    說明︰此句型意為“至少…”。等於“at least+<數詞>+<名詞>”。
        The audience was not less than five thousand.   聽眾至少也有五千人。
        I’ll stay here not less than three days.    我將待在這裡至少三天。
        Though they think it takes no more than three days to fulfill the mission, I believe it takes not less than six days.   雖然他們認為完成這任務只需三天,但我卻認為至少需要六天。
    at best + N
    結構︰at best+名詞
    說明︰此句型意為“充其量…;只不過是…”。等於“nothing but ...”。
        Don’t expect much of him; he is at best a student. 不要對他期望過高;他只不過是個學生。
        She is at best a second-rate singer.   她充其量是個二流歌手。
        Don’t scold him too much; he is at best a child.  不要太責罵他;他只不過是個孩子。
    much more /much less ...
    結構︰much more/much less…
    說明︰此句型意為“更不用說…”。“much more ...”等於“let alone ...”或“still more ...”,只用於肯定句;“much less ...”等於“still less ...”,只用於<否定句>。
        She can speak English, much more/let alone/still more write it.
          她會說英語,更不用說寫英文了。
        She cannot speak English, much less/still less write it.  她不會說英語,更不用說寫英文了。
        You have a right to your property, much more to your ideas.
          你有處理自己財產的權利,更有支配自己思想的權利。
        I enjoy singing, much more listening to music.  我喜歡唱歌,更不用說聽音樂了。
        She cannot buy daily necessities, much less luxuries.
    她連生活必需品都不能買,更不用說奢侈品。
        He can hardly run a mile, much less the marathon. 他連一哩都跑不了,更不用說馬拉松了。
        That father can’t discipline himself, much less set a good example for his children to follow.
          那位父親不能以身作則,更不用說做孩子的榜樣了。
    ... more than any other N
    結構︰比較級+than+any other+單數名詞
    說明︰此句型意為“比其他任何…都還…”。這是用<比較級>來表示<最高級>的同範圍比較<句型>。也可用“<比較級>+than+all the other+複數<名詞>”來表示。
        John is more diligent than any other student in his class.   約翰比班上其他的同學用功。
        John is more diligent than all the other students in his class.
          約翰比班上其他的同學用功。
        Baseball is more popular than any other sport in Japan.
    在日本,棒球比其他任何運動都受人歡迎。
        Autumn is better for reading than any other season.   秋天比任何季節都適合讀書。
        Mt. Jade is higher than any other mountain in Taiwan. 玉山要比台灣的任何山都高。
    ... more than anyone else
    結構︰比較級+than+anyone else/anything else
    說明︰此句型意為“比其他任何…都還…”。這是用<比較級>來表示<最高級>的同範圍比較<句型>。anyone else 指人;anything else 指物。
        John is more diligent than anyone else in his class.   約翰比班上其他的同學用功。
        Time is more precious than anything else in the world.  時間比世上任何東西都寶貴。
        Mary is more beautiful than anyone else in her company. 瑪麗在公司裡比其他人都漂亮。
        We pay less attention to time than to anything else.我們對時間的不重視超過其他任何事物。
    nothing is ...er than ...
    結構︰nothing(或 no+名詞)+動詞+比較級+than…
    說明︰此句型意為“沒有如此…者”。這是用<比較級>來表示<最高級>的<句型>。
        Nothing is more valuable than time, but nothing is less valued.
          沒有比時間更貴重的東西,但也沒有比它更受輕視的東西。
        No place is better than one’s home.    沒有任何地方比得上自己的家。
        Nothing is more pleasant than staying home listening to music.
          沒有一件事比待在家裡聽音樂更愉快的了。
        Nothing gives him more pleasure than helping someone in trouble.
          沒有一件事要比幫助陷入困境的人帶給他更大的快樂。
        There is nothing to which we pay less attention than time and air.
          我們對時間和空氣的不重視超過其他任何事物。
    ... nothing more than N
    結構︰主詞+動詞+nothing more than+名詞
    說明︰此句型意為“…只不過…”。“nothing more than”等於“nothing but”。
        Others are dismissed as nothing more than entertainment.
    有些只不過是被當做娛樂而不予考慮。
        It is nothing more than a made-up story.   它只不過是杜撰的故事而已。
        She wishes to be treated as nothing more than a common girl.
          她希望被對待得只不過像一般的女孩子。
    ...er than ever
    結構︰…+比較級+than ever
    說明︰此句型意為“比以前更…”。than ever 等於 than ever before,意為“比以前任何時候…”。
        There it was, ticking away, louder than ever.   它就在那裡,滴答地走著,比以前更大聲。
        You should be more careful than ever.   你應該比以前更小心。
        Does she spend more money than ever?  她比以前花更多的錢嗎?
    better ... than ...
    結構︰better+…+than+被比對象
    說明︰此句型意為“寧可…;最好還是…”。better 之後可接<形容詞>,<副詞>,<名詞>,<動詞>等。
        Please try to attend the meeting. Better late than absent.請您盡量參加會議。遲來也比不來強。
        Better to postpone the shipment than to cancel the contract.  與其撤約還不如延期裝運。
        Better reduce the price than allow a discount.  與其給折扣,不如減價。
    with no N is it ...er than
    結構︰... and with no+名詞1+is it+比較級+than+with+名詞2
    說明︰此句型意為“…這種情形沒有一種…比…更為…”。此種結構,由於有 no,所以用 is it的倒裝句型。
        It is unreasonable to regard any language as the possession of a particular nation, and with no language is it more unreasonable than with English.  把某一種語言視為某一特定的國家所擁有是不合理的,而這種情形沒有一種語言比英語更為不合理。
        It is bad to get ill, and with no disease is it worse than with cancer.
          生病是糟糕的,而這種情形沒有一種疾病比癌症更為糟糕。
        It is pleasant to chat with friends, and with no chat is it more pleasant than with close friends.
          和朋友聊天是愉快的,而這種情形沒有比和知己的朋友聊天更為愉快。
    Who is the most ...
    結構︰Who is the+最高級…?
    說明︰此句型意為“誰最…?”。此句型中若將 who 改為 which,即用來詢問一組事物中最具某種特色的,如例句4。
        Who is the oldest of them?  他們之中誰的年紀最大?
        Who is the most beautiful in their family?  誰是他們家裡最美麗的人?
        Who is the youngest here?  這裡誰是最年輕的?
        Which is the most interesting subject for you?  哪個科目對你來說最有趣?
    the ...est ... not ...
    結構︰最高級+…not…
    說明︰<最高級>詞類與 not 並用時,有“甚至…都不…”的意味。
        The most foolish man knows his own name.  再笨的人都知道自己的名字。
        The loveliest flower cannot beat her beauty.  再漂亮的花也比不上她的美麗。
        The greatest scholar cannot solve this difficult problem.
    再偉大的學者也沒有辦法解答這個難題吧。
        The richest man in the world cannot buy everything.
          即使是世上最富有的人,也無法買到一切。
        There is not the smallest chance of his escape.  他一點逃走的機會也沒有。
        Not even the thickest jacket was enough to keep out the cold.
          就連最厚的夾克也不足以禦寒。
        The strongest man (that) you can think of cannot tear the log apart with bare hands.
          就連你所能想到的最壯的人也不能光用手就將木頭撕裂。
    the ...est ... that V-ed
    結構︰the+最高級…+(that)+完成式
    說明︰此句型意為“最…”。that 是<關係代名詞>;<完成式>中習慣使用<副詞> ever 強調。
        That’s the best book that I have ever read.   那是我讀過的最好的書。
        That’s the nicest thing that has ever happened to me.   那是我遇到的最美好的事。
        He is the most diligent student that I have ever known.  他是我所知道的最用功的學生。
        That’s the worst performance (that) I have ever seen. 那是我所看過的最糟的一次表演。
    of all the N, the ...est
    結構︰of+the three/the four/all the+複數名詞,+最高級子句
    說明︰此句型意為“在…中,…最…”。但須注意:“of the two+複數<名詞>+<比較級><子句>”,表示“兩者中…較…”,如例句7。<最高級><子句>也可置於句首。
        Of the three students, he is the best.  三個學生中,他是最好的。
        Jane is the best of all the students in her class.  珍是班中最好的學生。
        Jane is the best of the three (students).  珍是三個學生中最好的一個。
        Of all the high mountains, Mt. Jade is the highest. 在所有高山當中,玉山為最高。
        Of all the four seasons, summer is the hottest. 在所有四季當中,夏天最熱。
        Of all the girls, she is the most beautiful.  在所有這些女孩子當中,她最美。
        Of the two girls, Mary is more beautiful.  這兩個女孩中,瑪麗較漂亮。
    A is the ...est among ...
    結構︰主詞+be 動詞+最高級+(名詞)+among…
    說明︰此句型意為“…是…之中最…”。<最高級>後的<名詞>通常省略。
        The Chuo-shui River is the longest one among them.  濁水溪是其中最長的一條。
        Which river is the shortest among them?  哪一條河流是它們之中最短的?
        Paris is the most beautiful among the cities. 巴黎是這些城市中最美的。
    A is the ...est N in ...
    結構︰A+be 動詞+the+最高級+名詞+in+場所。
    說明︰此句型意為“A 是…裡面最…”。the 不能漏掉。
        Jane is the best student in her class.  珍是她班上最好的學生。
        Mr. Jones is the busiest man in the office.  瓊斯先生是辦公室裡最忙的人。
        The baseball game on Tuesday is the most important game this year.
          星期二的棒球賽是今年最重要的棒球賽。
    A is the ...est of N
    結構︰主詞+be 動詞+the+最高級+of+複數名詞
    說明︰此句型意為“…是最…的…”。本<句型>的意思等於“<主詞>+be <動詞>+the+<最高級>+單數<名詞>”。
        Robert Frost was the most American of American poets.
          羅伯?佛洛斯特是最具美國風格的美國詩人。
        He is the strictest of teachers in our school.  他是我們學校最嚴格的老師。
        It is the most popular of movies.  這是最受歡迎的電影。
        English is the most international of languages.  英語是最國際化的語言。
        It is the most difficult of examinations.  那是最難的考試。
        You must make the most of your opportunities.  你必須盡量利用機會。
    A is the ...est of all.
    結構︰主詞+be 動詞+the+最高級+of all
    說明︰此句型意為“…是最為…”。“<最高級>+of all”的<語氣>比“<最高級>”強。
        These frozen foods are the most convenient of all.  這些冷凍食品是最為方便。
        It is the most important of all.  那是最為重要的。
        They are the most dependable of all.  他們是最為可靠的。
    A is most ...
    結構︰主詞+be 動詞+沒有 the 的最高級…
    說明︰在以下幾種場合裡的<最高級>之前沒有 the:被用來代替“very+原級”或“very”以加強 <語氣>時前面沒有 the;most 的含義是“多數”時前面沒有 the;用作<最高級><副詞>時前面沒有 the;帶有<所有格>的<最高級><形容詞>之前沒有 the。
        I think he is a most learned man.  我認為他是個很有學問的人。
        A most beautiful girl came to see him yesterday.  昨天有一個很漂亮的女孩來看他。
        Such a most talented person as he shouldn’t be satisfied with what he is.
          像他這麼有才華的人不應滿足於現狀。
        A comet is at perihelion when it is closest (=very close) to the sun.
          彗星最接近太陽時,它就是在近日點。
        A person is most disappointed when he is in despair.  一個人在絕望時最失望。
        He is calmest (=very calm) when he is all by himself.  他一人獨處時極為平靜。
        The sentence of six months imprisonment was most unjust. 六個月監禁的判決極其不公。
        Most people need six to eight hours of sleep every day.多數人每天需要六至八小時的睡眠。
        Most learned men are modest.  大部分有學問的人都很謙虛。
        I like apples best of all fruits. 所有水果中我最喜歡蘋果。
         Bill runs quickly, Jack runs more quickly than Bill, and Bob runs most quickly of all.
          比爾跑得快,傑克跑得比比爾快,鮑伯在三者中跑得最快。
        Jane’s worst fault is her quick temper.  珍最大的毛病是她的急性子。
        She is my youngest sister.  她是我最小的妹妹。
    A is the last to ...
    結構︰主詞+be 動詞+the last+(名詞)+to-不定詞/子句
    說明︰此句型意為“…是最不可能…”。the last 表示“最不可能…;絕不至於…”,它的後面有時有 <名詞>。
        I would be the last to attempt to answer the question. 我是最不可能去嘗試回答這個問題。
        He is the last person (that) I want to see.  他是我最不想要看到的人。
        This is the last attempt (that) he would make. 這是他最不可能做的嘗試。
        The author should be the last man to talk about his work.
    作者應該是最不喜歡談論自己作品的人。
    superior/inferior to ...
    結構︰superior/inferior to…
    說明︰此句型意為“優於/劣於…”。這是不規則的<比較><句型>,其後跟 to 代替 than,其他還有“prefer… to…(喜愛…甚於…)”,“senior to ...(年長的)”,“junior to ...(年少的)”等。
        I prefer tea to coffee.    茶與咖啡,我較喜歡茶。
        I prefer chemistry to physics.    我喜歡化學甚於物理。
        He is superior to his brother in mathematics.    他的數學比他兄弟好。
        A cheaper camera is not always inferior to a more expensive one.
          廉價照相機的質量並總不比昂貴的差。
        This plastic is inferior in quality to glass.    這塑膠的質料比玻璃差。
        He is senior to me by seven years.    他比我年長七歲。
        The president was so young that he was junior to some of his employees.
          總裁的年齡甚至是比他的一些雇員還小。
    含不定詞句型
    I am glad to ...
    結構︰主詞(人)+be 動詞+情緒形容詞(如 glad,sorry…)+不定詞…。
    說明︰<不定詞>放在情緒<形容詞>如 glad,sorry,happy,sad,surprised,troubled等字之後修飾,這是<不定詞>做<副詞>的用法。
        I am glad to see him.  我很高興看到他。
        Sue was troubled to see trash everywhere.  蘇看到到處是垃圾很苦惱。
        Sara was excited to see the rock band.  莎拉看到搖滾樂團很興奮。
    ... too ... to ...
    結構︰主詞+動詞+too+形容詞/副詞+(for+sb.)+to-不定詞…
    說明︰此句型意為“太…而(使某人)不能…”。too 為<副詞>,可修飾<副詞>或<形容詞>。too 後也可接含有<形容詞>的單數<名詞>,即“too+<形容詞>+a+單數<名詞>+to-<不定詞>”,也可以是“too much+<不可數名詞>+to…”或“too many+複數<名詞>+to…”。該句型如提到“對某人來說”,則加入“for+人”。該句型表示“否定”的意義,若加上<附加問句>,則須用否定,如例句8。
        He walked too slowly to catch up with me.  他走得太慢而不能跟上我。
        It is too dark in this room for me to read a book.  房間太暗,使我無法看書。
        This problem is too difficult for them to settle.  這對他們來說真是一個難解的問題。
        The price is too low for customers to believe.  價格低得令顧客難以相信。
        He is too young a boy to do it.  他還太小,無法做這事。
        He has too much work on hand to go picnicking with us.
     他手頭的工作太多了,不能跟我們去野餐。
        He has too many things at his disposal to go home early.
    有太多事要他處理,使他不能早點回家。
        The boy is too young to do it, isn’t he? 這男孩年紀太輕不能做這件事,不是嗎?
    I am too glad not to ...
    結構︰主詞+動詞+too+形容詞/副詞+not+to-不定詞…
    說明︰此句型意為“太…而必能…;非常…”。本<句型>具有雙重否定作用,也可將否定詞移到<動詞>部分。
        Our professor is too capable not to solve this difficult problem.
          我們教授非常有才幹,必定能解決這一難題。
        This customer is too honest not to deceive us.  這位客戶非常誠實,不會騙我們。
        I am too glad not to help the boy.我太樂意了而不能不幫助那男孩--我非常樂意幫助那男孩。
        It is never too late to learn.   活到老,學到老。
    I am only too ... to ...
    結構︰主詞+動詞+only too+形容詞/副詞+to-不定詞
    說明︰此句型意為“非常…”。only 除去了 too 的否定意義,only too 相當於 very,very much 等。
        I am only too glad to accept your kind invitation.   我非常高興地接受你的邀請。
        He is only too willing to serve friends.  他極願為朋友效勞。
        I am only too pleased to do business with you.  我能和你做生意,太高興了。
    ADJ/ADV + enough to ...
    結構︰主詞+動詞+…形容詞/副詞+enough+(for sb.)+to-不定詞
    說明︰此句型意為“足以…”。enough 可做<副詞>或<形容詞>用,在此做<副詞>,可修飾<副詞>或<形容詞>,恆置於被修飾的<副詞>或<形容詞>之後。
        We need several men strong enough to do the work.
    我們需要幾個強壯得足以做這件工作的人。
        They bought a house large enough for ten persons to live in.
          我們買了一棟房子,大得足以供十個人住。
        He is competent enough to fill that position.   他足以勝任那職位。
        He ran fast enough to catch the thief.   他跑得飛快,足以抓住那小偷。
        Our teacher is old enough to retire.   我們老師年紀已夠得上退休了。
        The assignment is few enough to be finished within half an hour.
          作業很少,足能在半小時內完成。
    ... enough + N + to do ...
    結構︰主詞+動詞+enough+名詞+to-不定詞
    說明︰此句型意為“有足夠的…可以做…”。該句型也可寫作“主詞+動詞+名詞+enough+to-不定詞”。 enough 在此做<形容詞>,修飾<名詞>,可置於該<名詞>之前或之後。
        He has enough money (=money enough) to buy a car.   他有足夠的錢買一輛汽車。
        He hasn’t enough sense to realize his mistakes. 他沒有足夠的辨別力去認識自己的錯誤。
        It is a pity that he doesn’t have enough money to sponsor the project.
          遺憾的是他沒有足夠的錢來支持這項計劃。
        Will 2,000 dozens be enough for selling?  兩千打夠賣嗎?
    ... be good enough to ...
    結構︰Would you be good enough+to-不定詞…?
    說明︰此句型意為“請你…好嗎?”。本<句型>的意思和“Would you be so kind as to ...?”一樣, <語氣>較客氣。
        Would you be good enough to turn the radio down a bit?請你把收音機的聲音關小一點好嗎?
        Would you be good enough to keep silent?   請你保持安靜好嗎?
        Would you be good enough to move a bit to the right?  請你往右邊移一點好嗎?
    ... how (+ N) + to do ...
    結構︰…how/what/when/where/which/whose(+名詞)+to-不定詞…
    說明︰此句型意為“應該如何做/何時做/何地做/做哪些事…”。what,whom,which 為疑問<名詞>,做其後 <不定詞片語>中<動詞>的<受詞>,否則就做<介系詞>的<受詞>。how,where,when,why均為<疑問副詞>。<不定詞片語>中的<動詞>若為<及物動詞>,則後面要有<受詞>;若為<不及物動詞>,則不需要<受詞>。
        How do I know what to do and what not to do? 我怎麼知道什麼該做,什麼不該做?
        He showed me how to use the tape recorder. 他教我如何使用這台卡式錄音機。
        What to do is one question, and how to do it is quite another.
          應該做什麼和應該怎樣做是完全不同的兩個問題。
        The trouble is when to start the business.  麻煩在於應該什麼時候開始這項工作。
        We haven’t decided where to go for lunch.  我們還沒有決定去哪裡午餐。
        I don’t know which advise to follow.  不曉得該聽誰的勸告。
        I learned what expressions to use in public.  我懂得在公共場所中應使用什麼措辭。
        How to begin is more difficult than where to stop. 如何著手遠比在何處結束來得困難。
        You should know what to cook to eat.  你應該知道該煮什麼來吃。
        The problem is when to get the money we need. 問題是什麼時候能得到我們所需要的錢。
        There are so many fancy cars on display here that I don’t know which to buy.
          有這麼多的豪華汽車在此展出,我不知要買哪一輛才好。
    ... only to do ...
    結構︰…only/merely/simply/just+to-不定詞…
    說明︰此句型意為“竟然…;卻…”。表示與先前的努力相反的結果,一般用在句尾。
        He studied hard only to fail in the exam.  他這麼用功,結果竟然考場失利。
        He rushed all the way to the station only to miss the train.
    他一路衝往車站,結果還是錯過了火車。
        He tried a second time only to fail again.  他再試一次,竟然還是失敗。
        He tried to increase his income by gambling only to plunge more deeply into the mire.
        他企圖藉賭博增加收入,卻陷入了更深的困境。
        I went out, merely to get caught in a shower.  我跑出去,結果徒然碰到一場驟雨。
    ... have only to do ...
    結構︰have only+to-不定詞…
    說明︰此句型意為“只需…就夠了”。相當於“All one has to do ...”或“What one has to do ...”。
        You have only to sit there and watch what I am doing. 你只要坐在這裡,看著我做就行了。
        Don’t worry; you have only to sing a song to please her.
        不用擔心,你只需唱首歌讓她高興就行了。
        You have only to go.   你只要去即可。
        You have only to ask and he’ll tell you.   你只要問他,他就會告訴你。
    ... never to do ...
    結構︰…never+to-不定詞…
    說明︰此句型意為“不會再有…的結果”。
        He went on a journey when he was 18 years old, never to come back.
        他十八歲時出外旅行,一直沒有回來。
        He went off to the war never to return alive.  他去參加戰爭,沒能活著回來。
        She left her husband, never to come back.  她離開了她丈夫,再也沒回來。
    make/have sb. do sth.
    結構︰主詞+make/have/bid/let+受詞(人)+不定詞原形
    說明︰此句型意為“要/囑咐/叫…”。<使役動詞>中,make、have、bid、let 等字加了<受詞>之後,要接原形<動詞>做<受詞補語>,與使用<分詞>相比,<不定詞>原形重點在事實。變成<被動語態>時,該<受詞補語>要變成<不定詞片語>。但是 have 當<使役動詞>時,無<被動語態>。
        I made him do it.   我叫他做這事。
        I let him do it.   我讓他做這事。
        They had/made the girl clean the floor.   他們叫這個女孩打掃地板。
        The mother bade the child behave himself.   媽媽叮嚀孩子要守規矩。
        He was bidden to finish the work on schedule.   我要他按時完成工作。
        My father will probably have Tom paint the house green.
    我爸爸很可能叫湯姆把房子漆成綠色。
        He had me help him with his homework.   他叫我幫忙他做家庭作業。
    ... want/like to do ...
    結構︰主詞+一般及物動詞+不定詞(to+V)…。
    說明︰常以<不定詞>作為<受詞>的<及物動詞>有:like(喜歡),want(想要),try(設法), love(喜愛),hate(討厭),forget(忘記),begin(開始),start(開始),need(必須)。
        Some students hate to study English.    有些學生不喜歡研讀英語。
        You need to study in a quiet place.    你必須在一個安定的地方讀書。
        He likes to go to the movie.    他喜歡去看電影。
        She wants to help Mary.    她想要幫助瑪麗。
    ... want/ask sb. to do ...
    結構︰主詞+want/ask/tell 等+受詞+to-不定詞
    說明︰<不定詞>放在<受詞>的後面,用於補充說明<受詞>的動作,叫做“<受詞補語>”;當<不定詞>要表達“不要做某事”的意思時,則須採用<不定詞>的<否定式>,即直接在<不定詞>前加 not。常用的此類<動詞>有 want,get,compel,expect,ask,would like,advise,urge,wish,tell,allow,permit,trouble,help,teach 等。
        I told him not to goof around.   我叫他不要游手好閒。
        The teacher urged his students to prepare for the exam.  老師勸他的學生準備考試。
        They forced me to do things against my will.  他們強迫我做違背我心意的事。
        Do you want me to go there instead of you?  要不要我代你到那兒去?
        I got him to do it.  我叫他做這事。
        Their help enabled me to finish the work with ease.他們幫助我,使我能夠順利地完成工作。
        A sense of humor enabled him to get along well with others.
          幽默感使他能與人相處愉快。
        The heavy workload forced me to cancel the camping trip.繁重的工作量迫使我取消去露營。
        The father allowed (=permitted) his son to travel abroad alone.
          父親答應讓他的兒子單獨出國旅行。
        We troubled him to turn on the light.  我們麻煩他打開電燈。
        We needed someone to fix the tape recorder.  我們需要有人來修理錄音機。
    I heard him sing.
    結構︰主詞+hear/see/feel+受詞+原形不定詞
    說明︰此句型意為“聽/看/感覺…”。英文中表示“看”,“聽”,“感覺”的三類<動詞>,加了<受詞>之後,須接原形<動詞>做<受詞補語>,用以表示已發生,而且是主動意味的事實。我們稱此類<動詞>為知覺<動詞>,常用的有 see,watch,notice,look at,hear,listen to,feel 等。變成<被動語態>時,<受詞補語>要變成<不定詞片語>,如例句4。這些詞後也可接現在<分詞>,強調“動作進行”,而接原形<動詞>,則強調“整個事實”。
        Did you notice anyone come in?  你注意到有人進來過嗎?
        As far as I remember, I have never seen him smile.  在我記憶中,我從未見他笑過。
        She once heard him whisper to another girl.  她曾聽到他對另外一個女孩說悄悄話。
        He was heard to sing.  我聽到他唱歌。
        I felt my heart beat violently.  我感覺到自己的心跳得很厲害。
        She liked to listen to children talk.   她喜歡聽孩子們談話。
        We heard him playing with his puppy.   我們聽到了他在玩著他的小狗。
        Rick often watched the boats returning to port in the late afternoon.
          瑞克常常看到小船在傍晚正回到港口。
    be going to ...
    結構︰主詞+be going+to-不定詞…
    說明︰此句型意為“將做…”。“be going+to-<不定詞>”用作表示未來的<助動詞>,表示最近之未來將做的行為或未來的意圖。這種<句型>經常用於會話體,表示包含講話者的主觀或感情的情形。
        He is going to marry Jane in May.    他打算五月和珍結婚。
        I am going to stay up late to finish my paper.    為了完成報告我打算熬夜不睡。
        I’m afraid he is going to lose the match.    我恐怕他會輸掉比賽。
        The train was just going to start when we arrived.    我們到達時,火車馬上就要開了。
        My father was a sailor and I’m going to be one, too.
    我父親(以前)是水手,我也打算當水手。
    be about to ...
    結構︰主詞+be about+to-不定詞…
    說明︰此句型意為“將做…”。表示極近的未來之行為,故為了表示幾乎等於現在的未來而不和未來之 <副詞>一起使用,如:不能說“I am about to go next week.”。
        He was surely about to change his mind.   他一定會改變主意。
        She was about to walk out of the door when the telephone rang. 電話鈴響時她正要出門。
        Something unusual was about to happen.  某種不尋常的事正要發生。
    ... be to ...
    結構︰主詞+be+to-不定詞…
    說明︰此句型意為“預定要…”。“be+to+<不定詞>”含有事先的安排或命令,表示“必須…;應該…;打算…”。
        A was to be placed onto A’, and B onto B’.
    ... seem/appear to ...
    結構︰主詞+seem/appear+to-不定詞…
    說明︰此句型意為“似乎是…,好像…”。to-<不定詞>的內容是表示狀態的詞。seem 有時要加入“或許”(probably)的意思翻譯起來才適當;appear 近於“乍看之下好像是…”的意思。
        Taiwan seems to contain no petroleum.    台灣恐怕沒有蘊藏石油吧!
        The thread seems to match the cloth.    這線和這布似乎很相稱。
        He appears to be very tired.    他似乎很累。
        These stars appear to move around the North Star.    這些星星似乎環繞著北極星轉。
        They appear to be able to handle the problem.  他們似乎可以處理這個問題。
        John seems to love music very much.   約翰似乎很喜歡音樂。
    To ..., Main Clause
    結構︰不定詞片語,主要子句
    說明︰此類<不定詞片語>通常放在句首,表示目的,修飾<主要子句>。常用的有 to tell the truth(老實說),to do someone justice(替某人說句公道話),to be brief(簡言之),to begin with(首先),to sum up(總之),to make matters worse(更糟的是),so to speak(可以這麼說),needless to say(不用說),to say nothing of sth。(更不用說)等。
        To make sure that he was at home, I called him up in advance.
    為了確定他在家,我事先打電話給他。
        To tell the truth, I don’t agree to your plan.    老實講,我不同意你的計劃。
        To do her justice, she is not as bad as you described.  說句公道話,她並沒有你說的那樣壞。
        To sum up, only when strict punishment can be imposed on the lawless, can social stability be maintained.  總之,唯有當嚴刑峻罰加之於違法之徒時,才能維持社會安定。
        Mary is, so to speak, a hardworking student.    瑪麗可說是個用功的學生。
        I can’t speak English, to say nothing of Chinese.  我不會說英語,更別提中文了。
        Needless to say, learning without thinking is useless. 不用說,學而不思則罔。
    ... pretend to ...
    結構︰主詞+pretend+to-不定詞/that-子句
    說明︰此句型意為“假裝…”。pretend 後面用 to-不定詞或 that 子句。
        He was pretending to climb a mountain.  他假裝在爬山。
        She pretended not to go.  她假裝不去。
        He pretended to be a good man.  他假裝是好人。
        Let’s pretend (that) we are pirates.  讓我們玩假裝海盜的遊戲吧!
    ... stop to ...
    結構︰主詞+stop+to-不定詞…
    說明︰此句型意為“停下來…”。若“stop+Ving”是“停止…”。
        They just don’t stop to think.   他們就是不停下來想一想。
        They stopped to look into the window.    他們停下來看看櫥窗。
        I have stopped smoking for half a year.   我已經半年不抽煙了。
    ... be meant to ...
    結構︰主詞+be meant+to-不定詞
    說明︰此句型意為“…是有意要…;…是命中注定要…”。“be meant to V”有時變成“be meant for N”。
        Some TV programs are meant to be watched today and forgotten tomorrow.
          有些電視節目的用意是要今天觀賞,明天忘掉。
        He believes he is meant to be a great man.   他相信他命中要成為偉人。
        This dictionary is meant for you.   這本字典是要給你的。
    be + ADJ + to ...
    結構︰主詞+be+形容詞+to-不定詞
    說明︰<主詞>實際上是 to-<不定詞>的<受詞>,經過轉變而移到句首。
        It was even more pleasing to look at in the morning light.
          它在早晨的光線下看起來更悅目。
        The rising sun is especially beautiful to look at from this angle.旭日從這個角度看起來特別美。
        I think she is easy to please.  我想她是很容易討好的。
    ... be likely to ...
    結構︰主詞+be likely+to-不定詞…
    說明︰此句型意為“…可能…”。likely 表示具有充分根據的預測。有時<句型>可變為“It is likely that ...”。
        One’s first impression is likely to be that everyone is in a rush.
          一個人的第一個印象是,每個人都是匆忙的。
        He is likely to arrive at any time.    他可能隨時會到。
        His health is likely to get worse.    他的健康可能會惡化。
    make an/no attempt to ...
    結構︰主詞+make an/no attempt+to-不定詞…
    說明︰此句型意為“…打算要/沒有打算要…”;“…試圖要/沒有試圖要…”。
        His smile deepened, but he made no attempt to answer.
          他的微笑加深了,但他沒有打算要回答。
        I made no attempt to make friends with her.    我沒有打算要和她做朋友。
        Will they make any attempt?    他們會再做另一次的嘗試嗎?
    happen/chance to ...
    結構︰主詞+happen/chance+to-不定詞…
    說明︰此句型意為“…碰巧…”。
        A friend of his happened to be sitting in a railroad-coach next to a young man who was obviously depressed.
        他的一個朋友碰巧在火車車廂裡坐在一個無精打采的年輕人的身邊。
        We happened to meet at the station.    我們碰巧在火車站相遇。
        He happened to be sleeping.    他碰巧在睡覺。
        I chanced to be thinking of the same thing.    我碰巧想到同樣的事。
    ... is said to ...
    結構︰主詞+is said+to-不定詞…
    說明︰此句型意為“據說…(現在)是…”。而“is said to have been ...”是“據說…(以前)是…”。
        His music is said to be “good”or “great”.    他的音樂據說是“好”或“了不起”。
        He is said to have been the richest man in Taiwan.    據說他以前是台灣最有錢的人。
        They are said to build a hospital here.    據說他們要在這裡蓋一家醫院。
    ... be bound to ...
    結構︰主詞+be bound+to-不定詞
    說明︰此句型意為“一定…”。“be bound to V”是“be sure to V(一定)”之意,而“be bound for”是“前往”之意。
        Something is bound to happen one way or another to end the conflict or solve the problem.
          事情一定以某種方式發生以結束衝突或解決難題。
        He is bound to come tonight.    他今天晚上一定會來。
        If so, your points of view are bound to conflict with his.
    如果這樣的話,你的觀點一定會和他的起衝突。
    ... do all one can to ...
    結構︰主詞+do all one can to-不定詞…
    說明︰此句型意為“盡一切可能來…”。注意 do 和 can 的<時態>要保持一致。
        Daddy did all he could to fill my needs and desires.爸爸盡一切可能來滿足我的需求和慾望。
        You should do all you can to persuade him.  你應該盡一切可能來說服他。
        We have done all we could to catch up with them. 我們已經盡了一切可能來趕上他們。
    have sth. to do with ...
    結構︰... have something/nothing to do with ...
    說明︰此句型意為“…與…有/無關係”。這是包含不定式的習慣用法。隨著“有關係”的程度, something 可改為 little,much,a great deal 等。have nothing to do with表示否定;have anything to do with 用於<疑問句>中。
        Her diligence must have something to do with his success.
          她的勤勉和她的成功一定有某些關係。
        The traffic accident had nothing to do with him.  這交通事故和他一點關係也沒有。
        His wife had much to do with his bankruptcy. 他的破產和他的妻子很有關係。
    have no other N except to
    結構︰主詞+have no other+名詞+except/than+to-不定詞
    說明︰此句型意為“除了要…沒有其他的…”。except 可以換成 than。
        The speaker has no other purpose except to make people laugh.
          這位演說者除了想搞笑之外,沒有別的目的。
        We have no other choice than to agree with them. 我們除了同意他們之外,沒有別的選擇。
        I have no other wish except to pass the examination.我除了要通過考試之外,沒有別的心願。
    ... in order/so as to ...
    結構︰in order/so as+to-不定詞…
    說明︰此句型意為“為了…;想做…就得…”。這是表目的的不定詞句型,意思更為明確。
        He must work very hard in order to support his large family.
          他必須拼命工作以養活他的大家庭。
        Listen carefully so as to follow the teacher.   要仔細聽才能聽懂老師講的課。
        You must watch your step so as not to fall down. 你必須留心腳下才不會跌下去。
    ... be used to ...
    結構︰主詞(物) + be used to-不定詞
    說明︰此句型意為“被用來…”。主詞通常是無生命的東西。而“物+be used as+<名詞>”譯為“被用來當做…”。
        The book is used to teach us how to write.   這本書教我們如何寫作。
        The knife can be used to cut meat.   刀能用來切肉。
        It is said that the plant can be used to treat hepatitis.  據說那種植物可用來治肝炎。
        The book is used as a reference book.  這本書被用來做參考書。
    含分詞之句型
    I am + V-ing ...
    結構︰主詞+am(are,is)+現在分詞…
    說明︰此句型意為“<主詞>(人,物)正在…”。<現在進行式>用於表示現在“正在進行”的動作或“暫時性”的動作,常和 now,still,at this time 等<副詞>(<片語>)連用。而<簡單現在式>用於表示現在的“事實,習慣或狀態”,常和 every day,usually,always 等<副詞>(<片語>)連用。
        Bill is singing.   比爾正在唱歌。
        Linda is cooking.   琳達在烹飪。
        My father is sleeping.  我父親在睡覺。
        Mother cooks dinner every evening.  媽媽每天晚上做晚飯。
        She is cooking in the kitchen now.  她現在正在廚房裡做飯。
        Father walks to his office every morning.   爸爸每天早上走路去上班。
        He is walking to his office now.  他現在正在走路去上班。
        Mary sings in her room every afternoon.  瑪麗每天下午在她房間裡唱歌。
        She is singing in her room now.  她現在正在她房間裡唱歌。
    an interesting movie
    結構︰主詞+動詞+a/an+(very)+現在分詞+名詞(物)…。
    說明︰“情緒<動詞>”如 interest,excite,satisfy,bore,confuse,trouble 等,要修飾事物,常用現在<分詞>;現在<分詞>含有“主動”或動作“正在進行”的意味。
        That is an interesting movie.   那是一部令人有趣的電影。
        That is an exciting game.   那是一場令人興奮的比賽。
        That is a satisfying book.   那是一本令人滿意的書。
    Have you + V-ed ...?
    結構︰Have/Has+主詞+過去分詞+…?
    說明︰將<助動詞> have(has)提到句首,即構成<現在完成式>的疑問式。
        Have you had your lunch?   你已吃過午飯嗎?
        Has she ever written a letter to Mark?   她曾經寫信給馬克嗎?
        Have you found the pen you lost yesterday?   你找到昨天丟失的鋼筆了嗎?
    a troubled student
    結構︰主詞+動詞+a/an+(very)+過去分詞+名詞(人)…。
    說明︰“情緒<動詞>”如 interest,excite,satisfy,bore,confuse,trouble 等,要修飾人,常用過去<分詞>;過去<分詞>含有“被動”或動作“已經完成”的意味。
        He is a troubled student.   他是一位感到苦惱的學生。
        He is an interested person.   他是一位表現興趣的人。
        He is a bored student.   他是一位感到厭煩的學生。
    I have written a letter.
    結構︰主詞+have(has)+過去分詞+…。
    說明︰<現在完成式>用於表示“過去某時”發生的事情,“直到現在”才完成,或“繼續到現在”,或其結果“影響到現在”,它的肯定式由“have(has)+過去<分詞>”構成,其中 have或 has 是<助動詞>,當<主詞>是第三人稱單數(he,she,it…)時,用 has,其餘人稱用 have。
        I have written a letter.  我已經寫了一封信。
        Mary has studied English for three years.   瑪麗研讀英語已有三年。
        He has liked dogs since he was a child.  自從他是小孩時,他就喜歡狗。
    ... is ...ed by ...
    結構︰主詞+be 動詞+過去分詞+by+受詞…。
    說明︰將主動句改為被動句時,先將主動句的<主詞>變成被動句的<受詞>,再將主動句的<及物動詞>改成“be+過去分詞”,且須注意 be <動詞>的時式要與主動句的<及物動詞>時式相同,最後將主動句的<主詞>變成被動句 by 的<受詞>。
        The news is widely spread by them.   這一消息被他們廣為傳播。
        Vegetables are needed every day by us.   蔬菜每天被我們所需要。
        This letter was typed by Alice this morning.   這封信在今早被愛麗絲用打字機打過了。
    will be V-ed by ...
    結構︰主詞+will be+過去分詞+by+受詞…。
    說明︰將現在式被動句的 be <動詞>(am,is,are)改為 will be,是構成未來式被動句的一種方法。
        That book will be brought by Mary tomorrow.   那本書明天將被瑪麗帶來。
        That car will be washed this afternoon.  那部汽車今天下午將會被洗。
        The building will be opened next month.    那棟大樓下個月將營業。
    be going to be V-ed by
    結構︰主詞+be going to+be+過去分詞+by+受詞…。
    說明︰在現在式被動句的 be <動詞>(am,is,are)後加 going to be,是構成未來式被動句的另一種方法。
        These clothes are going to be washed by her.   這些衣服將由她來洗。
        A birthday cake is going to be brought to the table by the cook.
          一只生日蛋糕將被廚師放到桌子上。
        Music is going to be taught by Miss Lin.  音樂課將由林小姐來教。
    can(not) be V-ed by ...
    結構︰主詞+can(not)be +過去分詞+by+受詞…。
    說明︰將主動句中的<助動詞>(can,must…)照抄,後面加上 be+過去<分詞>,即構成含有<助動詞>的被動句。
        That lesson can not be understood by many students.   那一課無法為許多學生所理解。
        The question can not be answered by many people.  這一問題無法被許多人回答。
        His poor handwriting can not be read by himself. 他糟糕的筆跡無法被他本人所辨認。
    ... V + V-ing ...
    結構︰主詞+動詞+補語(現在分詞)
    說明︰英文中,若兩個<動詞>在一起而無<連接詞>加以連接,所表示的動作又是同時發生的,則第二個<動詞>要變成現在<分詞>;若第二個<動詞>是be<動詞>時,應變成現在<分詞> being,但 being通常予以省略。
        We sat listening to the sound of the waves.   我們坐著傾聽海浪的聲音。
        The dog lay dozing in front of the door.  小狗躺在門前打盹兒。
        She stood there (being) motionless.  她站在那兒,一動也不動。
        He quickly ran home, looking as if there was something wrong with him.
          他快步跑回家,看上去好像有什麼事不對勁。
        I stand looking over the lake.   我站著展望湖面。
        Some leaves went flying into my room.  幾片葉子飛著進入我的房間。
    ... V-ing/V-ed + N ...
    結構︰…現在分詞/過去分詞+名詞(或名詞+現在分詞/過去分詞)
    說明︰這是<分詞>做<名詞>之修飾語的用法,該<分詞>修飾其前或後緊臨之<名詞>;<名詞>之前有其他單字或<片語>跟隨時,<分詞>通常放在<名詞>後面。
        The shouting boy did not hear his mother call him.    大聲叫嚷的孩子聽不到媽媽的叫喚。
        The girl standing in the front row is my niece.   站在前排的少女是我的姪女。
        There were no printed books in those days.   當時沒有印刷的書籍。
        This is a play written by an American author.   這是美國作家寫的劇本。
        The prisoners closely guarded escaped from the prison last night.
          被嚴密監視的這些囚犯昨夜越獄了。
        I looked painfully at the vase broken into pieces.  我痛苦地看著這個破得粉碎的花瓶。
        It is difficult to shoot a flying bird, especially a small bird flying high up in the sky.
          要射中飛行中的小鳥,尤其是高空飛行的小鳥,非常困難。
        Soon we came to a crowded street, a very wide street crowded with allsorts of vehicles.
          我們很快就來到一條很寬、很吵雜,各種車輛來往行駛的大馬路上。
    feel/make ... V-ing/V-ed
    結構︰keep/make/hear 等+受詞+現在分詞/過去分詞
    說明︰<動詞> keep,find 或<使役動詞> make,let,get 等,以及<感官動詞> hear,see,watch,feel 等後的<受詞補語>若強調正在進行的概念,且有主動意味時,以現在<分詞>表示;若有被動意味時,則以“being+過去<分詞>”表示,均譯成“正在…”。若要強調被動且已發生的概念,則用過去<分詞>做<補語>,譯成“被…”。
        At last I succeeded in getting my car moving slowly.最後,我終於成功地讓我的車子慢慢移動。
        We saw him watering the lawn around the house.   我們看見他在為屋子四周的草坪澆水。
        Have you heard the opera sung in French?   你聽過用法語唱的這場歌劇嗎?
        I felt something crawling up my arm.   我感覺到有什麼東西爬上我的手臂。
        I saw him being punished by the teacher.   我看到他正被老師處罰。
        I saw the boy carried away to the hospital.   我看到那個男孩被抬去醫院。
        I found the work being done in a rush.   我發現這件作品正倉促地被完成。
    ... get(s) V-ed/ADJ
    結構︰主詞(某人)+get(s)+過去分詞(或形容詞)…。
    說明︰此句型意為“某人變成…”。get+<形容詞>(過去<分詞>)的常見用例有:get old(年紀大), get hungry(肚子餓),get angry(生氣),get sick(生病),get fat(發胖), get tired(疲倦),get lost(迷路),get confused(困惑),get hurt(受傷), get excited(興奮),get ready(準備好)。
        John got lost.   約翰迷路了。
        Mary gets tired of wearing red dresses.   瑪麗厭倦穿紅色衣服。
        The question is so hard, and we’re getting confused.  這問題太難,我們感到困惑。
    ... have/get sth. done
    結構︰主詞+have/get/make+受詞+過去分詞
    說明︰此句型意為“把…(辦完)”。make 之後的<受詞>習慣上是“人”而非“物”;但 have 和 get 後的<受詞>在此 <句型>中是“物”,有“叫別人代勞”的意味,即做事的人並非<主詞>,而是別人。
        Be sure to get the work finished before six o’clock.  務必在六點之前把工作完成。
        Are you going to get the house painted green?  你打算要把房子漆成綠色嗎?
        I want to get/have these shoes mended.  我想把這些鞋子修補一下。
        He has been unable to raise enough money to have the big clock repaired.
          他一直無法籌募到足夠的錢來把這個大鐘修理好。
        I’ll have it sent right away.  我會立刻把它(拍送)出去。
        Have it charged to my credit card.  把它記在我的信用卡的帳號裡。
        I cannot make myself understood in English.
          我無法用英文使自己被人了解。(我無法用英文把我的意思講清楚。)
        I had my tooth extracted. (=I had the dentist extract my tooth.)
    我把牙拔了。(我是叫醫生拔的。)
    Sth. is being + V-ed ...
    結構︰主詞+is being+過去分詞…
    說明︰此句型意為“…正在被…”。是<進行式>的<被動語態>。
        Money is being used in place of something more direct.金錢正在被更直接地用來取代某種東西。
        The machine is being experimentally used.  這些機器正在被實驗地使用著。
        The problems are being discussed.  這些問題正在被討論著。
    ... go + V-ing ...
    結構︰go+現在分詞
    說明︰此句型意為“從事…”。go 之後的現在<分詞>通常是運動類的<動詞>,如:fishing(釣魚),boating(划船),skating(溜冰),skiing(滑雪),hunting(打獵),mountain climbing(爬山), shopping(購物)等。
        Sometimes Mr. Black went swimming with the children.有時布拉克先生和這些小孩去游泳。
        We went fishing yesterday and I caught three fish. 我們昨天去釣魚,而我釣了三條。
        I find it interesting and healthy to go mountain climbing. 我覺得爬山有趣又有益健康。
        The American housewife probably goes shopping only once or twice a week.
          美國家庭主婦可能一星期只購物一、二次。
        You may go grass skiing, bicycle riding, or shopping on the weekend.
          週末你可以去滑草,騎腳踏車,或購物。
    the + V-ing/V-ed/ADJ
    結構︰the+現在分詞/過去分詞/形容詞
    說明︰<形容詞>,包括可做<形容詞>的<分詞>,前面加<冠詞> the,可當複數<名詞>用,表示“全體”的意思,其後的<動詞>用複數形。常用的有:the wounded(所有受傷的人),the handicapped(所有殘障者),the rich(有錢人),the dead(所有已死的人),the dying(所有垂死的人),the unknown(所有未知之事)等。
        The rich are not necessarily happy.   有錢人未必快樂。
        The oppressed were free after the coup.   被壓迫的人民,在政變之後獲得自由。
        The dying were rushed to the hospital.  垂死的人被急速送往醫院。
        During the depression, millions of the unemployed wandered around in the streets.
          經濟蕭條時期,有好幾百萬的失業者在街頭遊蕩。
    V-ing/V-ed ..., Main Clause
    結構︰現在分詞/過去分詞…,主要子句
    說明︰這是含<分詞>句構的<句型>,是以<分詞片語>代替<副詞子句>。<主要子句>中的<主詞>應和<分詞片語>中的動作接受者一致。若<動詞>為 be 或 have been,變成現在<分詞> being 或 having been後,可以省略。<否定句>若變成<分詞片語>時,<否定副詞> not 或 never 應置於<分詞>之前。
        Holding the watch up, she listened.   把錶拿起來,她注意聽。
        Standing in the dark, I can not see anything.   站在黑夜裡,我什麼也看不見。
        Sitting under the tree, I was hit by a stone on the head. 我坐在樹下,被一塊石頭擊中了頭。
        (Being) a lover of nature, he often goes mountain climbing.因為熱愛大自然,他常常去爬山。
        Angry with his wife, Tom kicked the dog.   因為和太太生氣,湯姆踢狗。
        Rich and generous, he contributed two million dollars to the Red Cross.
          因為有錢又慷慨,他捐了兩百萬圓給紅十字會。
        (Having been) Knocked down by a car, he spent a week in the hospital.
          被車子撞倒後,他在醫院裡度過了一星期。
        Seriously damaged, the bridge is no longer in use. 因受到嚴重損壞,這座橋不再使用了。
        Caught in a rain, he was wet all over.   淋到了一場雨,他全身都濕了。
        Bitten by a dog, the little boy did not dare to play with dogs again.
          被狗咬過,這個小男孩不敢再和狗玩。
        Written in English, the book is difficult for me to understand.
          用英文寫的這本書對我來說很難理解。
        Not (being) fond of learning, he ran away from home. 由於不喜歡讀書,他就離家出走了。
        Never having been to Switzerland before, he longs for a trip there.
          因為從來沒去過瑞士,他期待一趟瑞士之旅。
    When + V-ing ...
    結構︰when/while/once/if/unless/though+現在分詞
    說明︰當when,while,once,if,unless,though 等<副詞><連接詞>引導<副詞子句>時,若其<主詞>與<主要子句>相同,可保留該<副詞><連接詞>,其餘部分則化簡為<分詞片語>。
        He says "Please" when making a request.   請求時,他說:“請”。
        When waiting for a bus, he takes his turn.   等公共汽車時,他按順序排隊。
        He stopped to talk to me when seeing me.   看到我的時候,他停下來和我說話。
        If falling ill, I’ll stay home taking a good rest.   如果生病,我會待在家裡好好休息。
        Once arriving there, I’ll keep contact with you.  一到那裡,我會跟你連絡。
        Unless (being) rich, I am not going to buy a house. 除非有錢,要不然我是不會買房子的。
        Though knowing the truth, he remained silent. 雖然他知道實情,卻保持沈默。
    N + V-ing/V-ed
    結構︰名詞+現在分詞/過去分詞,…
    說明︰這是含獨立<分詞>結構的<句型>,即因<主詞>不同而將<分詞>意義上的<主詞>置於<分詞>之前。若 <動詞>為 be 或 have been,變成現在<分詞> being 或 having been 後,可以省略。若<分詞>意義上的<主詞>是 we,you,one 等表世上之一般人的情形時,即使和<主要子句>之<主詞>不同,也可省略,變成慣用的句子,常用的有:frankly speaking(坦白說),judging from(由…觀之),talking about/of(談談…),generally speaking(一般而言),roughly speaking(大體言之)等。
        They were trembling, their mouths watering at the thought of the beer.
          他們顫抖著,一想到啤酒,口水就流出來。
        He was sitting next to Mrs. Smith, his eyes resting on her daughter.
          他坐在史密斯太太的旁邊,他的視線落在她女兒的身上。
        The earthquake took place, the windows broken into pieces.  地震發生了,戶破得粉碎。
        "There it is," he whispered, his eyes (being) bright with sudden tears.
          “就在那裡。”他低聲地說,他的眼睛閃亮著突然而來的眼淚。
        He said in a low voice, both his hands (being) on his back. 他低聲地說,他的雙手放在背後。
        He argued, his voice trembling with anger.  他爭論著,他的聲音由於生氣而顫抖。
        Generally speaking, women live longer than men.  一般而言,女性壽命較男性長。
        Frankly speaking, he is not so bad as you might think. 坦白講,他沒有你想像中的壞。
    with + N + V-ing/V-ed
    結構︰with+名詞+現在分詞/過去分詞
    說明︰這是表“附帶狀況(並行行為)”的<副詞片語>,常用來描述情景。有時使用<形容詞>、<副詞>、<介系詞>代替<分詞>。
        She sang to the music with her hand waving gently.  她跟著音樂唱歌,手斯文地揮動著。
        He came running here with one hand holding a knife.  他手上握著刀向這裡跑來。
        He came running here with a knife held in one hand.  他一手握著刀向這裡跑來。
        With our work done, we felt much at ease.  工作做完後,我們覺得好輕鬆。
        She looked at him with the color gone from her face. 她凝視著他,臉上毫無血色。
        He was dozing with a book open in his hands. 他在打盹,手上的書打開著。
        My father sometimes goes out for a stroll with a stick in his hand.
          父親有時候帶著手杖出去散步。
        What a lonely world it would be with you away! 妳要是不在,這世界不知將有多寂寞!
    V-ing ... + be + N ...
    結構︰現在分詞…+be 動詞+名詞
    說明︰此句型的<名詞>是句子的<主詞>,所以 be <動詞>要和<名詞>一致。
        Coexisting with such love in the American family are cultural values of self-reliance and independence.  和美國家庭的這種愛同時並存的是自強及獨立的文化價值觀。
        Growing along the river are tall palm trees.  沿著這條河生長的是高大的棕梠樹。
        Lying north of the church is a girls’ senior high school.位於這座教堂以北的是一所女子高中。
    含動名詞之句型
    Thinking correctly is ...
    結構︰動名詞+副詞(或名詞)+單數動詞+…。
    說明︰此句型意為“做某事是…的”。<動名詞>在文法上具有<動詞>與<名詞>的雙重性質,故<動名詞>可以像<名詞>一樣充當<主詞>;又因<動名詞>當<主詞>時,用於指“某一件事”,屬於第三人稱單數,故取單數<動詞>。
        Thinking correctly is important.    思考正確是重要的。
        Living in the big city is convenient.    住在大城市是方便的。
        Reading good books makes us happy.    閱讀好書使得我們快樂。
    ... without + N/V-ing ...
    結構︰主詞+動詞+…without+名詞/動名詞…。
    說明︰此句型意為“<主詞>沒有(不用)…”。without 當“沒有;不用;假如沒有;當…不”解,是<介系詞>,後面接<名詞>(<代名詞>)或<動名詞>,用法相當於“and ... not”或“if(when)…not+<動詞>”。
        I can’t start a fire without matches.    我沒有火柴不能點火。
        We won’t go without you joining it.    你沒有參加的話我們就不去了。
        You can’t see the movie without the ticket.    你沒有票,不能看電影。
        He went to school without breakfast. (=He went to school and did not eat breakfast.)
          他沒吃早飯就去上學了。
    I like + V-ing ...
    結構︰主詞+及物動詞+動名詞(當受詞)+…。
    說明︰此句型意為“某人…做某事”。下列的<及物動詞>後面,常接<動名詞>當<受詞>:like,love, hate,begin,start,try,enjoy,mind,practise。
        I like doing my homework.    我喜歡做我的家庭作業。
        He loves listening to music.    他喜歡聽音樂。
        The boys hate doing homework on Sundays.   男孩們討厭在星期日做家庭作業。
    cannot help + V-ing ...
    結構︰主詞+cannot help+動名詞
    說明︰此句型意為“不得…,不禁…”。這裡的 help 作“抗拒”或“避免”解,此時一定要用<動名詞作受詞>,相當於“<主詞>+cannot but/cannot help but+原形<動詞>”。
        He cannot help loving Mary because of her beauty.   因為瑪麗長得美,他不禁愛上她。
        Whenever I hear the story, I cannot help crying.  每次我聽這故事,就忍不住要哭。
        After learning of his sufferings, I couldn’t help sympathizing with him.
          得知他痛苦的遭遇後,我忍不住同情他。
        I cannot help laughing.    我忍不住笑出來。
        I cannot help being poor.   我是窮,可是沒有辦法呀!
        I cannot help wondering about that girl.   我不免對那個女孩感到驚奇。
        I cannot help worrying to hear that there is no steamer this week.
          我聽到本周沒有船的消息,禁不住擔憂起來。
    There is no + V-ing ...
    結構︰There is no+動名詞…
    說明︰此句型意為“做…是不可能的”。等於“It is impossible to+原形<動詞>”或“No one can+原形<動詞>”。
        There is no accounting for tastes.    人各有所好。
        There was no telling what the next assignment would be.  不曉得下一個任務將是什麼。
        There is no reasoning with such a stubborn man as Peter.
          跟彼得這種固執的人講理簡直是不可能的事。
        There is no denying that Taiwan is a beautiful island.台灣是座美麗的島嶼,這是不可否認的。
        There is no describing the beauty of the scene.  誰都無法形容這景色的美麗。
        There is no typing up this letter within five minutes.  不可能在五分鐘內打完這封信。
    feel like + V-ing ...
    結構︰feel like+動名詞
    說明︰此句型意為“想要…”。like 是<介系詞>,故之後要接<名詞>或<動名詞>。當接<動名詞>時,解釋為“想要做…”,相當於“would like to+原形<動詞>”;接<名詞>時,解釋為“感覺像…”。
        I don’t feel like studying tonight.   我今晚不想念書。
        I feel like going to Europe for a visit next summer vacation.我好想明年暑假去一趟歐洲。
        Do you feel like going to a movie?   你想看電影嗎?
        I feel like a newborn baby.   我感覺像是個新生的嬰兒。
    ... come near + V-ing ...
    結構︰主詞+come near+動名詞
    說明︰此句型意為“幾乎去做…”。near 後跟<動名詞>。
        It came near being the prettiest bow he had ever seen.那幾乎是他所見過最漂亮的一隻果盆。
        I came near hitting him.   我幾乎揍他。
        They came near being drowned.    他們幾乎被水淹死。
        My son came near being run over by a truck.   我的兒子差點被大卡車輾過。
    ... worth + V-ing ...
    結構︰worth+動名詞
    說明︰此句型意為“值得…”。worth 是<介系詞>,使用時要用<名詞>或<動名詞>做<受詞>,形成<介系詞片語>,當 <形容詞>用。worth 之後接<動名詞>時,<主詞>必須為該<動名詞>之<受詞>,否則<動名詞>之後須另加<介系詞>,使<主詞>做其<受詞>。這種<句型>不可用虛<主詞> it 做<主詞>。
        London is a city worth visiting.    倫敦是值得參觀的城市。
        He who does his duty is worth praising.    凡是忠於職守的人都值得贊揚。
        A book worth reading once is worth reading time and time again.
          值得一看的書值得一看再看。
        The work is worth doing.    這個工作值得去做。
        He is worth doing the work for.    值得為他去做這份工作。
    be worthy of + V-ing
    結構︰be worthy of+動名詞
    說明︰此句型意為“值得…”。等於“be worthy+to be+過去<分詞>”。worthy 是<形容詞>,也引導<形容詞片語>;同 worth 一樣,使用 worthy 時,不可用虛<主詞> it 做<主詞>。
        This book is worthy of reading.   這本書值得一讀。
        He who does his duty is worthy of praising.   凡是忠於職守的人都值得獎勵。
        The event is worthy of being remembered.   那事件是值得記憶的。
    On/Upon + V-ing ...
    結構︰On/Upon+動名詞…
    說明︰此句型意為“一…就…”。相當於 once 引導的<副詞子句>。on 後面所跟的<動詞>的動作執行者必須與<主要子句>的一致。
        Upon reaching an appropriate age, children are encouraged, but not forced, to “leave the nest”.   一達到適當的年齡,孩子們就被鼓勵,而不是被強迫,“離開老窩”。
        On entering the classroom, I found a book lying on the floor.
           一走進教室,我就發現一本書丟在地上。
        Upon receiving your letter, I was as happy as could be. 一收到你的信,我非常高興。
    before + V-ing ...
    結構︰before + 動名詞 ...
    說明︰此句型意為“在…之前”。before 後面動作的執行者,應該與<主要子句>中的動作執行者一致。
        Before entering a house in some Asian countries, it is good manners to take off your shoes.
          在某些亞洲的國家,進屋子之前脫下鞋子才是有禮貌的。
        Before reading the book, you had better ask yourself if you have the time.
          在讀這本書之前,你最好問問自己是否有時間。
        Before visiting him, I called him up in advance.   在拜訪他之前,我先打電話給他。
    of one’s own + V-ing
    結構︰of one’s own+動名詞
    說明︰此句型意為“由某人親自所…的”。本<片語>為<形容詞片語>,置於<名詞>之後,做後位<修飾語>。
        This is a picture of his own painting.  這是他的親筆畫。
        This is a coat of her own making.  這是她親手做的外衣。
        I least expected that this should be a house of his own constructing.
           我怎麼也沒想到這房子是他自己造的。
    keep ... from + V-ing
    結構︰主詞+keep/prevent/stop/discourage+受詞+from+動名詞
    說明︰此句型意為“防止…/阻止…/使…不能…/勸阻某人不要…”。有時把 from 省略。
        It will take everybody’s efforts to keep city noises from increasing.
          那是需要每個人的努力來防止都市噪音的增加。
        The rain kept us from getting there on time.   那場雨使我們不能準時到達那裡。
        They should try to keep prices from rising.  他們應該設法阻止價錢上漲。
        Sometimes we can prevent a cloud from producing rain.  有時我們可以阻止雲產生雨。
        Nobody can prevent him from running the risk.  沒有人能夠阻止他去冒險。
        The bad weather prevented us from getting there on time.
           惡劣的天氣阻止了我們準時到達那裡。
        They didn’t even try to stop him getting it.  他們甚至沒有試圖去阻止他得到它。
        You should have stopped him from going swimming.   你本來應該阻止他去游泳。
        A strong will will stop one from committing a crime. 強烈的意志會阻止一個人去犯罪。
        Even his closest friends discouraged him from seeking higher office.
          甚至他最知己的朋友也勸阻他去尋求更高的職位。
        He was discouraged from making another attempt.  他受勸阻去做另一次的嘗試。
    I remember + V-ing ...
    結構︰主詞+remember+動名詞
    說明︰此句型意為“記得曾做…”。“remember+<動名詞>”是指現在記得以前曾經做過某事,而“remember+to-<不定詞>”是指“記住要做某事”。forget,regret 的情形和 remember 也有大致相同的區別。
        I remember feeling that God, or someone, had brought us together.
          我記得感到上帝或某人把我們湊合在一起。
        Do you remember taking a trip to Japan with him?   你記得曾經和他到日本旅行嗎?
        I can’t remember quarreling with him in junior high school. 我不記得國中時和他吵過架。
        I’ll remember to mail these letters.  我會記著寄這些信的。
    ... one’s + V-ing ...
    結構︰所有格+動名詞
    說明︰<動名詞>之意義上的<主詞>是放在<動名詞>前面的<名詞>(<代名詞>),原則上是以<所有格>出現。但在口語中經常以受格出現,尤其美語此種傾向更強。<動名詞>意義上的<主詞>若非“人”時,則不必變成<所有格>。
        She is not sure of his answering her letter.   她無法確定他是否會回信給她。
        I prefer John’s playing tennis to his playing cards.  我寧願約翰打網球而不玩樸克牌。
        I dislike my mother’s interfering in the affair.  我不喜歡母親介入這件事。
        Our teacher didn’t mind my coming in late.  老師對於我的遲到並不在意。
        Would you mind my opening the window?  你介意我開窗嗎?
        I remember our meeting ten years ago.  我記得十年前我們會見過。
        My father doesn’t like my/me going out alone.  我父親不喜歡我單獨出門。
        I dislike my house being too small.  我不喜歡我的房子太小。
    ... be busy V-ing ...
    結構︰be busy+動名詞
    說明︰此句型意為“忙著做…”。等於“be busy with+<名詞>”。
        Mother is busy making cookies for the picnic.  母親正忙著為野餐做餅乾。
        He was busy preparing for the exam.  他忙著準備考試。
        I was busy looking up all the new words of the lesson in my dictionary.
           我忙著在字典裡查本課所有的生字。
    ... be used to + V-ing/N
    結構︰主詞+be used to/be accustomed to+動名詞/名詞
    說明︰此句型意為“習慣於…”。“<主詞>+used to-<不定詞>”是“過去常常…”;而“物+be used to-<不定詞>”則是“被用來…”的意思。
        The winter was much colder than they were used to and many people died.
          那年冬天比他們所習慣的更為寒冷,因而很多人死亡。
        He is used to sitting up late.    他習慣熬夜。
        Are you used to the weather in Taipei?   你習慣台北的天氣嗎?
        He is accustomed to hearing noise, because he lives right in the center of the city.
           他住在市中心,所以已經習慣於噪音了。
    be on the point of + V-ing
    結構︰be on/upon the point/verge of+動名詞/名詞…
    說明︰此句型意為“正要…”。相當於“be just about to ...”。
        It started raining when I was on the point of leaving home.我正要離開家的時候開始下雨了。
        On being sent to hospital, he was on the point of breathing his last.
           他被送到醫院的時候已經奄奄一息了。
        He was on the point of death.   他瀕臨死亡。
        She was on the verge of telling all the secret.  她正想把全部的祕密講給我聽。
    make a point of + V-ing
    結構︰主詞+make a point of+動名詞
    說明︰此句型意為“一定…;認為有必要…”。本<句型>也可以寫成“<主詞>+make it a point/rule+to-<不定詞>”。
        I make a point of giving a hand to others.   我一定對別人伸出援助的手。
        Whenever I go to Taipei, I make a point of visiting the National Palace Museum.
          不論何時我到台北,我一定去參觀故宮博物院。
        They make a point of going on a picnic every two weeks.他們一定每兩個星期去野餐一次。
    to the point of V-ing ...
    結構︰…to the point of+動名詞…
    說明︰此句型意為“到…的程度”。
        To regret one’s errors to the point of not repeating them is true repentance.
           對自己的錯誤後悔到不致重犯的程度是真正的後悔。
        She hates him to the point of not talking to him.   她討厭他到不和他講話的程度。
        They argued to the point of fighting with each other.  他們爭吵到打架的程度。
    do a little + V-ing
    結構︰do+a lot of/a little/any/the+動名詞
    說明︰此句型意為“做…”。可以用 a lot of(許多),a little(=some 一些),any(任何的),the 等字。
        I can do a little dancing.   我可以做一點舞蹈動作。
        She helped her mother do the washing.   她幫她媽媽做清洗的工作。
        He has done a lot of traveling.  他做了很多的旅行。
    with the + V-ing of + N
    結構︰with+the+動名詞+of+名詞
    說明︰此句型意為“隨著的…”。若<動名詞>有相對的<名詞>,則用<動名詞>或<名詞>都可以。
        With the coming of Easter, winter ends and spring comes.
    隨著復活節的來臨,冬天結束而春天來了。
        With the inventing of the computer, society seems to have changed greatly.
          隨著電腦的發明,社會似乎已經大大地改變了。
        With the setting of the sun, night comes silently.  隨著太陽的落下,夜晚悄悄地來到。
    spend ... (in) V-ing
    結構︰主詞(人)+spend+時間+(in)+動名詞…
    說明︰此句型意為“…花/用若干時間做…”。要用人做<主詞>。等於“It takes+時間+to-<不定詞>”。
        He spent his last years (in) teaching and editing earlier writings.
          他把晚年用在教書和編纂以前的著作。
        How much time do you spend practicing English everyday?
          你每天花多少時間練習英文?
        He is going to spend his last years writing a book on the history of Chinese literature.
          他打算用晚年寫一本中國文學史。
        She spends too much time (in) dressing herself.    她用太多的時間裝扮自己。
        He spent much of his spare time roaming about the streets.他把大部分的閒暇時間用來逛街。
    prefer V-ing/N to V-ing/N
    結構︰主詞+prefer+動名詞/名詞…to+動名詞/名詞…
    說明︰此句型意為“寧可…而不願…;喜歡…而不喜歡…”。<動名詞>的位置可以換成<名詞>。
        In the U.S., people prefer waiting for a table to sitting with people they don’t know.
          在美國,人們寧可等著空的桌子,而不願和不認識的人坐在一起。
        Some people prefer sitting up to going to bed early.  有些人寧可熬夜,而不早睡。
        He said he preferred country life to city life. 他說他喜歡鄉下生活,而不喜歡都市生活。
    when it comes to + V-ing
    結構︰…when it comes to+動名詞/名詞
    說明︰此句型意為“…一談到…”。請注意 to 是<介系詞>,後跟<動名詞>,有時也可跟<名詞>。
        Their memory wasn’t very good when it came to recalling other things, but they remembered the comet.   一談到別的事情時,他們的記性並不是很好,但他們卻記得彗星。
        When it comes to making friends, you cannot be too careful.
          一談到交朋友,你再怎麼小心也不為過。
        When it came to the summer vacation, we all became excited.
    一談到暑假,我們大家都變興奮了。
    the + V-ing + of + N ...
    結構︰the+動名詞+of+名詞…
    說明︰本結構在句中充當<主詞>,述詞或<受詞>。
        The actual cause of the quake itself is the rupturing or breaking of rocks at or below the earth’s surface.  地震本身的真正原因是地球表面的或地底下的岩石斷裂或破裂。
        The building of the bridge is very important for the transportation between the two towns.
          這座橋的建造對這兩個鎮的交通很重要。
        The breaking of his right leg made him walk on crutches only.
    他右腳的折斷使他只有靠柺杖走路。
    be all for + V-ing ...
    結構︰主詞+be all for+動名詞…
    說明︰此句型意為“盡其所能地…”。等於 try one’s best to do sth。
        I was all for calling on each of these ladies.   我盡量去拜訪每一位女士。
        He is praised for his being all for helping the poor.  他因盡力幫助窮人受到了讚美。
        I am all for jogging early in the morning.  我盡可能一大早慢跑。
    含助動詞之句型
    Can you speak English?
    結構︰問句:Can+主詞+原形動詞…?
                 肯定簡答:Yes,主詞+can。
                 肯定詳答:Yes,主詞+can+原形動詞+…。
                 否定簡答:No,主詞+can’t。
                 否定詳答:No,主詞+can’t+原形動詞+…。
    說明︰此句型意為“某人會…嗎?是的,某人會…。(不,某人不會)”。can 是<助動詞>,後面必須接原形 <動詞>;當<主詞>是第三人稱單數時,can 的字尾不可加 s;can 的後面,不可接<不定詞> to。can 的否定形,有三種寫法:can not,cannot,can’t;can 的<否定句>形式為:<主詞>+can’t+原形<動詞>+…。
        Can he speak English? Yes, he can (speak English).  他會講英語嗎?是的,他會講英語。
        Can Tom play Frisbee? Yes, he can (play Frisbee).  湯姆會玩飛盤嗎?是的,他會玩飛盤。
        Can Mary ride a bicycle? Yes, she can (ride a bicycle).
    瑪麗會騎腳踏車嗎?是的,她會(騎腳踏車)。
        Can you speak Chinese? No, I can’t (speak Chinese).
    你會講中國話嗎?不,我不會講中國話。
        Can your father cook? No, he can’t (cook). 你父親會烹飪嗎?不,他不會烹飪。
        Can she sing English songs? No, she can’t (sing English songs).
           她會唱英文歌嗎?不,她不會(唱英文歌)。
    You can never do it again.
    結構︰主詞+助動詞+頻率副詞+原形動詞+…。
    說明︰<頻率副詞>通常修飾<動詞>或<形容詞>,當句中出現 be <動詞>時,它位於 be <動詞>之後。當出現<一般動詞>時,<頻率副詞>位於<一般動詞>之前。當句中同時出現<助動詞>與本<動詞>,<頻率副詞>位於<助動詞>之後,本<動詞>之前。
        Do you always eat lunch at school?   你總是在學校吃午飯嗎?
        Does John often watch television in the evening?  約翰常常在晚上看電視嗎?
        You can never do it again.  你絕不可再做那事。
        He is usually busy.   他通常是忙碌的。
        She never comes to school late.   她上學從不遲到。
        I sometimes speak English at home.   我有時在家說英語。
    ... will + V ...
    結構︰主詞+will+原形動詞+…。
    說明︰<簡單未來式>由“will+<動詞>原形”構成。未來式常與下列<時間副詞>(<片語>)連用:tomorrow,tomorrow morning(afternoon,evening),the day after tomorrow,next week,next year,next+星期幾,tonight,this evening(afternoon),some day(總有一天),one of these days(近兩三天內),How soon?(再過多久?),in+時間,如:in a few days(過幾天後),in ten minutes(過十分鐘後)…。<簡單未來式>還可由“be going to+<動詞>原形”構成。
        We will eat lunch together tomorrow.   我們明天將一起吃午飯。
        I will walk home after school this afternoon.  今天下午放學後我將走路回家。
        Mr. Lin will wash his motorcycle tomorrow morning. 林先生明天早晨將擦洗他的摩托車。
        Will she cook dinner this evening?  她今晚要做晚飯嗎?
        Will they go on a picnic next week?  他們下星期將去野餐嗎?
        We will not play basketball tomorrow.  我們明天不打籃球。
        David won’t go to the movies with Helen next week.  大衛下星期不和海倫一起去看電影。
        Your brother is not going to study this evening.  你弟弟今晚不讀書。
        They will have a lot of fun next month.  他們下個月將玩得很愉快。
        School will begin next Tuesday.  下星期二將要開學。
    ... should/would + V ...
    結構︰主詞+should(would,may)+原形動詞…。
    說明︰should 是 shall 的過去式,當“將要”解釋,通常用於<主詞>是第一人稱 I 或 we;should又當“應該”解釋,表示義務或責任,常用於指“現在或未來”的事情,<主詞>可用任何人稱。 would 是 will 的過去式,當“將要”解釋,通常用於<主詞>是第二人稱或第三人稱; would 又用於表示“願望”;would 和 like 連用,表示“客氣”的語氣;would 又可用在<疑問句>中,表示客氣的請求。 may 可用於表示“可能性”或“不確定的推測”,中文常譯為“可能,或許”,相當於 perhaps或 maybe;may 可用於<疑問句>表示“請求對方允許”;在否定答句中,may 的<否定式>可以有兩種形式:mustn’t 表示“強烈的禁止”,mayn’t 表示“婉轉的禁止”。
        You should study hard.  你應該努力讀書。
        He must be sick today.  他今天一定是生病了。
        I would like to help you pack.  我想幫忙你綑紮東西。
    ... should not + V ...
    結構︰主詞+should(would,may)+not+原形動詞…。
    說明︰should 是 shall 的過去式,當“將要”解釋,通常用於<主詞>是第一人稱 I 或 we;should又當“應該”解釋,表示義務或責任,常用於指“現在或未來”的事情,<主詞>可用任何人稱。 would 是 will 的過去式,當“將要”解釋,通常用於<主詞>是第二人稱或第三人稱; would 又用於表示“願望”;would 和 like 連用,表示“客氣”的語氣;would 又可用在<疑問句>中,表示客氣的請求。 may 可用於表示“可能性”或“不確定的推測”,中文常譯為“可能,或許”,相當於 perhaps或 maybe;may 可用於<疑問句>表示“請求對方允許”;在否定答句中,may 的<否定式>可以有兩種形式:mustn’t 表示“強烈的禁止”,mayn’t 表示“婉轉的禁止”。
        He would not lend you his dictionary.  他不願意把字典借給你。
        He may not come tomorrow.  他明天不可能(不可以)來。
        We should not tell lies.  我們不應該說謊。
    Should/Would you + V ...?
    結構︰Should(Would,May)+主詞+原形動詞…?
    說明︰should 是 shall 的過去式,當“將要”解釋,通常用於<主詞>是第一人稱 I 或 we;should又當“應該”解釋,表示義務或責任,常用於指“現在或未來”的事情,<主詞>可用任何人稱。 would 是 will 的過去式,當“將要”解釋,通常用於<主詞>是第二人稱或第三人稱; would 又用於表示“願望”;would 和 like 連用,表示“客氣”的語氣;would 又可用在<疑問句>中,表示客氣的請求。 may 可用於表示“可能性”或“不確定的推測”,中文常譯為“可能,或許”,相當於 perhaps或 maybe;may 可用於<疑問句>表示“請求對方允許”;在否定答句中,may 的<否定式>可以有兩種形式:mustn’t 表示“強烈的禁止”,mayn’t 表示“婉轉的禁止”。
        May he do that?   他可能(可以)做那件事嗎?
        Would you like to go with us?  你想跟我們去嗎?
        Should they read the newspaper more often?  他們應該更常看報嗎?
    ... used to + V ...
    結構︰主詞+used to+原形動詞…
    說明︰此句型意為“以前(常)…”。等於“<主詞>+would often+原形<動詞>”。這是一種表過去的經驗的句構,對比地敘述過去與現在。而“would+原形<動詞>”也可表示過去的習慣,但“used to ...”比“would ...”規則。
        Difficult problems used to take hours of work with pencil and paper.
          困難的問題以前總是需要用筆和紙工作數小時。
        There used to be a post office there.  以前在那裡有一個郵局。
        I used to (=would often) go fishing.  我以前常去釣魚。
        We used to hear the train whistle at night.  過去我們常會在晚上聽到火車的汽笛聲。
        He would sit for hours doing nothing.  他常常什麼也不做,一坐就是好幾小時。
    ... would like to V ...
    結構︰主詞+would like+(sb.)+to+原形動詞
    說明︰此句型意為“想要…”。would like 是一種表示意願的<動詞>,後接<不定詞> to 引導的原形<動詞>。“should like to ...”雖有同樣的意思,但較少用於第2,3人稱。
        Would you like to have a look at the picture? -- Yes, I should very much like to.
          你想瞧瞧這畫嗎?--是的!很想!
        I would like to take a trip around the world toward the end of this year.
          我想在今年底環遊世界。
        I would like you to meet Mr. Jones.   我想讓你見見瓊斯先生。
        I would like him to do it.  我想要他做這事。
    would rather V1 than V2
    結構︰主詞+would rather+原形動詞1…than+原形動詞2…
    說明︰此句型意為“寧願…也不願…”。would rather 和 than 之後都要用原形<動詞>。若 than 之後的<動詞>和 would rather 之後的<動詞>相同,則 than 之後的<動詞>可省略。
        I’d rather take care of the stomachs of the living than (take care of) the glory of the dead in the form of stone memorials. 我寧願照顧活人的肚子,也不願以石碑的形式來照顧死者的榮耀。
        They would rather go fishing than stay at home.  他們寧願去釣魚,也不願待在家裡。
        I would rather be laughed at than quarrel with him.  我寧願被嘲笑,也不願和他吵架。
        He would rather give away a point than claim an advantage.
          他寧願送分數,也不願要求利益。
        I would rather fail than cheat in the examination. 我寧願考不及格,也不願意考試作弊。
        I would rather die than live in disgrace.  我寧可死,也不願忍辱偷生。
        I would rather remain poor than get money by dishonest means.
          我寧可安於貧窮,也不願用不當手段賺錢。
    ... had better + V ...
    結構︰主詞+had better+原形動詞…
    說明︰此句型意為“最好…;還是…為好”。用 had better 來執行和一個<助動詞>一樣的功能。“had better have+過去<分詞>”表“最好已經…”之意;“had best ...”則是“以…為最佳”,比 had better… 的意思還要強調。
        You had better consult a doctor soon.  你最好快點去看醫生。
        The policeman said to him, "You’d better come with me and tell me all about the accident."
          警察對他說:“你最好跟我來,並告訴我這次事故的經過。”
        You had better have stayed at home.   你留在家裡那是最好。
        Hadn’t you better make a market report?   你不認為寫一份市場報告好些嗎?
        You had better go to the factory and have a look.   你最好到廠裡去看一看。
        You had best not accept the offer.  你最好是不要接納這要求。
    May you + V ...
    結構︰May+第二、三人稱主詞+動詞原形+其他
    說明︰此句型意為“祝…”。may 此處表示祝福與願望,多用於書面語中,口語中有時也用,但顯得較莊重。本<句型>的特點是:may 不是在<主詞>後面,而是擺在句子開頭,使全句成倒裝語序,表達出祝願的意義。
        May you recover soon!   願您早日康復!
        May you succeed in business.   祝您生意興隆!
        May our two parties achieve even greater successes in our business.
          祝我們雙方在生意中取得更大的成功。
    may well + V ...
    結構︰may well + 原形動詞
    說明︰此句型意為“理當…;大可…”。may 是<助動詞>,well 是<副詞>,後接原形<動詞>。若將 well 置於<主詞>前面,可加強<語氣>。
        You may well find that the end of the book is better than the beginning.
          你應該會發現這本書的結尾比開頭好。
        You may well get angry with him.   你大可對他發脾氣。
        She is proud of her son, and well she may.   她以兒子為傲也是應該的。
        An unlimited arms race may well increase the danger of war.
          無限度的武器競賽當然會增加戰爭的危險性。
        Since he can play many musical instruments, he may well be called a man of accomplishments.     他能演奏許多樂器,當然稱得上是個多才多藝的人。
    may as well + V ...
    結構︰may as well+原形動詞
    說明︰此句型意為“最好…;不妨…”。等於 had better,但<語氣>比較委婉。
        We may as well leave the table after dinner is over.  晚餐後我們不妨離開桌子。
        You may as well keep it a secret.  你最好將這件事保密。
        You are not (physically) strong, so you may as well take care of your health.
          你的體格不壯,因此最好注意健康。
    ...may as well ... as ...
    結構︰may/might as well+原形動詞 A+as+原形動詞 B
    說明︰此句型意為“與其 B 倒不如 A”。相當於“had better A than B”。“may as well ... as”實現的可能性較大,而“might as well ... as”實現的可能性較小。
        Since it is raining hard, you may as well stay here as leave.
          既然雨下得這麼大,你與其離開倒不如待在這兒。
        You might as well throw your money into the sea as lend it to him.
          你借他錢不如把錢扔到海裡去。
        You might as well not know a thing at all as know it only a little.
          只知道一點點,不如完全不曉得。
        I may as well die as marry him.我與其嫁給他,倒不如去死算了。(我若嫁給他,很可能去死。)
        I might as well die as marry him.
          我與其嫁給他,倒不如去死算了。(我不太可能嫁給他,也不太可能去死。)
        You might as well talk to a stone as try to argue with a stubborn woman.
          你與其跟一個倔女人爭吵,還不如對一塊石頭說話。
        You might as well advise me to give up my fortune as my argument.
          你勸我停止辯論,倒不如勸我拋棄一切財產。
        You might as well ask the tree for help as request him to reduce the price.
          你與其要他減價還不如求助於一棵樹。
    ... must have V-ed ...
    結構︰主詞+must have+過去分詞…
    說明︰此句型意為“一定曾經…”。本<句型>是對過去之事做肯定之推測,而“must+原形<動詞>”是對目前或將來之事做推測。
        Anyway, he must have eaten a lot because now he is fat.
           無論如何,他一定吃了很多東西,因為現在他胖了。
        You must have mistaken her for her sister.  你一定是把她誤認為是她的姊妹了。
        They must have left.  他們一定是離開了。
        The rubbing must have worked.  搓揉一定是有效了。
        They must have read the article. 他們一定讀過這篇文章。
        You must have seen him before.  你以前一定見過他。
        He must have forgotten my name.  他一定忘了我的名字。
        He must have told you about it.  他一定告訴過你這件事。
        Tom must have taken your dictionary by mistake.  湯姆一定是弄錯了才拿了你的字典。
        The poet must have been very young when he wrote this poem.詩人寫這首詩時一定非常年輕。
    ... may have V-ed ...
    結構︰主詞+may/might have+過去分詞
    說明︰此句型意為“很可能曾經…”。表示對過去之事做不太肯定的推測。而“may/might+原形<動詞>”是對現在或未來事物做推測。might have 所表示的可能性要比 may have 低一些。
        He may have overslept this morning.  今天早上他或許睡過頭了。
        The tea is hot; he may have been here before.  茶還熱著,不久前他很可能在這裡。
        He may have known the truth; otherwise he wouldn’t be so angry now.
          他當時很可能知道事情的真相,否則他不會這麼生氣。
        The boy might have known the truth, but I am not quite sure.
          這男孩當時也許知道真相,但我不很確定。
    ... cannot have V-ed ...
    結構︰主詞+cannot have+過去分詞
    說明︰此句型意為“不可能曾經…”。是對過去之事做否定的推論,此時一定要用 cannot have 或 cannot,不能使用 must not have 或 must not。而“cannot+原形<動詞>”是對目前或將來之事做否定的推論。
        She cannot have written the letter herself.  這封信不可能是她自己寫的。
        He is honest, so he cannot have stolen my money.他是個老實人,所以他不可能偷了我的錢。
        He cannot have caught a cold, because I saw him dancing with Mary the same day.
          他不可能感冒,因為當天我還看到他跟瑪麗跳舞。
    ... would have V-ed ...
    結構︰主詞+would have+過去分詞
    說明︰此句型意為“原本會…但卻未如此”。用以表示“與過去事實相反”的<假設語氣>。
        He would have attended meeting, but upon learning that he had no time, he dropped the idea.
          他原本要出席會議的,但知道沒有時間,就打消了這個念頭。
        I would have told you the truth, but you didn’t give me a chance.
          我本來要告訴你事情的真相,但是你不給我機會。
        I would have done it, but I had no time.  我本來要辦這事的,可是沒時間。
        She would have married him, but when she learned that he was a rascal, she parted with him.
          她本來會嫁給他的,但知道他是個流氓後,她就離開他了。
    ... could have V-ed ...
    結構︰主詞+could have+過去分詞
    說明︰此句型意為“原本能夠…但卻未如此”。
        He could have bought the car, but soon his company went bankrupt.
          他本來能買那輛車的,但沒多久他的公司就倒閉了。
        He could have finished it on schedule, but somehow he fell behind.
          他原本能按預定進度做完這件事的,但不知怎地卻落後了。
        I could have done it if I had wanted to.  如果我那時想做,我能做得到的。
    ... should have V-ed ...
    結構︰主詞+should/ought to have+過去分詞
    說明︰此句型意為“原本應當…但卻未如此”。此<句型>表示沒有實現之過去的行為、狀態,含有講話者的責難或遺憾之意。
        You should have spoken up in the meeting. 會談時你實在應該發言(然而你卻沒有)。
        He should at least have come to say good-by.  他至少也該來道個別(然而卻沒來)。
        He ought to have kept his promise. 他原本應該遵守自己的諾言。
        You should have been more careful in money matters. 在錢方面,你本當更小心點的。
        He ought to have arrived there by now. 他現在應該已經到那裡了。
        The drama drew a capacity audience; you should have gone to see it.
          這齣戲吸引了滿場觀眾;你真該去看的。
    I should have known better
    結構︰主詞+should have known better(than to+原形動詞)
    說明︰此句型意為“本來不應該那樣笨(而…)”,是指已經做過之事,而 know better(不致那樣笨)是指未做之事。
        I should have known better.   我本來不應該那樣笨。
        You should have known better than to talk like that.  你本應更懂事而不致說這樣的話。
        You should have known better than to go mountain climbing alone.
           你本來不該笨得單獨去爬山。
        I know better than to go swimming after dinner.  我不致笨得吃過飯就去游泳。
    ... need not have V-ed ...
    結構︰主詞+need not have+過去分詞
    說明︰此句型意為“原本不必…但卻…”。表示“與過去事實相反”的<假設語氣>,即做了沒有必要做的事。而“didn’t need to+原形<動詞>”則表示“過去的事實”,譯為“當時不必…而且也沒…”。need not have 在<疑問句>中表對過去之必要性的強烈疑問,即“有…的必要嗎?”。
        You need not have bought extra oil for this short trip.在這麼短的旅程中,你實在沒有必要多買油。
        You need not have got up so early.  你不必起得那麼早。
        Need he have gone to the station to meet her?  他有必要到車站去接她嗎?
        He need not have come. (But he came.)  當時他不必來。(但卻來了)
        He didn’t need to come. (And he didn’t come.) 當時他不必來。(而且也沒來)
        It was fine that day, so I need not have brought an umbrella with me.
          那天天氣很好,我原本不必帶傘的(但卻帶了)。
    含代名詞之句型
    It is warm in ...
    結構︰It is+天氣+in+四季名稱。
    說明︰此句型意為“在某季節天氣是…”。it 此處指天氣=the weather;<介系詞> in,常加在四季名稱的前面。
        It is warm in spring.   春天天氣是暖和的。
        It is cold in winter.  冬天天氣是寒冷的。
        It is hot in summer.  夏天天氣是炎熱的。
    It rains a lot in ...
    結構︰It rains/snows+a lot+in+地方。
    說明︰此句型意為“在某地下很多的雨/雪”。<代名詞> it 可用於指“天候”,如下雨,下雪等。常放在句首,當<主詞>。rain 當“下雨”解,是<動詞>,a lot 當<副詞>,用於修飾<動詞>。相當於 very much。
        It rains a lot in Taipei.  在臺北下很多的雨。
        It snows a lot in New York.  在紐約下很多的雪。
        It showers a lot in Guangzhou. 在廣州下很多陣雨。
    This is my ...
    結構︰This is+所有格(my/your/…)+名詞。
    說明︰相當於“This+名詞+is+所有代名詞(mine/yours/…)。”<所有代名詞>由“ <所有格>+s”構成,如 yours,ours,theirs,hers。但是 mine, his 二字除外,字尾不可加 s。<所有代名詞>用於代替句前已出現的<名詞>,故後面不可接<名詞>。<所有格>不可與 a,an,the,this,that,these 或 those 等一起使用。
        This is my pen.   這是我的鋼筆。
        This pen is mine.   這鋼筆是我的。
        This is your box.  這是你的箱子。
        This box is yours.  這箱子是你的。
        This is his bicycle.  這是他的腳踏車。
        This bicycle is his.   這腳踏車是他的。
    My pen is ...
    結構︰所有格(My/Your/…)+名詞+be 動詞+形容詞。
    說明︰此句型意為“某人的…是…”。相當於“所有代名詞(Mine/Yours/…)+be 動詞+形容詞。”譯為“某人的是…”。<所有格>的後面必須接<名詞>。當<主詞>用的<所有代名詞>,如果代替單數<名詞>,則取單數<動詞>;如果代替複數<名詞>,則取複數<動詞>。
        My pen is new.  我的鋼筆是新的。
        Our bedroom is small.  我們的臥室是小的。
        Their cars are blue.  他們的汽車是藍色的。
        Mine is new.  我的是新的。
        Ours is small.  我們的是小的。
        Theirs are blue.  他們的是藍色的。
    Are these your pens?
    結構︰問句:Be 動詞+主詞+所有格+名詞…?
                 答句:Yes/No,主詞+be/not+所有代名詞。
    說明︰<名詞>的<所有格>和<所有代名詞>完全相同,都是在<名詞>的後面加(’s)。
        Are these Mary’s pens? No, they are not hers. 這些是瑪麗的筆嗎?不,它們不是她的。
        Are those Bob’s books? Yes, they’re his. 那些是鮑伯的書嗎?是的,它們是他的。
        Is this your parents’ apartment? No, it’s my brother’s.
          這是你雙親的公寓嗎?不,它是我兄弟的。
    One/Each of the ...
    結構︰One/Each of the+複數名詞(或代名詞)+單數動詞…。
    說明︰此句型意為“…其中之一(每一個)…”。one,each 為<不定代名詞>,one (each) of 指“二者以上”的每一個;跟隨 of 表示限定範圍的若為<名詞>,則<名詞>前須加 the,若為複數 <代名詞>,前面不加 the。該結構中<動詞>須用單數。
        One of the boys is nice.  這些男孩之中有一位是好的。
        One of them needs a new jacket.  他們之中有一位需要一件新夾克。
        Each of the theaters has different movies.  每家電影院都上映不同的電影。
    Both of the girls are ...
    結構︰Both/Three/Some/Many/All of the+複數名詞(或代名詞)+複數動詞+…。
    說明︰此句型意為“…其中兩個(三個,一些,許多,全部)…”。both,three,some,many,all都是<不定代名詞>;若跟隨 of 表示限定範圍的為複數<代名詞>,則<代名詞>前不加 the。該結構中<動詞>須用複數。
        Both of the girls are nice.  這兩位女孩是好的。
        Many of the supermarkets are having sales.  很多這些超級市場正在舉行拍賣。
        Three of the students came here yesterday. 這些學生中有三位昨天來這裡。
    ... who ...
    結構︰主詞(人)+關係代名詞(Who)+動詞+…。
    說明︰who 是主格<關係代名詞>,引導<形容詞子句>,前面的先行詞接“人”,後面接<動詞>,必須和先行詞保持一致。who 可用 that 代替。
        The man who called was tired.  打電話的那個男人是疲倦的。
        The boy who is speaking to Helen enjoys playing soccer.
          正在跟海倫談話的那男孩喜愛踢足球。
        People who use their free time well are usually healthy and happy.
          善於利用空閒時間的人通常健康又快樂。
    ... which ...
    結構︰主詞+動詞+名詞(物)+關係代名詞(which)+動詞…。
    說明︰which 可作主格或受格<關係代名詞>,引導<形容詞子句>,前面的先行詞接“動物”或“事物”,後面接<動詞>,必須和先行詞保持一致。
        Here is a book, which is very interesting.  這裡有一本非常有趣的書。
        I like to watch TV programs which are about sports.我喜歡觀賞有關運動的電視節目。
        They want to sell the house, which has only one door.他們想賣掉那幢只有一扇門的房子。
    ... by oneself ...
    結構︰主詞(人,物)+動詞+by oneself…。
    說明︰此句型意為“某人(物)自己…”。反身<代名詞>的人稱、數和性別,須和相關的<主詞>一致。
        They went to Suao by themselves.  他們自己去蘇澳。
        John fixed the tape recorder by himself.  約翰靠他自己修理錄音機。
        You can’t go mountain climbing by yourself.  你不能自己去登山。
    ... that/those of ...
    結構︰that/those of 作為避免重複的代名詞
    說明︰英文句構中,兩個<名詞>對稱而形成<比較>的情況時,為避免重複,第二個<名詞>若為單數,就改為<代名詞> that;若為複數,則改為<代名詞> those。不過在遇到<所有格>時,可使用<所有格>的<名詞>形態取代 that 或 those。
        The population of Tokyo is larger than that of London. 東京的人口比倫敦的多。
        The climate here is like that of Taipei.  這兒的氣候和台北非常相似。
        His children are well bred, whereas those of his sister are naughty.
          他的孩子很有教養,但他姊姊的孩子卻調皮得很。
        The students work harder than those of our school. 這些學生比我們學校的學生用功。
        His car is bigger than mine. 他的車比我的大。
    the former ... the latter
    結構︰the former ... the latter ...
    說明︰此句型意為“前者…後者…”。可代替單複數<名詞>,而“that(指前者)… this(指後者)…”或“the one(指前者)…the other(指後者)…”,只能代替單數<名詞>。若兩個<名詞>均為複數時,也可用“those ... these ...”取代“the former ... the latter ...”。
        Virtue and vice are two different things: the former/that/the one leads to peace, the latter/this/the other to misery.  美德與邪惡是不同的,前者帶來和平,後者導致痛苦。
        Man differs from beasts in that the former is able to laugh, while the latter aren’t.
          人不同於野獸,因前者能笑,而後者卻不能。
        Jane and Mary are good friends; the former is a teacher, the latter is a nurse.
          珍和瑪麗是好朋友,前者是老師,後者是護士。
        Dogs are more faithful animals than cats; these attach themselves to places, and those to persons.  狗比貓忠心,後者依戀地方,前者依戀人。
    ... one ..., the other ...
    結構︰…two+複數名詞,one…the other…
    說明︰此句型意為“一個…另一個…”。用於限定的兩者,只有在“two+複數<名詞>”之後才能使用。
        I have two aunts; one lives in Tokyo and the other in Osaka.
          我有兩個姑媽;一個住在東京,另一個住在大阪。
        I have two dogs; one is white, and the other is brown.我有兩條狗;一條白色的,一條棕色的。
        The two brothers often quarrel with each other; one is stubborn, and the other (is) selfish.
          這兩兄弟經常吵架;一個很固執,另一個則很自私。
        I don’t like this one; show me the other.
          我不喜歡這個,給我看另一個。(暗示:這種東西只有兩種)
    ... one ..., another ...
    結構︰…three+複數名詞,one…another…and the other…
    說明︰此句型意為“一個…一個…而另一個…”。用於限定的三者,只能在“three+複數<名詞>”之後使用。
        There are three rooms; one is mine, another is my sister’s and the other is my parents’.
          有三間房間:一間是我的,一間是我妹妹的,剩下的一間是我父母的。
        He has three brothers; one is a teacher, another (is) a soldier, and the other an artist.
          他有三個兄弟:一個是老師,一個是軍人,而另一個是藝術家。
        They three get along well with one another; one is married, another is still a bachelor, and the other has a girl friend.
          他們三人彼此相處愉快;一個已婚,一個仍是光棍,而另一個則已有了女友。
    ... one ... another ...
    結構︰... one ... another ...
    說明︰此句型意為“一個…而另一個…”。若有三者以上,而未加以限定時,則可使用本<句型>。
        I don’t like this one; show me another.
          我不喜歡這個,給我看另一個。(暗示:這種東西至少有三種以上)
        At one time, she is fine, but at another, she is abnormal.
          有時候,她表現得很好,有時候又失常。
        I really don’t know what kind of man he really is; on one occasion, he is normal, and on another, he acts like a lunatic.我真不了解他到底是怎樣的人;一會兒正常,一會兒又像個瘋子。
    ... one thing, ... another
    結構︰... is one thing, and ... is another
    說明︰此句型意為“…是一回事,而…又是另一回事”。
        To know is one thing; to teach is quite another.
    知道是一回事,教又是另一回事。(學者未必是良師。)
        It is one thing to make money, and it is another to spend it.
          賺錢是一回事,而花錢又是另一回事。
        Saying is one thing, and doing is another. 說是一回事,做又是另一回事。
    ... one ... or another ...
    結構︰one+名詞+or another
    說明︰此句型意為“某一…”。本<句型>等於“some+<名詞>+or other”。
        Most of us have to read a certain amount of material for one reason or another.
          我們大多數人必須為某種理由閱讀若干的資料。
        He was absent from the meeting for one reason or another.他為某種理由而沒有出席會議。
        I am sure he will succeed one day or another.  我確信某一天他會成功的。
        For one reason or another, she committed suicide. 不知什麼原因,她自殺了。
    ... some ... others ...
    結構︰... some ... others ...
    說明︰此句型意為“一些…而另一些…”。用於非限定的眾群,相當於“some ... some ...”。
        Some of us value peace and comfort very highly. Others value pleasure and excitement.
           我們有些人非常重視安寧與舒適,有些人重視快樂與刺激。
        Some of us can speak English. Others/Some can speak French.
          我們有些人會說英語,有些人會說法語。
        Some people believe in God and others don’t.  有人相信上帝;有人則不相信。
        To some life means pleasure, to others suffering.
    對一些人來說,人生的意義是享樂,對另外一些人來說則是受苦。
    ... one ... the others ...
    結構︰... one/some ... the others ...
    說明︰此句型意為“一個/一些…其餘…”。用於限定的三者以上。
        We have 30 students in our class; one passed the exam, and the others (=the rest) all failed.
          我們班上有三十位學生,只有一位通過考試,其餘都不及格。
        Of the 40 students, some do well in study, and the others are playing around.
          四十個學生中,有一些功課很好,其餘的都很混。
        Some of the boys were late, but all the others were in time for the meeting.
          男孩子中,有一些遲到了,但其餘的人都及時趕上開會。
    ..., some ..., others ...
    結構︰... some ... others ... still others ...
    說明︰此句型意為“一些…一些…而另一些…”。用於非限定的眾多群,相當於“some ... some ... some ...”。
        People vary in taste; some love music, some enjoy taking pictures, and still others are fond of climbing mountains. 每個人嗜好不同,有人喜歡音樂,有人喜歡攝影,還有些人喜歡爬山。
        Society is made up of a variety of people; some are good, others (are) bad, and still others (are) in between.社會是由形形色色的人組成。有些人很好,有些人很壞,也有些人介乎兩者之間。
        There are many people in the park; some are walking, others are jogging, and still others are doing exercises. 公園裡有很多人,有的在散步,有的在慢跑,還有的在做操。
    Of all (the) ..., ...
    結構︰Of all(the)+複數名詞,主詞+動詞…
    說明︰此句型意為“在所有…之中…”。all 之後有 the,表示“所有這些…”,是特定的觀念;all 之後沒有 the,表示“所有的”,是泛指的觀念。
        Of all the fibers now used by man, a very large percentage is man-made.
          現在人類所使用的所有纖維之中,有很大的百分比是人造的。
        Of all books, the Bible seems to be read most widely.
          在所有的書中,聖經是最廣泛地被閱讀的。
        Of all the students in our school, Tom is mathematical genius.
          在我們學校所有的學生之中,湯姆是數學天才。
    含關係詞之句型
    ... + N + who/which ...
    結構︰…+名詞+who/whom/which/that…
    說明︰<關係代名詞>有 who,whom,which 三種,均用以引導<形容詞子句>,修飾前面的<名詞>。修飾人用 who 或 whom;修飾物用 which。that 可用來取代 who,whom 或 which,但須注意其前不可置<介系詞>,也不可有逗點,that 之前若有<插入語>,則不受逗點限制。作受格的 whom, which,that 在限定修飾的句構中可以省略。
        Never trust a man who (that) breaks his word easily. 不要信任一個常常食言的人。
        He laughs best who laughs last.  最後笑者笑得最好。
        He is a man on whom I can rely.  他是我可以信賴的那一種人。
        No one will buy a book which (that) is poorly written.  沒有人會買一本寫得很爛的書。
        I have found the bicycle which (that) you lost yesterday.我發現了你昨天丟的那輛腳踏車。
        I like my school, which is famous for its excellent facilities.
    我喜歡我的學校,它以優良的設備出名。
        Volleyball is a sport of which I am very fond.  排球是我很喜歡的運動。
        He is a good boy, as far as I know, that (whom) you can trust.
          據我所知,他是個好男孩,你可以相信他。
        There are many things that money can’t buy.  有很多東西是金錢買不到的。
        Don’t take things that do not belong to you.  不要拿不屬於你的東西。
    ... + N + whose ...
    結構︰…+名詞+whose…
    說明︰whose 為關係<代名詞的所有格>,係由 his,her,their,my,your 以及 its 等<所有格>變化而成,引導<形容詞子句>。
        People whose homes are in town want to live in the country.住在市區裡的人希望住在鄉下。
        This is a short story whose easy style I love very much.
          這是一則短篇小說,我很喜歡它那簡單的筆調。
        I envy Mike, whose car is fancy.  真羨慕麥克,他的車子真漂亮。
    ... those who + V ...
    結構︰those+who+動詞
    說明︰此句型意為“(那些)…的人”。those 在此是泛指一般的人。
        Christmas is a time for friends and family members to see each other again and to send Christmas cards to those who live far away.
          聖誕節是朋友家人互相再見,以及寄聖誕卡給住在遠方的人的一段時間。
        God helps those who help themselves. 自助者神助之。
        We can talk to those who live far away by telephone.我們可以用電話和住在遠處的人說話。
        Those who abandon themselves to despair can not succeed.那些自暴自棄的人無法成功。
        There is no easy way to do business, and only those who do their best to win clients can win business. 做生意無捷徑可走,只有那些千方百計贏得客戶的人才能贏得生意。
    ... all (that) ...
    結構︰... all (that) ...
    說明︰此句型意為“所有…的一切東西”。all 等於 everything;that 為<關係代名詞>,代替 all。that 在所引導的<形容詞子句>中若做<主詞>時,不可省略,但若做<受詞>,則往往予以省略。all that 往往可視為<複合關係代名詞> what 看待。
        All (that) he said is true.  他說的都是真的。
        We must do all that is to be done.  我們必須做該做的事。
        All (What) you have to do is (to) follow me.  你所必須要做得就是跟著我。
        All (that) I want is a beautiful red car.  我所要的就是一輛美麗的紅色車子。
        All that he does, he does it well.  他做任何事都很出色。
        All that you do, do with your might.  做任何事都應不遺餘力。
        All you have to do is call on the house phone.  我只要做的就是撥個室內電話。
        All you have to do is learn it by heart.  你只要做的就是把它背出來。
        All I have to do is persuade him to go with us. 我只要做的就是說服他跟我們一起去。
    ... all + N + that ...
    結構︰…all/any/every/no+名詞+that…
    說明︰all,any,every,no 若修飾<名詞>,該<名詞>之後的<關係代名詞>一般要用 that 取代 who,whom,which。
        All the students that work hard can definitely pass the exam. 用功的學生必能通過考試。
        I have no disk that may interest you. 我沒有一張唱片能引起你的興趣。
        Every student that comes here should report to me. 每一個到這裡來的學生都應向我報告。
        Don’t do anything that should go against his will. 不要做違背他心意的事。
    ... the only N that ...
    結構︰…the only/the very/the first/the last+名詞+that…
    說明︰the only,the very,the first,the last 若修飾<名詞>,該<名詞>之後的<關係代名詞>一般要用 that 取代 who,whom,which。
        Man is the only creature that is gifted with speech. 人類是唯一被賦予語言能力的動物。
        He is the last person that I’ll get along with. 他是我最不願與之相處的人。
        He is the very person that knows the password.  只有他知道密碼。
    ... the most N that ...
    結構︰形容詞最高級+名詞+that…
    說明︰<最高級>的<形容詞>修飾<名詞>時,該<名詞>之後的<關係代名詞>一般要用 that 取代 who,whom, which。
        This is the most interest book that I have ever read.  這是我念過的最有趣的書。
        You are the most beautiful girl that I have ever seen. 你是我見過的最美麗的女孩。
        This is the most convincing evidence that I can find to prove my point.
          這是我所能找到的最令人信服的證據,以證明我的觀點。
    Who/What ... that ...
    結構︰疑問詞(who,what 等)…+that…
    說明︰為避免與疑問詞重複,可使用 that 取代 who,whom,which。
        Who is the boy that is standing over there?  站在那裡的男孩是誰?
        What is the book about that she is reading?  她在看什麼書?
        Where is the man that owes you $100?  那個欠你一百塊的人住在哪裡?
    what ... V ...
    結構︰what+(主詞)+動詞…
    說明︰此句型意為“…的東西”。what 是<複合關係代名詞>,等於 the thing which。不論“what+<動詞>…”或“what+<主詞>+<動詞>”,都是<名詞子句>。“what+<主詞>+be”譯成“…的樣子/情況”。
        That’s what’s polluting the lake.   那就是污染湖水的東西。
        What do you guess is in the box?  你猜箱子裡有什麼?
        This is what he wanted.  這就是他要的東西。
        Character is what we are when we are alone with ourselves in the dark.
           品德就是自我在暗地裡獨處時的樣子。
        John is not what he was.  約翰不是以前那樣的約翰了。
        Without Mr. Chang, I would not be what I am.如果沒有張先生的話,我就不會有現在的樣子。
    ... what + be + called ...
    結構︰…what+be+called…
    說明︰此句型意為“所謂的…”。等於“what+we/you/they+call”。
        He gathered earlier writings to prepare what are called the Five Classics.
          他蒐集以前的作品,編成了所謂的五經。
        He is very interested in what are called popular songs. 他對所謂的流行歌曲很感興趣。
        We should improve what is called the quality of living.我們應該改進所謂的生活品質。
        He is what you call a “walking dictionary”. 他就是你所謂的“活字典”。
    What we do is + V ...
    結構︰What+主詞+do+is+動詞…
    說明︰此句型意為“…所要做的就是…”。<主詞>之後一定用 do;至於<動詞>,可以看成是 to+<動詞>的 to 被省略了。
        What we can not do is make a cloud produce rain if it is not ready to produce it.
          我們所辦不到的是要使雲產生雨,如果它不是隨時要產生雨的話。
        What you have to do is say (put) in a good word for me.你所必須做的就是為我美言幾句。
        What we need to do is prepare something to eat. 我們所需要的就是準備一些吃的。
    ... what is said above ...
    結構︰…what is said above…
    說明︰此句型意為“上面所說的”。
        As we learn from what is said above, the tides can be very useful.
           依照上面所說的,我們知道潮汐可以是非常有幫助的。
        From what is said above, we can draw a conclusion. 由上面所說的,我們可以做一個結論。
        We should pay more attention to what is said above. 我們應該更加注意上面所說的。
    What follows is ...
    結構︰What follows+be 動詞…
    說明︰此句型意為“以下(跟著來的)是…”。What follows 是<名詞子句>。若要表達其他的意思,可以把 follows 換成別的<動詞>。
        What follows is some excerpts of the famous speech he delivered in Washington D.C.
          以下是他在華府所發表的那篇著名的演講中的一些摘錄。
        What follows is the truth that men are created equal.  以下是人生而平等的真理。
        What follows is the process of his being awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1964.
          以下是他被頒贈一九六四年諾貝爾和平獎的過程。
    ... what little + N
    結構︰…what little+不可數名詞
    說明︰此句型意為“所有的一點點…”。等於 all the little。
        His mother sent him what little money she had saved.他的母親把所有僅存的錢都寄給他了。
        I’ll let you share what little information I have collected.
    我會讓你分享我所蒐集的僅有的一些資料。
        She was robbed of what little money she had.  她僅有的一點兒錢都被搶了。
        The little boy use what little strength he had to push the door open.這小男孩使勁地把門推開。
    A is to B what C is to D.
    結構︰A is to B what C is to D.
    說明︰此句型意為“A 之於 B 猶如 C 之於 D”。等於“A is to B as C is to D.”或“What C is to D (that) A is to B”或“As C is to D so is A to B”。這是為了讓人明白 A 與 B 的關係,而利用人所熟知的 C 與 D 的關係來比喻的句法。what 是“A is to B”之 be <動詞>的<補語>。
        Exercise is to the body what thinking is to the brain.
    運動和身體的關係,如同思考和頭腦的關係。
        What lungs are to the animal, leaves are to the plant.
          就像肺是動物所不可缺的一樣,葉子也是植物所不可或缺的。
        As water is to the plant, so are books to me. 書和我的關係正如同水和植物的關係。
    what with ... and ...
    結構︰what with ... and (what with) ...
    說明︰此句型意為“一方面因為…一方面因為…”。等於“half through ... (half through) ...”、“partly because (of) ... (partly because (of)) ...”。
        What with laziness and (what with) illness, he lost his job.
          一方面因為懶,一方面因為生病,他丟了工作。
        What with the wind and what with the rain, our trip was ruined.
          又是刮風又是下雨,我們的旅遊都給搞砸了。
        What with the high prices, and what with the badness of the times, we find it hard to get along.  部分因為物價高漲,部分因為時機不好,生活真是愈來愈難過了。
    ... the same + N + as ...
    結構︰…the same+名詞+as…
    說明︰此句型意為“與…相同的”。as 做準<關係代名詞>(既當<連接詞>又做<關係代名詞>用),相當於“as the+前面的<名詞>+<關係代名詞>(who,whom,which)引導的<形容詞子句>”。
        I want the same camera as you have.  我想要一隻和你一樣的照相機。
        He is the same person as came here yesterday.  他就是昨天來這裡的那個人。
        He is not the same man as he used to be.  他已不是當年的他了。
    ... such + N + as ...
    結構︰…such+名詞+as…
    說明︰此句型意為“像…一樣的”。是以 as 以下的人、物、動作、狀態等為對象,比較有關種類、性質、程度、範圍等。as 做準<關係代名詞>(既當<連接詞>又做<關係代名詞>用),相當於“as the+前面的<名詞>+<關係代名詞>(who,whom,which)”引導的<形容詞子句>。
        Such people as are friendly are easy to approach.  親切之人容易接近。
        He is not such a bad guy as you (are).  他不是那種和你一樣的壞傢伙。
        Such a good student as he (is) will succeed.  像他這樣的好學生一定會成功。
    ... such ... as ...
    結構︰such+複數名詞+as+名詞…
    說明︰此句型意為“像…的…;…這一類的”。as 後的<名詞>有多個,表示舉例說明。
        From animals we get such materials as wool, silk, leather and furs.
          從動物我們得到像羊毛、絲、皮革、與毛皮這樣的材料。
        At his birthday party, I met such people as professor, scientist and actor.
          在他的生日宴會上,我遇到了像教授、科學家和演員的人。
        You should eat such vegetables as carrot, celery and spinach.
          你應該吃胡蘿蔔、芹菜和菠菜這類的蔬菜。
    ... such as ...
    結構︰主詞+動詞…複數名詞+such as 名詞1,名詞2 and 名詞3
    說明︰此句型意為“…例如…”。such as 引導的部分是作為<名詞>的補充說明。
        Acid rain is harmful to amphibians such as salamanders, spring peepers, and frogs.
          酸雨是有害於兩棲的動物,例如鯢、春天裡唧唧叫的小動物和青蛙。
        In this paragraph there are many nouns, such as boy, girl, and book.
          這一段裡面有很多名詞,例如男孩、女孩和書本。
        I know many of them, such as John, Peter, and Tom.
          我認識他們當中的很多人,例如約翰、彼得和湯姆。
        They may choose to study foreign languages, advanced mathematics or science, such as physics or chemistry. 他們可以選擇學習外國語文、高等數學或像物理、化學的科學。
        We have different pies, such as apple, cherry, and strawberry pies.
          我們有不同的派,例如蘋果、櫻桃和草莓派。
        Many things pollute water, such as tires, trash, and plastic bags.
          很多東西使水污染,例如輪胎、垃圾和塑膠袋。
    as is often the case ...
    結構︰as/which is often the case (with) ...
    說明︰此句型意為“…是常有的情形”。這是當<關係代名詞>的 as 以全體<主要子句>當先行詞的<句型>,可以用 which 代替 as。
        He was late for school, as (which) was often the case with him.
          他上學遲到,但這對他而言已是家常便飯了。
        As is often the case with old people, my grandfather is fond of talking about good old days.
          就像其他老人一樣,我祖父也老喜歡講他當年的故事。
        He quarreled with his friends, as was the often the case.
          他和朋友吵架,但這已屢見不鮮。
    There is no + N + but ...
    結構︰There is no+名詞+but…
    說明︰此句型意為“無…而不”。but 做準<關係代名詞>(既當<連接詞>又做<關係代名詞>用),相當於“who/whom/which…not…”。
        There is no one but is (=who is not) concerned about his future. 沒有人不關心自己的未來。
        There is nothing but he can do. (=There is nothing that he can’t do.) 沒有他做不到的事。
        There is no rule but has exceptions. (=There is no rule that doesn’t have exceptions.)
          每一種規則都有例外。
        There is no one but wishes to get somewhere. 沒有人不希望將來能有所成就。
        There is no man but has his faults.  沒有人沒有缺點。
    ... N + where ...
    結構︰…地方名詞+where…
    說明︰此句型意為“…的地方”。where 是<關係副詞>,由“<介系詞>+<關係代名詞> which”變化而成,引導<形容詞子句>,修飾<名詞>。在限定修飾的句構中,可保留 where,而將前面的<名詞>省略。
        There are some countries where (=in which) the supply of fuel is very limited.
          有些國家的燃料供應非常有限。
        He went to the station, where (=at which) he met his father.他到車站去,見到了他父親。
        That’s (the place) where he spent most of his life. 那裡就是他度過大半生的地方。
    ... reach the point where
    結構︰... reach the point + where ...
    說明︰此句型意為“到了…的地步”。reach 可以換成 come to(到達)。
        Things reached the point where the two groups sat on opposite sides of the church, glaring across the aisle. 事情到了兩群人馬各坐在教堂裡相對的兩邊,隔著通道怒目相視的地步。
        They have reached the point where they have to separate with each other.
          他們已經到了必須彼此分手的地步。
        Noise is coming to the point where we can’t put up with it.
          噪音快到我們無法忍受的地步。
    ... N + when ...
    結構︰…時間名詞+(when)…
    說明︰此句型意為“…的時候”。when 是<關係副詞>,由“<介系詞>+<關係代名詞> which”變化而成,引導<形容詞子句>,修飾<名詞>。在限定修飾的句構中,可保留 when,而將前面的<名詞>省略;也可將 when 省略。
        Tell me (the exact time) when the next train will arrive.告訴我下一班火車抵達的正確時刻。
        She came in June, when (=in which) it was very hot.  她六月來,那時天氣非常熱。
        The last time (when) I saw him, he was quite well.  最後一次看到他時,他還相當健康。
    ... the reason why ...
    結構︰... the reason + why ...
    說明︰此句型意為“…的理由”。why 是<關係副詞>,由“<介系詞>+<關係代名詞> which”變化而成,引導<形容詞子句>,修飾<名詞>。可保留 why,而將前面的<名詞>省略;也可將 why 省略。the reason why 無非限定用法,即 why 之前不可以加逗點。
        Please tell me the reason why (=for which) you were absent.  請告訴我你為什麼缺席。
        Tell me the reason (why) he refused to listen to my advice.告訴我為何他拒絕聽從我的勸告。
        That’s (the reason) why he cried.  那就是他為何哭的原因。
    ... the way how ...
    結構︰... the way + how ...
    說明︰此句型意為“…的方法”。how 是<關係副詞>,由“<介系詞>+<關係代名詞> which”變化而成,引導<形容詞子句>,修飾<名詞>。可保留 how,而將前面的<名詞>省略;也可將 how 省略。the way how 無非限定用法,即 how 之前不可以加逗點。
        I don’t know the way how (=in which) he did it.  我不知道他是以何種方法做這事的。
        That’s the way (how) he treats people.  那就是他的待人之道。
        I know (the way) how he did it.  我知道他是以何種方法做這事的。
    ... whoever/whomever ...
    結構︰... whoever/whomever ...
    說明︰此句型意為“任何…的人”。whoever 是<複合關係代名詞>,可做<主詞>或<受詞>,等於 anyone who; whomever 也是<複合關係代名詞>,但只能做<受詞>,等於 anyone whom。
        Whoever commits the crime shall be sentenced to ten years in prison.
          任何人犯了此罪就要被判處十年徒刑。
        I’ll teach English to whoever wants to learn it.  誰想學英文,我就教他。
        I hate whoever lies.  我痛恨任何一個說謊的人。
        I like whomever you like.  你喜歡的人,我都喜歡。
        You may dance with whomever you like at the dancing party.舞會上你想跟誰跳舞就跟誰跳。
    ... whatever ...
    結構︰... whatever ...
    說明︰此句型意為“任何…的事”。whatever 是<複合關係代名詞>,可做<主詞>或<受詞>,等於 anything which。
        Whatever she says is true.   她所說的都是實話。
        They do whatever they are doing--all out.他們做任何他們所做的事--都是全力以赴。
        You can’t always do whatever you like.  你不能老是做任何你喜歡的事。
        Whatever my mother cooks is to my liking. 媽媽做的菜我都喜歡。
        Whatever it is.  任何存在的東西都是存在的。
    ... whichever ...
    結構︰... whichever ...
    說明︰此句型意為“(同一類的)任何…的東西”。whichever 是<複合關係代名詞>,等於 any one which。與 whatever 的用法完全相同,只不過 whichever 是指同一類的任何一項,而 whatever則指不同類的任何一項。
        I have three cars, and you may have whichever you like.
          我有三輛車,你可以挑一輛你喜歡的。
        I have a car, a house and an orchard and you may have whatever you like best.
          我有一輛車,一棟房子和一座果園,你可以挑一樣你最喜歡的。
        These pictures can be kept for free. You may take whichever you like.
          這些畫可免費擁有。你喜歡哪一幅就拿哪一幅。
    否定句型
    I am not ...
    結構︰主詞+be 動詞(am/are/is)+not+…。
    說明︰在肯定句中 be <動詞>的後面加 not 就構成<否定句>。
        I am not a student.   我不是學生。
        You are not a lawyer.  你不是律師。
        It is not a watch.  它不是手錶。
    I am not + V-ing.
    結構︰主詞+am(are/is)+not+現在分詞…。
    說明︰此句型意為“<主詞>(人,物)不是正在…”。要構成<現在進行式>的<否定句>,只需在 be <動詞>後面加 not。
        They are not playing.  他們不是正在玩。
        She is not watching TV.  她不是正在看電視。
        We are not cleaning the room.  我們不是正在打掃房間。
    I don’t + V ...
    結構︰主詞+don’t/doesn’t+原形動詞+…。
    說明︰此句型意為“<主詞>不(沒有)做某事”。肯定句中,如有一般<動詞>(speak/work/teach/…),則在一般<動詞>前加 don’t 或 doesn’t,並將一般<動詞>改為原形<動詞>(不加s或es),即構成<否定句>。
        I don’t have any brothers.   我沒有任何的兄弟。
        He doesn’t know Mr. Brown.   他不認識布朗先生。
        My mother doesn’t speak English.   我母親不會講英語。
    I wasn’t ...
    結構︰主詞+was/were+not+形容詞+過去時間。
    說明︰此句型意為“<主詞>不是…”。was,were 是 be 動詞的<過去式>,當句中出現以下<副詞>(<片語>)時,<動詞>常用過去式:ago,before,yesterday(morning,afternoon,evening), last night,the other day,in the past,just now…。 在 was,were 後面加 not,即構成 be <動詞>過去式的<否定句>;將 was,were 移到句首,w 改為大寫,句點改為問號,即構成 be <動詞>過去式的<疑問句>。
        Tom was not busy yesterday.   湯姆昨天不忙。
        We were not at home yesterday.   我們昨天不在家。
        It was not hot yesterday afternoon.   昨天下午天氣不熱。
        The boys were sick yesterday.   這些男孩昨天生病。
        It was cold last winter.   去年冬天天氣寒冷。
        Was your brother early to class yesterday morning? 你弟弟昨天早晨上課早到嗎?
    I didn’t + V ...
    結構︰主詞+didn’t+原形動詞+…過去時間。
    說明︰本句型的肯定形式是:“<主詞>+過去式(+ed)+…過去時間”;將肯定句中的過去式改為“did not(=didn’t)+原形<動詞>”,即構成過去式的<否定句>。
        He didn’t clean the room yesterday.  他昨天沒打掃房間。
        She washed the skirt yesterday.   她昨天洗這裙子。
        Tom didn’t watch TV last night.  湯姆昨晚沒看電視。
        He talked to his sister after lunch.  午餐後,他跟他的妹妹談話。
        They didn’t cook lunch for their grandfather yesterday.他們昨天沒有為他們的祖父做午飯。
        Mary cleaned the room this morning.  瑪麗今天早晨打掃了房間。
        John didn’t get up early this morning.  約翰今天早晨沒有早起床。
        Tom didn’t iron his shirt yesterday.   湯姆昨天沒有熨襯衣。
        My mother didn’t water the garden last week.  我母親上星期沒有給花園裡澆水。
    I have not + V-ed ...
    結構︰主詞+have/has+not+過去分詞+…。
    說明︰在<助動詞> have(has)的後面加“not”形成<現在完成式>的否定式。
        I have not heard from John for a long time.  我好久沒有收到約翰的來信了。
        She has not read today’s newspaper.  她還沒有看今天的報紙。
        They have not seen that movie on television.  他們還沒看過電視上的那部影片。
    There is no + N/V-ing ...
    結構︰There+be+no/not a/not any+名詞/動名詞(+副詞)
    說明︰這是表示存在的<否定句>型。否定詞用 no,也可用 not a 或 not any。not a 後面跟單數<名詞>;not any 跟複數<名詞>;no 後面的<名詞>單複數都可以。其中以 not a 所表示的否定<語氣>較強。如果帶有各種<副詞>,通常是地點<副詞>置於<時間副詞>的前面。
        There was nothing to buy in the store. There were no shirts, no vests, no jeans, and no pajamas. 那家商店裡沒什麼可買的。那裡沒有襯衫,沒有背心,沒有牛仔褲,也沒有睡衣。
        There was not a moment to be lost.  分秒必爭。
        There is no denying the fact.   事實決不能否認。
        (There must be) No talking in here!   這兒不許講話。
        No smoking (within these walls)!  (場內)禁煙!
    There is no such + N
    結構︰There is no such+名詞
    說明︰此句型意為“沒有這樣的…”。
        There was no such club.  沒有這樣的俱樂部。
        There is no such man in our neighborhood.   在我們的鄰近沒有這樣的人。
        There is no such book as you want.   沒有像你所要的這種書。
    I am away from ...
    結構︰用肯定的陳述句形式來表達否定意義
    說明︰這主要是通過某些含有否定意義的詞彙來表示,如:off,out of,far from,away from, refuse 等,以及含有否定意義的詞綴的詞彙,如:dislike,unhappy,impossible 等。
        Mr. Jones is away from Taipei.   瓊斯先生已不在台北。
        The project is far from perfect.  這項企劃很不完美。
        The manager is out of the office.  經理不在辦公室。
        They shun personal fame and gains.他們不計個人名利。(shun 原義為“避開”,引伸為“不要”)
        I dislike this student very much.  我頂討厭這個學生。
    ... far from ...
    結構︰... far from ...
    說明︰表“離…很遠”,後面接<名詞>做<受詞>;但 far from 可置於句首做<介系詞>,表“非但不…”,以<動名詞>做<受詞>;若置於 be <動詞>之後,則視為<副詞>,表“一點也不”,後面接<名詞>或<形容詞>。
        It is far from my intention to do such a thing.   我根本不想做這種事。
        I live far away from my school.  我住的地方離學校很遠。
        Far from working hard, he played around.  他非但不用功,反而到處鬼混。
        Far from accepting my advice, he went back on me.他非但不接受我的勸告,反而背叛了我。
        His explanation was far from satisfactory.  他的解釋一點也不令人滿意。
        I am far from blaming him.  我並不是在責備他。
        Far from losing money, he can hardly count his profits.
    他哪裡是在賠錢,他幾乎無法計算其利潤呢!
        He is far from well.   他並不健康。
        It is far from the truth.   這哪裡是事實。
    It is free form + N ...
    結構︰主詞+be 動詞+free from+名詞…
    說明︰此句型意為“沒有…”。本<片語>須置於 be <動詞>之後,等於 without,以<名詞>做其<受詞>。
        He leads a life (which is) free from care.  他過著無憂無慮的生活。
        The hill is completely free from trees.  這個山丘上一棵樹也沒有。
        This city is free from thieves.  這個城市沒有盜賊。
        When her son returned she was at last free from anxiety.她兒子回來了,她總算解除了憂慮。
    I told him not to go.
    結構︰…not+非述語成分
    說明︰本<句型>的述語是肯定形式,not 加在句中其他成分上,可以否定<主詞>、<受詞>或<副詞>。 not 用以否定非述語成分,主要是用在兩種情形:一是不這樣安排 not,就會改變句子的意義;二是用於含有對比的敘述中。
        I told him not to go.  我告訴了他,叫他不要去。
        He goes to school not by bus, but on foot.  他去上學不是乘公共汽車,而是走路去的。
        Not a contract was to be signed.  連一個合同也沒簽。
        The teacher told him not to make such a mistake again. 老師叫他不要再犯這樣的錯誤。
        I went to see my friend off, not to meet him.  我是去送朋友,不是去接他。
        He felt sorry for not coming to the meeting on time.  他為沒有準時到會感到很抱歉。
    No + N + V ...
    結構︰No+單數名詞+肯定式動詞…
    說明︰此句型意為“沒有一…”。此<句型>“No+<名詞>”的 No 是“Not a(沒有一個)”之意,有時“No+<名詞>”是“No+other+<名詞>”之意。
        No animal of the horoscope is considered dumb or ugly or evil.
          天宮圖上的動物沒有一種被認為是愚笨的或醜陋的或邪惡的。
        No student in this school is from the southern part of Taiwan.
          這個學校沒有一個學生是來自南台灣的。
        No grammar book is more popular than this one with senior high school students.
          沒有(別的)一本文法書比這一本更受高中生的歡迎。
    I don’t think ...
    結構︰主詞+否定式動詞+副詞/that-子句
    說明︰如果否定的是後面的<副詞>或<子句>,通常是將否定詞提前移到述語中去,其意義仍然是表示否定後面的部分。像 I think,I believe,I suppose,I feel,I see 等詞語引出否定的<子句>時,大多是將 not 放在述語<動詞>部分。在口語中,尤其是這樣。
        I don’t think it’s right to make such a hasty decision.我認為如此倉促地做出決定是不正確的。
        I don’t think this is worth trying.  我看這是不值得一試的。
        Many people don’t think it is dangerous to go mountain climbing.很多人認為爬山並不危險。
        I still don’t see the point you emphasized.  我仍然弄不清楚你所強調的要點。
        I don’t see any point of playing video games all day.我看不出整天打電動玩具有什麼意義。
        I don’t believe that he will come tonight.  我認為他今晚不會來。
        I’m not feeling very well today, I can’t attend the meeting.
          我今天感到不怎麼舒服,我不能參加會議了。
        He did not come here in order to attend the meeting.  他來這裡決不是要參加會議的。
    All is not ...
    結構︰all/both/every…+not…
    說明︰此句型意為“並非一切…都是”。含有全體意義的<代名詞>和<副詞>如 all,every(及其派生詞), both,always,altogether,entirely,wholly 等,用於否定結構時不是表示全部被否定,而只表示其中的一部分被否定。也可將 not 置於 all,every 等詞的前面。
        All is not gold that glitters. (=All that glitters is not gold.)  閃閃發光者並非都是金子。
        Not all the students study hard.  並非所有的學生都用功念書。
        I don’t know all of them.  我並不都認識他們。
        The rich are not always happy.  富人未必一定幸福。
        A kind man is not always patient.  心腸好的人未必總是有耐心。
        His deeds do not always agree with his words.  他的言行並非總是一致。
        Nobody can always have good luck.  沒有人始終能夠有好運。
        A wise man doesn’t know everything.  智者並非每一件事都懂。
        Every one cannot become businessman.  不是所有的人都能成為商人。
        Such a product is not found everywhere.  這樣的產品不是隨處可以找到的。
        Not both of his sisters agree to his suggestion.  他兩個姊姊並未都同意他的提議。
        Both items are not fashionable.  兩個品種並不都很時髦。
        I don’t like both of them.  他們兩人我並不都喜歡。
        Not both the artists have a keen eye for beauty.  這兩位藝術家並非都有審美的眼光。
        Not both Peter and John enjoy music.  並非彼得與約翰都喜歡音樂。
        He doesn’t wholly agree to the plan.  他並不完全同意這項計劃。
    ... not necessarily ...
    結構︰... not necessarily ...
    說明︰此句型意為“未必是…”。not necessary 是"不必要的"。
        The name of a restaurant won’t necessarily tell you much about the food it serves.
        餐廳的名字未必能告訴你很多它所供應的食物。
        A good book does not necessarily sell well.  好書未必暢銷。
        This is not necessarily the best.  這未必是最好的。
        Learned men are not necessarily wise.  博學者未必都是聰明的。
        A hero is not necessarily one who has done brave things. 英雄未必是做過勇敢之事的人。
        The strongest man does not necessarily live the longest.  最強壯的人未必活得最久。
    No/none ... + V ...
    結構︰no/none 等否定詞+肯定式動詞…
    說明︰本<句型>表示全體否定。否定詞 no,none,nobody,nothing,nowhere,nohow,neither, never 等本身就是絕對的否定意義,<動詞>雖是肯定形式,但整個句子仍表達否定的意義,常譯做“任何…都不”,“大家都不…”,“全都沒有…”,“任何時候都不…”,“無論何處都不…”等。這些否定詞引導的詞組大多做<主詞>,也可做<受詞>和<副詞>。
        No buyers can buy this sort of product.  任何買主都不能購買這種產品。
        Neither of my parents enjoys music.   我父母都不喜歡音樂。
        I like neither of the designs. (=I don’t like either of the designs.)這兩個花樣我都不喜歡。
        None of the three is a good student (are good students).  這三人都不是好學生。
        Nothing worth doing is easy.  值得做的事沒有容易做的。
        Nothing is impossible to a willing mind.  有志的人沒有做不到的事。
        Nothing is changeless.  沒有一成不變的東西。
        Nobody is without faults.  沒有人是沒有缺點的。
        He never gets up early.   他從未早起過。
        The book is nowhere to be had.  這本書什麼地方都買不到。
    All + V + un...
    結構︰all/both/every 等+肯定式動詞+含否定意義的單詞…
    說明︰此句型意為“一切…都不”。all,every 等詞在本句型中表示全部否定,其否定意義不是通過述語 <動詞>,而是通過句子其他成分中含有否定意義的單詞表達出來的。
        All goods here are unsaleable.  這裡的一切貨物都是賣不出去的。
        All his plan came to nothing. 他的一切計劃都沒有實現。
        Every selling plan made by him is impossible of execution.
          他所做的一切銷售計畫都是不能實現的。
        We all disbelieved what he promised.  對於他的許諾我們全都不相信。
        Their quarrels about the trivia are always interminable. 他們對瑣事的爭吵總是沒完沒了。
    ... not ..., neither ...
    結構︰(前句)否定句,+(後句)nor/neither+肯定式動詞+主詞…
    說明︰後句是補充的否定,因為以 no,neither 開頭,所以要採用倒裝句構。
        She has no experience in typing, nor does the skill interest her.
          她沒有打字經驗,那種技術也引不起她的興趣。
        You can’t cancel the contract, nor can I, nor can anybody else.
          你不能撤約,我也不能,任何人都不能。
        The first isn’t good, and neither is the second.  第一個不是好的,第二個也不好。
        You did not see the teacher, neither did I.  你沒有看見老師,我也沒有。
    ... not ... still ...
    結構︰主詞+否定式動詞…+much less/still less+名詞片語/子句
    說明︰much less 或 still less 引導的<片語>或<子句>,表示一種追加的否定。less 是由 little 的否定意義而來的,所以只能用於<否定句>,一般譯做“更無;更不”。
    She cannot buy daily necessities, much less luxuries.
    她連生活必需品都不能買,更不用說奢侈品。
        He can hardly run a mile, much less the marathon.他連一哩都跑不了,更不用說馬拉松了。
        I did not even see him, still less talk with him.我看也沒看見他,更不用說跟他談過話了。
    ..., to say nothing of ...
    結構︰主詞+否定式動詞…;+to say nothing of+名詞(子句)
    說明︰此句型意為“更不用說;更不待言”。to say nothing of 可用 not to speak of,not to mention等代替。
        He does not know English, to say nothing of German or French.
          他不懂英文,更不要說德文和法文了。
        At that time they could not produce ordinary garments, not to speak of high-grade ones.
          那時他們連普通衣服都不能生產,更不要說高級的了。
        We can’t afford a car, not to mention the fact that we have no garage.
          我們買不起汽車,沒有車庫的事就更不必說了。
    It hardly/scarcely + V ...
    結構︰主詞+hardly/scarcely+動詞…
    說明︰此句型意為“…幾乎不…”。這是通過 hardly 等半否定詞表示的<否定句>。此類半否定詞還有: scarcely,seldom,little,few,rarely 等。
        It hardly (scarcely) matters.   沒有什麼關係。
        I have hardly ever been out of this city.  我幾乎未曾離開過這個城市。
        Justice was hardly done but someone complained (=without someone’s complaining).
          要達到沒有人認為不公平的公平是很難的。
        We seldom buy this sort of goods.   我們很少買這種貨。
        Seldom seen, soon forgotten.   少見則易忘;別久則情疏。
        Little remains to be talked about.   簡直沒什麼可談的了。
    ... seldom or never ...
    結構︰…seldom or never…
    說明︰此句型意為“幾乎不…;簡直不…”。也可用“little or nothing”。
        She seldom or never reads a book.   她簡直不看書。
        People seldom or never bought silk garments a few years ago.
          幾年前,人們幾乎是不買絲綢服裝的。
        I saw little or nothing of him after graduation.  畢業後我幾乎沒有看見過他。
        She bought little or nothing in this shop.  她在這家店裡幾乎沒買過東西。
    I can’t ...
    結構︰主詞+否定式動詞…+否定詞/含否定意義的詞…
    說明︰此句型意為“無…不…;沒有…不…”。這是雙重<否定句>型。也可譯做肯定句。本<句型>的<動詞>是否定式,所以<主詞>不能用否定<代名詞>。英語的習慣用法是否定<代名詞>後面不能再用否定式<動詞>。
        You can’t make something out of nothing. 巧婦難為無米之炊。
        What’s done cannot be undone.  已經做了的事後悔也無用。
        He has never dissatisfied with this plan.  他從來沒有對計劃表示不滿。
    No one wanted to + V ...
    結構︰No one(Nobody)+ wanted(liked)to+原形動詞…。
    說明︰此句型意為“沒有人想要(喜歡)…”。nobody(無一人)與 no one(無一人)同義,僅限用於“人”,但是 nobody 更具口語化;nobody(或 no one)如當<主詞>,後面接單數<動詞>。
        No one wanted to buy small oranges. 沒有人想買小柳橙。
        No one liked to have trouble.  沒有人想碰到麻煩。
        No one wanted to listen to a madman.  沒有人想聽瘋子講話。
    ... no ... without + N
    結構︰…never/not/no…+without+名詞/動名詞
    說明︰此句型意為“每…必然…;沒有…就沒有…”。這是雙重<否定句>。有時譯成“沒有…而不…”;“每一次…都…”。
        I cannot see this picture without thinking of my father.看到這幅畫使我不能不想起我父親。
        I never see him without feeling like crying.  我每次見到他就想哭。
        He never helps me without trying to take advantage of me.  他每次幫我都想佔我便宜。
        He never visits me without asking about our old friends.
          他每次來訪必然問起我們昔日的朋友。
        The president of their company never makes a promise without intending to keep it.
          他們公司的董事長每次許諾必然會遵守諾言。
        He never went to the bookstore without buying some books.
          他沒有一次到書店而不買一些書。
        They never met without smiling at each other.  他們每一次相遇都彼此微笑。
        I never speak English without making mistakes.   我沒有一次說英語而不犯錯的。
        Nothing great was ever achieved without enthusiasm.
          沒有一件偉大的事情可以達成而沒有熱誠。
        No gains without pains.  不勞則無獲。
        No one can succeed without working hard. 沒有人能夠成功而不努力。
        No one can live without breathing.  沒有一個人可以不呼吸而生存。
        No prisoner escaped from the prison without being seen.
          沒有一個囚犯逃離這個監獄而不被看到。
    never ... but ...
    結構︰never…+but+主詞+動詞
    說明︰此句型意為“每…必然…”。but 在此是<連接詞>,引導<副詞子句>。本句構的 but 相當於 if…not…。
        It never rains but it pours.  一下雨就傾盆而降--禍不單行。
        I never look at the stars but I think how little I am.我每次看星星必然會想自己是多麼渺小。
        She never reads a book but she goes to sleep.  她一看書就想睡覺。
        He never goes on a vacation but he takes his pet dog.  他每次度假都會帶他的狗去。
        I never see him but I am happy.  我看到他就高興。
    He never goes out but he drops in at that bookstore.
    他每次外出都會順道去那家書店待一會兒。
    I never fail to + V ...
    結構︰主詞+never fail to+原形動詞
    說明︰此句型意為“必定會…;一定會…”。fail 因包含“失敗”的否定意義,故也屬雙重否定。
        She never fails to write to her parents every month. 她每個月一定寫信給她的父母親。
        He never failed to send the ambassador a report each week. 他每個禮拜必送報告給大使。
        A good teacher never fails to try his best to answer his students.
          一個好老師總是盡力為學生解答。
        He is eloquent and humorous as well. What he says never fails to please us.
          他口才好又幽默,他所說的一定能使我們高興。
    I cannot but + V ...
    結構︰主詞+cannot+but/choose but/help but+原形動詞
    說明︰此句型意為“不得不…”。but 後只能跟原形<動詞>。
        I cannot but admire his wise plan.  我不得不讚美他的計劃。
        They cannot (choose) but admit that our requirement is reasonable.
          他們不得不承認我們的要求是合理的。
        I could not (help) but laugh.  我不禁笑出來。
    It is not uncommon for ...
    結構︰It is not uncommon for+名詞+to-不定詞…
    說明︰此句型意為“…並非不常見”。not uncommon 是雙重否定,表肯定。it 是虛<主詞>。
        It is not uncommon for parents to put a newborn in a separate room.
          父母把新生兒放在分隔的房間並非不常見。
        It is not uncommon for women to smoke in public.  婦女在大眾面前抽煙並非不常見。
        It is not uncommon for people to jaywalk. 人們任意穿越馬路並非不常見。
    I am anything but ...
    結構︰主詞+be 動詞+anything but+名詞/形容詞…
    說明︰此句型意為“絕非…”。等於 far from。後面跟<名詞>或<形容詞>做 be <動詞>的<補語>。
        He is anything but a scholar.  他絕非學者。
        He is anything but diligent.  他一點也不勤奮。
        The man was anything but rich.  這人絕不是個富翁。
        He was anything but a hero.  他絕不是一個英雄。
        It is anything but complete.  這並未完成。
        Climbing Mt. Everest is anything but a pleasure trip. 登聖母峰絕不是一次輕鬆的旅途。
        His visit to Paris was anything but a success.  他的巴黎之行根本不成功。
    I am in no way ...
    結構︰主詞+動詞+含否定意義的片語(in no way/by no means 等)…
    說明︰此類<片語>有 in no way,by no means,in no wise,on no account 等,譯為“決不;毫不”。如因強調而置於句首,則要採用倒裝句構。
        I am in no way to blame.  我一點也沒錯。
        It is by no means easy to satisfy everyone.  要滿足每一個人絕非易事。
    He will in no wise give up any chances to get a better job.
    他不會放棄任何機會以獲得一份好工作。
        On no account (do you) forget to lock the door.  千萬別忘了鎖門。
    I am not in the least ...
    結構︰主詞+be 動詞+not+in the least…
    說明︰此句型意為“一點也不…”。
        I am not in the least tired.   我一點也不疲倦。
        He is not in the least kind.   他心腸一點都不好。
        I was not surprised in the least.   我一點也不感到驚訝。
        The shop assistant was not in the least afraid of the trouble.  那店員一點也不怕麻煩。
    I am no + N ...
    結構︰... no+名詞…
    說明︰no 通常當形容詞,後面須接名詞;no的後面不可緊接a,an,any,many,much等字。
        We feel that life is no laughing matter.   我們覺得人生絕非是開玩笑的事情。
        Mr. Chen used no (didn’t use any) chemicals on his fruit.  陳先生的水果不使用農藥。
        Tony used no reference books in class.   托尼上課時不使用參考書。
        It is no joke.   這絕非是開玩笑。
        This is no fact.   這絕非是事實。
        That’s no lie!   那絕不是謊話!
        He is no writer.   他絕不是作家。
        Tom is no coward.   湯姆絕不是懦夫。
    no + N + in the world ...
    結構︰…否定詞+名詞+in the world/on earth…
    說明︰此<句型>中否定詞與<名詞>結合的<片語>可以是<主詞>,也可以是<受詞>或其他句子成分;in the world,on earth,all 等大範圍詞語一般作<形容詞>或<副詞>用。
        There will be no difficulty in the world that they cannot overcome.
          世界上任何困難他們都可以克服。
        This is a market condition no force on earth can change.這一市場情況任何力量也改變不了。
        He was not all confused.   他一點兒也不糊塗。
        It is of no value at all.   那是毫無價值的。
        I’m the world’s worst businessman.   我最不會做生意。
    I am the last man to ...
    結構︰主詞+be 動詞+the last+名詞+to-不定詞/子句
    說明︰此句型意為“絕不可能是…;最不像是…”。<子句>是以 that 做<關係代名詞>所引導的<形容詞子句>。
        A plane crash was the last thing that we had expected. 我們絕對沒有想到飛機會出事。
        This is the last place where I expected to meet you.  我絕沒想到會在這裡遇見你。
        He is the last man to do such a thing.  他絕不可能會做這種事。
        Mick is the last man to break his word.  邁克絕不是不守承諾的人。
        He is the last man (that) I want to see now.  他是我現在最不願見到的人。
        You were the last man (that) I had dreamed of meeting here.
          那天我萬萬沒有料到會在這裡遇到你。
        He is the last man to accept a bribe.  他絕不像是會接受賄賂的人。
    I cannot ... too ...
    結構︰cannot…too+形容詞/副詞
    說明︰此句型意為“再…也不為過;愈…愈好”。也可用“cannot+<動詞>+too much”或“cannot…+too many/much+<可數名詞>/<不可數名詞>”。
        You cannot be too careful when driving a car.  開車時愈小心愈好。
        I cannot thank enough for your kindness.  我再怎麼感謝你的好意也不為過。
        We cannot emphasize too much the importance of learning English.
          我們再怎樣強調學英文的重要性也不為過。
        It is wrong to think that one cannot make too many friends.
          認為一個人交愈多朋友愈好是錯的。
        He thinks it right that one cannot make too much money.他認為一個人賺再多的錢也不為過。
        You cannot study too hard.  你愈用功愈好。
        One cannot be too careful in choosing friends.  擇友愈謹慎愈好。
        You cannot quit smoking too soon.  你愈早戒煙愈好。
    too + ADJ + for ...
    結構︰too+形容詞+for+(代)名詞
    說明︰此句型意為“太…而不適宜/而不能…"。相當於“too+<形容詞>+to-<不定詞>”。
        It is still too cold for farming.  氣候還是太冷而不適宜農耕。
        You are too young for marriage. 你太年輕了,還不能結婚。
        The scenery is too beautiful for words. 風景優美,非文字所能形容。
        The book is too difficult for most senior high school students.
          這本書太難而不適合大多數的高中生。
    Servings in restaurants are too large for many people.
    餐廳裡端出來的食物對許多人來說量是太多了。
        The skirt is too long for you.  這條裙子對你來說是太長了。
        This room is too large for us.  對我們而言,這間屋子太大了。
        He is too tired to walk anymore.  他累得再也走不動了。
        She walked too slowly to catch up with us.  她走得太慢,跟不上我們。
    ... no exception ...
    結構︰主詞+be 動詞+no exception
    說明︰此句型意為“…也不例外”。
        Almost every language in the world has dialects and American English is no exception.
          世界上幾乎每種語言都有方言,美國話也不例外。
        The poor need love and the rich are no exception. 貧窮的人需要愛,有錢的人也不例外。
        Plants can not live without the sun and animals are no exception.
          植物沒有太陽不能活,動物也不例外。
    I have no idea ...
    結構︰主詞+have no idea…
    說明︰此句型意為“不知道…”。
        We have no idea how the birds find their way. 我們不知道這些鳥如何找到它們的路。
        I have no idea why he resigned his post. 我不知道他為何辭去他的職務。
        We have no idea how to persuade him to give up the idea.
          我們不知道如何說服他放棄這個念頭。
    I care nothing about ...
    結構︰主詞+care nothing about…
    說明︰此句型意為“一點也不關心…;毫不在乎…”。
        My friends were all boys who cared nothing about studying.
          我的朋友都是男生,他們一點也不關心讀書。
        Do you really care nothing about your future?  你真的一點也不關心你的將來?
        I cared nothing about what they said of me. 我毫不在乎他們對我怎麼說。
    I do not care what ...
    結構︰主詞+do not care+疑問詞(what/whether/…)+主詞+動詞
    說明︰此句型意為“…不在乎…”。
        He does not care whether he wins or loses.  他不在乎是否他贏或輸。
        I do not care what you will say about me.  我不在乎你們會說我什麼。
        She does not care whether you like her or not.  她不在乎你是否喜歡她。
    I can’t bear to ...
    結構︰主詞+can’t bear+to-不定詞/動名詞
    說明︰此句型意為“忍受不了/不忍…”。bear 後可跟<不定詞>或<動名詞>。
        His suspense became so great that he couldn’t bear to look out the window.
          他的疑慮變得這樣大,所以他忍受不了往窗外看。
        I can’t bear to see him treated like that.  我不忍見到他受到那樣的對待。
        I can’t bear being called “Fool”.  我忍受不了被叫做“傻瓜”。
    ... make no sense ...
    結構︰主詞+make no/much/little sense…
    說明︰此句型意為“…有(沒有/很有/很少有)意義”。通常用於否定或疑問。
        It didn’t make much sense to Galileo to have different rules for motion on earth and in space.
          對伽利略來說,地球上和太空中有不同的運動法則是沒有多大意義。
        His argument does not make sense.  他的爭論沒有意義。
        Does it make sense to let children play with matches?  讓小孩玩火柴有意義嗎?
    ... and ...
    結構︰主詞+動詞…+and+動詞…。
    說明︰and 當“和;並且;而”解,它常含有“結果”的意味;由 and 所連接的兩個單字,須用相同的詞性。
        They can visit many places and see many things.他們可以參觀許多地方並且看到許多事物。
        You can stay at home and watch TV.   你可以待在家裡並且看電視。
        We will get up early and do some housework.  我們將早起並且做點家務。
    ... or ...
    結構︰主詞+動詞…+or+動詞+…。
    說明︰or 當“或者”解,含有“選擇”的意味;由 or 所連接的兩個單字,須用“相同的詞性”。
        They will go to the zoo or play volleyball.  他們要去動物園或打排球。
        He can drive his car to work or go by bus.  他可以自己駕車上班或乘公車。
        We will play sports or go on a picnic.  我們將做戶外運動或去野餐。
    ... but ...
    結構︰主詞+動詞…,+but+主詞+動詞+…。
    說明︰but 當“但是;然而”解,它含有“相反;對比”的意味;由 but 所連接的兩個單字須用“相同的詞性”。
        I went to bed late, but I got up early.  我晚睡但是早起。
        It doesn’t rain a lot in fall, but it rains a lot in spring. 秋天不下很多雨,但春天下很多雨。
        He caught a cold yesterday, but he went to school today.他昨天得了感冒,但今天去上學了。
    A+Positive,but B+Negative
    結構︰A(主詞)+肯定(或否定)…,but+B(主詞)+否定(或肯定)…。
    說明︰此句型意為“A…,但是 B 不…(或:A 不…,但是 B…)”。but 是<連接詞>,用於表示“相反”或“對比”,故 but 可連接一個肯定<子句>與一個否定<子句>;本句型中 <助動詞>要與一般<動詞>的<時態>相一致。
        Mr. Collins was tired, but Mr. Smith wasn’t.  柯林斯先生累了,但是史密斯先生不累。
        It won’t hurt you, but chemicals will. 它不會傷害你,但是農藥會。
        Mr. Chen knows this, but other people don’t.  陳先生知道這件事,但是別人不知道。
        He made more money, but I didn’t.  他賺了更多的錢,但是我沒有。
        My sister eats natural foods every day, but I don’t.我妹妹每天都吃天然食品,但是我不吃。
    ... when/as/while ...
    結構︰主要子句+when/as/while+子句
    說明︰此句型意為“當…時”。when 引導的<子句>,不僅說明一般時間,而且可以表示與<主要子句>同時或提前的動作時間。兩個<動詞>常用現在式。as 所表示的同時意義更突出一些,語意更強一些;while 多指動作的過程,時間範圍較大一些。<連接詞> while 後面的<主詞>,如果與<主要子句>的<主詞>相同時,while 後面的<主詞>與 be <動詞>可以省略,如例句8。
        When I got there, they were having a negotiation.  我到那裡時,他們正談判。
        When I called, Tom was having dinner.  當我打電話時,湯姆正在吃晚飯。
        When I met Jill, she was talking to a young man.當我遇到吉爾時,她正在和一個年輕人說話。
        When I entered the room, everyone was laughing loudly.
          當我走進房間時,每個人都在大聲地笑。
        When you walk into the room, the lights turn on by themselves.
          每當你走入這房間,電燈自己就打開。
        The customer laughed as he spoke.  客戶邊談邊笑。
        Work while you work, and rest while you rest. 工作的時候工作,休息的時候休息。
        While she was reading in the room (=While reading in the room), she heard John call her.
          當她在房間裡看書時,她聽見約翰在叫她。
    ... before/after ...
    結構︰主要子句+before/after+子句
    說明︰此句型意為“…之前/之後”。<主要子句>的動作發生在<子句>動作之前或之後。before 引導的<子句>不可用否定式。
        You must send some sample to the customer before you go abroad.
          在你出國之前,應該先寄給客戶一些樣品。
        After you think it over, please let me know by fax. 你仔細考慮過之後,請用傳真相告。
        What do you want to do after you have concluded this transaction?
          這筆生意成交之後你想做什麼?
    ... because/as/since ...
    結構︰主要子句+because/as/since+子句
    說明︰此句型意為“…因為…”。because 作“因為”解釋,是<連接詞>,它後面所引導的<子句>,叫做“<從屬子句>”。<主要子句>前切不可加 so;<從屬子句>可放在<主要子句>後,但為了強調,可放在<主要子句>前。
        I didn’t like it because it was noisy.  我不喜歡它因為很吵鬧。
        His boss looked at him coldly because he made several big mistakes.
          他的老板冷漠地看著他因為他犯了幾個大錯誤。
    John lives happily because he uses his time well to study.
    約翰生活得快樂因為他善用他的時間學習。
        As rain has fallen, the goods cannot be shipped.   因為下了雨,貨物不能裝運了。
        Since you insist, I must amend the letter of credit. 既然你堅持,我就只好修改信用証。
    ... in that ...
    結構︰主要子句+in that/seeing(that)/considering(that)+子句
    說明︰此句型意為“…因為…”。注意,in that 中的 that 不能省去。
        He didn’t attend the negotiation in that he was ill.  他因為有病,沒有參加談判。
        I’d like to accept this item, seeing (that) the price is reasonable.
          我願意接受此品種,因為價格合理。
        We agree to postpone the shipping date, considering (that) there is no steamer recently.
          由於(考慮到)最近無船,我們同意推遲裝期。
    ..., so ...
    結構︰前句,+so/therefore/thus/hence+後句
    說明︰此句型意為“…所以…”。so 是正式的<連接詞>,其他都是<副詞>作<連接詞>用。
        He is ill, so he cannot attend the negotiation.  他病了,所以他不能來參加談判。
        He was very tired, and therefore he didn’t give the market report.
          他非常疲倦,所以沒能作市場報告。
        It was already rather late, thus we decide to urge the customer.
          已經相當晚了,所以我們決定催促客戶。
    ... and/or/or else ...
    結構︰祈使句+and/or/or else…
    說明︰and 譯成“那麼”,用於表一致的概念;or 譯成“否則”,用於表相反的概念。“命令句+ and”等於“If ...”,意為“得…,這麼一來才能…”;“命令句+or”等於“Unless ...”,意為“得…要不然…”;or 也可用 or else 取代。
        Study hard, and you’ll pass the exam.   要用功,那麼你才會考及格。
        Study hard, or you’ll fail (in) the exam.   要用功,否則你會考不及格。
        Make haste, and you’ll be in time for class.   動作快一點,你才趕得及上課。
        Make haste, or you’ll miss the first train.  快一點,要不然就趕不上第一班火車了。
        Stop smoking now, or else your health will be ruined.別再抽煙了,否則你會毀了自己的健康。
    one more N, and ...
    結構︰數量名詞(one,two,three…)+more+名詞,+and…
    說明︰此句型意為“再…,就…”。and 連接<主要子句>。
        One more effort, and you will get to the top.  再加點油,你就可以到達頂端了。
        Two more days, and I can finish the work.  再過兩天,我就能完成這份工作。
        One more step, and you’ll be killed.  再走一步,你就會沒命。
        A few more days, and the company will be on the verge of bankruptcy.
          再過幾天,這家公司就將瀕臨破產的邊緣。
    There be N and N
    結構︰There+be+名詞+and+名詞
    說明︰此句型意為“有各色各樣的…”。<名詞>通常用複數。
        There’s always weather and weather.  老是有各種各樣的天氣。
        There are men and men.  有各式各樣的男人。
        There are actors and actors.  有各式各樣的演員。
    A + be ..., and B ...
    結構︰主詞1+be+…,and+主詞2+(be)…
    說明︰<主詞>2之後的 be <動詞>往往省略。
        There midnight’s all a glimmer and noon (is) a purple glow.
          那兒午夜浮光微搖,中午紫光爭耀。
        His critics are many and his admirers (are) few. 他的批評者多,而讚美者少。
        The girls are skating and the boys (are) watching. 這些女孩在溜冰,而這些男孩在觀看。
    It is true ..., but ...
    結構︰It is true that…,but…
    說明︰此句型意為“…是事實,但…”。but 前後所連接的部分或<子句>意義相反或成為對比。本<句型>與 though <子句>所表現的意思完全相同。也可用“Indeed (that) ..., but ...”。
        It is true that these changes take a long time, but not as long as we might expect.
          這些變化需要一些長的時間是事實,但不像我們所可能預期的那樣久。
        It is true that he stole the bicycle, but he is not so bad as you might think.
          他偷腳踏車是事實,但他並不像你所想的那樣壞。
        It is true that he is rich, but he must know money is not everything.
          他有錢是事實,但他必須知道錢不是一切。
        It is true that Japan is a beautiful country, but its big cities are lately polluted.
          日本的確是個美麗的國家,但最近日本的大都市已被污染。
        Indeed he has a solemn face, but he is very humorous at heart.
          他的確有一副嚴肅的臉孔,但內心卻是很富幽默感。
    no one ... but ...
    結構︰no one/every/who/what…+but…
    說明︰用在 no one,none,nobody,nothing,all,every,以及 who,what 等疑問詞之後的 but 的含義是“除…而外”,是<連接詞>,後接的<代名詞>可用主格或受格。
        No one replied but me.  除我而外沒有人回答。
        Nobody was late but you and me.  除了你我而外,沒有人遲到。
        Nothing but disaster would come from such a plan.此一計劃除了導致失敗而外將一無所獲。
        He did nothing but eat and sleep all day.  他整天吃飯、睡覺,什麼事都不做。
        It is nothing but a joke.  這不過是個笑話而已。
        Mother thought of nothing but my coming home.  母親只想到我要回家的事。
        All the boys but one are here.  除了一個而外男孩子全都到了。
        Who but he would act such?  除了他還有誰會有這樣的行為?
        What should I find but an enormous spider!   我居然發現了一隻巨大的蜘蛛!
        Who should come in but his first wife!  進來的居然是他的第一任太太!
    ... all but ...
    結構︰... all but ...
    說明︰後面跟<名詞>,but 相當於 except,表“除了…以外都”。若後面跟<形容詞>、<副詞>、<動詞>,則表“幾乎”的意思。
        He is the chairman of the committee in all but the name.
    除了沒掛名以外,實際上他就是委員會的主席。
        All but the morning star have disappeared.  除掉金星以外其他的星星全都消失了。
        The car all but ran over him.  車子幾乎把他攆過去。
        He was all but killed by the traffic accident.  他幾乎死於車過。
    ... not ... but ...
    結構︰主詞+動詞+not…but…
    說明︰此句型意為“不是…而是…”。“not ... but ...”為對等<連接詞片語>,可連接對等的單字、<片語>或<子句>;連接<主詞>時,<動詞>要隨最近的<主詞>做變化。
        They will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character.
          他們所受到的論斷不是他們的膚色,而是他們的品格的內涵。
        What I admire is not what you have, but what you are.
    我所羨慕的不是你所擁有的東西,而是你的為人。
        It is not your fault, but mine.  這不是你的過錯,而是我的過錯。
        Not I but he is responsible for it.  不是我,而是他該負責任。
        Not father but mother was present at the ceremony. 不是父親而是母親出席此一儀式。
        Not that I loved Caesar less, but that I loved Rome more.
          不是我比較不喜歡凱撒,而是我更喜歡羅馬。
        He regarded me not as his friend, but as the best man for the job.
          他並非把我當朋友,而是當最適合這工作者。
    ... no other than ...
    結構︰主詞+be+no/none+other+than/but…
    說明︰此句型意為“…不是別人,正是…”。than 在此處並非連接<比較級>之用,而是當“除…外”解,but與 than 相當,也作“除外”解,後面跟強調的人。
        This is no other than my old friend, John.  這位不是別人,正是我的老朋友約翰。
        The young man sitting at the desk was none other than our new teacher.
          坐在辦公桌那兒的那個年輕人正是我們新來的老師。
        The tall figure that you saw was none other than our manager.
          你所見的那位身材魁梧的先生不是別人正是我們的經理。
        As a top manager, he should appoint none but people on their merit.
          作為一位總經理,他應該任人為賢。
    ... nothing else than ...
    結構︰主詞+be+nothing+else than/less than/(else)but…
    說明︰此句型意為“…不是別的,而是…”。本<句型>強調的是物。
        His failure in this transaction was due to nothing else than his own carelessness.
          他在這筆交易中的失利完全是由於他自己的粗心大意。
        The present market situation is nothing else than fine. 目前市場形勢是最好不過的了。
        What we expected is nothing less than a timely payment. 及時付款正是我們所盼望的。
        This transaction is nothing less than a miracle. 這筆交易完全是一個奇蹟。
        What I need is nothing but a sample. 我需要的不過是一件樣品而已。
        His condition is nothing but a little discount. 他的條件不過是一點折讓。
    ... not so ... but ...
    結構︰…not+so/such+形容詞/副詞+but…
    說明︰此句型意為“還沒有到不能…的程度”,引申為“儘管…還是”。此處的 but 相當於“that ... not”。
        I am not such a fool but I can solve the problem.  我雖不才,還是能解決這一問題。
        The quality is not so poor but it is acceptable. 質量雖差,但仍能接受。
        He is not so sick but he can attend a class. 他儘管有病,還是可以上課。
    not only ... but also ...
    結構︰主詞+not merely/not only…but(also)…
    說明︰此句型意為“不僅/不但…而且…”。not only…but also 稱為“<對等連接詞>”,所連接的兩個單字,須用相同的詞性。如果連接兩個<動詞>時,前後的時式要一致;如用於連接兩個<主詞>時,重點在第二個<主詞>,因此<動詞>須與第二個<主詞>一致。若連接對等的<主要子句>,而由 not merely,not only 開頭,則要用倒裝形式。
        Mary not only cleaned the room but (also) washed the window.
          瑪麗不但清掃房間而且也洗刷窗子。
        The hamburger not only smells good but (also) tastes delicious.
          這只漢堡包不但氣味好聞而且味道好吃。
        He is famous not only for his talent but (also) for his kindness.
          他不僅以才能出名,而且是出名的好心。
        Not only you but (also) I am to blame.  不僅你,連我都要受責難。
        Not only did the dog bark at him, but (it) bit him. 這隻狗不但對他吠叫,而且咬了他。
        Not only is she beautiful, but she is (also) kind. 她不僅漂亮,而且善良。
        His job is not only to dispose of problems but (also) to meet unexpected challenges.
          他的工作不僅要處理難題而且也要應付突來的挑戰。
    either ... or ...
    結構︰either ... or ...
    說明︰此句型意為“要不…就是…”。可連接對等的單字、<片語>或<子句>;連接<主詞>時,<動詞>要隨最近的 <主詞>做變化。
        Can you speak either English or French?   你會說英語或法語嗎?
        Either you or he has made the mistake.  不是你,就是他弄錯了。
        Either he or I am to blame.  不是他就是我該受責備。
        Either you are wrong, or I am.  不是你錯,就是我錯了。
        Either your answer or mine is wrong.  不是你的答案錯了,就是我的錯了。
        Either we will find a supply, or we will make the goods.我們或是尋求供貨,或者自己製造。
        Tom is going to buy either a guitar or a piano.湯母不是要買一把吉他就是要買一架鋼琴。
    neither ... nor ...
    結構︰neither ... nor ...
    說明︰此句型意為“既非…也非…”。可連接對等的單字、<片語>或<子句>;連接<主詞>時,<動詞>要隨最近的 <主詞>做變化。
        Neither he nor I was able to understand her.  既不是我也不是他能夠了解她。
        Neither you nor I am wrong.  你也好,我也好,都沒錯。
        In my opinion, neither you nor he has met the standard.在我看來,你跟他都沒有達到標準。
        I neither expressed surprise at the price nor attempted to accept it.
          我對於這個價格既沒有表示驚異,也沒想接受。
        We are going to play neither basketball nor volleyball.我們既不將打籃球也不將打排球。
    both ... and ...
    結構︰both ... and ...
    說明︰此句型意為“二者皆;和”。這是對等<連接詞片語>,可連接對等的單字、<片語>和<子句>;若連接<主詞>時,<動詞>一定為複數形。
        I work both on sunny days and on rainy ones.  我風雨無阻地工作。
        That actress is both skillful and beautiful.  那位女演員演技精湛又長得漂亮。
        He is known both as a painter and as a statesman.  他是知名的畫家及政治家。
        He succeeded both because he was industrious and because he had many friends to help him.
          他的成功是由於勤勉和許多朋友的幫助。
        Both he and I are satisfied with the result.  我和他對結果都很滿意。
        Helen ordered both fried chicken and salad in the fast-food restaurant.
          海倫在快餐店裡點了炸雞和色拉。
    ... as well as ...
    結構︰... as well as ...
    說明︰此句型意為“既…又…”。這是對等<連接詞片語>,可連接對等的單字、<片語>和<子句>;若連接<主詞>時,<動詞>要跟著第一個<主詞>做變化。
        She can speak Japanese as well as English.  她會說日語和英語。
        Obviously he is interested in music as well as (in) painting.顯然他對音樂和繪畫都有興趣。
        He succeeded because he was industrious as well as because he had many friends to help him.   他的成功是由於勤勉和許多朋友的幫助。
        He as well as I is satisfied with the result. 他和我都滿意這樣的結果。
    ... as well.
    結構︰主詞+動詞…as well
    說明︰此句型意為“…也是…”。as well 一般置於句尾。
        Often life is much slower outside the big cities, as is true in other countries as well.
          大都市外面的生活步調往往是緩慢得多,這在其他國家也是真的那樣。
        She is not only good at mathematics, but she is interested in English as well.
          她不但擅長數學,而且對英語也感到興趣。
        Tom is very unfriendly to me as well.  湯姆對我也很不友善。
    as soon as ...
    結構︰as soon as ...
    說明︰此句型意為“一…就…”。為<副詞><連接詞>,引導<副詞子句>,修飾<主要子句>。等於“no sooner ... than ...”或“hardly/scarcely…when/before…”。
        As soon as she arrived in the city, she phoned her friend.
    她一到這個城市,就給她的朋友打電話。
        As soon as I have time, I will call you up.  我一有空,就會打電話給你。
        Tell me as soon as you have finished.  你一完成就告訴我。
    no sooner ... than ...
    結構︰no sooner ... than ...
    說明︰此句型意為“一…就…”。為<副詞><連接詞>,引導,<副詞子句>,修飾<主要子句>。no sooner 為<否定副詞>,置於句首時,<主詞>與<助動詞>必須倒裝。
        He had no sooner come than she left.  他一來,她就離開。
        No sooner had I left the shop than a man came to me and asked me if my name was Peter.
           我一離開商店,就有一位男士向我走來,問我是不是叫彼得。
        No sooner had he arrived than he fell sick.  他剛抵達就病倒了。
        I had no sooner gone out than it began to rain. 我剛走到外面就開始下雨了。
    hardly ... when ...
    結構︰hardly/scarcely ... when/before ...
    說明︰此句型意為“一…就…”。為<副詞><連接詞>,引導<副詞子句>,修飾<主要子句>。hardly,scarcely 為<否定副詞>,置於句首時,<主詞>與<助動詞>必須倒裝。
        John had hardly opened the door when his guests arrived. 約翰剛打開門他的客人就到了。
        Scarcely had I washed the car before the sky rumbled with thunder.
          我剛洗車天空就打雷了。
        Hardly had I gone out of the hotel when I met my friend.我剛走出飯店就遇見了我的朋友。
        Scarcely had she heard the sad story when she burst out crying.
          她一聽到這悲傷的消息,就失聲痛哭。
    now that ... V ...
    結構︰now that+主詞+動詞
    說明︰此句型意為“因為/既然…”。now that 是<副詞><連接詞>,that 可省略,意思是 since(因為)或 seeing(that)(既然),引導<副詞子句>,修飾<主要子句>。
        Now that I am free, I can enjoy music for a while.  既然有空,我可以享受一下音樂。
        I want to work now that I am well again.  我想去工作因為我又健康了。
        Now that there is a new tunnel, the road is less dangerous.
    既然有了一個新的隧道,這條路就比較不危險了。
        Now that you are a college student, you should learn to be independent of your parents’ help.
          既然你已是個大學生了,就應當學著獨立,不靠父母的幫助。
    not ... because ...
    結構︰not ... because ...
    說明︰此句型意為“並非因為…而…”。使用本<句型>時,because 之前不可有逗點,否則意思完全不同;有時得從 because <子句>的邏輯來判斷意思。
        You must not despise a man because he is poor.  你不可因一個人貧窮而輕視他。
        I do not love him because he is rich. (I love him not because he is rich.)
          我不是因為他有錢才愛他的。
        I do not respect him because he is playful.  我不尊敬他,因為他貪玩。
        I do not respect him because he is knowledgeable.  我並非因為他有學問而尊敬他。
    not that ... but that ...
    結構︰(It is) not that ... but that ...
    說明︰此句型意為“並非…而是…”。It is 通常予以省略。
        Not that I dislike the task, but that I am not equal to it.
          並非我不喜歡這工作,而是我無法勝任。
        Believe it or not, not that I don’t love Mary, but that I love my country (all the) more.
          信不信由你,並非我不愛瑪麗,而是我更愛我的國家。
        Not that I hate the work. I’m not strong enough for it.
          並非我討厭這份工作,而是我不夠強壯,無法勝任。
    so that ... may ...
    結構︰so that/in order that ... may ...
    說明︰此句型意為“以便…”。此為表示目的的<副詞><連接詞> so that,in order that 所引導的<副詞子句> <句型>。so that <子句>總是置於<主要子句>之後,而 in order that 置於<主要子句>前後均可,且<語氣>較為強調。通常使用<助動詞> may,也使用 can(could),shall(should),will(would)等。若<主詞>與<主要子句>相同時,可變成<不定詞片語>,即“so as to+原形<動詞>”或“in order to+原形<動詞>”。
        Read the questions carefully so that you may not make a mistake in the test.
          考試時要仔細看清楚題目,以免犯錯。
        We turned on the light so that we might see (=so as to see) what it was.
          我們把燈打開,以便看看它是什麼。
        I study hard, so that I may not fail in the examinations.  我用功,免得考不及格。
        My father works hard in order that he may support us.  我父親辛苦地工作為了養家。
        I’ve decided to learn photography in order that I may better appreciate the beauty of nature.
          我決定學攝影以便更能欣賞自然的美。
        I came in order that I might/could see May. (=I came in order to see May.)
          我來是因為能見到梅。
        We must find out the customs of other countries, so that they will not think us ill mannered.
          我們必須知道別的國家的習俗,免得他們會認為我們是沒有禮貌的。
    lest ... (should) ...
    結構︰lest ... (should) ...
    說明︰此句型意為“以免…”。等於“for fear (that) ... should”。lest 為<副詞><連接詞>,引導<副詞子句>,在該<子句>中,只能用<助動詞> should,但 should 可省略,直接接原形<動詞>。
        I got up early lest I (should) miss the train.  我早起以免錯過了火車。
        We talked in a low voice lest we should wake the baby up. 我們小聲說話以免吵醒嬰兒。
        Hide it lest he (should) see it.  把它藏起來免得他看見。
        He took a flashlight lest it should get dark before he returned.
          為了預防回來以前天就黑了,所以他帶著手電筒。
        Be careful for fear (that) you should be misunderstood.  請小心點不要被誤會了。
    ... in case ... should ...
    結構︰... in case ... should ...
    說明︰此句型意為“…唯恐…;以防萬一…”。in case 是“唯恐(=lest);萬一(=if)”之意,做<副詞><連接詞>,引導<副詞子句>,與 should 並用,以修飾<主要子句>。in case 置於句首,也可當 if 使用。
        I stopped suddenly in case he should think that I was showing off.
          我突然停住,唯恐他會認為我是在炫耀。
        They watched him closely in case he should escape. 他們嚴密監視他,惟恐他會逃脫。
        In case (=If) I forget, please remind me.  萬一我忘記,請提醒我。
        Write the telephone number down in case you forget.  把電話號碼寫下來以免忘了。
    ... so ... that ...
    結構︰…so+形容詞/副詞+that…
    說明︰此句型意為“如此…以致…”。此為表示因果關係的<連接詞片語>,引導<副詞子句>。so 後也可接單數<可數名詞>,即“so+<形容詞>+a+<名詞>+that…”。so 所引導的詞類置於句首時,要採用倒裝句構,如例句5和6。該句型與“too ... to ...”句型可以互相改寫,如例句1所示。
        Kevin is so sick that he can’t come to class. (=Kevin is too sick to come to class.)
          克文病得嚴重以致無法來上課。
        The dog is so gentle that I am not afraid of it.  這隻狗如此溫馴,因此我不感到害怕。
        She studied so hard that she passed the exam.  她這麼用功,所以通過了考試。
        He is so good a boy that we like him.  他是個這麼好的男孩,所以我們都喜歡他。
        So nice is he that I like him.  他是這麼好,因此我喜歡他。
        So exciting was the game that I forgot all about the coming finals.
          比賽是如此令人興奮,以致我把即將來臨的期末考忘得一乾二淨。
    so many/few ... that ...
    結構︰so many/few+複數名詞+that…
    說明︰此句型意為“如此多/少的…以致…”。若是不可數名詞,則用“so much/little+不可數名詞+that…”。此為表示因果關係的<連接詞片語>,引導<副詞子句>。so 可修飾表數量的<形容詞> many,much,few,little。so 所引導的詞類置於句首時,要採用倒裝句構。
        I have so much work to do that I can’t go out with you.
    我有這麼多工作要做,因此不能和你出去。
        So many languages can he speak that he should have no problem traveling around the world.
          他會說這麼多種語言,因此環遊世界毫無問題。
        There is so little time left that I don’t think I can finish it as scheduled.
          剩下這麼少的時間,我想我不能按時完成。
        He has so few friends that his life is lonely.  他的朋友很少,因此他的生活非常孤單。
    such ... that ...
    結構︰such+名詞+that…
    說明︰此句型意為“如此…以致…”。此為表示因果關係的<連接詞片語>,引導<副詞子句>。such 之後可接任何<名詞>。such 所引導的詞類置於句首時,要採用倒裝句構。
        Do not think that Americans are in such a hurry that they are unfriendly.
          不要認為美國人如此匆忙是不友善的。
        He always talks in such a way that everyone dislikes him.
          他總是用這樣得方式說話,所以每個人都討厭他。
        He was such an impatient driver (=He was so impatient a driver) that he went through the red light. 他是這樣沒有耐心的司機,所以他闖紅燈了。
        Such a good article did he write that he won the award.他的這篇文章寫得這麼好,因此獲獎。
        They are such good boys that we like them. 他們是這麼好的男孩,所以我們都喜歡他們。
        It is such good music that I enjoy it.   這麼好的音樂我喜歡。
    as much so as N
    結構︰as much so as+名詞
    說明︰此句型意為“…像…一樣”。
        I am poor - as much so as a church mouse.   我窮得像教堂的老鼠。
        She is lovely - as much so as an angel.  她可愛得像個天使。
        The price of this gem is expensive - as much so as astronomical figures.
          這個寶石的價格十分昂貴--簡直是個天文數字。
    so much so that ...
    結構︰so much so that+主詞+動詞
    說明︰此句型意為“如此…所以…”。第一個 so 是“如此地”,第二個 so 是<代名詞>,代表前面提過的某一個觀念。
        Making something by hand has become the exception in many countries today - so much so that giving a homemade gift is sometimes considered extraordinary. 當今用手做東西,在許多國家已經成為很特殊--如此地特殊,以致贈送自製禮物有時被認為是不尋常的。
        He is rich-so much so that he can buy anything he wants.
          他有錢--如此有錢。所以他可以買任何他要的東西。
        Tom is clever-so much so that he can solve most of the problems.
          湯姆聰明--聰明地可以解決大多數這些問題。
    though/although ...
    結構︰though/although ...
    說明︰此句型意為“雖然…但是…”。though 或 although 均為<副詞><連接詞>,引導<副詞子句>,修飾<主要子句>,可置於<主要子句>的前後。若使用 though 或 although,就不可再使用 but,反之亦然,以避免雙重連接;但可以用 yet,此時的 yet 做<副詞>;though 也可當<副詞>用,置於句尾,但前面要加逗點,表“然而”之意。
        Although (he was) cheerful in company, he was often sad in private.
          雖然和友人在一起是愉快的,但他私下卻常常很悲傷。
        Though old, he walks as fast as a young man.  雖然年老,他走起路來像年輕人一樣快。
        Though he often plays hooky, he does well in study. 他經常逃學,然而他的功課卻很好。
        Although very rich in his youth, he is now as poor as a church mouse.
          雖然年輕時很有錢,他現在窮得像教堂的老鼠。
        She didn’t put on an overcoat though it was very cold outside.外頭雖冷,她卻沒披件外套。
        Though he is nice, (yet) I don’t like him. (=He is nice; I don’t like him, though.)
          他很好,然而我不喜歡他。
    even if/even though ...
    結構︰even if/even though ...
    說明︰此句型意為“即使,雖然…”。也是<副詞><連接詞>,引導<副詞子句>,用法與 though,although 相同,也不可與 but 並用。注意:無 even although 的用法。
        Even if it will take me six weeks, I am determined to finish the job.
        即使這工作要花掉我六個星期的時間,我仍決心要把它完成。
        Even if he said so, you need not believe him.  即使他這麼說,你大可不必相信他。
        Even though you do not like it, you must do it. 即使你不喜歡這工作,你也得做。
    Even though he tried, he still lagged behind other runners.
    盡管他努力了,仍落在其他賽跑者之後。
        Even though I hadn’t seen my classmate for many years, I recognized him immediately.
          即使多年沒有看見我的同學,我也馬上認出了他。
        They couldn’t, even if they would, get out of trouble by themselves.
          即使他們想(擺脫),也無法獨立擺脫困難。
    Poor as he is, ...
    結構︰形容詞+as+主詞+be 動詞,…
    說明︰此句型意為“雖然…,但是…”。等於“though+<主詞>+be <動詞>+<形容詞>”。
        Poor as he is (=Though he is poor), he doesn’t feel inferior.雖然他窮,他並不覺得低人一等。
        Tired as she was, she kept doing it.  她雖然累了,仍繼續做下去。
        Nice as he is, I don’t like him.  雖然他很好,但我不喜歡他。
        Stern as he is, he is full of sympathy.  雖然他嚴格,卻富有同情心。
        Young as he was, he was prudent. 他雖然如此年輕,卻很慎重。
        Surprised as he was at the news, he kept it secret all the week.
          這消息雖然令他吃驚,但他卻整個禮拜都沒說出來。
    Hard as he worked, ...
    結構︰副詞(動詞)+as+主詞+動詞,(yet)…
    說明︰此句型意為“雖然…,但是…”。等於“though+<主詞>+<動詞>(+<副詞>)”。
    Hard as he worked (=Though he worked hard), he failed in the exam.
    雖然他很用功,考試仍失敗了。
        Much as she loved him (=Though she loved him very much), he deserted her in the long run.
          雖然她很愛他,但最後他仍拋棄了她。
        Much as the sheep look alike, the old man can tell one from another.
          雖然綿羊看起來很相像,但那位老人仍能一一區別。
        Much as I like her, I won’t marry her.   我雖然很喜歡她,卻不打算娶她。
        Well as he does in study, he is not arrogant.  雖然他功課很好,卻一點都不傲慢。
        Much as we may take pride on our good taste, we are no longer free to choose things (that) we want.雖然我們對我們高尚的品味感到非常得意,我們卻不再能自由地去選擇我們所要的東西。
        Much as I hope I may gain weight, (yet) I am still as thin as before.
          雖然我非常希望增加體重,但我仍然像以前一樣的瘦。
        Fast as you do, you can’t finish the assignment in two hours.
          儘管你做得快,總也不能在兩小時內將功課做完。
        Search as I would, I could not find the book.  無論我怎麼找,也沒有找到書。
        Try as you might, you can’t keep the lost time. 不管你怎麼努力,失去的時間無法趕上。
        Munching the apple as he was, he had an eye for all her movements.
          他雖然啃著蘋果,但卻很留神地監視著她的每一個動作。
    Good student as he is, ...
    結構︰名詞+as+主詞+be 動詞,…
    說明︰此句型意為“雖然…,但是…”。等於“though+<主詞>+be <動詞>+<名詞>”。若 be <動詞>之後的<名詞>是單數,移至句首後<冠詞>要省略。
        Good students as they were (=Though they were good students), they sometimes erred.
          雖然他們是好學生,偶而也會犯錯。
        Good student as he is (=Though he is a good student), he sometimes makes mistakes.
          雖然他是好學生,偶而也會犯錯。
        Coward as he is (=Though he is a coward), he can’t bear such an insult.
           雖然他是懦夫,卻無法忍受這樣的侮辱。
    Try as you may, ...
    結構︰原形動詞+as/though+主詞+may,…
    說明︰此句型意為“雖然…,但是…”。等於“though+<主詞>+may+原形<動詞>”;此類變化僅限於句中有<助動詞> may 時。
    Try as he may (=Though he may try), he will definitely fail.
    雖然他會嘗試去做,但無疑他必失敗。
        Try as she may, she is not necessarily able to talk him out of smoking.
          雖然她會嘗試,卻未必能說服他戒煙。
        Try as you may, you will find it impossible to solve the problem.
          雖然你會嘗試,但你會發現要解決這個問題是不可能的。
    whether ... or ...
    結構︰whether ... or ...
    說明︰此句型意為“不論是…還是…”。whether 引導的<子句>句尾可用<對等連接詞> or,以連接對等的單字、<片語>。whether <子句>中的<主詞>若與<主要子句>相同時,則該<主詞>可省略;whether <子句>的句構若為“<主詞>+be <動詞>+<補語>”,而<補語>又對稱時,則可保留“<補語>+or+<補語>”,其餘部分則省略。
        Whether he will stay or leave, I really don’t care.  我真的不在意他要留下來還是要走。
        Whether the news is true or false, I won’t change my plan.
          不管消息是真是假,我是不會改變計劃的。
        Whether (she is) sick or fine, she is always cheerful. 不管她生不生病,她總是開開心心的。
        (Whether we are) Rich or poor, we are all equal.  人不分貧富一律平等。
        Rain or shine, the game will be held as scheduled. 不論下不下雨,比賽照常舉行。
    Waking or sleeping, the matter is always in my mind.
    不論是醒著還是睡著,這件事時常浮在我的腦中。
    whether ... or not
    結構︰whether+主詞+動詞+or not
    說明︰此句型意為“不論…還是不…”。“whether ... or not”稱為<從屬連接詞>,連接詞性相同的單字,<片語>或<子句>,當“whether ... or ...”<句型>中的 or 之後對等的單字或<片語>若相同時,該單字或<片語>可省略,而以 not 代替;or not 也可省略;也可寫成 whether or not。
        There’s always weather, weather, whether we like it or not.
          老是有各種各樣的天氣,不論我們喜歡不喜歡。
        Whether you will go (or not), please call me up.  不論你去不去,請打電話給我。
        Whether he will come (or not), we will go on with our plan.
          不管他來不來,我們仍按原計劃進行。
        I have decided to buy a bicycle, whether it is expensive or not.
          我已經決定買一部腳踏車,不論貴不貴。
        Whether you believe it or not, I passed the exam. 不管你信不信,反正我通過了考試。
        Whether he wanted it or not, he had to attend the lecture.
          不管他願意與否,他非得去參加講座。
        Whether or not he will stay, I really don’t care. 他要留下來還是要走,我真的不在意。
        He is always happy whether rich or not. 不管窮還是富,他都快活。
    ... or otherwise
    結構︰形容詞+or otherwise
    說明︰此句型意為“(不論)…或不…”。otherwise 表示和<形容詞>相反的意義。
        Two characters are in disagreement, serious or otherwise, over some matter.
          兩個人物為某件事情發生了嚴重或不嚴重的衝突。
        You must accept the result, satisfactory or otherwise.
          你必須接受這個令人滿意或不滿意的結果。
        The task assigned, dangerous or otherwise, must be finished as scheduled.
          所指派的工作,危險或不危險,必須如期完成。
    as ... V ...
    結構︰as+主詞+動詞…
    說明︰此句型意為“按照…;如…”。as 是<副詞><連接詞>,等於“in the same way that”。
        When in Rome, do as the Romans do.   入境隨俗。
        Do as you are told. (=Do as I tell you.)   照我吩咐的做!
        She cooks omelets in butter as they do in France.   她用奶油做法國式的蛋捲。
    As it is ...
    結構︰As it is ...
    說明︰此句型意為“事實上…”。As it is ... 作<副詞子句>,置於句首,修飾後面的<主要子句>。等於 In fact 或 As a matter of fact。
        I thought he would get better. As it is, he is getting worse.
          我以為他會變好。但事實上,他愈變愈糟。
        He isn’t nice. As it is, he is bad.   他不好。事實上,他很壞。
        I don’t like him. As it is, I hate him.   我不喜歡他。事實上,我恨他。
    as/so long as ...
    結構︰as/so long as ...
    說明︰此句型意為“只要…”。as/so long as 當“只要”解,是表條件及時間範圍的<連接詞片語>,引導 <副詞子句>,修飾<主要子句>。它所引導的<子句>中,<動詞>常用現在式,<主要子句>則用未來式。
        You will never be good students so long as you goof around.
          如果你們成天游手好閒,就永遠也成不了好學生。
        As long as you drive carefully, you will be very safe. 只要你開車小心,你就會很安全。
        You may eat anything, so long as you don’t eat too much.
          只要不吃得太多,你可以吃任何東西。
        As long as live, I will help you.   只要我活著,我都會幫助你。
        As long as you don’t betray me, I’ll do whatever you ask me to (do).
          只要你不出賣我,要我做什麼我都願意。
        We’ll ship the goods at an early time as long as there is a steamer.只要有船,我們就盡早裝貨。
    So far as I am concerned
    結構︰so/as far as+主詞+be+concerned…
    說明︰此句型意為“就…而言,…”。為<副詞><連接詞片語>,引導<副詞子句>,通常置於<主要子句>之前。
        So far as English is concerned, it is not so difficult as you might think.
          就英文而言,它並不像你所認為的那樣難。
        As far as I am concerned, I’m not against your plan.  就我而言,我並不反對你的計劃。
        So far as English composition is concerned, practice is the best way.
          就英語作文而言,練習是最好的方法。
        As far as defense is concerned, we need to buy more sophisticated weapons.
          就防禦的觀點來說,我們需要購買更多精密的武器。
        As far as I know, he is kind.   就我所知,他人不錯。
        As far as oil energy is concerned, we cannot be too frugal.就石油能源而言,我們愈節省愈好。
    whatever may happen, ...
    結構︰whatever+(名詞)+主詞+may+原形動詞…
    說明︰此句型意為“不論什麼…”。whatever 在此做<副詞><連接詞>,引導<副詞子句>,後面一定要有逗點,再接<主要子句>。“whatever+<主詞>+may be”的 may be 可以省略。
        You must do whatever is best for you.   什麼對你最有利你就得做什麼。
        He’ll push on with his project whatever the difficulties may be.
          不管有什麼困難,他都要繼續推行他的計劃。
        Whatever may happen, you must keep calm.  不論什麼事發生,你必須保持冷靜。
        I will be on your side, whatever the situation (may be).  我會在你這一邊,不論情況如何。
        We are still optimistic, whatever the result (may be).   我們仍然樂觀,不論結果如何。
    No matter what ...
    結構︰No matter what ...
    說明︰此句型意為“不論什麼…,…”。
        No matter what the results of the homemade gift look like, remember it’s the thought that counts.   不論自製禮物的結果看起來像什麼,心意才是重要。
        No matter what you may do, do it well.   不論你做什麼,好好地做。
        No matter what he is, he must obey the law.   不論他是什麼人,他必須遵守法律。
    wherever ...
    結構︰wherever+主詞+動詞…
    說明︰此句型意為“無論在哪裡…;無論到哪裡…;無論什麼情況下…”。等於 no matter where。
        The language is almost the same wherever one goes. 不論你到哪裡,語言幾乎是相同的。
        Wherever you are, I will miss you.   不論你在哪裡,我都會想念你。
        Remember you are a Chinese wherever you go.  記住你是中國人,不論你到哪裡。
        We’ll go wherever you like.  你愛去哪兒我們就去哪兒。
        Wherever it is possible, he tries to help.  只要有可能,他總是設法幫忙。
    not ... until/till ...
    結構︰not…until/till+某一點時間
    說明︰此句型意為“直到…才…”。等於“not ... before”。句子若由 not until 開頭,則要用倒裝<句型>。
        Cotton material was not known in Europe until much later.
    直到很晚之後,歐洲才知道棉花布料。
        We did not start until the sun rose in the east.   直到太陽從東方升起,我們才出發。
        He did not have a house of his own until he was thirty.直到三十歲,他才有屬於自己的家。
        Not until eleven o’clock did he come home.   他到十一點才回家。
        We do not know the value of health till we lose it.  失去健康才知道健康的可貴。
        We had not waited long before she came.  我們沒等多久她就來了。
        Not until last night did I get the news.  直到昨晚我才聽到這消息。
        It had not been done before he came.  這還沒做完之前他就回來了。
    ... rather than ...
    結構︰主詞+動詞…rather than…
    說明︰此句型意為“與其說…,不如說…;…而不是…”。rather than 後所跟的部分可以有多種詞性和<時態>,關鍵是要和前半部分保持一致。
        Older people may seek their own friends rather than become too emotionally dependent on their children. 老年人可以找自己的朋友而不會在情感上太依賴他們的子女。
        She is a career woman rather than a housewife.  她是職業婦女而不是家庭主婦。
        I tried to stand on my own two feet rather than turned to my parents.
          我設法自立而不求助於我的父母。
        He will give in to his opponent’s claim rather than wrangle over a disputed point.
          他會向對手的要求讓步,而不會因爭議點而大聲爭論。
        She is pretty rather than attractive.   她是漂亮,而不吸引人。
        I reasoned rather than quarreled with him.  我理論,而不是和他吵架。
        It is a telex rather than a letter.   與其說它是一封信,不如說它是一封電傳。
        This businessman is rather diligent than clever.  與其說這位業務員聰明,不如說他勤勉。
        The present market is worse rather than better. 目前的市場不見好轉,反而進一步惡化了。
        He should have given priority to his safety rather than to the loss of money.
          他本來應該優先考慮他的安全,而不是金錢的損失。
        He always give priority to others rather than to himself.他總是優先考慮別人而不是自己本身。
    On one hand, ...
    結構︰On (the) one hand, ..., and on the other (hand), ...
    說明︰此句型意為“一方面…,另一方面…”。本<句型>指同一事物的兩個方面。on the one hand 和 and on the other,一般是作<插入語>,前後要用逗點隔開,on the other hand 如在句末,則不必在前加逗點。注意,如第一部分裡沒有<定冠詞> the,就不作<插入語>。
        On the one hand, you shouldn’t be shy; on the other hand, you mustn’t forget your manners.
          一方面你不應當拘束,另一方面也不要放肆無禮。
        On the one hand, I am your manager, and on the other, I am also your friend.
          一方面我是你的經理,另一方面,我也是你的朋友。
        He has been criticized on one hand and encouraged on the other.
          他一方面受到批評,另一方面卻受到鼓勵。
    展开全文
  • 英语句型结构总结

    千次阅读 2019-07-23 20:23:12
    文章目录主+谓+宾主+谓主+系+表主+系+表+宾(宾语从句)There be句型附录介词短语 主+谓+宾 主+谓 主+系+表 主+系+表+宾(宾语从句) 这种句型很难分类,有时候感觉像原因状语从句,有时候像宾语从句。这类句子...

    主+谓+宾

    谓语由动词构成,是英语时态、语态变化的主角,一般在主语之后,谓语是及物动词时,后接宾语,形成主谓宾结构。
    例句
    He made a speech.

    主+谓

    谓语是不及物动词,没有宾语,形成主谓结构。
    表发生、出现的
    take place, appear, happen, break out
    例句
    Many changes took place in my home town.
    表来、去
    come, go
    例句
    We come.
    The boy comes from America.

    主+系+表

    联系动词(link verb)包括
    be动词:am, is, are, was, were, have been等;
    感官动词:look, sound, smell, feel, touch, hear, see等;
    例句
    He looks well.
    It sounds nice.
    The egg smells bad.
    I feel good.

    其他联系动词:become成为,turn变成

    联系动词与其后的表语没有动宾关系,表语多为形容词或副词,当联系动词不是be动词,而其后的表语为名词或代词时,多表达”转变为“之意,注意与动宾关系的区别。
    例句
    He became a teacher at last.
    His face turned red.

    主+系+表+宾(宾语从句)

    这种句型很难分类,有时候感觉像原因状语从句,有时候像宾语从句。这类句子我们通常称为形容词宾语从句

    这类做表语的形容词有:afraid, sure, happy, glad, certain
    例句:
    I am afraid this green dress is too small for me as well.
    I am glad that you can pass the exam.
    My flight is at 3 pm. I’m not sure whether i can catch it in time.

    There be句型

    句型“There + be + 主语 + 定语/状语/同位语”,用以表达在某处或某时“存在”某人某物。其中,there仅为引导词,没有实际意义,不可与副词”there那里“混淆;be和其后的主语在人称和数上保持一致,有时态和情态变化。例如
    There is a boy there. 【翻译】那儿有一个男孩(前一个there无实意,后一个there为副词“那里”)
    There will be a meeting tomorrow. 【翻译】明天有场会议。
    There used to be a well in the village. 【翻译】村里过去有一口井。
    There is one stamp missing in your document.
    There are about 15% of the students thinking/who think that exam results are not important.【翻译】有大约15%的学生认为学习成绩不重要。

    【注意】此句型有时不用be动词,而用live, stand, come, go, lie, remain, exist, arrive等不及物动词,如
    There stands the Statue of Liberty at New York Harbour. 【翻译】自由女神像矗立在纽约港口。

    There + be + 主语 + (for sb)to do

    There are still many things for us to do.【翻译】我们还有很多事情要做。
    There was a meeting to attend the next day.【翻译】第二天有场会议要参加。

    There + be + 主语 + 现在分词

    There were many students holding an opposite view.【翻译】很多学生持相反意见。
    There’s a river flowing through the city.【翻译】有条河在这座城市里流过。

    There + be + 主语 + 过去分词

    There were trees planted by students all over the mountain.【翻译】满山都是学生们种的树。
    There will be a ceremony intended to promote the sales.【翻译】将有场为促销而设的庆典。

    There + be + 主语 + 定语从句/同位语从句

    There are many people who don’t agree.【翻译】有很多人不同意。
    There is a rule that all teachers should stay at school during working hours.【翻译】有条规定要求教师在工作时间里呆在学校。

    不同时态、情态的there be句型

    there used to be…… 【翻译】曾经有……(但现在没有了)
    there is/are going to be……【翻译】将有…
    there will be……【翻译】将有……
    there has been……【翻译】已经有……
    there happens to be……【翻译】碰巧有……
    there seem(s)/appear(s) to be……【翻译】好像有……
    there is/are likely to be……【翻译】很可能有……
    there must be……【翻译】一定有……

    it做形式主语
    it做形式宾语

    疑问句

    一般疑问句

    一般疑问句是疑问句的一种。它是指用“yes”或“no”来回答的句子。其结构是:系动词be/助动词/情态动词+主语+其他成分?如:Is this your pen?–Yes it is./No it isn’t.
    (1)将陈述句变为一般疑问句时,如句中有be 动词(am is are …)时,可直接将它们提至主语前。如主语为第一人称,应将其改为第二人称。如:
    I’m in Class 2 Grade 1.→Are you in Class 2 Grade 1?
    (2)陈述句中有情态动词(can may must …)时,也可直接将它们提至主语前,即可成为一般疑问句。
    如:He can swim now.→Can he swim now?
    (3)陈述句中只有一个实义动词作谓语且其时态为一般现在时,变为一般疑问句时要在句首加“do”或“does” 主语后的实义动词用原形。如:
    I like these animals.→Do you like these animals?
    (4)其它情况下,陈述句变为一般疑问句时,只需要将助动词提至主语前,即可成为一个疑问句。
    (5)一般疑问句一般读升调(↑)
    (6)一般疑问句有时不用“yes”或“no”回答。

    特殊疑问句

    以疑问词开头,对句中某一成分提问的句子叫特殊疑问句。常用的疑问词有疑问代词“what who whose which”和疑问副词“when where how why”。特殊疑问句有两种语序:
    1.如疑问词作主语或主语的定语,即对主语或主语的定语提问,其语序是陈述句的语序:疑问词(+主语)+其他成分?如:
    who is singing in the room?
    whose bike is broken?
    2. 如疑问词作其他成分,即对其他成分提问,其语序是:疑问词+一般疑问句语序?如:
    what class are you in?
    注意:1.回答特殊疑问句时,不能用yes / no,即问什么答什么,尤其是简略回答。如:
    Who is from Canada? --Helen (is).
    特殊疑问句一般读降调(↓)。

    when 什么时间 问时间 (例句:when are you going home?)
    who 谁 问人 (例句 :who is boy?)
    whose 谁的 问主人 (例句:whose is this?)
    where 在哪里 问地点 (例句:where were you yesterday ?)
    which 哪一个 问选择 (例句:which girl is Amy?)
    why 为什么 问原因 (例句:why?)
    what 什么 问东西 (例句:what did you do?)
    what time 什么时间 问时间 (例句:what time is it now?)
    what color 什么颜色 问颜色 (例句:what color is this?)
    what about 怎么样 问意见 (例句:What about a cuppa? )
    what day 星期几 问星期 (例句:What day is it?)
    what date 什么日期 问具体日期 (例句:What’s the date today?)
    what for 为何目的 问目的 (例句:what for?)
    how… 怎么样 问情况 (例句:how are you?)
    how old 多大 问年龄 (例句:how old are you?)
    how many 多少 问数量 (例句:how many times?)
    how much 多少 问价钱 (例句:how much?)
    how about …怎么样 问意见 (例句:how about are you?)
    how far 多远 问路程 (例句:how far?)
    how soon 通常在一般将来时,意为"再等多长时间?",“多长时间才……?”
    how long 问时间,用于for+一段时间或since+时间的一点;多长
    how often 问频率
    how wide 多宽
    how (does/do)……(feel/smell/taste)询问感觉的句型

    选择疑问句

    选择疑问句提出两个或两个以上可能的答案供对方选择。这类疑问句有两种形式:一种是以一般疑问句的结构形式为基础,只是在语调上有所区别。这一类选择疑问句通常都是在前一个供选择的答案用低升调,后一个用降调;如果有两个以上供选择的答案,则在最后一个用降调,其余都用低升调。
    Would you like a gin,or a whisky,or a’beer?
    你是要喝杜松子酒,还是威士忌酒,还是啤酒?
    这种语调上的特征往往是区别选择疑问句和一般疑问句的重要标志。
    另一种选择疑问句是以特殊疑问句的结构形式为基础的,也是在语调上有所区别。例如:
    Which vase shall I use,the short one or the tall one.

    祈使句

    祈使句(Imperative Sentence)是英语中的一个句式,也是用于表达命令、请求、劝告、警告、禁止等的句子。祈使句最常用于表达命令,因此在学校文法中也常称为命令句。

    肯定结构

    1. Do型(即:动词原形(+宾语)+其它成分)。如:Please have a seat here. 请这边坐。
      有的祈使句在意思明确的情况下,动词可省略。如:This way, please. = Go this way, please. 请这边走。
    2. Be型(即:Be +表语(名词或形容词)+其它成分)。如:Be a good child! 要做一个好孩子!
    3. Let型(即:Let + 宾语 + 动词原形 + 其它成分)。如:Let me help you. 让我来帮你。
    ****exampleremark
    Go and wash your hands.(去洗你的手。——命令)
    Be kind to our sister.(对姊妹要和善。——劝告)
    Watch your steps.(走路小心。——警告)
    Look out!Danger!(小心!危险!——强烈警告,已如感叹句)
    Keep off the grass.(勿践草坪。——禁止)
    Be quiet for a moment.【翻译】请安静一会.
    祈使句做表语从句I think the moral of the story is let the buyer beware.【翻译】我想这个故事的寓意是提醒购物者当心。
    You go and tell him, kris. (克立斯去告诉他。)祈使句也常把主语“You”表达出来,主要是强调对象,确定对象

    否定结构

    1. Do型和Be型的否定式都是在句首加don’t构成:
        如:
        Don’t forget me! 不要忘记我!
        Don’t make such a noise.不要这么吵。
        Don’t be late for school! 上学不要迟到!(是系表结构——也就是没有行为动词但是有形容词的那种——就可以使用Don’t be,有行为动词的就不能这么用,只能用Don’t。)
    2. Let型的否定式有两种:“Don’t + let +宾语+动词原形+ 其它成分”和“Let + 宾语 + not + 动词原形 + 其它成分”。
        如:Don’t let him go. / Let him not go. 别让他走。
    3. 有些可用no开头,用来表示禁止性的祈使句。如:No smoking! 禁止吸烟!No fishing! 禁止钓鱼!
    ****exampleremark
    Don’t eat in the classroom.【翻译】不要在教室里吃东西。
    Never judge a person by looks.【翻译】绝不能以貌取人。用否定副词never构成,以加强否定含义
    No parking.(禁止停车。——禁止)
    No eating or drinking.(禁止吃喝。——禁止)
    No littering.(禁止乱扔垃圾。——禁止)

    相关口诀

    祈使句无主语 ,主语you常省去;
    动词原形当谓语,Don’t句首变否定;
    朗读应当用降调,句末常标感叹号。

    补语

    英语补语的作用对象是主语和宾语,具有鲜明的定语性描写或限制性功能,在句法上是不可或缺的。补语是起补充说明作用的成份。最常见的是宾语补足语。名词、形容词、副词、不定式、现在分词、过去分词都可以在句子中作宾补。

    主语的补语

    宾语的补语

    1. 不定式(to do)
        Our father will not allow us to play on the str-eet. 父亲不让我们在街上玩耍。
        We believe him to be guilty. 我们相信他是有罪的。
        We made him copy the sentence.我们让他再说一遍。(make+宾语+省略to的不定式)
        He is made to copy the sentence.他再说了一遍。
    2. 名词
        At the meeting we elected him monitor.在会议上我们选他做班长。
        I name my dog Pit.我叫我的狗Pit。
    3. 形容词
        What you said made Xiao Wang angry.你所说的使小王很生气。
        I found the classroom empty.我发现教室里空无一人。
    4. 副词
        Please call the students back at once.请马上回电话给学生。
        He was seen to take his cap off.他脱下他的帽子。
    5. 现在分词
        We hear him singing in the hall.我们听到他在大厅里唱歌。
        I found him is lying in bed and sleeping.我发现他躺在床上,正在睡觉。
    6. 过去分词
        He saw his face reflected in the water.他看见他的脸映照在水里。
        I heard it spoken of in the next room.我听到有人在隔壁房间里说起这事。

    相关联系
    1、主动语态中的宾语补足语,可以转化为被动语态中的主语补足语。
    例如:They caught the boy stealing. (stealing 作为宾语补足语)
    转化为被动语态 The boy was caught stealing. (stealing转化为主语补足语)
    2、被动语态的主语补足语与主动语态的宾语补足语是密切相关的。例如:
    (1) I saw him playing basketball yesterday.
    (2) He was seen playing basketball yesterday.
    句(1)中的含义不是我看见他,而是我看见他正在打篮球。playing basketball是宾语him的补足语。所以叫宾语补足语。
    句(2)中的含义也不是他被看,而是别人看见他正在打篮球。这里的playing basketball是主语he的补足语,故称作主语补足语。主语和主语补足语一起称作复合主语。所以含有主语补足语的句子一般是被动语态,谓语动词是可以接复合宾语(宾语+宾语补足语)的及物动词。句首的主语就是主语补足语的逻辑主语。

    宾语后的形容词状语与形容词补语

    宾语后的形容词做状语

    句义:形容词做谓语时,通常是以一种特殊形式表示的,即无动词形容词分句,它表示主句内容发生的状况或条件;
    语法作用特征:若形容词是状语,可以将其转换成相应的状语从句,并且可以前置而不影响句义。

    exampleremark
    We can drink it hot.
    I ate the meat cold.
    He sold his car new.【翻译】他趁汽车还新的时候,把它卖了。
    You can eat the vegetable raw.【翻译】你可以生吃这种蔬菜。
    They picked the apples ripe.【翻译】苹果熟了,他们采摘了。

    宾语后的形容词做补语

    句义:说明主句的谓语动词的结果,或说明宾语的属性,或是现状属性,或是结果属性

    exampleremark
    She pushed the door open.
    I prefer coffee black.【翻译】我喜欢清咖啡。
    He pulled his belt tight.【翻译】他勒紧腰带。
    They knocked him cold.【翻译】他们把他打晕了过去。

    在英语里,并非所有的动词后都能跟有形容词作宾语补语。能带这种结构的动词大概有两种:
    现状动词(current verbs),如
    believe
    find
    consider
    prefer

    现状动词一般为静态动词,其宾语后的形容词表示宾语的状态或属性。形容词与宾语间有强化的述谓关系,补语前可以添加强动词的不定式“to be”或“as”,或将复合宾语变成that-从句,比如
    I prefer coffee to be black.

    结果动词(resulting verbs),如
    get
    make
    paint
    wash
    drive

    结果动词一般为动态动词,且具有“使役”意义,这类动词后虽然不能直接在其宾语与形容词间添加“to be”或将其转换为that-从句,但因其具有“使役”意义,我们可以借助cause…to be这一结构来表示宾语与形容词间的强化关系。如
    They caused him to be cold by knocking him.

    动词不定式

    省略to的情况

    1. 情态动词( 除ought 外,ought to意思是“应该”,是情态动词,只有一种形式,后边接动词不定式,to不能省略。ought to没有人称和数的变化,后接动词原形可以表示现在、将来或过去将来,由时间状语或上下文决定。例如:
      They ought to come tomorrow.【翻译】他们明天应当来。
    2. 使役动词(get除外,get sb to do sth.)let, have, make。例如:
      have(let, make) sb do sth.
      Once again, I would like to apologize for any inconvenience this has caused you and look forward to having you fly with us again.【翻译】我们再次就此事给您带来的不便向您道歉,希望您还能选择我们的航班!
    3. 感官动词see,watch,look at,notice,observe,hear,listen to,smell,feel,find 等后作宾补,省略to。注意:在被动语态中则to 不能省掉。例如
      I saw him dance.
      =He was seen to dance.
    4. 表示个人意愿或倾向的would rather,had better,might(just) as well:rather than置于句首时。
      Rather than ride on a crowded bus,he always prefers to ride a bike.

    参考:https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E5%8A%A8%E8%AF%8D%E4%B8%8D%E5%AE%9A%E5%BC%8F/504666?fr=aladdin

    展开全文
  • 强调句型

    2015-04-13 23:29:13
    17、It is the ability to do the job ____ matters ,not where you come from or what you are. A. one B. that C .what D. it 18. I don’t know ____ that you stay here. A. how long it is B. how ...

    基本语法 强调句是一种修辞,是人们为了表达自己的意愿情感而使用的一种形式

    基本定义编辑

    强调句(The Emphatic Pattern)是一种 修辞,是人们为了表达自己的 意愿情感而使用的一种 形式。通过各种方式对句子中的某个部分进行 强调,从而起到 修辞的作用。 英语常用的强调 结构是"It is (was)+被强调部分( 主语宾语状语)+who (that)..."。一般说来,被 强调部分指人时,用who;指事物时用that,但that也可以指人。在美国英语中指事物时常用which来代替that。

    2常用句型编辑

    It is/ was + 被 强调部分(通常是 主语宾语状语)+ that/ who(当强调主语且主语指人)+ 其他部分。
    例子 It was yesterday that he met Li Ping.
    同上,只是把is/ was提到it前面。
    例子 Was it yesterday that he met Li Ping?
    3. 特殊疑问句的强调句型
    强调部分(通常是 疑问代词疑问副词)+ is/ was + it + that/ who + 其他部分?
    例子 When and where was it that you were born?
    4.not … until … 句型强调
    A. 句型为:It is/ was not until + 被 强调部分 + that + 其他部分
    普通句:He didn't go to bed until/ till his wife came back.
    强调句:It was not until his wife came back that he went to bed.
    B. 注意:
    句型只用until,不用till。但如果不是 强调 句型,till, until可通用;因为句型中It is/ was not ... 已经是 否定句了,that后面的 从句要用 肯定句,切勿再用 否定句了。
    A. It is/ was ... that ... 结构不能强调 谓语,如果需要强调谓语时,用 助动词do/ does或did
    Do sit down. 务必请坐。
    Do be careful when you cross the street. 过马路时,务必(千万)要小心啊!
    B. 注意:
    此种 强调只用do/ does和did,没有别的 形式;过去时用did,后面的 谓语动词原形

    3强调形式编辑

    常见到的 强调 形式,共有以下七类:
    ⒈用do\does\did + V可表 强调
    Some people do believe that nuclear power poses a threat to the world peace.
    ⒉adv或adj可表 强调:Never \ only\ Very
    This is the very question that deserves careful analysis.
    双重否定可表 强调
    Taking part-time jobs is never without drawbacks.
    ⒋what引导的主从可表 强调
    What really matters is cooperation.
    ⒌倒装可表 强调(凡是倒装都可以表示强调)
    Little do people take into account the seriousness of this problem.
    Nothing is more imperative than to learn from the past.
    强调 句型可表强调
    It is \was +被 强调部份+ that \ who +原句剩余部份
    It is stability that destroys people’s ambition and barricades people’s steps.

    4语法结构编辑

    强调句的十种 结构
    1.用 助动词“do(does/did)+ 动词原形”来表示 强调
    Do write to me when you get there.你到那儿后务必给我来信。
    2.用 形容词very,only,single,such等 修饰名词或形容词来加强语气:
    How dare you buy such expensive jewels?你怎么敢买这么贵的宝石呢?
    3.用ever,never,very,just等 副词和badly,highly,really等带有-l y的副词来进行 强调
    I really don’t know what to do next.我的确不知道下一步该怎么做。
    4.用in the world,on earth,at all等 介词短语可以表达更强的语气(常用于 疑问句):
    Where in the world could he be?他到底会在哪儿?
    5.用 感叹句来表示强烈的 感情突出 说话人情感
    How interesting a story it is!这是一个多么有趣的故事啊!
    6.用 重复来表示 强调
    Why!why!The cage is empty!啊!啊!箱子是空的。
    7.用 倒装句(也就是将要 强调的句子或被 强调的部分置于句首)来加强语气:
    On the table were some flowers.桌上摆着一些花。( 强调地点)
    8.用强调 句型:“It is(was)+被强调的部分+that(who)+原句其它部分”来强调 说话人意愿
    It was on Monday night that all this happened.所有这一切发生在周一晚上。
    9.用 If来表示 强调
    1)If 从句+I don’t know who/what,etc.does/is/has,etc.
    主语部分也可以用nobody does/is/has,etc.或everybody does/is/has,et c.来 代替(这里的if 从句往往是 正话反说反话正说):
    If he can’t do it,I don’t know who can.要是他做不了这件事,我不知道还有谁能做。( 强调只有他能做) If Jim is a coward,everybody is.要是 吉姆是个胆小鬼,那么人人都是胆小鬼。( 强调吉姆不是胆小鬼)
    2)if 从句+it be 主句(此用法可看成是第8中 强调 句型的变形,即把所要强调的内容放在it be的后面,把其它内容放在由if引导的从句中):
    If anyone knew the truth,it was Tom.如果说谁了解事实的真相,那便是 汤姆
    10.用 破折号黑体字也可以表示 强调,加强 语气
    It’s because of hard work—ten years of hard work.那是因为艰苦的工作--十年艰苦的工作!
    He began the work in late May.他在五月底开始的这项工作。( 强调时间)

    5注意事项编辑

    that后的 强调句如果是 原因状语从句,从句只能用because引导,不能用since,as或why。
    It was because the water had risen that they could not cross the river。

    6句型练习编辑

    与主语从句的比较

    1. ---Were all three people in the car injured in the accident?---No,___ only the two passengers who got hurt.
    A. it was B. there is C. it were D. there was
    2. ---Who is making so much noise in the garden? --- ___ the children.
    A. It is B. They are C. That is D . There are
    3. It was ___ she was about to go out ____ the telephone rang.
    A. when ; that B. so; that C. before; then D. when; before
    4. It was ___ he said ___ disappointed me.
    A. what; that B. that; what C. that; when D. it; when
    5.____ that silver is not widely used as a conductor?
    A. Why is B. Is it why C. Why is it D. Why is that
    6.---I can’t find Mr. Smith .Where did you meet him this morning?--- It was in the hotel ___ he stated.
    A. that B which C. the one D. where
    7. It was in the small house ___ was built with stones by his father ___ he spent his childhood.
    A. which; that B, that ;where C, which; which D. that; which
    8. It was ___ it was raining so hard that we had to stay at home all day.
    A. since B .for C. as D. because
    9. Is ____ three hours ____ the boy ___family is poor to come to school on foot?
    A .it ;that; whose B. it; that it takes; whose C. it for ;that it takes; whose D. it; when ;that
    10. his wife left him without saying goodbye.
    A. that B .which C .when D. in which
    11. It is a winter night ___he spent with me last night.
    A. that B. where C. as D .when
    12It is the young man ___ looked for ___ caught the murderer.
    A. that; who B. that; they C. they ;that D they ;which
    13. It was ____ my teacher worked ____ I work hard.
    A. where; that B. where; where C .that; that D. that ;where
    14. It was evening__we reached the little town of Winchester.
    A that B. until C. since D. before
    15. It was until dark ___ he found ___ he thought was the correct way to solve the problem.
    A. that; what B. that; that C. when; what D. when; that
    16. It was until last year that he ___.
    A. left school for a new start
    B .came to realize the importance of learning English.
    C. worked as an English teacher at a middle school
    D .set out to build a new house of his town.
    17、It is the ability to do the job ____ matters ,not where you come from or what you are.
    A. one B. that C .what D. it
    18. I don’t know ____ that you stay here.
    A. how long it is B. how long is it C. it is how long D. is it how long
    19、.It was _____ that caused him to serve dinner an hour later than usual.
    A. we being late B. our being late C. we were too late D. because we were late
    20.---what was the party like?---Wonderful. It’s years _____ I enjoyed myself much.
    A. after B. before C .that D. since
    从句辨析 强调句将句子中的it is / was …that同时省去,句子仍然成立;而 主语从句将that与后面部分代替it,成立。如:
    (1) It is Li Lei’s brother that you met in the street yesterday. 你昨天在街上所见到的就是 李蕾的兄弟。
    本句若将It is 及 that同时省去为:You met Li Lei’s brother in the street yesterday. 句子同样成立,因此前面的句子是 强调 句型
    (2) It is exciting that we have succeeded in sending up Shenzhou V. 我们成功地发射了 神舟五号这件事情真令人兴奋。
    本句若将It is 及 that同时省去为:We have succeeded exciting in sending up Shenzhou V. 显然句子错误,因此,前面句子不是 强调 句型,而是 主语从句

    与定语从句的比较

    强调句中的It没有实际意义,It be与that可同时被省略;而定语从句中的It是 主语,It be与that不可同时省略;
    强调 句型中be的 时态须跟后面句子的时态相一致;而定语从句中主句 谓语动词be的时态须由主句的时间确定
    强调句将句子中的that不能省略,并且即使前面的名词是事物时,也不能将that换成which;而 定语从句中的that作 宾语时可被省略,并且当 先行词是事物时可用which代替。
    ◎当it be后面的时间、地点名词作 主语宾语表语时, 引导词可用that / which;而作其他成分时,引导词须用when / which。如:
    (1) It is an English book (that / which) I bought yesterday. 它是我昨天买的书。(本句是对What is that?问句的回答,that所引导的是 定语从句,that可被省略)
    It was the English book that I bought yesterday. 昨天我所卖的就是这本书。(本句相当于对I bought the English book yesterday中an English book进行 强调)
    (2) It was a room where we used to have meetings. 它是我们过去常在开会的房子。(where 所引导的 从句对前面的room进行说明,它是 定语从句)
    It was in the room that we used to have meetings. 过去我们开会就在这间房子里。(in the room是被 强调的部分,本句是 强调 句型)
    (3) It is a day when the people celebrate their victory. 这是人们庆祝他们的胜利的日子。 (when所引导的 从句对a day进行说明,是 定语从句)
    It was on that day that people celebrated their victory. 就在那一天,人们庆祝了他们的胜利。( 强调on October 1, 1949)

    与状语从句的比较

    状语从句句首的It本身就是句子的 主语;而 强调句首的It不作任何成分也没有实际意义。
    ◎状语从句的 连接副词that及句子前面的It be不能去掉
    状语从句引导词可以是when / where,而 强调 句型中的that不能用其他词代替。如:
    (1) It is such an interesting book that we all like it very much. 它是一本如此有趣的书,我们大家都非常喜欢。(结果状语 主从复合句)
    It is such an interesting book that we all like very much. 我们大家都非常喜欢的就是一本如此有趣的书。( 强调such an interesting book)
    (比较:It is such an interesting book as we all like very much. 这就是我们大家都非常喜欢的有趣的书。定语从句)
    (2) It was already morning when he woke up. 当他醒来时,已经是早晨了。(时间主从复合句)
    It was the next morning that he woke up. 就在第二天早晨他醒来了。(强调the next morning)

    展开全文
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