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  • as 和which 引导定语从句的异同

    千次阅读 2017-12-14 18:58:19
    两者引导非限制性定语从句时,可指代主句中的部分或整个句子的内容,在从句中主语,宾语或表语,位于主句之后有时可互换。 The meeting was put off, as /whichwas exactly what we wanted. He was a doctor, as...

     

    一、相同点:

    两者引导非限制性定语从句时,可指代主句中的部分或整个句子的内容,在从句中做主语,宾语或表语,位于主句之后有时可互换。

    The meeting was put off, as /whichwas exactly what we wanted.

    He was a doctor, as/which I knewfrom his manner.

    注:which 代表整个句子,还可用于in whichcase, at which point, on which occasion等。

    I may have to work late, in which case I’ll telephoneyou. 

    我可能得晚点下班,那样我会给你打电话的。

          The machine may be out of order,in which case it will be repaired at once.

          Ten years of hard work changed her greatly, for which reason he couldhardly recognize her at first sight.

     

    二、不同点:

    1.  在限制性定语从句中,当先行词被the same, such ,as,so修饰时,要用as代替who,whom,which 或者that引导定语从句。

    Such men as heard him were deeplymoved. 
    听过他说话的人,都会深受感动。(as在定语从句中作heard的主语)
    I've never heard such stories as he tells. 
    我从未听过像他讲的这样的故事。(as在定语从句中作tell的宾语)
    He lifted so heavy a stone as no one else can lift.
    他搬起别人都搬不起的大石头。(as在定语从句中lift的宾语)

     

    注意:

    ①在thesame as结构中,as也可用that代替。但严格地说,thesame as强调相同,the same that注重同一。
      
    She wore the same dress as heryounger sister wore.
       她穿着跟她妹妹所穿的一样的衣裙。(as指的是与先行词相似的同类事物)
      She wore the same dress that she woreat Mary's wedding. 
       她穿着她在玛丽婚礼上穿过的同一条连衣裙。(that指的是与先行词同一事物)

           

    ②定语从句such/as…as…与结果状语从句such/as… that…的区别:as在所引导的定语从句中作主语,宾语;that在结果状语从句中不做成分

              He has such a good laptop as I want to buy.

              He has such a good laptop that I want to buy one.

            He lifted so heavy a stone as no one else can lift.
            He is so young a boy that he can’tgo to school.

     

    2.which 引导的定语从句只能位于主句后,但as引导的从句可位于主句前、中、后。

    As is known to all, China is a developing country.

     He isfrom the south, as we can see from his accent.

        John, as you know, is a famous writer.

    Li Mingis late, as is often the case. 

    He has been to Paris more than several times, which I don’tbelieve.

     

     

    3. as有“正如……,正像……”的意思,而which则没有。常用的句型有:

    as is oftenthe case                   (这是常有的事)

    as wasexpected                     (不出所料)

    as oftenhappens                     (正如经常发生的那样)  

    as has beensaid before                (如上所述)

    as ismentioned above                 (正如上面所提到的)

    as everybody/wecan see                 (正如大家/我们所看到的)

    as is known to all=as we all know       (众所周知)

     

    4. as 引导的定语从句只表示一个众所周知或意料之中的事,但 which 不受此限制。(即as引导的定语从句在意义上不是否定的。)

    He marriedher, which was unexpected. 他和她结婚了,这是出乎意料的。(不可用as)

    He failed inthe experiment, which was unexpected.

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  • 28定语从句

    2019-07-30 18:11:42
    一个句子做定语去修饰限定名词 案例: (句子)那位同学 (定语从句)坐在窗户旁边穿红衣的女同学 分析: 定语从句关系词对应主语表 先行词 关系词 事/物 which / that 人 who / ...

    定语从句
    含义:
    一个句子做定语去修饰限定名词

    案例:
    (句子)那位同学
    (定语从句)坐在窗户旁边穿红衣的女同学

    分析:
    在这里插入图片描述定语从句关系词对应主语表

    先行词 关系词
    事/物 which / that
    who / whom / that
    人/物(“某人的/某物的”) whose
    时间 when
    地点 where
    原因 why

    关系词的几点注意:

    • 定语从句的关系词每一个都作成分,包括that。
    • whom指人,只能在作宾语时使用。
    • 关系词在定语从句中作宾语时,可以省略。

    练习:
    I have a class which / that begins at 8:00 am.
    The lawyer that my brother called didn’t answer the phone.
    My daughter asked me a question that I couldn’t answer.
    Leo is the student whose bike was stolen.
    Australia is one of the few countries where people drive on the left.
    Sunday is the day when people usually don’t go to work.

    I lost the book _____________________________
    我弄丢了上周从图书馆借的书。
    (which/that) I borrowed from the library last week

    The woman _______________________________________ was feeding pigeons
    我在公园看见那位女士正在喂鸽子。
    (who/that/whom) I saw in the park

    I cannot remember the day ____________________.
    我记不起上一次我们是什么时候碰面的。
    when we met last time

    展开全文
  • 定语从句(Attributive Clauses)在句中做定语,修饰一个名词或代词,被修饰的名词,词组或代词即先行词。定语从句通常出现在先行词之后,由关系词(关系代词或关系副词)引出。 关系代词有:who, whom, whose, ...
    18. 定语从句

    定语从句(Attributive Clauses)在句中做定语,修饰一个名词或代词,被修饰的名词,词组或代词即先行词。定语从句通常出现在先行词之后,由关系词(关系代词或关系副词)引出。
    关系代词有:who, whom, whose, that, which等。
    关系副词有:when, where, why等。

    18.1 关系代词引导的定语从句
    关系代词所代替的先行词是人或物的名词或代词,并在句中充当主语、宾语、定语等成分。关系代词在定语从句中作主语时,从句谓语动词的人称和数要和先行词保持一致。
    1)who, whom, that
    这些词代替的先行词是人的名词或代词,在从句中所起作用如下:
    Is he the man who/that wants to see you?
    他就是你想见的人吗?(who/that在从句中作主语)
    He is the man whom/ that I saw yesterday.
    他就是我昨天见的那个人。(whom/that在从句中作宾语)
    2) Whose 用来指人或物,(只用作定语, 若指物,它还可以同of which互换), 例如:
    They rushed over to help the man whose car had broken down. 那人车坏了,大家都跑过去帮忙。
    Please pass me the book whose (of which) cover is green. 请递给我那本绿皮的书。
    3)which, that
    它们所代替的先行词是事物的名词或代词,在从句中可作主语、宾语等,例如:
    A prosperity which / that had never been seen before appears in the countryside. 农村出现了前所未有的繁荣。(which / that在句中作宾语)
    The package (which / that) you are carrying is about to come unwrapped. 你拿的包快散了。(which / that在句中作宾语)

    18.2 关系副词引导的定语从句
    关系副词可代替的先行词是时间、地点或理由的名词,在从句中作状语。
    1)when, where, why
    关系副词when, where, why的含义相当于"介词+ which"结构,因此常常和"介词+ which"结构交替使用,例如:
    There are occasions when (on which) one must yield. 任何人都有不得不屈服的时候。
    Beijing is the place where (in which) I was born. 北京是我的出生地。
    Is this the reason why (for which) he refused our offer? 这就是他拒绝我们帮助他的理由吗?
    2)that代替关系副词
    that可以用于表示时间、地点、方式、理由的名词后取代when, where, why和"介词+ which"引导的定语从句,在口语中that常被省略,例如:
    His father died the year (that / when / in which) he was born. 他父亲在他出生那年逝世了。
    He is unlikely to find the place (that / where / in which) he lived forty years ago. 他不大可能找到他四十年前居住过的地方。

    18.3 判断关系代词与关系副词
    方法一: 用关系代词,还是关系副词完全取决于从句中的谓语动词。及物动词后面无宾语,就必须要求用关系代词;而不及物动词则要求用关系副词。例如:
    This is the mountain village where I stayed last year.
    I'll never forget the days when I worked together with you.
    判断改错(注:先显示题,再显示答案,横线;用不同的颜色表示出。)
    (错) This is the mountain village where I visited last year.
    (错) I will never forget the days when I spent in the countryside.
    (对) This is the mountain village (which) I visited last year.
    (对) I'll never forget the days (which) I spent in the countryside.
    习惯上总把表地点或时间的名词与关系副词 where, when联系在一起。此两题错在关系词的误用上。
    方法二: 准确判断先行词在定语从句中的成分(主、谓、宾、定、状),也能正确选择出关系代词/关系副词。
    例1. Is this museum ___ you visited a few days age?
    A. where B. that C. on which D. the one
    例2. Is this the museum ____ the exhibition was held.
    A. where B. that C. on which D. the one
    答案:例1 D,例2 A
    例1变为肯定句: This museum is ___ you visited a few days ago.
    例2变为肯定句: This is the museum ___ the exhibition was held.
    在句1中,所缺部分为宾语,而where, that, on which都不能起到宾语的作用,只有the one既做了主句的表语,又可做从句的宾语,可以省略关系代词,所以应选D。
    而句2中, 主、谓、宾俱全,从句部分为句子的状语表地点,既可用副词where,又因 in the museum词组,可用介词in + which 引导地点状语。而此题中,介词on 用的不对,所以选A。
    关系词的选择依据在从句中所做的成分,先行词在从句中做主、定、宾语时,选择关系代词 (who, whom, that, which, whose); 先行词在从句中做状语时,应选择关系副词 ( where 地点状语,when 时间状语,why 原因状语) 。

    18.4 限制性和非限制性定语从句
    1) 定语从句有限制性和非限制性两种。限制性定语从句是先行词不可缺少的部分,去掉它主句意思往往不明确;非限制性定语从句是先行词的附加说明,去掉了也不会影响主句的意思,它与主句之间通常用逗号分开,例如:
    This is the house which we bought last month. 这是我们上个月买的那幢房子。(限制性)
    The house, which we bought last month, is very nice.这幢房子很漂亮,是我们上个月买的。(非限制性)
    2) 当先行词是专有名词或物主代词和指示代词所修饰时,其后的定语从句通常是非限制性的,例如:
    Charles Smith, who was my former teacher, retired last year. 查理•史密斯去年退休了,他曾经是我的老师。
    My house, which I bought last year, has got a lovely garden. 我去年买的的那幢房子带着个漂亮的花园。
    This novel, which I have read three times, is very touching. 这本小说很动人,我已经读了三遍。
    3) 非限制性定语从句还能将整个主句作为先行词, 对其进行修饰, 这时从句谓语动词要用第三人称单数,例如:
    He seems not to have grasped what I meant, which greatly upsets me. 他似乎没抓住我的意思,这使我心烦。
    Liquid water changes to vapor, which is called evaporation. 液态水变为蒸汽,这就叫做蒸发。
    说明:关系代词that和关系副词why不能引导非限制性定语从句。

    18.5 介词+关系词
    1)介词后面的关系词不能省略。
    2)that前不能有介词。
    3) 某些在从句中充当时间,地点或原因状语的"介词+关系词"结构可以同关系副词when 和where 互换。
    This is the house in which I lived two years ago.
    This is the house where I lived two years ago.
    Do you remember the day on which you joined our club?
    Do you remember the day when you joined our club?

    18.6 as, which 非限定性定语从句
    由as, which 引导的非限定性定语从句,as和which可代整个主句,相当于and this或and that。As一般放在句首,which在句中。
    As we know, smoking is harmful to one's health.
    The sun heats the earth, which is very important to us.
    典型例题
    1)Alice received an invitation from her boss, ___came as a surprise.
    A. it B. that C. which D. he
    答案C. 此为非限定性从句,不能用 that修饰,而用which.,it 和he 都使后句成为句子,两个独立的句子不能单以逗号连接。况且选he句意不通。
    2)The weather turned out to be very good, ___ was more than we could expect.
    A. what B. which C. that D. it
    答案B。which可代替句子,用于非限定性定语从句,而what不可。That 不能用于非限定性定语从句,it不为连词,使由逗号连接的两个句子并在一起在英语语法上行不通。
    3)It rained hard yesterday, ____ prevented me from going to the park..
    A. that B. which C. as D. it
    答案B.
    as 和which在引导非限制性定语从句时,这两个关系代词都指主句所表达的整个意思,且在定语从句中都可以作主语和宾语。但不同之处主要有两点:
    (1) as 引导的定语从句可置于句首,而which不可。
    (2) as 代表前面的整个主句并在从句中作主语时,从句中的谓语必须是系动词;若为行为动词,则从句中的关系代词只能用which.。
    在本题中,prevent由于是行为动词,所以正确选项应为B。
    As 的用法
    例1. the same… as;such…as 中的as 是一种固定结构, 和……一样……。
    I have got into the same trouble as he (has).
    例2. as可引导非限制性从句,常带有'正如'。
    As we know, smoking is harmful to one's health.
    As is know, smoking is harmful to one's health.
    As是关系代词。例1中的as作know的宾语;例2中,它充当从句的主语,谓语动词know要用被动式。

    18.7 先行词和关系词二合一
    1)Whoever spits in public will be punished here.
    (Whoever 可以用 anyone who 代替)
    2)The parents will use what they have to send their son to technical school.
    (what 可以用all that代替)

    18.8 what/whatever;that/what; who/whoever
    1)what = the thing which;whatever = anything
    What you want has been sent here.
    Whatever you want makes no difference to me.
    2) who= the person that whoever= anyone who
    (错)Who breaks the law will be punished.
    (错)Whoever robbed the bank is not clear.
    (对)Whoever breaks the law will be punished.
    (对)Who robbed the bank is not clear.
    3) that 和 what
    当that引导定语从句时 ,通常用作关系代词,而引导名词性从句时,是个不充当任何成分的连接词。宾语从句和表语从句中的that常可省略。What只能引导名词性从 句, 用作连接代词,作从句的具体成分,且不能省略。
    I think (that) you will like the stamps.
    What we need is more practice.

    18.9 关系代词that 的用法
    1)不用that的情况
    a) 在引导非限定性定语从句时。
    (错) The tree, that is four hundred years old, is very famous here.
    b) 介词后不能用。
    We depend on the land from which we get our food.
    We depend on the land that/which we get our food from.
    2) 只能用that作为定语从句的关系代词的情况
    a) 在there be 句型中,只用that,不用which。
    b) 在不定代词,如:anything, nothing, the one, all, much, few, any, little等作先行词时,只用that,不用which。
    c) 先行词有the only, the very修饰时,只用that。
    d) 先行词为序数词、数词、形容词最高级时,只用that。.
    e) 先行词既有人,又有物时。
    举例:
    All that is needed is a supply of oil.
    所需的只是供油问题。
    Finally, the thief handed everything that he had stolen to the police.
    那贼最终把偷的全部东西交给了警察。
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  • 关系副词:不任何的成分, 不够成从句的 核心成分,只是 时间、地点、原因等状语. when/where/why Do u remember the day when he came to see u? Do u remember the day that...定语从句的黄金法则 缺成分: ...

    关系副词:不做任何的成分,  不够成从句的 核心成分,只是做 时间、地点、原因等状语.

    when/where/why

    Do u remember the day    when      he came to see u?

    Do u remember the day    that/which  we spent in the woods?

     

    定语从句的黄金法则

    缺成分:    关系代词

    不缺成分: 关系副词

    1. 地点副词

    This is the house     where===(in which)    he lived(不及) last year.

    This is the house      which                       he lived in last year.

    This it the house       that                         he visited(及) last year.

    抽象地点

    You have reached the point where a change is need.

    case/point/position/situation/stage/state

    2.时间副词

    Almost  everyone can remember the day  when=== on which he was born.

    I still remember the days  that/which/空  we spent in that country.

     

    3.原因副词

    I know the reason     why                    he did that.

    I konw the teason    that/which/空       he explianed at the meeting.

     

    关系副词的省略

    when  :    the  time/day/occasion

    where :    place/room

    why    :    reason

     

     

    This is the factory where/in which he worked.

    I remember the day when/on which he left.

    The reson why/for which I was late is the traffic.

     

    介词+where/when 引导的定语从句

    He stood on the top of the tower, form where he could see the whole city.

    I bought this house 5 years age, sice when things have gone better.

     

    转载于:https://www.cnblogs.com/1018475062qq/p/7052936.html

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  • 定语从句(AttributiveClauses)在句中做定语,修饰一个名词或代词,被修饰的名词,词组或代词即先行词。定语从句通常出现在先行词之后,由关系词(关系代词或关系副词)引出。 关系代词有:who,whom,whose,that,...
  • 定语从句知识点众多,面对中考,只需要记住以下两个口诀,就能拿到分。口诀一:口诀二:既有人时又有物,还有序数最高级,不定代,不用which,全用that。这两个口诀怎么理解呢,请看分解?一、什么叫定语?定语:...
  • 2、可作从句主语,宾语(动词宾语或者介词宾语); 3、都可修饰人或东西; 4、作主语不可省略; 作动词或者介词宾语时,可以省略; who,that作介词宾语时,介词不可提前。 二、whom 1、指代主句某部分 2、只...
  • 基本 语法从句

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  • 在英语中,各种短语作定语都相当于一个定语从句,其位置要放在中心词的后面。 1、 介词短语 During his stay here, he attended a meeting (which is)of importance and visited historic ...
  • 何为定语 修饰名词的词叫做定语(确定的定)。我来看看定语都有那些分类 一个词修饰名词: This is an ugly dog ...了解 which that who whose when why where 连词的使用条件就能用好定语从句 连词主语...
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