• [size=medium][color=blue]只能用that的情况：[/color][/size] 关系代词在定语从句中作表语，不管是人或物只能用that。 He is not the man that he was when I first saw him. 【他现在不是我第一次见他时那样的...
[size=medium][color=blue]只能用that的情况：[/color][/size]<1>关系代词在定语从句中作表语，不管是人或物只能用that。He is not the man  that  he  was  when I first saw him.【他现在不是我第一次见他时那样的。】<2>当先行词即指物又指人时，多用that引导定语从句。Look at the  girl  and the  dog  that  are crossing the street.【瞧正在过马路的那个女孩和那只狗。】<3>当先行词是有生命的动物或人时，宜使用that而不是which。1.What's the name of the  animals  that  jumps about?【四处蹦跳的动物叫什么名字？】2.Who is the  girl  that  talked to you yesterday?【昨天和你说话的女孩儿是谁？】<4>当先行词被形容词的最高级修饰时引导定语从句的关系代词只能用that，而不能用which。This is  the most  interesting book  that  I've ever read.【这是我所读过的最有趣的书。】<5>当先行词被all,something,anything,nothing,everything,little,much,the one,none等时，引导定语从句多用关系代词that。1.The goverment has promised to do  all  that  lies in its power to alleviate the hardships of people.【政府承诺尽其一切力量减轻人民的苦难。】2.When we see  anything  that  happen on the island, we're so glad.【当我们看到岛上发生的事情，我们都如此兴奋。】3.Tom told his father  all  that  had happened.【汤姆把事情发生的全部情况都告诉了他的父亲。】4.Pay attention to  everything  that  I do.【注意我做的每一件事。】5.The teacher wants to teach us  all  that  he knows.【老师想把他知道的全部知识都交给我们。】6.You must do  everything  that  I do.【我做的每件事你必须都做。】<6>当先行词被the only, the very, the first,the last,few,little,no,all,one of,the same等修饰时，须用关系代词that来引导。The only  thing  that  we can do is to give you some money.【我们唯一能够做的就是给你一些钱。】<7>当主句中已有疑问词who或which时，要用关系代词that。Which  is the bik e  that  you lost?【你丢失的自行车是哪辆？】[size=medium][color=blue]只能用which的情况：[/color][/size]<8>在介词后面的关系代词用which而不能用that。即“介词+which（代物）”1.The picture   for   which  he paid \$1,000 was once owned by a duke.【他花了1000美元买下的画曾为一名公爵所拥有。】2.The building   in  which  Han Mei studied was very old.【韩梅在里边学习的那幢大楼很旧。】<9>在非限定性定语从句中不能用that。Crusoe's dog,  which  was very old now, became ill and died.【克鲁索的狗，现在已经很老了，病死了。】<10>有两个定语从句，其中一个关系代词已有which,另一个宜用that。相反，如果其中一个为that，另一个宜用which。1.Edison built up a factory   which  produced things  that  had never been seen before.【爱迪生办了一个工厂，生产过去从未见过的东西。】2.Let me show you the novel   that  I borrowed from the library  which  was newly open to us.【让我给你看看我从新开放的图书馆借来的小说。】共同点：<11>当定语从句所修饰的先行词为物时，关系代词可用which或that。1.In fact the Swede did not understand the three  questions  that/which  were asked in English.【事实上Swede并不理解三个被提问到的英语问题。】2.Colour the  birds   which/that  are flying.【给那些正在飞着的鸟上色。】3.The  pen  that/which  I am using is quiet good.【我正在使用的那支钢笔相当好。】4.The  film  which/that  we saw last night was wonderful!【昨晚我们看的那部影片真棒！】
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• 在定语从句中,which 和that 在指代事物时,一般可以互换使用,但并非在任何情况下都是这样,这里介绍宜用that, 而不宜用which 情况.①先行词为不定代词,all,much,something,everything,anything,nothing,none,the one...
在定语从句中,which 和that 在指代事物时,一般可以互换使用,但并非在任何情况下都是这样,这里介绍宜用that, 而不宜用which 的情况.①先行词为不定代词,all,much,something,everything,anything,nothing,none,the one等, 1.We should do all that is useful to the people .2.There's nothing that can be said about it .3.Do you mean the one that was bought yesterday?②先行词被only, any, few, little, no, just, very, one of等词修饰时.1.The only thing that we could do was to wait.2.That's the very word that is wrongly used.The last place (that) we visited was the chemical works.You can take any (=whichever) seat that is free.I hope the little that I can will be of some help to them.比较 *This is one of the best novels that were published last year.*This is the only one of the best novels that was published last year.③先行词是序数词时或被序数词修饰时.1.When we talk about Wuxi, the first that comes into mind is Tai Lake.2.This is the third film that has been shown in our school this term.④先行词是最高级或被最高级修饰时.1.This is the best that can be done now.2.The most important thing that should be done right now is how to stop him from going on.⑤先行词既有人又有物,用which和who都不适合,这时宜用that. 如：1.The writer and his novel that you have just talked about is really well known .2.The rider and his bike that had run over an old woman were held up by the police.⑥被修饰词为数词时. 1.Yesterday I caught two fish and put them in a basin of water .Now you can see the two that are still alive .⑦如果有两个从句,其中一个关系代词已用which ,另一个关系代词宜用that,以避免语言的单调或重复.Edison built up a factory which produced things that had never been seen before.⑧疑问词是who或which,关系代词宜用that,以避免重复.1. Which is the book that you like best?2. Who is the man that is standing at the gate?⑨主句是There be 结构,修饰其主句的定语从句宜用that 作关系代词. 如：1. There is still a seat in the corner that is still free.⑩被修饰成分为表语时,或者关系代词本身是定语从句的表语时,该关系代词宜用that . 1. That's a good book that will help you a lot.2. My home village is no longer the place ( that ) it used to be .定语从句中宜用which而不宜用that 的情况:①当关系代词的前面有介词时. 1.A zoo is a park in which many kinds of animals are kept for exhibition.2.Is this the room in which Mr. White lives?②在非限制性定语从句中. 1.Crusoe's dog, which was are now very old, became ill and died .2.More and more people are beginning to learn English, which is becoming very popular in our country. (which指代主句)③在一个句子中有两个定语从句,其中一个定语从句的关系代词用了that, 另一个宜用which . 1. Let me show you the novel,that I borrowed from the library which was newly open to us. 2. At the station I bought some magazines that might help me to pass the time on the train and which I could pass on to others when I finished them.④当关系代词后面带有插入语时. 1. Here's the English grammar which, as I have told you, will help improve your English.⑤先行词本身是that, 宜用which . What's that which she is looking at?⑥先行词是those+复数名词. A shop should keep a stock of those goods which sell best.
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• ## MRD 和PRD的区别

千次阅读 2019-07-29 11:14:49
MRD：Market Requirements Document MRD核心： A focused definition of the target market ... Problem scenarios which document gaps or issues that various personas are currently chall...
MRD：Market Requirements Document

MRD的核心：

A focused definition of the target market
Problem scenarios which document gaps or issues that various personas are currently challenged with
MRD is a document that is usually written by a Product Marketing Manager or a Product Manager.

一般由产品的市场经理或者产品经理撰写，MRD 需要包含的内容以及可能的读者。

An MRD usually contains the following information:

Executive Summary
Vision
Target Market
Competitive Positioning
List of Features
Derived from market needs
Prioritized based on ROI

The following teams usually “consume” (i.e. read) the MRD:

Engineering
UI design
Marketing
Sales
Executives
PRD：Product Requirements Document

provide the level of detail needed for the development team to understand the capabilities, functionality, and features that are required to address the market needs identified in the MRD.
有些公司会将MRD和PRD合并，一般这种情况下MRD还会包含以下内容

Use Cases (Functional Requirements)
Non-functional Requirements (Such as Security, Performance, Scalability, etc)
Requirements are also prioritized
不同的产品文档的重点和面向的目的：

总结：

BRD主要面向项目立项，用户公司的发展，就需要对产品前景进行展望以及所要消耗的资源的权衡。
MRD面向市场，这里要重点去分析产品去市场上如何短期、中期、长期生存。核心用户的需求等。
PRD主要面向团队开发人员，设计、程序、运营等，我们需要更加详细的去阐述所有功能。
一句话总结这三个文档：

BRD：商业需求文档（一句话原则）

一句话来清楚地定义你的产品
一句话说明你的产品有什么创新、解决了什么、满足了市场什么空白
一句话说明相比其他产品你的有什么优势
一句话说明我们团队适合做这个产品，时间周期（主要面向团队、投资者）
一句话简要说明你所需要的资源（老板等相关）
一句话说明投入和利润（面向投资者）
一句话说明产品的盈利点（短期、中期、长期）

MRD：市场需求文档

特色
优势
用户群体

PRD：产品需求文档（检查功能说明时）

流程首尾逻辑
数据的闭环（主要用于页面元素的规划）
多种场景因素考虑（例如：有网、无网、4G、3G、2G、wifi 、流量为未开等等）
【以上部分转自简书】
几份MRD的模板：


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• baseline: a standard measurement or fact against which other measurements or facts are compared, especially in medicine or science.benchmark: something that is used as a standard by which other things...
baseline: a standard measurement or fact against which other measurements or facts are compared, especially in medicine or science.benchmark: something that is used as a standard by which other things can be judged or measured.简单的说：baseline是比较算法好坏中作为“参照物”而存在的，在比较中作为基线；benchmark本身是评价算法好坏的一种规则和标准。baseline的目的是比较提出算法的性能或者用以彰显所提出的算法的优势。此外，再说一下Ablation study/experiment:      为了研究模型中所提出的一些结构是否有效而设计的实验，比如在一个神经网络中提出一种新的结构，但为了确定这个结构是否有利于最终的效果，我们需要将去掉该结构的网络和加上该结构的网络所得的结果进行对比，这就需要设计ablation study/experiment。奥卡姆剃刀法则告诉我们，简单和复杂的方法能达到同样的效果，那简单的方法更可靠。所以我们在设计网络结构时只是增加结构的复杂度而不能带来性能的提升是没有意义的！还有一个 词经常用到：ground truth在机器学习中ground truth表示有监督学习的训练集的分类准确性，用于证明或者推翻某个假设。有监督的机器学习会对训练数据打标记，试想一下如果训练标记错误，那么将会对测试数据的预测产生影响，因此这里将那些正确打标记的数据成为ground truth。
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