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    2018-11-13 09:22:13
    sqlHelper 中文注释版,sqlHelper 中文注释版,sqlHelper 中文注释版
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    2020-06-08 12:10:47
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  • redis中文注释版

    2020-11-09 19:12:46
    redis中文注释版 # Redis configuration file example. # # Note that in order to read the configuration file, Redis must be # started with the file path as first argument: # # ./redis-server /path/to/...

    redis中文注释版

    # Redis configuration file example.
    #
    # Note that in order to read the configuration file, Redis must be
    # started with the file path as first argument:
    #
    # ./redis-server /path/to/redis.conf
    
    # Note on units: when memory size is needed, it is possible to specify
    # it in the usual form of 1k 5GB 4M and so forth:
    # 配置大小单位,开头定义了一些基本的度量单位,只支持bytes,不支持bit 对大小写不敏感
    # 1k => 1000 bytes
    # 1kb => 1024 bytes
    # 1m => 1000000 bytes
    # 1mb => 1024*1024 bytes
    # 1g => 1000000000 bytes
    # 1gb => 1024*1024*1024 bytes
    #
    # units are case insensitive so 1GB 1Gb 1gB are all the same.
    
    ################################## INCLUDES ###################################
    
    # Include one or more other config files here. This is useful if you
    # have a standard template that goes to all Redis servers but also need
    # to customize a few per-server settings. Include files can include
    # other files, so use this wisely.
    #
    # Notice option "include" won't be rewritten by command "CONFIG REWRITE"
    # from admin or Redis Sentinel. Since Redis always uses the last processed
    # line as value of a configuration directive, you'd better put includes
    # at the beginning of this file to avoid overwriting config change at runtime.
    #
    # If instead you are interested in using includes to override configuration
    # options, it is better to use include as the last line.
    # 引入其他文件
    # include /path/to/local.conf
    # include /path/to/other.conf
    
    ################################## MODULES #####################################
    
    # Load modules at startup. If the server is not able to load modules
    # it will abort. It is possible to use multiple loadmodule directives.
    #
    # loadmodule /path/to/my_module.so
    # loadmodule /path/to/other_module.so
    
    ################################## NETWORK #####################################
    
    # By default, if no "bind" configuration directive is specified, Redis listens
    # for connections from all the network interfaces available on the server.
    # It is possible to listen to just one or multiple selected interfaces using
    # the "bind" configuration directive, followed by one or more IP addresses.
    #
    # Examples:
    #
    # bind 192.168.1.100 10.0.0.1
    # bind 127.0.0.1 ::1
    #
    # ~~~ WARNING ~~~ If the computer running Redis is directly exposed to the
    # internet, binding to all the interfaces is dangerous and will expose the
    # instance to everybody on the internet. So by default we uncomment the
    # following bind directive, that will force Redis to listen only into
    # the IPv4 loopback interface address (this means Redis will be able to
    # accept connections only from clients running into the same computer it
    # is running).
    #
    # IF YOU ARE SURE YOU WANT YOUR INSTANCE TO LISTEN TO ALL THE INTERFACES
    # JUST COMMENT THE FOLLOWING LINE.
    # ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
    # 绑定Ip 指定可以连接本实例Redis的ip 如果注释(删掉)则任意IP都可以连接
    bind 127.0.0.1
    
    # Protected mode is a layer of security protection, in order to avoid that
    # Redis instances left open on the internet are accessed and exploited.
    #
    # When protected mode is on and if:
    #
    # 1) The server is not binding explicitly to a set of addresses using the
    # "bind" directive.
    # 2) No password is configured.
    #
    # The server only accepts connections from clients connecting from the
    # IPv4 and IPv6 loopback addresses 127.0.0.1 and ::1, and from Unix domain
    # sockets.
    #
    # By default protected mode is enabled. You should disable it only if
    # you are sure you want clients from other hosts to connect to Redis
    # even if no authentication is configured, nor a specific set of interfaces
    # are explicitly listed using the "bind" directive.
    #禁止外网访问redis,如果启用了,即使注释掉了bind 127.0.0.1,再访问redisd时候还是无法连接的
    #它启用的条件有两个,第一是没有使用bind,第二是没有设置访问密码。
    protected-mode yes
    
    # Accept connections on the specified port, default is 6379 (IANA #815344).
    # If port 0 is specified Redis will not listen on a TCP socket.
    #指定Redis的端口
    port 6379
    
    # TCP listen() backlog.
    #
    # In high requests-per-second environments you need an high backlog in order
    # to avoid slow clients connections issues. Note that the Linux kernel
    # will silently truncate it to the value of /proc/sys/net/core/somaxconn so
    # make sure to raise both the value of somaxconn and tcp_max_syn_backlog
    # in order to get the desired effect.
    # 此参数确定了TCP连接中已完成队列(完成三次握手之后)的长度, 
    # 当然此值必须不大于Linux系统定义的/proc/sys/net/core/somaxconn值,默认是511,
    # 而Linux的默认参数值是128。当系统并发量大并且客户端速度缓慢的时候,可以将这二个参数一起参考设定。
    # 在高并发环境下你需要一个高backlog值来避免慢客户端连接问题
    tcp-backlog 511
    
    # Unix socket.
    #
    # Specify the path for the Unix socket that will be used to listen for
    # incoming connections. There is no default, so Redis will not listen
    # on a unix socket when not specified.
    #
    # unixsocket /tmp/redis.sock
    # unixsocketperm 700
    
    # Close the connection after a client is idle for N seconds (0 to disable)
    # 当客户端闲置多长时间后关闭连接,如果指定为0,表示关闭该功能
    timeout 0
    
    # TCP keepalive.
    #
    # If non-zero, use SO_KEEPALIVE to send TCP ACKs to clients in absence
    # of communication. This is useful for two reasons:
    #
    # 1) Detect dead peers.
    # 2) Take the connection alive from the point of view of network
    # equipment in the middle.
    #
    # On Linux, the specified value (in seconds) is the period used to send ACKs.
    # Note that to close the connection the double of the time is needed.
    # On other kernels the period depends on the kernel configuration.
    #
    # A reasonable value for this option is 300 seconds, which is the new
    # Redis default starting with Redis 3.2.1.
    # 设置多长时间检测死连接 单位为秒,如果设置为0,则不会进行Keepalive检测
    tcp-keepalive 300
    
    ################################# GENERAL #####################################
    
    # By default Redis does not run as a daemon. Use 'yes' if you need it.
    # Note that Redis will write a pid file in /var/run/redis.pid when daemonized.
    # 是否以守护进程启动
    daemonize no
    
    # If you run Redis from upstart or systemd, Redis can interact with your
    # supervision tree. Options:
    # supervised no - no supervision interaction
    # supervised upstart - signal upstart by putting Redis into SIGSTOP mode
    # supervised systemd - signal systemd by writing READY=1 to $NOTIFY_SOCKET
    # supervised auto - detect upstart or systemd method based on
    # UPSTART_JOB or NOTIFY_SOCKET environment variables
    # Note: these supervision methods only signal "process is ready."
    # They do not enable continuous liveness pings back to your supervisor.
    #可以通过upstart和systemd管理Redis守护进程,这个参数是和具体的操作系统相关的。
    supervised no
    
    # If a pid file is specified, Redis writes it where specified at startup
    # and removes it at exit.
    #
    # When the server runs non daemonized, no pid file is created if none is
    # specified in the configuration. When the server is daemonized, the pid file
    # is used even if not specified, defaulting to "/var/run/redis.pid".
    #
    # Creating a pid file is best effort: if Redis is not able to create it
    # nothing bad happens, the server will start and run normally.
    #当Redis以守护进程方式运行时,Redis默认会把pid写入/var/run/redis.pid文件,可以通过pidfile指定
    pidfile /var/run/redis_6379.pid
    
    # Specify the server verbosity level.
    # This can be one of:
    # debug (a lot of information, useful for development/testing)
    # verbose (many rarely useful info, but not a mess like the debug level)
    # notice (moderately verbose, what you want in production probably)
    # warning (only very important / critical messages are logged)
    #设置日志的级别 debug、verbose、notice、warning,默认为verbose
    loglevel notice
    
    # Specify the log file name. Also the empty string can be used to force
    # Redis to log on the standard output. Note that if you use standard
    # output for logging but daemonize, logs will be sent to /dev/null
    #日志文件的位置,当指定为空字符串时,为标准输出,如果redis已守护进程模式运行,那么日志将会输出到 /dev/null 。
    logfile ""
    
    # To enable logging to the system logger, just set 'syslog-enabled' to yes,
    # and optionally update the other syslog parameters to suit your needs.
    # syslog-enabled no
    
    # Specify the syslog identity.
    # syslog-ident redis
    
    # Specify the syslog facility. Must be USER or between LOCAL0-LOCAL7.
    # syslog-facility local0
    
    # Set the number of databases. The default database is DB 0, you can select
    # a different one on a per-connection basis using SELECT <dbid> where
    # dbid is a number between 0 and 'databases'-1
    # 设置数据库的数目。默认的数据库是DB 0 ,可以在每个连接上使用select <dbid> 命令选择一个不同的数据库,dbid是一个介于0到databases - 1 之间的数值。
    databases 16
    
    # By default Redis shows an ASCII art logo only when started to log to the
    # standard output and if the standard output is a TTY. Basically this means
    # that normally a logo is displayed only in interactive sessions.
    #
    # However it is possible to force the pre-4.0 behavior and always show a
    # ASCII art logo in startup logs by setting the following option to yes.
    always-show-logo yes
    
    ################################ SNAPSHOTTING ################################
    #
    # Save the DB on disk:
    #
    # save <seconds> <changes>
    #
    # Will save the DB if both the given number of seconds and the given
    # number of write operations against the DB occurred.
    #
    # In the example below the behaviour will be to save:
    # after 900 sec (15 min) if at least 1 key changed
    # after 300 sec (5 min) if at least 10 keys changed
    # after 60 sec if at least 10000 keys changed
    #
    # Note: you can disable saving completely by commenting out all "save" lines.
    #
    # It is also possible to remove all the previously configured save
    # points by adding a save directive with a single empty string argument
    # like in the following example:
    #
    # save ""
    # 指定在多长时间内,有多少次更新操作,就将数据同步到数据文件,可以多个条件配合
    # 这里表示900秒(15分钟)内有1个更改,300秒(5分钟)内有10个更改以及60秒内有10000个更改
    # 如果想禁用RDB持久化的策略,只要不设置任何save指令,或者给save传入一个空字符串参数也可以
    save 900 1
    save 300 10
    save 60 10000
    
    # By default Redis will stop accepting writes if RDB snapshots are enabled
    # (at least one save point) and the latest background save failed.
    # This will make the user aware (in a hard way) that data is not persisting
    # on disk properly, otherwise chances are that no one will notice and some
    # disaster will happen.
    #
    # If the background saving process will start working again Redis will
    # automatically allow writes again.
    #
    # However if you have setup your proper monitoring of the Redis server
    # and persistence, you may want to disable this feature so that Redis will
    # continue to work as usual even if there are problems with disk,
    # permissions, and so forth.
    # 默认情况下,如果 redis 最后一次的后台保存失败,redis 将停止接受写操作,这样以一种强硬的方式让用户知道数据不能正确的持久化到磁盘, 
    # 否则就会没人注意到灾难的发生。 如果后台保存进程重新启动工作了,redis 也将自动的允许写操作。
    # 如果配置成no,表示你不在乎数据不一致或者有其他的手段发现和控制
    stop-writes-on-bgsave-error yes
    
    # Compress string objects using LZF when dump .rdb databases?
    # For default that's set to 'yes' as it's almost always a win.
    # If you want to save some CPU in the saving child set it to 'no' but
    # the dataset will likely be bigger if you have compressible values or keys.
    # 对于存储到磁盘中的快照(rdb),可以设置是否进行压缩存储。如果是的话,redis会采用
    # LZF算法进行压缩。如果你不想消耗CPU来进行压缩的话,可以设置为关闭此功能
    rdbcompression yes
    
    # Since version 5 of RDB a CRC64 checksum is placed at the end of the file.
    # This makes the format more resistant to corruption but there is a performance
    # hit to pay (around 10%) when saving and loading RDB files, so you can disable it
    # for maximum performances.
    #
    # RDB files created with checksum disabled have a checksum of zero that will
    # tell the loading code to skip the check.
    # 在存储快照后,还可以让redis使用CRC64算法来进行数据校验,但是这样做会增加大约
    # 10%的性能消耗,如果希望获取到最大的性能提升,可以关闭此功能
    rdbchecksum yes
    
    # The filename where to dump the DB
    #rdb文件的名字。
    dbfilename dump.rdb
    
    # The working directory.
    #
    # The DB will be written inside this directory, with the filename specified
    # above using the 'dbfilename' configuration directive.
    #
    # The Append Only File will also be created inside this directory.
    #
    # Note that you must specify a directory here, not a file name.
    # dbfilename文件存放目录。必须是一个目录,aof文件也会保存到该目录下。
    dir ./
    
    ################################# REPLICATION #################################
    
    # Master-Replica replication. Use replicaof to make a Redis instance a copy of
    # another Redis server. A few things to understand ASAP about Redis replication.
    #
    # +------------------+ +---------------+
    # | Master | ---> | Replica |
    # | (receive writes) | | (exact copy) |
    # +------------------+ +---------------+
    #
    # 1) Redis replication is asynchronous, but you can configure a master to
    # stop accepting writes if it appears to be not connected with at least
    # a given number of replicas.
    # 2) Redis replicas are able to perform a partial resynchronization with the
    # master if the replication link is lost for a relatively small amount of
    # time. You may want to configure the replication backlog size (see the next
    # sections of this file) with a sensible value depending on your needs.
    # 3) Replication is automatic and does not need user intervention. After a
    # network partition replicas automatically try to reconnect to masters
    # and resynchronize with them.
    #设置当本机为slave服务时,设置master服务的IP地址及端口,在Redis启动时,它会自动从master进行数据同步
    # replicaof <masterip> <masterport>
    
    # If the master is password protected (using the "requirepass" configuration
    # directive below) it is possible to tell the replica to authenticate before
    # starting the replication synchronization process, otherwise the master will
    # refuse the replica request.
    #当master服务设置了密码保护时,slave服务连接master的密码
    # masterauth <master-password>
    
    # When a replica loses its connection with the master, or when the replication
    # is still in progress, the replica can act in two different ways:
    #
    # 1) if replica-serve-stale-data is set to 'yes' (the default) the replica will
    # still reply to client requests, possibly with out of date data, or the
    # data set may just be empty if this is the first synchronization.
    #
    # 2) if replica-serve-stale-data is set to 'no' the replica will reply with
    # an error "SYNC with master in progress" to all the kind of commands
    # but to INFO, replicaOF, AUTH, PING, SHUTDOWN, REPLCONF, ROLE, CONFIG,
    # SUBSCRIBE, UNSUBSCRIBE, PSUBSCRIBE, PUNSUBSCRIBE, PUBLISH, PUBSUB,
    # COMMAND, POST, HOST: and LATENCY.
    #当一个slave与master失去联系时,或者复制正在进行的时候,slave应对请求的行为: 
    #如果为 yes(默认值) ,slave 仍然会应答客户端请求,但返回的数据可能是过时,或者数据可能是空的在第一次同步的时候
    #如果为 no ,在你执行除了 info 和 salveof 之外的其他命令时,slave 都将返回一个 "SYNC with master in progress" 的错误。
    replica-serve-stale-data yes
    
    # You can configure a replica instance to accept writes or not. Writing against
    # a replica instance may be useful to store some ephemeral data (because data
    # written on a replica will be easily deleted after resync with the master) but
    # may also cause problems if clients are writing to it because of a
    # misconfiguration.
    #
    # Since Redis 2.6 by default replicas are read-only.
    #
    # Note: read only replicas are not designed to be exposed to untrusted clients
    # on the internet. It's just a protection layer against misuse of the instance.
    # Still a read only replica exports by default all the administrative commands
    # such as CONFIG, DEBUG, and so forth. To a limited extent you can improve
    # security of read only replicas using 'rename-command' to shadow all the
    # administrative / dangerous commands.
    #设置slave是否是只读的。从2.6版起,slave默认是只读的。
    replica-read-only yes
    
    # Replication SYNC strategy: disk or socket.
    #
    # -------------------------------------------------------
    # WARNING: DISKLESS REPLICATION IS EXPERIMENTAL CURRENTLY
    # -------------------------------------------------------
    #
    # New replicas and reconnecting replicas that are not able to continue the replication
    # process just receiving differences, need to do what is called a "full
    # synchronization". An RDB file is transmitted from the master to the replicas.
    # The transmission can happen in two different ways:
    #
    # 1) Disk-backed: The Redis master creates a new process that writes the RDB
    # file on disk. Later the file is transferred by the parent
    # process to the replicas incrementally.
    # 2) Diskless: The Redis master creates a new process that directly writes the
    # RDB file to replica sockets, without touching the disk at all.
    #
    # With disk-backed replication, while the RDB file is generated, more replicas
    # can be queued and served with the RDB file as soon as the current child producing
    # the RDB file finishes its work. With diskless replication instead once
    # the transfer starts, new replicas arriving will be queued and a new transfer
    # will start when the current one terminates.
    #
    # When diskless replication is used, the master waits a configurable amount of
    # time (in seconds) before starting the transfer in the hope that multiple replicas
    # will arrive and the transfer can be parallelized.
    #
    # With slow disks and fast (large bandwidth) networks, diskless replication
    # works better.
    # 主从数据复制是否使用无硬盘复制功能。
    repl-diskless-sync no
    
    # When diskless replication is enabled, it is possible to configure the delay
    # the server waits in order to spawn the child that transfers the RDB via socket
    # to the replicas.
    #
    # This is important since once the transfer starts, it is not possible to serve
    # new replicas arriving, that will be queued for the next RDB transfer, so the server
    # waits a delay in order to let more replicas arrive.
    #
    # The delay is specified in seconds, and by default is 5 seconds. To disable
    # it entirely just set it to 0 seconds and the transfer will start ASAP.
    repl-diskless-sync-delay 5
    
    # Replicas send PINGs to server in a predefined interval. It's possible to change
    # this interval with the repl_ping_replica_period option. The default value is 10
    # seconds.
    # 指定slave定期ping master的周期,默认10秒钟。
    # repl-ping-replica-period 10
    
    # The following option sets the replication timeout for:
    #
    # 1) Bulk transfer I/O during SYNC, from the point of view of replica.
    # 2) Master timeout from the point of view of replicas (data, pings).
    # 3) Replica timeout from the point of view of masters (REPLCONF ACK pings).
    #
    # It is important to make sure that this value is greater than the value
    # specified for repl-ping-replica-period otherwise a timeout will be detected
    # every time there is low traffic between the master and the replica.
    #设置主库批量数据传输时间或者ping回复时间间隔,默认值是60秒 。
    # repl-timeout 60
    
    # Disable TCP_NODELAY on the replica socket after SYNC?
    #
    # If you select "yes" Redis will use a smaller number of TCP packets and
    # less bandwidth to send data to replicas. But this can add a delay for
    # the data to appear on the replica side, up to 40 milliseconds with
    # Linux kernels using a default configuration.
    #
    # If you select "no" the delay for data to appear on the replica side will
    # be reduced but more bandwidth will be used for replication.
    #
    # By default we optimize for low latency, but in very high traffic conditions
    # or when the master and replicas are many hops away, turning this to "yes" may
    # be a good idea.
    #指定向slave同步数据时,是否禁用socket的NO_DELAY选项。
    #若配置为“yes”,则禁用NO_DELAY,则TCP协议栈会合并小包统一发送,这样可以减少主从节点间的包数量并节省带宽,但会增加数据同步到 slave的时间。
    #若配置为“no”,表明启用NO_DELAY,则TCP协议栈不会延迟小包的发送时机,这样数据同步的延时会减少,但需要更大的带宽。 
    #通常情况下,应该配置为no以降低同步延时,但在主从节点间网络负载已经很高的情况下,可以配置为yes。
    repl-disable-tcp-nodelay no
    
    # Set the replication backlog size. The backlog is a buffer that accumulates
    # replica data when replicas are disconnected for some time, so that when a replica
    # wants to reconnect again, often a full resync is not needed, but a partial
    # resync is enough, just passing the portion of data the replica missed while
    # disconnected.
    #
    # The bigger the replication backlog, the longer the time the replica can be
    # disconnected and later be able to perform a partial resynchronization.
    #
    # The backlog is only allocated once there is at least a replica connected.
    # 设置主从复制backlog容量大小。这个 backlog 是一个用来在 slaves 被断开连接时存放 slave 数据的 buffer,
    # 所以当一个 slave 想要重新连接,通常不希望全部重新同步,只是部分同步就够了,仅仅传递 slave 在断开连接时丢失的这部分数据。
    # 这个值越大,salve 可以断开连接的时间就越长。
    # repl-backlog-size 1mb
    
    # After a master has no longer connected replicas for some time, the backlog
    # will be freed. The following option configures the amount of seconds that
    # need to elapse, starting from the time the last replica disconnected, for
    # the backlog buffer to be freed.
    #
    # Note that replicas never free the backlog for timeout, since they may be
    # promoted to masters later, and should be able to correctly "partially
    # resynchronize" with the replicas: hence they should always accumulate backlog.
    #
    # A value of 0 means to never release the backlog.
    #配置当master和slave失去联系多少秒之后,清空backlog释放空间。当配置成0时,表示永远不清空。
    # repl-backlog-ttl 3600
    
    # The replica priority is an integer number published by Redis in the INFO output.
    # It is used by Redis Sentinel in order to select a replica to promote into a
    # master if the master is no longer working correctly.
    #
    # A replica with a low priority number is considered better for promotion, so
    # for instance if there are three replicas with priority 10, 100, 25 Sentinel will
    # pick the one with priority 10, that is the lowest.
    #
    # However a special priority of 0 marks the replica as not able to perform the
    # role of master, so a replica with priority of 0 will never be selected by
    # Redis Sentinel for promotion.
    #
    # By default the priority is 100.
    #当 master 不能正常工作的时候,Redis Sentinel 会从 slaves 中选出一个新的 master,这个值越小,就越会被优先选中,但是如果是 0 , 那是意味着这个 slave 不可能被选中。 默认优先级为 100。
    replica-priority 100
    
    # It is possible for a master to stop accepting writes if there are less than
    # N replicas connected, having a lag less or equal than M seconds.
    #
    # The N replicas need to be in "online" state.
    #
    # The lag in seconds, that must be <= the specified value, is calculated from
    # the last ping received from the replica, that is usually sent every second.
    #
    # This option does not GUARANTEE that N replicas will accept the write, but
    # will limit the window of exposure for lost writes in case not enough replicas
    # are available, to the specified number of seconds.
    #
    # For example to require at least 3 replicas with a lag <= 10 seconds use:
    #
    # min-replicas-to-write 3
    # min-replicas-max-lag 10
    #
    # Setting one or the other to 0 disables the feature.
    #
    # By default min-replicas-to-write is set to 0 (feature disabled) and
    # min-replicas-max-lag is set to 10.
    
    # A Redis master is able to list the address and port of the attached
    # replicas in different ways. For example the "INFO replication" section
    # offers this information, which is used, among other tools, by
    # Redis Sentinel in order to discover replica instances.
    # Another place where this info is available is in the output of the
    # "ROLE" command of a master.
    #
    # The listed IP and address normally reported by a replica is obtained
    # in the following way:
    #
    # IP: The address is auto detected by checking the peer address
    # of the socket used by the replica to connect with the master.
    #
    # Port: The port is communicated by the replica during the replication
    # handshake, and is normally the port that the replica is using to
    # listen for connections.
    #
    # However when port forwarding or Network Address Translation (NAT) is
    # used, the replica may be actually reachable via different IP and port
    # pairs. The following two options can be used by a replica in order to
    # report to its master a specific set of IP and port, so that both INFO
    # and ROLE will report those values.
    #
    # There is no need to use both the options if you need to override just
    # the port or the IP address.
    #
    # replica-announce-ip 5.5.5.5
    # replica-announce-port 1234
    
    ################################## SECURITY ###################################
    
    # Require clients to issue AUTH <PASSWORD> before processing any other
    # commands. This might be useful in environments in which you do not trust
    # others with access to the host running redis-server.
    #
    # This should stay commented out for backward compatibility and because most
    # people do not need auth (e.g. they run their own servers).
    #
    # Warning: since Redis is pretty fast an outside user can try up to
    # 150k passwords per second against a good box. This means that you should
    # use a very strong password otherwise it will be very easy to break.
    # 设置Redis连接密码,如果配置了连接密码,客户端在连接Redis时需要通过AUTH <password>命令提供密码,默认关闭
    # requirepass foobared
    
    # Command renaming.
    #
    # It is possible to change the name of dangerous commands in a shared
    # environment. For instance the CONFIG command may be renamed into something
    # hard to guess so that it will still be available for internal-use tools
    # but not available for general clients.
    #
    # Example:
    #
    # rename-command CONFIG b840fc02d524045429941cc15f59e41cb7be6c52
    #
    # It is also possible to completely kill a command by renaming it into
    # an empty string:
    #
    # rename-command CONFIG ""
    #
    # Please note that changing the name of commands that are logged into the
    # AOF file or transmitted to replicas may cause problems.
    
    ################################### CLIENTS ####################################
    
    # Set the max number of connected clients at the same time. By default
    # this limit is set to 10000 clients, however if the Redis server is not
    # able to configure the process file limit to allow for the specified limit
    # the max number of allowed clients is set to the current file limit
    # minus 32 (as Redis reserves a few file descriptors for internal uses).
    #
    # Once the limit is reached Redis will close all the new connections sending
    # an error 'max number of clients reached'.
    #设置同一时间最大客户端连接数,Redis可以同时打开的客户端连接数为Redis进程可以打开的最大文件描述符数,
    #如果设置 maxclients 0,表示不作限制。当客户端连接数到达限制时,Redis会关闭新的连接并向客户端返回max number of clients reached错误信息
    # maxclients 10000
    
    ############################## MEMORY MANAGEMENT ################################
    
    # Set a memory usage limit to the specified amount of bytes.
    # When the memory limit is reached Redis will try to remove keys
    # according to the eviction policy selected (see maxmemory-policy).
    #
    # If Redis can't remove keys according to the policy, or if the policy is
    # set to 'noeviction', Redis will start to reply with errors to commands
    # that would use more memory, like SET, LPUSH, and so on, and will continue
    # to reply to read-only commands like GET.
    #
    # This option is usually useful when using Redis as an LRU or LFU cache, or to
    # set a hard memory limit for an instance (using the 'noeviction' policy).
    #
    # WARNING: If you have replicas attached to an instance with maxmemory on,
    # the size of the output buffers needed to feed the replicas are subtracted
    # from the used memory count, so that network problems / resyncs will
    # not trigger a loop where keys are evicted, and in turn the output
    # buffer of replicas is full with DELs of keys evicted triggering the deletion
    # of more keys, and so forth until the database is completely emptied.
    #
    # In short... if you have replicas attached it is suggested that you set a lower
    # limit for maxmemory so that there is some free RAM on the system for replica
    # output buffers (but this is not needed if the policy is 'noeviction').
    # 指定Redis最大内存限制,Redis在启动时会把数据加载到内存中,达到最大内存后,Redis会先尝试清除已到期或即将到期的Key,
    # 当此方法处理后,仍然到达最大内存设置,将无法再进行写入操作,但仍然可以进行读取操作。
    # Redis新的vm机制,会把Key存放内存,Value会存放在swap区
    # maxmemory <bytes>
    
    # MAXMEMORY POLICY: how Redis will select what to remove when maxmemory
    # is reached. You can select among five behaviors:
    #
    # volatile-lru -> Evict using approximated LRU among the keys with an expire set.
    # allkeys-lru -> Evict any key using approximated LRU.
    # volatile-lfu -> Evict using approximated LFU among the keys with an expire set.
    # allkeys-lfu -> Evict any key using approximated LFU.
    # volatile-random -> Remove a random key among the ones with an expire set.
    # allkeys-random -> Remove a random key, any key.
    # volatile-ttl -> Remove the key with the nearest expire time (minor TTL)
    # noeviction -> Don't evict anything, just return an error on write operations.
    #
    # LRU means Least Recently Used
    # LFU means Least Frequently Used
    #
    # Both LRU, LFU and volatile-ttl are implemented using approximated
    # randomized algorithms.
    #
    # Note: with any of the above policies, Redis will return an error on write
    # operations, when there are no suitable keys for eviction.
    #
    # At the date of writing these commands are: set setnx setex syc
    # incr decr rpush lpush rpushx lpushx linsert lset rpoplpush sadd
    # sinter sinterstore sunion sunionstore sdiff sdiffstore zadd zincrby
    # zunionstore zinterstore hset hsetnx hmset hincrby incrby decrby
    # getset mset msetnx exec sort
    #
    # The default is:
    #当内存使用达到最大值时,redis使用的清除策略。有以下几种可以选择(明明有6种,官方配置文件里却说有5种可以选择?):
    # 1)volatile-lru   利用LRU算法移除设置过过期时间的key (LRU:最近使用 Least Recently Used ) 
    # 2)allkeys-lru   利用LRU算法移除任何key 
    # 3)volatile-random 移除设置过过期时间的随机key 
    # 4)allkeys-random  移除随机key 
    # 5)volatile-ttl   移除即将过期的key(minor TTL) 
    # 6)noeviction  不移除任何key,只是返回一个写错误 。默认选项
    
    # maxmemory-policy noeviction
    
    # LRU, LFU and minimal TTL algorithms are not precise algorithms but approximated
    # algorithms (in order to save memory), so you can tune it for speed or
    # accuracy. For default Redis will check five keys and pick the one that was
    # used less recently, you can change the sample size using the following
    # configuration directive.
    #
    # The default of 5 produces good enough results. 10 Approximates very closely
    # true LRU but costs more CPU. 3 is faster but not very accurate.
    # LRU 和 minimal TTL 算法都不是精准的算法,但是相对精确的算法(为了节省内存),随意你可以选择样本大小进行检测。redis默认选择5个样本进行检测,你可以通过maxmemory-samples进行设置样本数。
    # maxmemory-samples 5
    
    # Starting from Redis 5, by default a replica will ignore its maxmemory setting
    # (unless it is promoted to master after a failover or manually). It means
    # that the eviction of keys will be just handled by the master, sending the
    # DEL commands to the replica as keys evict in the master side.
    #
    # This behavior ensures that masters and replicas stay consistent, and is usually
    # what you want, however if your replica is writable, or you want the replica to have
    # a different memory setting, and you are sure all the writes performed to the
    # replica are idempotent, then you may change this default (but be sure to understand
    # what you are doing).
    #
    # Note that since the replica by default does not evict, it may end using more
    # memory than the one set via maxmemory (there are certain buffers that may
    # be larger on the replica, or data structures may sometimes take more memory and so
    # forth). So make sure you monitor your replicas and make sure they have enough
    # memory to never hit a real out-of-memory condition before the master hits
    # the configured maxmemory setting.
    #
    # replica-ignore-maxmemory yes
    
    ############################# LAZY FREEING ####################################
    
    # Redis has two primitives to delete keys. One is called DEL and is a blocking
    # deletion of the object. It means that the server stops processing new commands
    # in order to reclaim all the memory associated with an object in a synchronous
    # way. If the key deleted is associated with a small object, the time needed
    # in order to execute the DEL command is very small and comparable to most other
    # O(1) or O(log_N) commands in Redis. However if the key is associated with an
    # aggregated value containing millions of elements, the server can block for
    # a long time (even seconds) in order to complete the operation.
    #
    # For the above reasons Redis also offers non blocking deletion primitives
    # such as UNLINK (non blocking DEL) and the ASYNC option of FLUSHALL and
    # FLUSHDB commands, in order to reclaim memory in background. Those commands
    # are executed in constant time. Another thread will incrementally free the
    # object in the background as fast as possible.
    #
    # DEL, UNLINK and ASYNC option of FLUSHALL and FLUSHDB are user-controlled.
    # It's up to the design of the application to understand when it is a good
    # idea to use one or the other. However the Redis server sometimes has to
    # delete keys or flush the whole database as a side effect of other operations.
    # Specifically Redis deletes objects independently of a user call in the
    # following scenarios:
    #
    # 1) On eviction, because of the maxmemory and maxmemory policy configurations,
    # in order to make room for new data, without going over the specified
    # memory limit.
    # 2) Because of expire: when a key with an associated time to live (see the
    # EXPIRE command) must be deleted from memory.
    # 3) Because of a side effect of a command that stores data on a key that may
    # already exist. For example the RENAME command may delete the old key
    # content when it is replaced with another one. Similarly SUNIONSTORE
    # or SORT with STORE option may delete existing keys. The SET command
    # itself removes any old content of the specified key in order to replace
    # it with the specified string.
    # 4) During replication, when a replica performs a full resynchronization with
    # its master, the content of the whole database is removed in order to
    # load the RDB file just transferred.
    #
    # In all the above cases the default is to delete objects in a blocking way,
    # like if DEL was called. However you can configure each case specifically
    # in order to instead release memory in a non-blocking way like if UNLINK
    # was called, using the following configuration directives:
    
    lazyfree-lazy-eviction no
    lazyfree-lazy-expire no
    lazyfree-lazy-server-del no
    replica-lazy-flush no
    
    ############################## APPEND ONLY MODE ###############################
    
    # By default Redis asynchronously dumps the dataset on disk. This mode is
    # good enough in many applications, but an issue with the Redis process or
    # a power outage may result into a few minutes of writes lost (depending on
    # the configured save points).
    #
    # The Append Only File is an alternative persistence mode that provides
    # much better durability. For instance using the default data fsync policy
    # (see later in the config file) Redis can lose just one second of writes in a
    # dramatic event like a server power outage, or a single write if something
    # wrong with the Redis process itself happens, but the operating system is
    # still running correctly.
    #
    # AOF and RDB persistence can be enabled at the same time without problems.
    # If the AOF is enabled on startup Redis will load the AOF, that is the file
    # with the better durability guarantees.
    #
    # Please check http://redis.io/topics/persistence for more information.
    # 是否启用aof持久化方式 。否在每次更新操作后进行日志记录,Redis在默认情况下是异步的把数据写入磁盘,如果不开启,可能会在断电时导致一段时间内的数据丢失。
    # 因为 redis本身同步数据文件是按上面save条件来同步的,所以有的数据会在一段时间内只存在于内存中。默认为no
    appendonly no
    
    # The name of the append only file (default: "appendonly.aof")
    # 指定更新日志(aof)文件名,默认为appendonly.aof
    appendfilename "appendonly.aof"
    
    # The fsync() call tells the Operating System to actually write data on disk
    # instead of waiting for more data in the output buffer. Some OS will really flush
    # data on disk, some other OS will just try to do it ASAP.
    #
    # Redis supports three different modes:
    #
    # no: don't fsync, just let the OS flush the data when it wants. Faster.
    # always: fsync after every write to the append only log. Slow, Safest.
    # everysec: fsync only one time every second. Compromise.
    #
    # The default is "everysec", as that's usually the right compromise between
    # speed and data safety. It's up to you to understand if you can relax this to
    # "no" that will let the operating system flush the output buffer when
    # it wants, for better performances (but if you can live with the idea of
    # some data loss consider the default persistence mode that's snapshotting),
    # or on the contrary, use "always" that's very slow but a bit safer than
    # everysec.
    #
    # More details please check the following article:
    # http://antirez.com/post/redis-persistence-demystified.html
    #
    # If unsure, use "everysec".
    #指定更新日志条件,共有3个可选值: 
    # no:表示等操作系统进行数据缓存同步到磁盘(快,持久化没保证) 
    # always:同步持久化,每次发生数据变更时,立即记录到磁盘(慢,安全) 
    # everysec:表示每秒同步一次(默认值,很快,但可能会丢失一秒以内的数据)
    # appendfsync always
    appendfsync everysec
    # appendfsync no
    
    # When the AOF fsync policy is set to always or everysec, and a background
    # saving process (a background save or AOF log background rewriting) is
    # performing a lot of I/O against the disk, in some Linux configurations
    # Redis may block too long on the fsync() call. Note that there is no fix for
    # this currently, as even performing fsync in a different thread will block
    # our synchronous write(2) call.
    #
    # In order to mitigate this problem it's possible to use the following option
    # that will prevent fsync() from being called in the main process while a
    # BGSAVE or BGREWRITEAOF is in progress.
    #
    # This means that while another child is saving, the durability of Redis is
    # the same as "appendfsync none". In practical terms, this means that it is
    # possible to lose up to 30 seconds of log in the worst scenario (with the
    # default Linux settings).
    #
    # If you have latency problems turn this to "yes". Otherwise leave it as
    # "no" that is the safest pick from the point of view of durability.
    # 指定是否在后台aof文件rewrite期间调用fsync,默认为no,表示要调用fsync(无论后台是否有子进程在刷盘)。
    # Redis在后台写RDB文件或重写AOF文件期间会存在大量磁盘IO,此时,在某些linux系统中,调用fsync可能会阻塞。
    #如果应用系统无法忍受延迟,而可以容忍少量的数据丢失,则设置为yes。如果应用系统无法忍受数据丢失,则设置为no。
    no-appendfsync-on-rewrite no
    
    # Automatic rewrite of the append only file.
    # Redis is able to automatically rewrite the log file implicitly calling
    # BGREWRITEAOF when the AOF log size grows by the specified percentage.
    #
    # This is how it works: Redis remembers the size of the AOF file after the
    # latest rewrite (if no rewrite has happened since the restart, the size of
    # the AOF at startup is used).
    #
    # This base size is compared to the current size. If the current size is
    # bigger than the specified percentage, the rewrite is triggered. Also
    # you need to specify a minimal size for the AOF file to be rewritten, this
    # is useful to avoid rewriting the AOF file even if the percentage increase
    # is reached but it is still pretty small.
    #
    # Specify a percentage of zero in order to disable the automatic AOF
    # rewrite feature.
    #当AOF文件增长到一定大小的时候Redis能够调用 BGREWRITEAOF 对日志文件进行重写 。当AOF文件大小的增长率大于该配置项时自动开启重写。
    auto-aof-rewrite-percentage 100
    #当AOF文件增长到一定大小的时候Redis能够调用 BGREWRITEAOF 对日志文件进行重写 。当AOF文件大小大于该配置项时自动开启重写
    auto-aof-rewrite-min-size 64mb
    
    # An AOF file may be found to be truncated at the end during the Redis
    # startup process, when the AOF data gets loaded back into memory.
    # This may happen when the system where Redis is running
    # crashes, especially when an ext4 filesystem is mounted without the
    # data=ordered option (however this can't happen when Redis itself
    # crashes or aborts but the operating system still works correctly).
    #
    # Redis can either exit with an error when this happens, or load as much
    # data as possible (the default now) and start if the AOF file is found
    # to be truncated at the end. The following option controls this behavior.
    #
    # If aof-load-truncated is set to yes, a truncated AOF file is loaded and
    # the Redis server starts emitting a log to inform the user of the event.
    # Otherwise if the option is set to no, the server aborts with an error
    # and refuses to start. When the option is set to no, the user requires
    # to fix the AOF file using the "redis-check-aof" utility before to restart
    # the server.
    #
    # Note that if the AOF file will be found to be corrupted in the middle
    # the server will still exit with an error. This option only applies when
    # Redis will try to read more data from the AOF file but not enough bytes
    # will be found.
    #redis在启动时可以加载被截断的AOF文件,而不需要先执行redis-check-aof 工具。
    aof-load-truncated yes
    
    # When rewriting the AOF file, Redis is able to use an RDB preamble in the
    # AOF file for faster rewrites and recoveries. When this option is turned
    # on the rewritten AOF file is composed of two different stanzas:
    #
    # [RDB file][AOF tail]
    #
    # When loading Redis recognizes that the AOF file starts with the "REDIS"
    # string and loads the prefixed RDB file, and continues loading the AOF
    # tail.
    #是否开启混合持久化
    aof-use-rdb-preamble yes
    
    ################################ LUA SCRIPTING ###############################
    
    # Max execution time of a Lua script in milliseconds.
    #
    # If the maximum execution time is reached Redis will log that a script is
    # still in execution after the maximum allowed time and will start to
    # reply to queries with an error.
    #
    # When a long running script exceeds the maximum execution time only the
    # SCRIPT KILL and SHUTDOWN NOSAVE commands are available. The first can be
    # used to stop a script that did not yet called write commands. The second
    # is the only way to shut down the server in the case a write command was
    # already issued by the script but the user doesn't want to wait for the natural
    # termination of the script.
    #
    # Set it to 0 or a negative value for unlimited execution without warnings.
    #一个Lua脚本最长的执行时间,单位为毫秒,如果为0或负数表示无限执行时间
    lua-time-limit 5000
    
    ################################ REDIS CLUSTER ###############################
    #
    # ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
    # WARNING EXPERIMENTAL: Redis Cluster is considered to be stable code, however
    # in order to mark it as "mature" we need to wait for a non trivial percentage
    # of users to deploy it in production.
    # ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
    #
    # Normal Redis instances can't be part of a Redis Cluster; only nodes that are
    # started as cluster nodes can. In order to start a Redis instance as a
    # cluster node enable the cluster support uncommenting the following:
    # 是否开启cluster集群模式 如果配置yes则开启集群功能,此redis实例作为集群的一个节点,否则,它是一个普通的单一的redis实例。
    # cluster-enabled yes
    
    # Every cluster node has a cluster configuration file. This file is not
    # intended to be edited by hand. It is created and updated by Redis nodes.
    # Every Redis Cluster node requires a different cluster configuration file.
    # Make sure that instances running in the same system do not have
    # overlapping cluster configuration file names.
    #虽然此配置的名字叫"集群配置文件",但是此配置文件不能人工编辑,它是集群节点自动维护的文件,
    #主要用于记录集群中有哪些节点、他们的状态以及一些持久化参数等,方便在重启时恢复这些状态。通常是在收到请求之后这个文件就会被更新。
    # cluster-config-file nodes-6379.conf
    
    # Cluster node timeout is the amount of milliseconds a node must be unreachable
    # for it to be considered in failure state.
    # Most other internal time limits are multiple of the node timeout.
    #这是集群中的节点能够失联的最大时间,超过这个时间,该节点就会被认为故障。如果主节点超过这个时间还是不可达,则用它的从节点将启动故障迁移,升级成主节点。
    # cluster-node-timeout 15000
    
    # A replica of a failing master will avoid to start a failover if its data
    # looks too old.
    #
    # There is no simple way for a replica to actually have an exact measure of
    # its "data age", so the following two checks are performed:
    #
    # 1) If there are multiple replicas able to failover, they exchange messages
    # in order to try to give an advantage to the replica with the best
    # replication offset (more data from the master processed).
    # Replicas will try to get their rank by offset, and apply to the start
    # of the failover a delay proportional to their rank.
    #
    # 2) Every single replica computes the time of the last interaction with
    # its master. This can be the last ping or command received (if the master
    # is still in the "connected" state), or the time that elapsed since the
    # disconnection with the master (if the replication link is currently down).
    # If the last interaction is too old, the replica will not try to failover
    # at all.
    #
    # The point "2" can be tuned by user. Specifically a replica will not perform
    # the failover if, since the last interaction with the master, the time
    # elapsed is greater than:
    #
    # (node-timeout * replica-validity-factor) + repl-ping-replica-period
    #
    # So for example if node-timeout is 30 seconds, and the replica-validity-factor
    # is 10, and assuming a default repl-ping-replica-period of 10 seconds, the
    # replica will not try to failover if it was not able to talk with the master
    # for longer than 310 seconds.
    #
    # A large replica-validity-factor may allow replicas with too old data to failover
    # a master, while a too small value may prevent the cluster from being able to
    # elect a replica at all.
    #
    # For maximum availability, it is possible to set the replica-validity-factor
    # to a value of 0, which means, that replicas will always try to failover the
    # master regardless of the last time they interacted with the master.
    # (However they'll always try to apply a delay proportional to their
    # offset rank).
    #
    # Zero is the only value able to guarantee that when all the partitions heal
    # the cluster will always be able to continue.
    #如果设置成0,则无论从节点与主节点失联多久,从节点都会尝试升级成主节点。
    #如果设置成正数,则cluster-node-timeout乘以cluster-slave-validity-factor得到的时间,是从节点与主节点失联后,
    #此从节点数据有效的最长时间,超过这个时间,从节点不会启动故障迁移。
    #假设cluster-node-timeout=5,cluster-slave-validity-factor=10,则如果从节点跟主节点失联超过50秒,此从节点不能成为主节点。
    #注意,如果此参数配置为非0,将可能出现由于某主节点失联却没有从节点能顶上的情况,从而导致集群不能正常工作,
    #在这种情况下,只有等到原来的主节点重新回归到集群,集群才恢复运作。
    # cluster-replica-validity-factor 10
    
    # Cluster replicas are able to migrate to orphaned masters, that are masters
    # that are left without working replicas. This improves the cluster ability
    # to resist to failures as otherwise an orphaned master can't be failed over
    # in case of failure if it has no working replicas.
    #
    # Replicas migrate to orphaned masters only if there are still at least a
    # given number of other working replicas for their old master. This number
    # is the "migration barrier". A migration barrier of 1 means that a replica
    # will migrate only if there is at least 1 other working replica for its master
    # and so forth. It usually reflects the number of replicas you want for every
    # master in your cluster.
    #
    # Default is 1 (replicas migrate only if their masters remain with at least
    # one replica). To disable migration just set it to a very large value.
    # A value of 0 can be set but is useful only for debugging and dangerous
    # in production.
    #master的slave数量大于该值,slave才能迁移到其他孤立master上,如这个参数若被设为2,那么只有当一个主节点拥有2 个可工作的从节点时,它的一个从节点会尝试迁移。
    #不建议设置为0
    #想禁用可以设置一个非常大的值
    #如果小于0则启动失败
    # cluster-migration-barrier 1
    
    # By default Redis Cluster nodes stop accepting queries if they detect there
    # is at least an hash slot uncovered (no available node is serving it).
    # This way if the cluster is partially down (for example a range of hash slots
    # are no longer covered) all the cluster becomes, eventually, unavailable.
    # It automatically returns available as soon as all the slots are covered again.
    #
    # However sometimes you want the subset of the cluster which is working,
    # to continue to accept queries for the part of the key space that is still
    # covered. In order to do so, just set the cluster-require-full-coverage
    # option to no.
    # 表示当负责一个插槽的主库下线且没有相应的从库进行故障恢复时,是否整个集群不可用?
    # cluster-require-full-coverage yes
    
    # This option, when set to yes, prevents replicas from trying to failover its
    # master during master failures. However the master can still perform a
    # manual failover, if forced to do so.
    #
    # This is useful in different scenarios, especially in the case of multiple
    # data center operations, where we want one side to never be promoted if not
    # in the case of a total DC failure.
    # cluster-replica-no-failover no
    
    # In order to setup your cluster make sure to read the documentation
    # available at http://redis.io web site.
    
    ########################## CLUSTER DOCKER/NAT support ########################
    
    # In certain deployments, Redis Cluster nodes address discovery fails, because
    # addresses are NAT-ted or because ports are forwarded (the typical case is
    # Docker and other containers).
    #
    # In order to make Redis Cluster working in such environments, a static
    # configuration where each node knows its public address is needed. The
    # following two options are used for this scope, and are:
    #
    # * cluster-announce-ip
    # * cluster-announce-port
    # * cluster-announce-bus-port
    #
    # Each instruct the node about its address, client port, and cluster message
    # bus port. The information is then published in the header of the bus packets
    # so that other nodes will be able to correctly map the address of the node
    # publishing the information.
    #
    # If the above options are not used, the normal Redis Cluster auto-detection
    # will be used instead.
    #
    # Note that when remapped, the bus port may not be at the fixed offset of
    # clients port + 10000, so you can specify any port and bus-port depending
    # on how they get remapped. If the bus-port is not set, a fixed offset of
    # 10000 will be used as usually.
    #
    # Example:
    #
    # cluster-announce-ip 10.1.1.5
    # cluster-announce-port 6379
    # cluster-announce-bus-port 6380
    
    ################################## SLOW LOG ###################################
    
    # The Redis Slow Log is a system to log queries that exceeded a specified
    # execution time. The execution time does not include the I/O operations
    # like talking with the client, sending the reply and so forth,
    # but just the time needed to actually execute the command (this is the only
    # stage of command execution where the thread is blocked and can not serve
    # other requests in the meantime).
    #
    # You can configure the slow log with two parameters: one tells Redis
    # what is the execution time, in microseconds, to exceed in order for the
    # command to get logged, and the other parameter is the length of the
    # slow log. When a new command is logged the oldest one is removed from the
    # queue of logged commands.
    
    # The following time is expressed in microseconds, so 1000000 is equivalent
    # to one second. Note that a negative number disables the slow log, while
    # a value of zero forces the logging of every command.
    slowlog-log-slower-than 10000
    
    # There is no limit to this length. Just be aware that it will consume memory.
    # You can reclaim memory used by the slow log with SLOWLOG RESET.
    slowlog-max-len 128
    
    ################################ LATENCY MONITOR ##############################
    
    # The Redis latency monitoring subsystem samples different operations
    # at runtime in order to collect data related to possible sources of
    # latency of a Redis instance.
    #
    # Via the LATENCY command this information is available to the user that can
    # print graphs and obtain reports.
    #
    # The system only logs operations that were performed in a time equal or
    # greater than the amount of milliseconds specified via the
    # latency-monitor-threshold configuration directive. When its value is set
    # to zero, the latency monitor is turned off.
    #
    # By default latency monitoring is disabled since it is mostly not needed
    # if you don't have latency issues, and collecting data has a performance
    # impact, that while very small, can be measured under big load. Latency
    # monitoring can easily be enabled at runtime using the command
    # "CONFIG SET latency-monitor-threshold <milliseconds>" if needed.
    latency-monitor-threshold 0
    
    ############################# EVENT NOTIFICATION ##############################
    
    # Redis can notify Pub/Sub clients about events happening in the key space.
    # This feature is documented at http://redis.io/topics/notifications
    #
    # For instance if keyspace events notification is enabled, and a client
    # performs a DEL operation on key "foo" stored in the Database 0, two
    # messages will be published via Pub/Sub:
    #
    # PUBLISH __keyspace@0__:foo del
    # PUBLISH __keyevent@0__:del foo
    #
    # It is possible to select the events that Redis will notify among a set
    # of classes. Every class is identified by a single character:
    #
    # K Keyspace events, published with __keyspace@<db>__ prefix.
    # E Keyevent events, published with __keyevent@<db>__ prefix.
    # g Generic commands (non-type specific) like DEL, EXPIRE, RENAME, ...
    # $ String commands
    # l List commands
    # s Set commands
    # h Hash commands
    # z Sorted set commands
    # x Expired events (events generated every time a key expires)
    # e Evicted events (events generated when a key is evicted for maxmemory)
    # A Alias for g$lshzxe, so that the "AKE" string means all the events.
    #
    # The "notify-keyspace-events" takes as argument a string that is composed
    # of zero or multiple characters. The empty string means that notifications
    # are disabled.
    #
    # Example: to enable list and generic events, from the point of view of the
    # event name, use:
    #
    # notify-keyspace-events Elg
    #
    # Example 2: to get the stream of the expired keys subscribing to channel
    # name __keyevent@0__:expired use:
    #
    # notify-keyspace-events Ex
    #
    # By default all notifications are disabled because most users don't need
    # this feature and the feature has some overhead. Note that if you don't
    # specify at least one of K or E, no events will be delivered.
    notify-keyspace-events ""
    
    ############################### ADVANCED CONFIG ###############################
    
    # Hashes are encoded using a memory efficient data structure when they have a
    # small number of entries, and the biggest entry does not exceed a given
    # threshold. These thresholds can be configured using the following directives.
    hash-max-ziplist-entries 512
    hash-max-ziplist-value 64
    
    # Lists are also encoded in a special way to save a lot of space.
    # The number of entries allowed per internal list node can be specified
    # as a fixed maximum size or a maximum number of elements.
    # For a fixed maximum size, use -5 through -1, meaning:
    # -5: max size: 64 Kb <-- not recommended for normal workloads
    # -4: max size: 32 Kb <-- not recommended
    # -3: max size: 16 Kb <-- probably not recommended
    # -2: max size: 8 Kb <-- good
    # -1: max size: 4 Kb <-- good
    # Positive numbers mean store up to _exactly_ that number of elements
    # per list node.
    # The highest performing option is usually -2 (8 Kb size) or -1 (4 Kb size),
    # but if your use case is unique, adjust the settings as necessary.
    list-max-ziplist-size -2
    
    # Lists may also be compressed.
    # Compress depth is the number of quicklist ziplist nodes from *each* side of
    # the list to *exclude* from compression. The head and tail of the list
    # are always uncompressed for fast push/pop operations. Settings are:
    # 0: disable all list compression
    # 1: depth 1 means "don't start compressing until after 1 node into the list,
    # going from either the head or tail"
    # So: [head]->node->node->...->node->[tail]
    # [head], [tail] will always be uncompressed; inner nodes will compress.
    # 2: [head]->[next]->node->node->...->node->[prev]->[tail]
    # 2 here means: don't compress head or head->next or tail->prev or tail,
    # but compress all nodes between them.
    # 3: [head]->[next]->[next]->node->node->...->node->[prev]->[prev]->[tail]
    # etc.
    list-compress-depth 0
    
    # Sets have a special encoding in just one case: when a set is composed
    # of just strings that happen to be integers in radix 10 in the range
    # of 64 bit signed integers.
    # The following configuration setting sets the limit in the size of the
    # set in order to use this special memory saving encoding.
    set-max-intset-entries 512
    
    # Similarly to hashes and lists, sorted sets are also specially encoded in
    # order to save a lot of space. This encoding is only used when the length and
    # elements of a sorted set are below the following limits:
    zset-max-ziplist-entries 128
    zset-max-ziplist-value 64
    
    # HyperLogLog sparse representation bytes limit. The limit includes the
    # 16 bytes header. When an HyperLogLog using the sparse representation crosses
    # this limit, it is converted into the dense representation.
    #
    # A value greater than 16000 is totally useless, since at that point the
    # dense representation is more memory efficient.
    #
    # The suggested value is ~ 3000 in order to have the benefits of
    # the space efficient encoding without slowing down too much PFADD,
    # which is O(N) with the sparse encoding. The value can be raised to
    # ~ 10000 when CPU is not a concern, but space is, and the data set is
    # composed of many HyperLogLogs with cardinality in the 0 - 15000 range.
    hll-sparse-max-bytes 3000
    
    # Streams macro node max size / items. The stream data structure is a radix
    # tree of big nodes that encode multiple items inside. Using this configuration
    # it is possible to configure how big a single node can be in bytes, and the
    # maximum number of items it may contain before switching to a new node when
    # appending new stream entries. If any of the following settings are set to
    # zero, the limit is ignored, so for instance it is possible to set just a
    # max entires limit by setting max-bytes to 0 and max-entries to the desired
    # value.
    stream-node-max-bytes 4096
    stream-node-max-entries 100
    
    # Active rehashing uses 1 millisecond every 100 milliseconds of CPU time in
    # order to help rehashing the main Redis hash table (the one mapping top-level
    # keys to values). The hash table implementation Redis uses (see dict.c)
    # performs a lazy rehashing: the more operation you run into a hash table
    # that is rehashing, the more rehashing "steps" are performed, so if the
    # server is idle the rehashing is never complete and some more memory is used
    # by the hash table.
    #
    # The default is to use this millisecond 10 times every second in order to
    # actively rehash the main dictionaries, freeing memory when possible.
    #
    # If unsure:
    # use "activerehashing no" if you have hard latency requirements and it is
    # not a good thing in your environment that Redis can reply from time to time
    # to queries with 2 milliseconds delay.
    #
    # use "activerehashing yes" if you don't have such hard requirements but
    # want to free memory asap when possible.
    activerehashing yes
    
    # The client output buffer limits can be used to force disconnection of clients
    # that are not reading data from the server fast enough for some reason (a
    # common reason is that a Pub/Sub client can't consume messages as fast as the
    # publisher can produce them).
    #
    # The limit can be set differently for the three different classes of clients:
    #
    # normal -> normal clients including MONITOR clients
    # replica -> replica clients
    # pubsub -> clients subscribed to at least one pubsub channel or pattern
    #
    # The syntax of every client-output-buffer-limit directive is the following:
    #
    # client-output-buffer-limit <class> <hard limit> <soft limit> <soft seconds>
    #
    # A client is immediately disconnected once the hard limit is reached, or if
    # the soft limit is reached and remains reached for the specified number of
    # seconds (continuously).
    # So for instance if the hard limit is 32 megabytes and the soft limit is
    # 16 megabytes / 10 seconds, the client will get disconnected immediately
    # if the size of the output buffers reach 32 megabytes, but will also get
    # disconnected if the client reaches 16 megabytes and continuously overcomes
    # the limit for 10 seconds.
    #
    # By default normal clients are not limited because they don't receive data
    # without asking (in a push way), but just after a request, so only
    # asynchronous clients may create a scenario where data is requested faster
    # than it can read.
    #
    # Instead there is a default limit for pubsub and replica clients, since
    # subscribers and replicas receive data in a push fashion.
    #
    # Both the hard or the soft limit can be disabled by setting them to zero.
    client-output-buffer-limit normal 0 0 0
    client-output-buffer-limit replica 256mb 64mb 60
    client-output-buffer-limit pubsub 32mb 8mb 60
    
    # Client query buffers accumulate new commands. They are limited to a fixed
    # amount by default in order to avoid that a protocol desynchronization (for
    # instance due to a bug in the client) will lead to unbound memory usage in
    # the query buffer. However you can configure it here if you have very special
    # needs, such us huge multi/exec requests or alike.
    #
    # client-query-buffer-limit 1gb
    
    # In the Redis protocol, bulk requests, that are, elements representing single
    # strings, are normally limited ot 512 mb. However you can change this limit
    # here.
    #
    # proto-max-bulk-len 512mb
    
    # Redis calls an internal function to perform many background tasks, like
    # closing connections of clients in timeout, purging expired keys that are
    # never requested, and so forth.
    #
    # Not all tasks are performed with the same frequency, but Redis checks for
    # tasks to perform according to the specified "hz" value.
    #
    # By default "hz" is set to 10. Raising the value will use more CPU when
    # Redis is idle, but at the same time will make Redis more responsive when
    # there are many keys expiring at the same time, and timeouts may be
    # handled with more precision.
    #
    # The range is between 1 and 500, however a value over 100 is usually not
    # a good idea. Most users should use the default of 10 and raise this up to
    # 100 only in environments where very low latency is required.
    hz 10
    
    # Normally it is useful to have an HZ value which is proportional to the
    # number of clients connected. This is useful in order, for instance, to
    # avoid too many clients are processed for each background task invocation
    # in order to avoid latency spikes.
    #
    # Since the default HZ value by default is conservatively set to 10, Redis
    # offers, and enables by default, the ability to use an adaptive HZ value
    # which will temporary raise when there are many connected clients.
    #
    # When dynamic HZ is enabled, the actual configured HZ will be used as
    # as a baseline, but multiples of the configured HZ value will be actually
    # used as needed once more clients are connected. In this way an idle
    # instance will use very little CPU time while a busy instance will be
    # more responsive.
    dynamic-hz yes
    
    # When a child rewrites the AOF file, if the following option is enabled
    # the file will be fsync-ed every 32 MB of data generated. This is useful
    # in order to commit the file to the disk more incrementally and avoid
    # big latency spikes.
    aof-rewrite-incremental-fsync yes
    
    # When redis saves RDB file, if the following option is enabled
    # the file will be fsync-ed every 32 MB of data generated. This is useful
    # in order to commit the file to the disk more incrementally and avoid
    # big latency spikes.
    rdb-save-incremental-fsync yes
    
    # Redis LFU eviction (see maxmemory setting) can be tuned. However it is a good
    # idea to start with the default settings and only change them after investigating
    # how to improve the performances and how the keys LFU change over time, which
    # is possible to inspect via the OBJECT FREQ command.
    #
    # There are two tunable parameters in the Redis LFU implementation: the
    # counter logarithm factor and the counter decay time. It is important to
    # understand what the two parameters mean before changing them.
    #
    # The LFU counter is just 8 bits per key, it's maximum value is 255, so Redis
    # uses a probabilistic increment with logarithmic behavior. Given the value
    # of the old counter, when a key is accessed, the counter is incremented in
    # this way:
    #
    # 1. A random number R between 0 and 1 is extracted.
    # 2. A probability P is calculated as 1/(old_value*lfu_log_factor+1).
    # 3. The counter is incremented only if R < P.
    #
    # The default lfu-log-factor is 10. This is a table of how the frequency
    # counter changes with a different number of accesses with different
    # logarithmic factors:
    #
    # +--------+------------+------------+------------+------------+------------+
    # | factor | 100 hits | 1000 hits | 100K hits | 1M hits | 10M hits |
    # +--------+------------+------------+------------+------------+------------+
    # | 0 | 104 | 255 | 255 | 255 | 255 |
    # +--------+------------+------------+------------+------------+------------+
    # | 1 | 18 | 49 | 255 | 255 | 255 |
    # +--------+------------+------------+------------+------------+------------+
    # | 10 | 10 | 18 | 142 | 255 | 255 |
    # +--------+------------+------------+------------+------------+------------+
    # | 100 | 8 | 11 | 49 | 143 | 255 |
    # +--------+------------+------------+------------+------------+------------+
    #
    # NOTE: The above table was obtained by running the following commands:
    #
    # redis-benchmark -n 1000000 incr foo
    # redis-cli object freq foo
    #
    # NOTE 2: The counter initial value is 5 in order to give new objects a chance
    # to accumulate hits.
    #
    # The counter decay time is the time, in minutes, that must elapse in order
    # for the key counter to be divided by two (or decremented if it has a value
    # less <= 10).
    #
    # The default value for the lfu-decay-time is 1. A Special value of 0 means to
    # decay the counter every time it happens to be scanned.
    #
    # lfu-log-factor 10
    # lfu-decay-time 1
    
    ########################### ACTIVE DEFRAGMENTATION #######################
    #
    # WARNING THIS FEATURE IS EXPERIMENTAL. However it was stress tested
    # even in production and manually tested by multiple engineers for some
    # time.
    #
    # What is active defragmentation?
    # -------------------------------
    #
    # Active (online) defragmentation allows a Redis server to compact the
    # spaces left between small allocations and deallocations of data in memory,
    # thus allowing to reclaim back memory.
    #
    # Fragmentation is a natural process that happens with every allocator (but
    # less so with Jemalloc, fortunately) and certain workloads. Normally a server
    # restart is needed in order to lower the fragmentation, or at least to flush
    # away all the data and create it again. However thanks to this feature
    # implemented by Oran Agra for Redis 4.0 this process can happen at runtime
    # in an "hot" way, while the server is running.
    #
    # Basically when the fragmentation is over a certain level (see the
    # configuration options below) Redis will start to create new copies of the
    # values in contiguous memory regions by exploiting certain specific Jemalloc
    # features (in order to understand if an allocation is causing fragmentation
    # and to allocate it in a better place), and at the same time, will release the
    # old copies of the data. This process, repeated incrementally for all the keys
    # will cause the fragmentation to drop back to normal values.
    #
    # Important things to understand:
    #
    # 1. This feature is disabled by default, and only works if you compiled Redis
    # to use the copy of Jemalloc we ship with the source code of Redis.
    # This is the default with Linux builds.
    #
    # 2. You never need to enable this feature if you don't have fragmentation
    # issues.
    #
    # 3. Once you experience fragmentation, you can enable this feature when
    # needed with the command "CONFIG SET activedefrag yes".
    #
    # The configuration parameters are able to fine tune the behavior of the
    # defragmentation process. If you are not sure about what they mean it is
    # a good idea to leave the defaults untouched.
    
    # Enabled active defragmentation
    # activedefrag yes
    
    # Minimum amount of fragmentation waste to start active defrag
    # active-defrag-ignore-bytes 100mb
    
    # Minimum percentage of fragmentation to start active defrag
    # active-defrag-threshold-lower 10
    
    # Maximum percentage of fragmentation at which we use maximum effort
    # active-defrag-threshold-upper 100
    
    # Minimal effort for defrag in CPU percentage
    # active-defrag-cycle-min 5
    
    # Maximal effort for defrag in CPU percentage
    # active-defrag-cycle-max 75
    
    # Maximum number of set/hash/zset/list fields that will be processed from
    # the main dictionary scan
    # active-defrag-max-scan-fields 1000
    
    
    展开全文
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    中文注释版 Laravel 容器类(Container)

    将 Laravel 的 illuminate/container 移除掉 illuminate/contracts 依赖,便于灵活的在非 Laravel 框架中使用,顺便机翻了一下 illuminate/container 的注释,便于理解 Laravel 的容器。

    相关链接

    代码

    <?php
    
    /*
     * This file is part of the guanguans/di.
     *
     * (c) guanguans <ityaozm@gmail.com>
     *
     * This source file is subject to the MIT license that is bundled.
     */
    
    namespace Guanguans\Di;
    
    use ArrayAccess;
    use Closure;
    use LogicException;
    use Psr\Container\ContainerInterface;
    use ReflectionClass;
    use ReflectionParameter;
    
    /**
     * This file is modified from `illuminate/container`.
     *
     * @see https://github.com/illuminate/container
     */
    class Container implements ArrayAccess, ContainerInterface
    {
        /**
         * The current globally available container (if any).
         * 当前的全局可用容器(如果有)。
         *
         * @var static
         */
        protected static $instance;
    
        /**
         * An array of the types that have been resolved.
         * 已解析类型的数组。
         *
         * @var array
         */
        protected $resolved = [];
    
        /**
         * The container's bindings.
         * 容器的绑定。
         *
         * @var array
         */
        protected $bindings = [];
    
        /**
         * The container's method bindings.
         * 容器的方法绑定。
         *
         * @var array
         */
        protected $methodBindings = [];
    
        /**
         * The container's shared instances.
         * 容器的共享实例。
         *
         * @var array
         */
        protected $instances = [];
    
        /**
         * The registered type aliases.
         * 注册的类型别名。
         *
         * @var array
         */
        protected $aliases = [];
    
        /**
         * The registered aliases keyed by the abstract name.
         * 以抽象名称为关键字的注册别名。
         *
         * @var array
         */
        protected $abstractAliases = [];
    
        /**
         * The extension closures for services.
         * 服务的扩展名闭包。
         *
         * @var array
         */
        protected $extenders = [];
    
        /**
         * All of the registered tags.
         * 所有注册的标签。
         *
         * @var array
         */
        protected $tags = [];
    
        /**
         * The stack of concretions currently being built.
         * 目前正在构建的堆栈。
         *
         * @var array
         */
        protected $buildStack = [];
    
        /**
         * The parameter override stack.
         * 参数覆盖堆栈。
         *
         * @var array
         */
        protected $with = [];
    
        /**
         * The contextual binding map.
         * 上下文绑定图。
         *
         * @var array
         */
        public $contextual = [];
    
        /**
         * All of the registered rebound callbacks.
         * 所有已注册的反弹回调。
         *
         * @var array
         */
        protected $reboundCallbacks = [];
    
        /**
         * All of the global resolving callbacks.
         * 所有全局解析回调。
         *
         * @var array
         */
        protected $globalResolvingCallbacks = [];
    
        /**
         * All of the global after resolving callbacks.
         * 解决回调后的所有全局变量。
         *
         * @var array
         */
        protected $globalAfterResolvingCallbacks = [];
    
        /**
         * All of the resolving callbacks by class type.
         * 按类类型的所有解析回调。
         *
         * @var array
         */
        protected $resolvingCallbacks = [];
    
        /**
         * All of the after resolving callbacks by class type.
         * 所有按类类型解析后的回调。
         *
         * @var array
         */
        protected $afterResolvingCallbacks = [];
    
        /**
         * Define a contextual binding.
         * 定义上下文绑定。
         *
         * @param  string  $concrete
         * @return \Guanguans\Di\ContextualBindingBuilder
         */
        public function when($concrete)
        {
            return new ContextualBindingBuilder($this, $this->getAlias($concrete));
        }
    
        /**
         * Determine if the given abstract type has been bound.
         * 确定给定的抽象类型是否已绑定。
         *
         * @param  string  $abstract
         * @return bool
         */
        public function bound($abstract)
        {
            return isset($this->bindings[$abstract]) ||
                   isset($this->instances[$abstract]) ||
                   $this->isAlias($abstract);
        }
    
        /**
         * Determine if the given abstract type has been resolved.
         * 确定给定的抽象类型是否已解析。
         *
         * @param  string  $abstract
         * @return bool
         */
        public function resolved($abstract)
        {
            if ($this->isAlias($abstract)) {
                $abstract = $this->getAlias($abstract);
            }
    
            return isset($this->resolved[$abstract]) ||
                   isset($this->instances[$abstract]);
        }
    
        /**
         * Determine if a given type is shared.
         * 确定给定类型是否共享。
         *
         * @param  string  $abstract
         * @return bool
         */
        public function isShared($abstract)
        {
            return isset($this->instances[$abstract]) ||
                  (isset($this->bindings[$abstract]['shared']) &&
                   $this->bindings[$abstract]['shared'] === true);
        }
    
        /**
         * Determine if a given string is an alias.
         * 确定给定的字符串是否为别名
         *
         * @param  string  $name
         * @return bool
         */
        public function isAlias($name)
        {
            return isset($this->aliases[$name]);
        }
    
        /**
         * Register a binding with the container.
         * 在容器中注册绑定
         *
         * @param  string|array  $abstract
         * @param  \Closure|string|null  $concrete
         * @param  bool  $shared
         * @return void
         */
        public function bind($abstract, $concrete = null, $shared = false)
        {
            // If no concrete type was given, we will simply set the concrete type to the
            // abstract type. After that, the concrete type to be registered as shared
            // without being forced to state their classes in both of the parameters.
            // 如果没有给出具体类型,我们将简单地将具体类型设置为抽象类型。
            // 之后,要注册为共享的具体类型,而不必强制在两个参数中声明其类。
            $this->dropStaleInstances($abstract);
    
            if (is_null($concrete)) {
                $concrete = $abstract;
            }
    
            // If the factory is not a Closure, it means it is just a class name which is
            // bound into this container to the abstract type and we will just wrap it
            // up inside its own Closure to give us more convenience when extending.
            // 如果工厂不是 Closure,则意味着它只是一个类名称,
            // 该类名称绑定到此容器中,与抽象类型绑定,
            // 我们将其包装在自己的 Closure 中,以便在扩展时为我们提供更多便利。
            if (! $concrete instanceof Closure) {
                $concrete = $this->getClosure($abstract, $concrete);
            }
    
            $this->bindings[$abstract] = compact('concrete', 'shared');
    
            // If the abstract type was already resolved in this container we'll fire the
            // rebound listener so that any objects which have already gotten resolved
            // can have their copy of the object updated via the listener callbacks.
            // 如果抽象类型已在此容器中解析,我们将触发回弹侦听器,
            // 以便所有已解析的对象都可以通过侦听器回调更新其对象副本。
            if ($this->resolved($abstract)) {
                $this->rebound($abstract);
            }
        }
    
        /**
         * Get the Closure to be used when building a type.
         * 获取要在构建类型时使用的闭包。
         *
         * @param  string  $abstract
         * @param  string  $concrete
         * @return \Closure
         */
        protected function getClosure($abstract, $concrete)
        {
            return function ($container, $parameters = []) use ($abstract, $concrete) {
                if ($abstract == $concrete) {
                    return $container->build($concrete);
                }
    
                return $container->makeWith($concrete, $parameters);
            };
        }
    
        /**
         * Determine if the container has a method binding.
         * 确定容器是否具有方法绑定。
         *
         * @param  string  $method
         * @return bool
         */
        public function hasMethodBinding($method)
        {
            return isset($this->methodBindings[$method]);
        }
    
        /**
         * Bind a callback to resolve with Container::call.
         * 绑定回调以使用 Container::call 进行解析。
         *
         * @param  string  $method
         * @param  \Closure  $callback
         * @return void
         */
        public function bindMethod($method, $callback)
        {
            $this->methodBindings[$method] = $callback;
        }
    
        /**
         * Get the method binding for the given method.
         * 获取给定方法的方法绑定。
         *
         * @param  string  $method
         * @param  mixed  $instance
         * @return mixed
         */
        public function callMethodBinding($method, $instance)
        {
            return call_user_func($this->methodBindings[$method], $instance, $this);
        }
    
        /**
         * Add a contextual binding to the container.
         * 将上下文绑定添加到容器。
         *
         * @param  string  $concrete
         * @param  string  $abstract
         * @param  \Closure|string  $implementation
         * @return void
         */
        public function addContextualBinding($concrete, $abstract, $implementation)
        {
            $this->contextual[$concrete][$this->getAlias($abstract)] = $implementation;
        }
    
        /**
         * Register a binding if it hasn't already been registered.
         * 注册绑定(如果尚未注册)。
         *
         * @param  string  $abstract
         * @param  \Closure|string|null  $concrete
         * @param  bool  $shared
         * @return void
         */
        public function bindIf($abstract, $concrete = null, $shared = false)
        {
            if (! $this->bound($abstract)) {
                $this->bind($abstract, $concrete, $shared);
            }
        }
    
        /**
         * Register a shared binding in the container.
         * 在容器中注册共享绑定。
         *
         * @param  string|array  $abstract
         * @param  \Closure|string|null  $concrete
         * @return void
         */
        public function singleton($abstract, $concrete = null)
        {
            $this->bind($abstract, $concrete, true);
        }
    
        /**
         * "Extend" an abstract type in the container.
         * “扩展”容器中的抽象类型。
         *
         * @param  string    $abstract
         * @param  \Closure  $closure
         * @return void
         *
         * @throws \InvalidArgumentException
         */
        public function extend($abstract, Closure $closure)
        {
            $abstract = $this->getAlias($abstract);
    
            if (isset($this->instances[$abstract])) {
                $this->instances[$abstract] = $closure($this->instances[$abstract], $this);
    
                $this->rebound($abstract);
            } else {
                $this->extenders[$abstract][] = $closure;
    
                if ($this->resolved($abstract)) {
                    $this->rebound($abstract);
                }
            }
        }
    
        /**
         * Register an existing instance as shared in the container.
         * 将现有实例注册为在容器中共享的实例。
         *
         * @param  string  $abstract
         * @param  mixed   $instance
         * @return void
         */
        public function instance($abstract, $instance)
        {
            $this->removeAbstractAlias($abstract);
    
            $isBound = $this->bound($abstract);
    
            unset($this->aliases[$abstract]);
    
            // We'll check to determine if this type has been bound before, and if it has
            // we will fire the rebound callbacks registered with the container and it
            // can be updated with consuming classes that have gotten resolved here.
            // 我们将检查以确定此类型是否以前已绑定,
            // 如果已经绑定,将触发在容器中注册的反弹回调,
            // 并且可以使用在这里已解决的消耗类进行更新。
            $this->instances[$abstract] = $instance;
    
            if ($isBound) {
                $this->rebound($abstract);
            }
        }
    
        /**
         * Remove an alias from the contextual binding alias cache.
         * 从上下文绑定别名缓存中删除别名。
         *
         * @param  string  $searched
         * @return void
         */
        protected function removeAbstractAlias($searched)
        {
            if (! isset($this->aliases[$searched])) {
                return;
            }
    
            foreach ($this->abstractAliases as $abstract => $aliases) {
                foreach ($aliases as $index => $alias) {
                    if ($alias == $searched) {
                        unset($this->abstractAliases[$abstract][$index]);
                    }
                }
            }
        }
    
        /**
         * Assign a set of tags to a given binding.
         * 将一组标签分配给给定的绑定。
         *
         * @param  array|string  $abstracts
         * @param  array|mixed   ...$tags
         * @return void
         */
        public function tag($abstracts, $tags)
        {
            $tags = is_array($tags) ? $tags : array_slice(func_get_args(), 1);
    
            foreach ($tags as $tag) {
                if (! isset($this->tags[$tag])) {
                    $this->tags[$tag] = [];
                }
    
                foreach ((array) $abstracts as $abstract) {
                    $this->tags[$tag][] = $abstract;
                }
            }
        }
    
        /**
         * Resolve all of the bindings for a given tag.
         * 解决给定标签的所有绑定。
         *
         * @param  string  $tag
         * @return array
         */
        public function tagged($tag)
        {
            $results = [];
    
            if (isset($this->tags[$tag])) {
                foreach ($this->tags[$tag] as $abstract) {
                    $results[] = $this->make($abstract);
                }
            }
    
            return $results;
        }
    
        /**
         * Alias a type to a different name.
         * 将别名别名为另一个名称。
         *
         * @param  string  $abstract
         * @param  string  $alias
         * @return void
         */
        public function alias($abstract, $alias)
        {
            $this->aliases[$alias] = $abstract;
    
            $this->abstractAliases[$abstract][] = $alias;
        }
    
        /**
         * Bind a new callback to an abstract's rebind event.
         * 绑定一个新的回调到抽象的重新绑定事件。
         *
         * @param  string    $abstract
         * @param  \Closure  $callback
         * @return mixed
         */
        public function rebinding($abstract, Closure $callback)
        {
            $this->reboundCallbacks[$abstract = $this->getAlias($abstract)][] = $callback;
    
            if ($this->bound($abstract)) {
                return $this->make($abstract);
            }
        }
    
        /**
         * Refresh an instance on the given target and method.
         * 在给定的目标和方法上刷新实例。
         *
         * @param  string  $abstract
         * @param  mixed   $target
         * @param  string  $method
         * @return mixed
         */
        public function refresh($abstract, $target, $method)
        {
            return $this->rebinding($abstract, function ($app, $instance) use ($target, $method) {
                $target->{$method}($instance);
            });
        }
    
        /**
         * Fire the "rebound" callbacks for the given abstract type.
         * 为给定的抽象类型触发“反弹”回调。
         *
         * @param  string  $abstract
         * @return void
         */
        protected function rebound($abstract)
        {
            $instance = $this->make($abstract);
    
            foreach ($this->getReboundCallbacks($abstract) as $callback) {
                call_user_func($callback, $this, $instance);
            }
        }
    
        /**
         * Get the rebound callbacks for a given type.
         * 获取给定类型的反弹回调
         *
         * @param  string  $abstract
         * @return array
         */
        protected function getReboundCallbacks($abstract)
        {
            if (isset($this->reboundCallbacks[$abstract])) {
                return $this->reboundCallbacks[$abstract];
            }
    
            return [];
        }
    
        /**
         * Wrap the given closure such that its dependencies will be injected when executed.
         * 包装给定的闭包,以便在执行时注入其依赖项。
         *
         * @param  \Closure  $callback
         * @param  array  $parameters
         * @return \Closure
         */
        public function wrap(Closure $callback, array $parameters = [])
        {
            return function () use ($callback, $parameters) {
                return $this->call($callback, $parameters);
            };
        }
    
        /**
         * Call the given Closure / class@method and inject its dependencies.
         * 调用给定的 Closure / class@method 并注入其依赖项。
         *
         * @param  callable|string  $callback
         * @param  array  $parameters
         * @param  string|null  $defaultMethod
         * @return mixed
         */
        public function call($callback, array $parameters = [], $defaultMethod = null)
        {
            return BoundMethod::call($this, $callback, $parameters, $defaultMethod);
        }
    
        /**
         * Get a closure to resolve the given type from the container.
         * 获取一个容器来解析给定类型的闭包。
         *
         * @param  string  $abstract
         * @return \Closure
         */
        public function factory($abstract)
        {
            return function () use ($abstract) {
                return $this->make($abstract);
            };
        }
    
        /**
         * Resolve the given type with the given parameter overrides.
         * 使用给定的参数覆盖解析给定的类型。
         *
         * @param  string  $abstract
         * @param  array  $parameters
         * @return mixed
         */
        public function makeWith($abstract, array $parameters)
        {
            return $this->resolve($abstract, $parameters);
        }
    
        /**
         * Resolve the given type from the container.
         * 从容器解析给定类型。
         *
         * @param  string  $abstract
         * @return mixed
         */
        public function make($abstract)
        {
            return $this->resolve($abstract);
        }
    
        /**
         * Resolve the given type from the container.
         * 从容器解析给定类型。
         *
         * @param  string  $abstract
         * @param  array  $parameters
         * @return mixed
         */
        protected function resolve($abstract, $parameters = [])
        {
            $abstract = $this->getAlias($abstract);
    
            $needsContextualBuild = ! empty($parameters) || ! is_null(
                $this->getContextualConcrete($abstract)
            );
    
            // If an instance of the type is currently being managed as a singleton we'll
            // just return an existing instance instead of instantiating new instances
            // so the developer can keep using the same objects instance every time.
            // 如果当前正在以单例方式管理该类型的实例,
            // 我们将只返回一个现有实例,而不是实例化新实例,
            // 以便开发人员每次都可以继续使用相同的对象实例。
            if (isset($this->instances[$abstract]) && ! $needsContextualBuild) {
                return $this->instances[$abstract];
            }
    
            $this->with[] = $parameters;
    
            $concrete = $this->getConcrete($abstract);
    
            // We're ready to instantiate an instance of the concrete type registered for
            // the binding. This will instantiate the types, as well as resolve any of
            // its "nested" dependencies recursively until all have gotten resolved.
            // 我们已经准备好实例化为绑定注册的具体类型的实例。
            // 这将实例化类型,并以递归方式解析其“嵌套”依赖项中的任何一个,直到全部解析完毕。
            if ($this->isBuildable($concrete, $abstract)) {
                $object = $this->build($concrete);
            } else {
                $object = $this->make($concrete);
            }
    
            // If we defined any extenders for this type, we'll need to spin through them
            // and apply them to the object being built. This allows for the extension
            // of services, such as changing configuration or decorating the object.
            // 如果我们为此类型定义了任何扩展程序,则需要遍历它们并将其应用于正在构建的对象。
            // 这允许扩展服务,例如更改配置或装饰对象。
            foreach ($this->getExtenders($abstract) as $extender) {
                $object = $extender($object, $this);
            }
    
            // If the requested type is registered as a singleton we'll want to cache off
            // the instances in "memory" so we can return it later without creating an
            // entirely new instance of an object on each subsequent request for it.
            // 如果将请求的类型注册为单例,我们将将实例缓存在“内存”中,
            // 这样​​我们以后就可以返回它,而无需在随后的每次请求上都创建对象的全新实例。
            if ($this->isShared($abstract) && ! $needsContextualBuild) {
                $this->instances[$abstract] = $object;
            }
    
            $this->fireResolvingCallbacks($abstract, $object);
    
            // Before returning, we will also set the resolved flag to "true" and pop off
            // the parameter overrides for this build. After those two things are done
            // we will be ready to return back the fully constructed class instance.
            // 在返回之前,我们还将解析标记设置为 “true”,并弹出此版本的参数替代。
            // 完成这两件事之后,我们将准备好返回完整构造的类实例。
            $this->resolved[$abstract] = true;
    
            array_pop($this->with);
    
            return $object;
        }
    
        /**
         * Get the concrete type for a given abstract.
         * 获取给定摘要的具体类型。
         *
         * @param  string  $abstract
         * @return mixed   $concrete
         */
        protected function getConcrete($abstract)
        {
            if (! is_null($concrete = $this->getContextualConcrete($abstract))) {
                return $concrete;
            }
    
            // If we don't have a registered resolver or concrete for the type, we'll just
            // assume each type is a concrete name and will attempt to resolve it as is
            // since the container should be able to resolve concretes automatically.
            // 如果我们没有该类型的注册解析器或具体对象,我们将假设每种类型都是具体名称,
            // 并尝试按原样解析它,因为容器应该能够自动解析具体对象。
            if (isset($this->bindings[$abstract])) {
                return $this->bindings[$abstract]['concrete'];
            }
    
            return $abstract;
        }
    
        /**
         * Get the contextual concrete binding for the given abstract.
         * 获取给定摘要的上下文具体绑定。
         *
         * @param  string  $abstract
         * @return string|null
         */
        protected function getContextualConcrete($abstract)
        {
            if (! is_null($binding = $this->findInContextualBindings($abstract))) {
                return $binding;
            }
    
            // Next we need to see if a contextual binding might be bound under an alias of the
            // given abstract type. So, we will need to check if any aliases exist with this
            // type and then spin through them and check for contextual bindings on these.
            // 接下来,我们需要查看是否可以在给定抽象类型的别名下绑定上下文绑定。
            // 因此,我们将需要检查此类型是否存在别名,然后旋转它们并检查这些别名的上下文绑定。
            if (empty($this->abstractAliases[$abstract])) {
                return;
            }
    
            foreach ($this->abstractAliases[$abstract] as $alias) {
                if (! is_null($binding = $this->findInContextualBindings($alias))) {
                    return $binding;
                }
            }
        }
    
        /**
         * Find the concrete binding for the given abstract in the contextual binding array.
         * 在上下文绑定数组中找到给定摘要的具体绑定
         *
         * @param  string  $abstract
         * @return string|null
         */
        protected function findInContextualBindings($abstract)
        {
            if (isset($this->contextual[end($this->buildStack)][$abstract])) {
                return $this->contextual[end($this->buildStack)][$abstract];
            }
        }
    
        /**
         * Determine if the given concrete is buildable.
         * 确定给定的具体是否可构建。
         *
         * @param  mixed   $concrete
         * @param  string  $abstract
         * @return bool
         */
        protected function isBuildable($concrete, $abstract)
        {
            return $concrete === $abstract || $concrete instanceof Closure;
        }
    
        /**
         * Instantiate a concrete instance of the given type.
         * 实例化给定类型的具体实例。
         *
         * @param  string  $concrete
         * @return mixed
         *
         * @throws \Guanguans\Di\BindingResolutionException
         */
        public function build($concrete)
        {
            // If the concrete type is actually a Closure, we will just execute it and
            // hand back the results of the functions, which allows functions to be
            // used as resolvers for more fine-tuned resolution of these objects.
            // 如果具体类型实际上是 Closure,我们将直接执行它并返回函数的结果,
            // 这允许将函数用作解析器,以便对这些对象进行更精细的解析。
            if ($concrete instanceof Closure) {
                return $concrete($this, $this->getLastParameterOverride());
            }
    
            $reflector = new ReflectionClass($concrete);
    
            // If the type is not instantiable, the developer is attempting to resolve
            // an abstract type such as an Interface of Abstract Class and there is
            // no binding registered for the abstractions so we need to bail out.
            // 如果类型不是可实例化的,则开发人员正尝试解析抽象类型,
            // 例如 Abstract Class 的接口,并且没有为抽象注册任何绑定,因此我们需要纾困。
            if (! $reflector->isInstantiable()) {
                return $this->notInstantiable($concrete);
            }
    
            $this->buildStack[] = $concrete;
    
            $constructor = $reflector->getConstructor();
    
            // If there are no constructors, that means there are no dependencies then
            // we can just resolve the instances of the objects right away, without
            // resolving any other types or dependencies out of these containers.
            // 如果没有构造函数,则意味着没有依赖项,我们可以立即解析对象的实例,
            // 而无需从这些容器中解析任何其他类型或依赖项。
            if (is_null($constructor)) {
                array_pop($this->buildStack);
    
                return new $concrete;
            }
    
            $dependencies = $constructor->getParameters();
    
            // Once we have all the constructor's parameters we can create each of the
            // dependency instances and then use the reflection instances to make a
            // new instance of this class, injecting the created dependencies in.
            // 一旦有了所有构造函数的参数,就可以创建每个依赖实例,
            // 然后使用反射实例创建此类的新实例,将创建的依赖注入其中。
            $instances = $this->resolveDependencies(
                $dependencies
            );
    
            array_pop($this->buildStack);
    
            return $reflector->newInstanceArgs($instances);
        }
    
        /**
         * Resolve all of the dependencies from the ReflectionParameters.
         * 从 ReflectionParameters 解析所有依赖项。
         *
         * @param  array  $dependencies
         * @return array
         */
        protected function resolveDependencies(array $dependencies)
        {
            $results = [];
    
            foreach ($dependencies as $dependency) {
                // If this dependency has a override for this particular build we will use
                // that instead as the value. Otherwise, we will continue with this run
                // of resolutions and let reflection attempt to determine the result.
                // 如果此依赖项对此特定构建具有替代,我们将使用作为值。
                // 否则,我们将继续执行的分辨率,并让反射尝试确定结果。
                if ($this->hasParameterOverride($dependency)) {
                    $results[] = $this->getParameterOverride($dependency);
    
                    continue;
                }
    
                // If the class is null, it means the dependency is a string or some other
                // primitive type which we can not resolve since it is not a class and
                // we will just bomb out with an error since we have no-where to go.
                // 如果该类为 null,则表示依赖项是字符串或其他类型的原始类型,
                // 由于它不是类,因此我们无法解析,并且由于没有位置,我们将抛出错误去。
                $results[] = is_null($class = $dependency->getClass())
                                ? $this->resolvePrimitive($dependency)
                                : $this->resolveClass($dependency);
            }
    
            return $results;
        }
    
        /**
         * Determine if the given dependency has a parameter override from makeWith.
         * 确定给定的依赖项是否具有来自 makeWith 的参数重写。
         *
         * @param  \ReflectionParameter  $dependency
         * @return bool
         */
        protected function hasParameterOverride($dependency)
        {
            return array_key_exists(
                $dependency->name,
                $this->getLastParameterOverride()
            );
        }
    
        /**
         * Get a parameter override for a dependency.
         * 获取依赖项的参数覆盖。
         *
         * @param  \ReflectionParameter  $dependency
         * @return mixed
         */
        protected function getParameterOverride($dependency)
        {
            return $this->getLastParameterOverride()[$dependency->name];
        }
    
        /**
         * Get the last parameter override.
         * 获取最后一个参数覆盖。
         *
         * @return array
         */
        protected function getLastParameterOverride()
        {
            return count($this->with) ? end($this->with) : [];
        }
    
        /**
         * Resolve a non-class hinted primitive dependency.
         * 解析非类提示的原始依赖项。
         *
         * @param  \ReflectionParameter  $parameter
         * @return mixed
         *
         * @throws \Guanguans\Di\BindingResolutionException
         */
        protected function resolvePrimitive(ReflectionParameter $parameter)
        {
            if (! is_null($concrete = $this->getContextualConcrete('$'.$parameter->name))) {
                return $concrete instanceof Closure ? $concrete($this) : $concrete;
            }
    
            if ($parameter->isDefaultValueAvailable()) {
                return $parameter->getDefaultValue();
            }
    
            $this->unresolvablePrimitive($parameter);
        }
    
        /**
         * Resolve a class based dependency from the container.
         * 解析容器中基于类的依赖关系。
         *
         * @param  \ReflectionParameter  $parameter
         * @return mixed
         *
         * @throws \Guanguans\Di\BindingResolutionException
         */
        protected function resolveClass(ReflectionParameter $parameter)
        {
            try {
                return $this->make($parameter->getClass()->name);
            }
    
            // If we can not resolve the class instance, we will check to see if the value
            // is optional, and if it is we will return the optional parameter value as
            // the value of the dependency, similarly to how we do this with scalars.
            // 如果无法解析类实例,则将检查该值是否为可选,如果为可选,
            // 们将返回可选参数 value 作为依赖项的值,类似于执行此操作的方式标量。
            catch (BindingResolutionException $e) {
                if ($parameter->isOptional()) {
                    return $parameter->getDefaultValue();
                }
    
                throw $e;
            }
        }
    
        /**
         * Throw an exception that the concrete is not instantiable.
         * 抛出一个具体无法实例化的异常。
         *
         * @param  string  $concrete
         * @return void
         *
         * @throws \Guanguans\Di\BindingResolutionException
         */
        protected function notInstantiable($concrete)
        {
            if (! empty($this->buildStack)) {
                $previous = implode(', ', $this->buildStack);
    
                $message = "Target [$concrete] is not instantiable while building [$previous].";
            } else {
                $message = "Target [$concrete] is not instantiable.";
            }
    
            throw new BindingResolutionException($message);
        }
    
        /**
         * Throw an exception for an unresolvable primitive.
         * 为无法解析的原语抛出异常。
         *
         * @param  \ReflectionParameter  $parameter
         * @return void
         *
         * @throws \Guanguans\Di\BindingResolutionException
         */
        protected function unresolvablePrimitive(ReflectionParameter $parameter)
        {
            $message = "Unresolvable dependency resolving [$parameter] in class {$parameter->getDeclaringClass()->getName()}";
    
            throw new BindingResolutionException($message);
        }
    
        /**
         * Register a new resolving callback.
         * 注册一个新的解析回调。
         *
         * @param  string    $abstract
         * @param  \Closure|null  $callback
         * @return void
         */
        public function resolving($abstract, Closure $callback = null)
        {
            if (is_string($abstract)) {
                $abstract = $this->getAlias($abstract);
            }
    
            if (is_null($callback) && $abstract instanceof Closure) {
                $this->globalResolvingCallbacks[] = $abstract;
            } else {
                $this->resolvingCallbacks[$abstract][] = $callback;
            }
        }
    
        /**
         * Register a new after resolving callback for all types.
         * 在解析所有类型的回调之后注册一个新的。
         *
         * @param  string   $abstract
         * @param  \Closure|null $callback
         * @return void
         */
        public function afterResolving($abstract, Closure $callback = null)
        {
            if (is_string($abstract)) {
                $abstract = $this->getAlias($abstract);
            }
    
            if ($abstract instanceof Closure && is_null($callback)) {
                $this->globalAfterResolvingCallbacks[] = $abstract;
            } else {
                $this->afterResolvingCallbacks[$abstract][] = $callback;
            }
        }
    
        /**
         * Fire all of the resolving callbacks.
         * 触发所有解析的回调。
         *
         * @param  string  $abstract
         * @param  mixed   $object
         * @return void
         */
        protected function fireResolvingCallbacks($abstract, $object)
        {
            $this->fireCallbackArray($object, $this->globalResolvingCallbacks);
    
            $this->fireCallbackArray(
                $object,
                $this->getCallbacksForType($abstract, $object, $this->resolvingCallbacks)
            );
    
            $this->fireAfterResolvingCallbacks($abstract, $object);
        }
    
        /**
         * Fire all of the after resolving callbacks.
         * 解决回调后,请执行所有操作。
         *
         * @param  string  $abstract
         * @param  mixed   $object
         * @return void
         */
        protected function fireAfterResolvingCallbacks($abstract, $object)
        {
            $this->fireCallbackArray($object, $this->globalAfterResolvingCallbacks);
    
            $this->fireCallbackArray(
                $object,
                $this->getCallbacksForType($abstract, $object, $this->afterResolvingCallbacks)
            );
        }
    
        /**
         * Get all callbacks for a given type.
         * 获取给定类型的所有回调。
         *
         * @param  string  $abstract
         * @param  object  $object
         * @param  array   $callbacksPerType
         *
         * @return array
         */
        protected function getCallbacksForType($abstract, $object, array $callbacksPerType)
        {
            $results = [];
    
            foreach ($callbacksPerType as $type => $callbacks) {
                if ($type === $abstract || $object instanceof $type) {
                    $results = array_merge($results, $callbacks);
                }
            }
    
            return $results;
        }
    
        /**
         * Fire an array of callbacks with an object.
         * 触发带有对象的回调数组。
         *
         * @param  mixed  $object
         * @param  array  $callbacks
         * @return void
         */
        protected function fireCallbackArray($object, array $callbacks)
        {
            foreach ($callbacks as $callback) {
                $callback($object, $this);
            }
        }
    
        /**
         * Get the container's bindings.
         * 获取容器的绑定。
         *
         * @return array
         */
        public function getBindings()
        {
            return $this->bindings;
        }
    
        /**
         * Get the alias for an abstract if available.
         * 获取摘要的别名(如果有)。
         *
         * @param  string  $abstract
         * @return string
         *
         * @throws \LogicException
         */
        public function getAlias($abstract)
        {
            if (! isset($this->aliases[$abstract])) {
                return $abstract;
            }
    
            if ($this->aliases[$abstract] === $abstract) {
                throw new LogicException("[{$abstract}] is aliased to itself.");
            }
    
            return $this->getAlias($this->aliases[$abstract]);
        }
    
        /**
         * Get the extender callbacks for a given type.
         * 获取给定类型的扩展程序回调。
         *
         * @param  string  $abstract
         * @return array
         */
        protected function getExtenders($abstract)
        {
            $abstract = $this->getAlias($abstract);
    
            if (isset($this->extenders[$abstract])) {
                return $this->extenders[$abstract];
            }
    
            return [];
        }
    
        /**
         * Remove all of the extender callbacks for a given type.
         * 删除给定类型的所有扩展器回调。
         *
         * @param  string  $abstract
         * @return void
         */
        public function forgetExtenders($abstract)
        {
            unset($this->extenders[$this->getAlias($abstract)]);
        }
    
        /**
         * Drop all of the stale instances and aliases.
         * 删除所有过时的实例和别名。
         *
         * @param  string  $abstract
         * @return void
         */
        protected function dropStaleInstances($abstract)
        {
            unset($this->instances[$abstract], $this->aliases[$abstract]);
        }
    
        /**
         * Remove a resolved instance from the instance cache.
         * 从实例缓存中删除已解析的实例。
         *
         * @param  string  $abstract
         * @return void
         */
        public function forgetInstance($abstract)
        {
            unset($this->instances[$abstract]);
        }
    
        /**
         * Clear all of the instances from the container.
         * 从容器中清除所有实例。
         *
         * @return void
         */
        public function forgetInstances()
        {
            $this->instances = [];
        }
    
        /**
         * Flush the container of all bindings and resolved instances.
         * 刷新容器中的所有绑定和已解决的实例。
         *
         * @return void
         */
        public function flush()
        {
            $this->aliases = [];
            $this->resolved = [];
            $this->bindings = [];
            $this->instances = [];
            $this->abstractAliases = [];
        }
    
        /**
         * Set the globally available instance of the container.
         * 设置容器的全局可用实例。
         *
         * @return static
         */
        public static function getInstance()
        {
            if (is_null(static::$instance)) {
                static::$instance = new static;
            }
    
            return static::$instance;
        }
    
        /**
         * Set the shared instance of the container.
         * 设置容器的共享实例。
         *
         * @param  \Guanguans\Di\Container|null  $container
         * @return static
         */
        public static function setInstance(Container $container = null)
        {
            return static::$instance = $container;
        }
    
        /**
         * Determine if a given offset exists.
         * 确定是否存在给定的 key 。
         *
         * @param  string  $key
         * @return bool
         */
        public function offsetExists($key)
        {
            return $this->bound($key);
        }
    
        /**
         * Get the value at a given offset.
         * 获取给定 key 的值。
         *
         * @param  string  $key
         * @return mixed
         */
        public function offsetGet($key)
        {
            return $this->make($key);
        }
    
        /**
         * Set the value at a given offset.
         * 将值设置为给定的 key 。
         *
         * @param  string  $key
         * @param  mixed   $value
         * @return void
         */
        public function offsetSet($key, $value)
        {
            $this->bind($key, $value instanceof Closure ? $value : function () use ($value) {
                return $value;
            });
        }
    
        /**
         * Unset the value at a given offset.
         * 以给定 key 取消设置值。
         *
         * @param  string  $key
         * @return void
         */
        public function offsetUnset($key)
        {
            unset($this->bindings[$key], $this->instances[$key], $this->resolved[$key]);
        }
    
        /**
         * Dynamically access container services.
         * 动态访问容器服务。
         *
         * @param  string  $key
         * @return mixed
         */
        public function __get($key)
        {
            return $this[$key];
        }
    
        /**
         * Dynamically set container services.
         * 动态设置容器服务。
         *
         * @param  string  $key
         * @param  mixed   $value
         * @return void
         */
        public function __set($key, $value)
        {
            $this[$key] = $value;
        }
    
        /**
         * 通过其标识符查找容器的条目并返回它。
         *
         * @inheritDoc
         */
        public function has($id)
        {
            return $this->offsetExists($id);
        }
    
        /**
         * 如果容器可以返回给定标识符的条目,则返回 true 。 否则返回 false 。
         *
         * @inheritDoc
         */
        public function get($id)
        {
            return $this[$id];
        }
    }
    
    展开全文
  • 初学Erlang受惠于余锋,立涛等人贡献的中文资料,回报Erlang中文社区,这里是Erlang STDLIB的中文注释版; 什么是中文注释版? 这个版本记录了我从开始学习Erlang在使用标准库过程中遇到的问题,以及测试代码;目前绝...
     学习Erlang第一个痛是IDE支持,第二个痛就是中文资料太少;初学Erlang受惠于余锋,立涛等人贡献的中文资料,回报Erlang中文社区,这里是Erlang STDLIB的中文注释版;
       

        什么是中文注释版?

         这个版本记录了我从开始学习Erlang在使用标准库过程中遇到的问题,以及测试代码;目前绝大多数的常用类库,都可以找到第一次使用时记录的笔记以及测试代码;
        所以,不是全文档翻译,只是我平时点滴积累汇成,注释为主;后来发现这样能够保持学习的连续性,就把一些资料也逐渐整理到PDF中.
     

    下载地址

     
     
     

    免责声明

    1. Erlang STDLIB 文档包含里面的文字,图片,代码归原作者所有
    2. 本文档供Erlang爱好者学习使用,无偿分享
    3. 非商业性使用 — 您不得将本作品用于商业目的。   
       
    展开全文
  • SMBUS2.0英文手册,我加了很多中文注释,基本就是翻译了一遍
  • SMBUS1.1英文手册,我加了很多中文注释,基本就是翻译了一遍
  • orb-slam中文注释版

    2018-06-05 21:25:37
    蚁族的坚持 一起学orbslam2技术博客系列对应代码,此为博客中所用到的ORB-SLAM的注释代码,系列博客网址:(https://blog.csdn.net/qq_30356613/article/category/6897125)
  • freemodbus中文注释版

    热门讨论 2012-05-26 12:49:48
    阅读代码时我添加了很多中文注释。现在我把注释版发上来。 这些注释只是我对代码的理解,里面可能会有些用词不当甚至是理解错误的注释,请海涵。 注释是针对AVR的,其他平台版本应该也大同小异,大家对比着看。 若...
  • ABP源码-中文注释版

    2016-12-19 09:07:14
    1、不少对英文比较不喜欢的朋友,想学习ABP的源码,但又实在不想看密密麻麻的英文,鉴于此,本人在学习源码的同时,将注释翻译成中文,方便大家的学习。翻译过程没有经验反复校验,水平也有限等诸多原因,难免有不当...
  • μCOS-II中OS_TASK.C源码中文注释版,学习μCOS-II中OS_TASK.C源码的很好的资料,对每一部分函数与代码做了详细的解释
  • -- 空会排在前面 -- 按照name升序排序,排序方式是根据字典来排,字典是abcdefg这样的形式,中文的还不知道排序的原则 SELECT * FROM dy ORDER BY NAME ASC; -- 分组查询-----------------------------------------...

    -- 查看所有数据库

    SHOW DATABASES;

    -- 创建数据库

    CREATE DATABASE dy_13;

    -- 创建数据库并指定字符集

    CREATE DATABASE dy_12 CHARACTER SET utf8;

    -- 查看数据库字符集

    SHOW CREATE DATABASE dy_13;

    -- 修改数据库字符集,需要在根目录上才能有效执行

    ALTER DATABASE dy_13 DEFAULT CHARACTER SET utf8;

    -- 删除数据库

    DROP DATABASE dy_13;

    -- ---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    -- 进入表

    USE dy;

    -- 查看表,需要先进入数据库

    SHOW TABLES;

    -- 创建表

    CREATE TABLE student(

    id INT,

    NAME VARCHAR(20),

    gendenr VARCHAR(20),

    age INT

    );

    -- 查看表结构

    DESC student;

    -- 添加字段

    ALTER TABLE dy ADD COLUMN qq INT;

    -- 修改字段类型

    ALTER TABLE student MODIFY COLUMN qq VARCHAR(10);

    为已经添加好的数据表添加外键:

    语法:alter table 表名 add constraint FK_ID foreign key(你的外键字段名) REFERENCES 外表表名

    -- 修改字段名称 旧名字 新名字

    ALTER TABLE student CHANGE COLUMN gendenr sex VARCHAR(20);

    -- 删除字段

    ALTER TABLE student DROP COLUMN qq;

    -- 修改表名

    ALTER TABLE student RENAME TO students;

    -- 删除表

    DROP TABLE test;

    -- 数据管理-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    -- 查看所有数据

    SELECT * FROM dy;

    -- 增加数据

    INSERT INTO dy VALUES(1,'宝贝','男',20);

    -- 在特定字段加入数据

    INSERT INTO dy(id,NAME)VALUES(5,'徐渭');

    -- 修改数据,一次对一个字段进行修改,修改多个的话逗号隔开即可

    UPDATE dy SET qq='123142';

    -- 修改局部数据,要修改的数据 增加一个标识位,可以有多个标识位

    UPDATE dy SET qq='0' WHERE id=2;

    -- 删除数据(全局删除,等于删除了表中的全部数据,但是表没有删除)

    DELETE FROM dy;

    -- 局部删除,要操作的表 删除的条件,即删除的标识位

    DELETE FROM dy WHERE id=2;

    -- 插入时间(时间类型)

    CREATE TABLE test(

    插入日期 DATE,

    插入时间 DATETIME,

    自动插入时间 TIMESTAMP -- 该时间是自动生成的

    );

    -- 查询数据---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    -- 查询所有列数据

    SELECT * FROM dy;

    -- 查询指定列

    SELECT id,NAME FROM dy;

    -- 给字段指定一个别名(列别名)

    SELECT NAME AS '姓名',qq AS '腾讯qq' FROM dy;

    -- 对数值类型的数据进行合并并得到值

    SELECT age+qq FROM dy;

    -- 对合并的数据进行指定别名

    SELECT age AS '年龄',qq AS '腾讯',(age+qq) AS '得到' FROM dy;

    -- 查询去重,将重复数据去掉,显示不重复的

    SELECT DISTINCT qq FROM dy;

    -- 条件查询----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    -- 查询,where后面是条件,全部的数据id为1的

    SELECT * FROM dy WHERE id=1;

    -- 与条件查询 年龄为20 与 性别为男

    SELECT * FROM dy WHERE age=20 AND gender='男';

    SELECT * FROM dy;

    -- 或查询

    SELECT * FROM dy WHERE age=20 OR age=40;

    -- 比较条件 大于 <=小于等于 >=大于等于 =等于 <>不等于,可配合条件查询

    -- 比较查询 大于某数值

    SELECT * FROM dy WHERE age>20;

    -- 并且 年龄在 20 与 40直接的

    SELECT * FROM dy WHERE age BETWEEN 20 AND 40;

    -- 判空查询--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    -- 查询列中是null的数据

    SELECT * FROM dy WHERE age IS NULL;

    -- 查询列中是非null的数据

    SELECT * FROM dy WHERE age IS NOT NULL;

    -- 查询列中空字符串

    SELECT * FROM dy WHERE age ='';

    -- 查询列中非空字符串的数据

    SELECT * FROM dy WHERE age <>'';

    -- 模糊查询-------------------------------------------------

    -- %表示任意字符 _一个下划线代表一个

    -- 查询含有某个字的数据

    SELECT * FROM dy WHERE NAME LIKE '%贝%';

    -- 查询开头为某个字的数据

    SELECT * FROM dy WHERE NAME LIKE '王%';

    -- 查询有3个字,并且含某字的数据 __表示2个,只会得到含有2个字的数据

    SELECT * FROM dy WHERE NAME LIKE '__贝';

    -- 聚合查询--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    -- 查找最高分 从某字段查询最高数值

    SELECT MAX(age) FROM dy;

    -- 查询最低分

    SELECT MIN(age) FROM dy;

    -- 查询某个字段的总分数

    SELECT SUM(age) FROM dy;

    -- 查询某个字段的平均分,会有小数位

    SELECT AVG(age) FROM dy;

    -- 统计总数(对空不包含,如果是*号则包含)

    SELECT COUNT(*) FROM dy;

    -- 分页查询--------------------------------------------------------------------------

    -- limit起始行,查询几行,注意从0开始

    -- 从第一行查询2条数据, 第一个参数是从第几行开始,查询几条

    SELECT * FROM dy LIMIT 0,2;

    SELECT * FROM dy LIMIT 3,5;

    -- 查询排序-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    -- 默认情况下按照插入数据的顺序排序

    -- 按照id的降序排序(从大到小)

    SELECT * FROM dy ORDER BY id DESC;

    -- 按照id升序排序(从小到大)

    SELECT * FROM dy ORDER BY id ASC;

    -- 按照age升序排序

    SELECT * FROM dy ORDER BY age ASC; -- 空会排在前面

    -- 按照name升序排序,排序方式是根据字典来排,字典是abcdefg这样的形式,中文的还不知道排序的原则

    SELECT * FROM dy ORDER BY NAME ASC;

    -- 分组查询------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    -- 查询各个性别的人数,先对数据进行分组,然后对数据进行统计查询,所谓的分组就是对数据去重

    SELECT gender FROM dy GROUP BY gender; -- 进行了分组

    SELECT * FROM dy GROUP BY gender;

    SELECT gender,COUNT(*) FROM dy GROUP BY gender;-- 分组后并将数据进行了统计

    -- where分组前查询,having分组后查询

    -- 关键字的顺序 from -> where -> group by -> having -> order by -> limit

    SELECT gender,COUNT(*) FROM dy WHERE age>3 GROUP BY gender;

    -- 数据库的约束-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    -- 默认值 default,在字段的后面添加

    -- 非空 not null(有些数据库会赋值一个空字符串)

    -- 唯一 unique

    -- 主键 唯一并且非空 primary key

    -- 自增长 auto_increment 自增长的话数据会一直增加,并不会因为你删除了之前的数据重新开始增长,自增长数据不需要你添加数据

    TRUNCATE TABLE dy; -- 删除整个表,我们需要注意一点,使用这个删除会使自增长也全部删除,等于重新开始从1分配,操作不能回滚

    DELETE FROM dy; -- 这样删除整个表,自增长不会归零,这个删除可以进行条件删除,不能影响表的约束,同时该操作可以回滚

    -- 外键约束--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    -- 使用外键,我们建立外键表,主键只要添加外键表名与id即可, 外键即受外部约束的字段,至于数据管理,参考树木的

    -- 外键约束的作用是约束外键,比如外键没有部门 id = 3 的,那么我们就不应该能添加一个外键为3的存在

    ALTER TABLE dy ADD CONSTRAINT sa FOREIGN KEY(fk_two) REFERENCES two(id);-- 追加外键约束

    -- 修改 表 表名 添加 声明 外键名 哪一个字段关联外键 外键(主键)

    SELECT * FROM dy;

    SHOW TABLE dy;

    -- 级联操作----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    -- 修改主表,影响副表的数据

    -- 级联更新

    ON UPDATE CASCADE;-- (在建立表的时候在后面添加该属性即可)

    -- 级联删除

    ON DELETE CASCADE;

    -- 多表查询---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    -- 内连接查询,不满足连接条件的不会被显示,即null不会被显示

    SELECT dy.age,two.name -- 第二步:确定查询的字段,注意这里的字段是根据表名来得到,表名可以使用别名

    FROM dy,two -- 第一步:确定要查询的表,这里表可以给一个别名,即 表名 AS 别名,甚至可以省略 AS关键字,在其他位置直接使用别名即可

    WHERE dy.fk_two=two.id; -- 第三步:确定连接条件,这里的关系即主键与外键

    SELECT dy.gender,two.name -- 此种查询会出现笛卡尔积,没有连接条件导致其直接将两张表中无论是否重复的字段显示出来

    FROM dy,two;

    -- 外连接查询,如果有null元素也会被显示出来(左外连接)

    SELECT dy.gender,two.name -- 要查询的表的字段

    FROM dy -- 在left outer join左边的表被称为左表,左表无论是否null全部会被显示

    LEFT OUTER JOIN two -- 右表会匹配左表数据,如果满足连接条件就显示数据,没有满足条件的则会显示null,如果没有和左表有关系的不会被显示

    ON dy.fk_two=two.id; -- 连接条件

    -- 如果有业务条件,那么最后面填写业务条件,一般使用and进行连接

    -- 右外连接其实就是将左表与右表交换即可。一般情况下使用内连接

    -- 权限管理-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    SELECT * FROM USER;-- 进入了mysql数据库,查询到user表,其中host字段指登录方式

    UPDATE USER SET PASSWORD=PASSWORD('1234') WHERE USER='root';-- 修改数据库的密码,注意一点,一定要对数据库的密码进行加密后再修改

    GRANT SELECT ON dy.dy TO 'guest'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY '1234'; -- 创建新用户并且分配权限

    -- grant 给予权限

    -- select 查询权限 update 修改权限 delete 删除权限 create 可以建表权限 all 代表全部权限 ,基本上需要什么权限加上这个关键字,逗号分隔

    -- on

    -- 需要授权的数据库.表

    -- to

    -- 用户名

    -- @

    -- 登录方式 localhost 表示只能本地登录,也可以是ip

    -- identified by '密码' 登录密码

    REVOKE SELECT ON dy.dy FROM 'guest'@'localhost'; -- 回收权限

    UPDATE USER SET USER='guest' WHERE USER='admin';-- 修改用户名

    -- 删除用户

    DROP USER 'guest'@'host';

    -- 存储过程----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    -- 存储过程执行效率高,移植效果差

    DELIMITER $ -- 声明开始位置,一般使用$

    CREATE PROCEDURE aa() -- aa是这个存储过程的名字,相当于一个函数名

    BEGIN

    SELECT * FROM dy; -- 这里是要执行的sql语句,可以有很多,甚至可以使用if等

    END $ -- 结束位置

    -- 调用存储过程

    CALL a1(); -- 执行该存储过程

    -- ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    -- 带参数的存储过程01 in是传入的参数

    DELIMITER $ -- 声明开始位置,一般使用$

    CREATE PROCEDURE a1(IN a INT) -- aa是这个存储过程的名字,相当于一个函数名,a是参数的名字,传入的参数其实是一个字段,还要放入参数的类型

    BEGIN

    SELECT * FROM dy WHERE id=a; -- 这里是要执行的sql语句,可以有很多,甚至可以使用if等(这里是得到id=xx的值)

    END $ -- 结束位置

    CALL a1(1); -- 执行该存储过程并且传入参数

    -- -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    -- 带参数的存储过程02 out是传出去的参数

    DELIMITER $ -- 声明开始位置,一般使用$

    CREATE PROCEDURE a2(OUT a INT) -- aa是这个存储过程的名字,相当于一个函数名,a是参数的名字,传入的参数其实是一个字段,还要放入参数的类型

    BEGIN

    SET a=100; -- 对传入的参数进行赋值

    END $ -- 结束位置

    SET @a=0; -- 定义一个变量

    CALL a2(@a); -- 将变量传入其中

    SELECT @a; -- 查看该变量

    -- ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    -- 第三种参数 inout方式不常用,即传入数据又输出数据

    DELIMITER $ -- 声明开始位置,一般使用$

    CREATE PROCEDURE a3(INOUT a INT) -- aa是这个存储过程的名字,相当于一个函数名,a是参数的名字,传入的参数其实是一个字段,还要放入参数的类型

    BEGIN

    SELECT a;-- 得到传入的参数

    SET a=100; -- 对传入的参数进行赋值

    END $ -- 结束位置

    SET @a=10; -- 定义一个变量

    CALL a3(@a); -- 将变量传入其中

    SELECT @a; -- 查看该变量

    -- ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    -- 1.4 带有判断的存储过程

    DELIMITER $

    CREATE PROCEDURE a4(IN num INT,OUT str VARCHAR(20))

    BEGIN

    IF num=1 THEN

    SET str = '星期一';

    ELSEIF num=2 THEN

    SET str = '星期二';

    ELSEIF num=3 THEN

    SET str = '星期三';

    ELSE

    SET str = '错误';

    END IF;

    END $

    CALL a4(3,@str);

    SELECT @str;

    -- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    -- 1.5 带有循环的存储过程

    DELIMITER $

    CREATE PROCEDURE a5(OUT result INT)

    BEGIN

    -- int sum=0; for(int i=1;i<=100;i++){ sun+=i }

    DECLARE asum INT DEFAULT 0;

    DECLARE i INT DEFAULT 1;

    WHILE i<=100 DO

    SET asum=asum+i;

    SET i=i+1;

    END WHILE;

    SET result=asum;

    END $

    CALL a5(@result);

    SELECT @result;

    -- -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    -- 1.6 带出数据库的数据(into)

    DELIMITER $

    CREATE PROCEDURE a7(IN eid INT,OUT vname VARCHAR(20))

    BEGIN

    SELECT NAME INTO vname FROM employee WHERE id=eid;

    END $

    CALL a7(4,@vname);

    SELECT @vname;

    -- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    -- mysql的三种变量类型

    -- 全局变量(内置对象),内置对象是所有用户都能共享的

    -- character_set_client:msql数据库接收数据的编码类型

    -- character_set_results:数据库输出数据的编码类型

    -- 修改全局变量 set @@变量名=值

    -- 查看全局变量 select @@变量名

    -- 会话变量,只能在当前登录用户使用

    -- 定义会话变量 set @变量名=值

    -- 查看会话变量 select @变量名

    -- 在存储过程里面的变量就是局部变量

    展开全文
  • 外星人入侵(python从入门到实践中的)小编自己打,自己加的注释,测试后基本可用,有问题可以私聊或留言
  • keil_git中文注释版 .pdf

    2020-03-27 16:46:39
    在KEIL 使用git 源码控制的最权威资料.详细解释了在keil 环境如何设置、使用Git 。 该资料来之keil 官网,对关键部分加了中文圈注
  • 该工具箱包含CNN,NN,CAE,DBN,SAE等神经网络工具箱。其中CNN工具箱具有详细的中文注释,以便于初学者学习
  • 这个资源在超级宝典源码的的基础上添加了一些中文注释,方便理解每一步的目的与作用

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