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  • 国际贸易术语比较

    2017-06-29 11:05:00
    国际贸易术语比较图表...交货地点 风险转移 运输 保险 运输方式 E组启动术语 卖方责任最小卖方责任最大 EXW(工厂交货) 卖方工厂 ...

    国际贸易术语比较图表及常见术语



     

    组别

    共同特征

    术语名称

    交货地点

    风险转移

    运输

    保险

    运输方式

    E组
    启动术语

    卖方责任最小
    卖方责任最大

    EXW(工厂交货)

    卖方工厂

    交货时

    买方

    买方

    内陆交货

    F组
    主运费
    未付术语

    买方订立运输合同
    支付主运费
    合同属于装运合同

    FCA(货交承运人)

    交承运人

    交货时

    买方

    买方

    各种运输

    FAS(船边交货)

    装港船边

    交货时

    海运内河

    FOB(船上交货)

    装港船上

    装港船舷

    海运内河

    C组
    主运费
    已付术语

    卖方订立运输合同
    支付主运费


    合同属于装运合同
    风险划分与费用划分点分离

    CFR(成本加运费)

    装港船上

    装港船舷

    卖方

    买方

    海运内河

    CIF(成本运费保险费)

    装港船上

    装港船舷

    卖方

    海运内河

    CPT(运费付至)

    交承运人

    交货时

    买方

    各种运输

    CIP(运费保险费付至)

    交承运人

    交货时

    卖方

    各种运输

    D组
    达到术语

    卖方将货物运输到目的地
    承担货物运输到该地的一切风险和费用,
    合同属于到达合同

    DAF(边境交货)

    边境指定地点

    交货时

    卖方

    卖方

    陆上运输

    DES(目的港船上交货)

    目的港船上

    交货时

    海运内河

    DEQ(目的港码头交货)

    目的港码头

    交货时

    海运内河

    DDU(未完税交货)

    指定目的地

    交货时

    各种运输

    DDP(完税交货)

    指定目的地

    交货时

    各种运输

     

     

    2000通则和2010通则的主要区别:

    INCOTERMS 2010于2011年1月1日起正式实施,2010与2000相比主要变化有:

    1.贸易术语的数量由原来的13种变为11种。

    2.删除INCOTERMS2000中四个D组贸易术语,即DDU (Delivered Duty Unpaid)、DAF (Delivered At Frontier)、DES (Delivered Ex Ship)、DEQ (Delivered Ex Quay),只保留了INCOTERMS2000D组中的DDP(Delivered Duty Paid )

    3.新增加两种D组贸易术语,即 DAT (Delivered At Terminal )与 DAP(Delivered At Place )

    DAT和DAP(指定目的地和指定地点交货),取代了DAF,DES,DEQ和DDU而实现的。

    所谓DAT和DAP术语,是“实质性交货”术语,在将货物运至目的地过程中涉及的到所有费用和风险由卖方承担。

    此术语适用于任何运输方式,因此也适用于各种DAF,DES,DEQ以及DDU以前被使用过的情形。

     

    4. 11种贸易术语的分类:

    2000通则中的13种术语按术语缩写首字母分成四组,即E组(EXW),F组,C组以及D组。

    这种分类反映了卖方对于买方的责任程度。FCA,或者适用国内贸易的EXW,利用交货的完成以及在尽可能早的时间把风险转移给买方从而赋予卖方最少的责任。相反地,D组术语,或者说“实质性交货”术语,利用交货的完成以及在尽可能晚的时间把风险转移给买方从而赋予卖方最多的责任。

    这种分类仍然很重要,尤其是在当事人对2010通则中的中11种贸易术语作出选择时。然而,2010通则将这11种术语分成了截然不同的两类。

    第一类包括那些适用于任何运输方式,包括多式运输的七种术语。EXW,FCA,CPT,CIP,DAT,DAP和DDP术语这类。这些术语可以用于没有海上运输的情形。

    但要谨记,这些术语能够用于船只作为运输的一部分的情形,只要在卖方交货点,或者货物运至买方的地点,或者两者兼备,风险转移。

    第二类,实际上包含了比较传统的只适用于海运或内河运输的4种术语。

    这类术语条件下,卖方交货点和货物运至买方的地点均是港口,所以“唯海运不可”就是这类术语标签。FAS,FOB,CFR,CIF属于本类术语。

     

    5. 国内和国际贸易术语

    贸易术语在传统上被运用于表明货物跨越国界传递的国际销售合同。

    然而,世界上一些地区的大型贸易集团,像东盟和欧洲单一市场的存在,使得原本实际存在的边界通关手续变得不再那么有意义。

    因此,2010通则的编撰委员会认识到这些术语对国内和国际销售合同都是适用的;所以,2010通则在一些地方作出明确说明,只有在适用的地方,才有义务遵守出口/进口所需的手续。

    两方面的发展使国际商会确信在这个方向上作一个改动是适时的。

    首先,一个强有力的证据就是事实上很多交易者将通则普遍运用于纯粹的内贸合同。

    另一个原因就是在美国人们更愿意选择通则而不是统一商法典装运和交货条款运用于国内贸易。

    6.使用指南

    每一种2010通则中的术语在其条款前面都有一个使用指南。

    指南解释了每种术语的基本原理:何种情况应使用次术语;风险转移点是什么;费用在买卖是如何分配的。

    这些指南并不是术语正式规则的一部分:它们是用来帮助和引导使用者准确有效地为特定交易选择合适的术语。

     

    2010年国际贸易术语解释通则

     

    1.两种新的术语——DAT和DAP

     

    通则已经将13种不同的术语减为11种。DAT和DAP(指定目的地和指定地点交货),取代了DAF,DES,DEQ和DDU而实现的。所谓DAT和DAP术语,是“实质性交货”术语,在将货物运至目的地过程中涉及到的所有费用和风险由卖方承担。此术语适用于任何运输方式,因此也适用于各种DAF,DES,DEQ以及DDU以前被使用过的情形。

     

    2.11种贸易术语的分类

     

    2000通则中的13种术语按术语缩写首字母分成四组,即,E组(EXW),F组,C组以及D组。这种分类反映了卖方对于买方的责任程度。FCA,或者适用国内贸易的EXW,利用交货的完成以及在尽可能早的时间把风险转移给买方从而赋予卖方最少的责任。相反地,D组术语,或者说“实质性交货”术语,利用交货的完成以及在尽可能晚的时间把风险转移给买方从而赋予卖方最多的责任。这种分类仍然很重要,尤其是在当事人对2010通则中的中11种贸易术语作出选择时。

     

    然而,2010通则将这11种术语分成了截然不同的两类。

     

    第一类包括那些适用于任何运输方式,包括多式运输的七种术语。EXW,FCA,CPT,CIP,DAT,DAP和DDP术语这类。这些术语可以用于没有海上运输的情形。但要谨记,这些术语能够用于船只作为运输的一部分的情形,只要在卖方交货点,或者货物运至买方的地点,或者两者兼备,风险转移。

     

    第二类,实际上包含了比较传统的只适用于海运或内河运输的4种术语。这类术语条件下,卖方交货点和货物运至买方的地点均是港口,所以“唯海运不可”就是这类术语标签。FAS,FOB,CFR,CIF属于本类术语。

     

    3.国内和国际贸易术语

     

    贸易术语在传统上被运用于表明货物跨越国界传递的国际销售合同。然而,世界上一些地区的大型贸易集团,像东盟和欧洲单一市场的存在,使得原本实际存在的边界通关手续变得不再那么有意义。因此,2010通则的编撰委员会认识到这些术语对国内和国际销售合同都是适用的;所以,2010通则在一些地方作出明确说明,只有在适用的地方,才有义务遵守出口/进口所需的手续。

     

    两方面的发展使国际商会确信在这个方向上作一个改动是适时的。首先,一个强有力的证据就是事实上很多交易者将通则普遍运用于纯粹的内贸合同。另一个原因就是在美国人们更愿意选择通则而不是统一商法典装运和交货条款运用于国内贸易。

     

    4.使用指南

     

    每一种2010通则中的术语在其条款前面都有一个使用指南。指南解释了每种术语的基本原理:何种情况应使用次术语;风险转移点是什么;费用在买卖是如何分配的。这些指南并不是术语正式规则的一部分:它们是用来帮助和引导使用者准确有效地为特定交易选择合适的术语。

     

    5.电子通讯

     

    通则的早期版本已经对需要的单据作出了规定,这些单据可被电子数据交换信息替代。不过现在2010通则赋予电子通讯方式完全等同的功效,只要各方当事人达成一致或者在使用地是惯例。在2010的生命期里,这一规定有利于新的电子程序的演变发展。

     

    6.保险

     

    2010通则是自全协会货物保险条款修改以来的第一个版本,这个最新版本在所修改内容中充分考虑了这些保险同款的变动。2010通则在涉及运输和保险合同的A3/A4条款中罗列了有关保险责任的内容,原本它们属于内容比较泛化而且有着比较泛化标题“其他义务”的A10/B10款。在这方面,为了阐明当事人的义务,对A3/A4款中涉及保险的内容作出修改。

     

    7.有关安全的核准书及这种核准书要求的信息

     

    如今对货物在转移过程中的安全关注度很高,因而要求检定货物不会产生因除其自身属性外的原因而造成对生命财产的威胁。因此,在各种术语的A2/B2和A10/B10条款内容中包含了取得或提供帮助取得安全核准的义务,比如货物保管链。

     

    8.码头装卸费

     

    按照“C”组术语,卖方必须负责将货物运输至约定目的地:表面上是卖方自负运输费用,但实际上是由买方负担,因为卖方早已把这部分费用包含在最初的货物价格中。运输成本有时包括货物在港口内的装卸和移动费用,或者集装箱码头设施费用,而且承运人或者码头的运营方也可能向接受货物的买方收取这些费用。譬如,在这些情况下,买方就要注意避免为一次服务付两次费,一次包含在货物价格中付给卖方,一次单独付给承运人或码头的运营方。2010通则在相关术语的A6/B6条款中对这种费用的分配作出了详细规定,旨在避免上述情况的发生。

     

    9.连串销售(string sales)

     

    在商品的销售中,有一种和直接销售相对的销售方式,货物在沿着销售链运转的过程中频繁地被销售好几次。在这种情况下,在一连串销售中间的销售商并不将货物“装船”,因为它们已经由处于这一销售串中的起点销售商装船。因此,连串销售的中间销售商对其买方应承担的义务不是将货物装船,而是“设法获取”已装船货物。着眼于贸易术语在这种销售中的应用,2010通则的相关术语中同时规定了“设法获取已装船货物”和将货物装船的义务。

     

    术语的使用解释

     

    2000通则中,按照镜像原则,A条款下反映的是卖方的义务,相应地,B条款下反映的是买方的义务。但是由于一些短语的使用贯穿整个文件,2010通则打算在其正文中对以下被列出来的词语不再作解释,以以下注解为准。

     

    承运人:就2010通则而言,承运人是指签署运输合同的一方。

     

    出口清关:遵照各种规定办理出口手续,并支付各种税费。

     

    交货:这个概念在贸易法律和惯例中有着多重含义,但是2010通则中用其来表示货物缺损的风险从卖方转移到买方的点。

     

    电子数据:由一种或两种以上的和相应纸质文件功效等同的电子讯息组成的的一系列信息。

     

    ‘包装’和‘存放’:这些短语被用于不同的目的:

     

    1. 遵照合同中所有的要求的货物包装。

     

    2. 使货物适合运输的包装。

     

    3. 已包装好的商品转载进货柜或其他运输工具。

     

     

    三个常用海运贸易术语的比较(FOB、 CIF CFR) :

    它们的共同点是:1、都只适用于海运和内河航运,不适用于其他的运输方式。2、交货地点都是在装运港,即卖方是在装运港完成交货。尤其要注意CIF术语,是在装运港交货,而不是在目的港。3、风险转移的界限都一样,都是在装运港货物越过船眩风险由出口方转给进口方。4、都是象征性交货。 


    它们的不同点有二:1、双方在运输和保险上的分工不同。FOB 术语中是进口方负责运输与保险,CIF是出口方负责运输与保险, CFR是出口人负责运输,进口人负责保险。2、货物的价格构成不同。FOB只是成本价格,CIF是“货物成本价+保险费+运费”价格, CFR是“货物成本价+运费”价格。

     

    FOB 价格是离岸价,就是goods成本费用+从工厂到装运地的费用,当然还得加上报关商检等费用。(就是你算总成本时不用加海洋运输费用)
    CIF价格就是在FOB的基础上加上保险费和运输费。(保险insurance,运费freight)
    CFR价格就是上面CIF中的保险费用不用加,你的客户自己办保险就OK了。

     

    FOB:老板给的成本+拖车(固定的)+码头费(文件费珠三角码头费分为ORC和THC)报关(要不要商检?进出口权有没?)产品固定的,问一下就知道成本,算下来这个费用*20%因为有一些意外的东西,查柜啊,压夜啊什么的(20%意外的费用,例如:查柜、拖车压夜、仓租柜租、调柜、改船期、改提单等等意外事件所产生的费用.)。
    CIF:这个是到岸价,这个价格不好把握。FOB+海运费,海运费比较难把握,不同的点价格不一样,不同的时间段价格更不一样(近洋一年四季差价在100美金以内,远洋那就是上千美金一个柜子啊,可能更多),这个要看点,然后去询价,找一个老货代,给你一个大概的范围,然后你*20这样不会亏。保险货值*0.003最多了,这个没几个钱(注意如果易碎品*0.005足够了)。
    CFR=CIF-保险

     

     

     

     

    Allocations of Costs to Buyer/Seller according to Incoterms 2010

     

    Incoterm 2010 Export customs declaration Carriage to port of export Unloading of truck in port of export Loading on vessel/airplane in port of export Carriage (Sea/Air) to port of import Insurance Unloading in port of import Loading on truck in port of import Carriage to place of destination Import customs clearance Import duties and taxes
    EXW Buyer Buyer Buyer Buyer Buyer Buyer Buyer Buyer Buyer Buyer Buyer
    FCA Seller Seller Buyer Buyer Buyer Buyer Buyer Buyer Buyer Buyer Buyer
    FAS Seller Seller Seller Buyer Buyer Buyer Buyer Buyer Buyer Buyer Buyer
    FOB Seller Seller Seller Seller Buyer Buyer Buyer Buyer Buyer Buyer Buyer
    CPT Seller Seller Seller Seller Seller Buyer Buyer/Seller Buyer/Seller Seller Buyer Buyer
    CFR Seller Seller Seller Seller Seller Buyer Buyer/Seller Buyer Buyer Buyer Buyer
    CIF Seller Seller Seller Seller Seller Seller Buyer/Seller Buyer Buyer Buyer Buyer
    CIP Seller Seller Seller Seller Seller Seller Buyer/Seller Buyer/Seller Seller Buyer Buyer
    DAT Seller Seller Seller Seller Seller Seller/Buyer Seller Buyer Buyer Buyer Buyer
    DAP Seller Seller Seller Seller Seller Seller/Buyer Seller Seller Seller Buyer Buyer
    DDP Seller Seller Seller Seller Seller Seller/Buyer Seller Seller Seller Seller Seller

     

    Allocations of risks to buyer/seller according to Incoterms 2010

    The risk and the cost is not always the same for Incoterms. In many cases, the risk and cost usually goes together but it is not always the case.

    Rules for sea and inland waterway transport

    Incoterm 2010 Seller Carrier Port/Terminal Onboard Port/Terminal Buyer
    FOB Seller Seller Seller Seller Buyer Buyer
    FAS Seller Seller Seller Buyer Buyer Buyer
    CFR Seller Seller Seller Seller Buyer Buyer
    CIF Seller Seller Seller Seller Buyer Buyer

    Rules for any modes of transport

    Incoterm 2010 Seller Carrier Port Ship Port Terminal Named Place Buyer
    EXW Seller Buyer Buyer Buyer Buyer Buyer Buyer Buyer
    FCA Seller Seller Buyer Buyer Buyer Buyer Buyer Buyer
    CPT Seller Seller Buyer Buyer Buyer Buyer Buyer Buyer
    CIP Seller Seller Insurance Insurance Insurance Insurance Insurance Buyer
    DAT Seller Seller Seller Seller Seller Seller Buyer Buyer
    DAP Seller Seller Seller Seller Seller Seller Seller Buyer
    DDP Seller Seller Seller Seller Seller Seller Seller Seller

     

    Rules for any mode of transport

    EXW – Ex Works (named place of delivery)

    The seller makes the goods available at their premises, or at another named place. This term places the maximum obligation on the buyer and minimum obligations on the seller. The Ex Works term is often used when making an initial quotation for the sale of goods without any costs included.

    EXW means that a buyer incurs the risks for bringing the goods to their final destination. Either the seller does not load the goods on collecting vehicles and does not clear them for export, or if the seller does load the goods, he does so at buyer's risk and cost. If the parties agree that the seller should be responsible for the loading of the goods on departure and to bear the risk and all costs of such loading, this must be made clear by adding explicit wording to this effect in the contract of sale.

    There is no obligation for the seller to make a contract of carriage, but there is also no obligation for the buyer to arrange one either - the buyer may sell the goods on to their own customer for collection from the original seller's warehouse. However, in common practice the buyer arranges the collection of the freight from the designated location, and is responsible for clearing the goods through Customs. The buyer is also responsible for completing all the export documentation, although the seller does have an obligation to obtain information and documents at the buyer's request and cost.

    These documentary requirements may result in two principal issues. Firstly, the stipulation for the buyer to complete the export declaration can be an issue in certain jurisdictions (not least the European Union) where the customs regulations require the declarant to be either an individual or corporation resident within the jurisdiction. If the buyer is based outside of the customs jurisdiction they will be unable to clear the goods for export, meaning that the goods may be declared in the name of the seller by the buyer, even though the export formalities are the buyer's responsibility under the EXW term.

    Secondly, most jurisdictions require companies to provide proof of export for tax purposes. In an EXW shipment, the buyer is under no obligation to provide such proof to the seller, or indeed to even export the goods. In a customs jurisdiction such as the European Union, this would leave the seller liable to a sales tax bill as if the goods were sold to a domestic customer. It is therefore of utmost importance that these matters are discussed with the buyer before the contract is agreed. It may well be that another Incoterm, such as FCA seller's premises, may be more suitable, since this puts the onus for declaring the goods for export onto the seller, which provides for more control over the export process.

    FCA – Free Carrier (named place of delivery)

    The seller delivers the goods, cleared for export, at a named place (possibly including the seller's own premises). The goods can be delivered to a carrier nominated by the buyer, or to another party nominated by the buyer.

    In many respects this Incoterm has replaced FOB in modern usage, although the critical point at which the risk passes moves from loading aboard the vessel to the named place. It should also be noted that the chosen place of delivery affects the obligations of loading and unloading the goods at that place.

    If delivery occurs at the seller's premises, or at any other location that is under the seller's control, the seller is responsible for loading the goods on to the buyer's carrier. However, if delivery occurs at any other place, the seller is deemed to have delivered the goods once their transport has arrived at the named place; the buyer is responsible for both unloading the goods and loading them onto their own carrier.

    CPT – Carriage Paid To (named place of destination)

    CPT replaces the C&F (cost and freight) and CFR terms for all shipping modes outside of non-containerized seafreight.

    The seller pays for the carriage of the goods up to the named place of destination. However, the goods are considered to be delivered when the goods have been handed over to the first or main carrier, so that the risk transfers to buyer upon handing goods over to that carrier at the place of shipment in the country of Export.

    The seller is responsible for origin costs including export clearance and freight costs for carriage to the named place of destination (either the final destination such as the buyer's facilities or a port of destination. This has to be agreed by seller and buyer, however).

    If the buyer requires the seller to obtain insurance, the Incoterm CIP should be considered instead.

    CIP – Carriage and Insurance Paid to (named place of destination)

    This term is broadly similar to the above CPT term, with the exception that the seller is required to obtain insurance for the goods while in transitCIP requires the seller to insure the goods for 110% of the contract value under at least the minimum cover of the Institute Cargo Clauses of the Institute of London Underwriters (which would be Institute Cargo Clauses (C)), or any similar set of clauses. The policy should be in the same currency as the contract, and should allow the buyer, the seller, and anyone else with an insurable interest in the goods to be able to make a claim.

    CIP can be used for all modes of transport, whereas the Incoterm CIF should only be used for non-containerized sea-freight.'

    DAT – Delivered At Terminal (named terminal at port or place of destination)

    This Incoterm requires that the seller delivers the goods, unloaded, at the named terminal. The seller covers all the costs of transport (export fees, carriage, unloading from main carrier at destination port and destination port charges) and assumes all risk until arrival at the destination port or terminal.

    The terminal can be a Port, Airport, or inland freight interchange, but must be a facility with the capability to receive the shipment. If the seller is not able to organise unloading, they should consider shipping under DAP terms instead.

    All charges after unloading (for example, Import duty, taxes, customs and on-carriage) are to be borne by buyer. However, it is important to note that any delay or demurrage charges at the terminal will generally be for the seller's account.

    DAP – Delivered At Place (named place of destination)

    Incoterms 2010 defines DAP as 'Delivered at Place' - the seller delivers when the goods are placed at the disposal of the buyer on the arriving means of transport ready for unloading at the named place of destination. Under DAP terms, the risk passes from seller to buyer from the point of destination mentioned in the contract of delivery.

    Once goods are ready for shipment, the necessary packing is carried out by the seller at his own cost, so that the goods reach their final destination safely. All necessary legal formalities in the exporting country are completed by the seller at his own cost and risk to clear the goods for export.

    After arrival of the goods in the country of destination, the customs clearance in the importing country needs to be completed by the buyer at his own cost and risk, including all customs duties and taxes. However, as with DAT terms any delay or demurrage charges are to be borne by the seller.

    Under DAP terms, all carriage expenses with any terminal expenses are paid by seller up to the agreed destination point. The necessary unloading cost at final destination has to be borne by buyer under DAP terms. 

    DDP – Delivered Duty Paid (named place of destination)

    Seller is responsible for delivering the goods to the named place in the country of the buyer, and pays all costs in bringing the goods to the destination including import duties and taxes. The seller is not responsible for unloading. This term is often used in place of the non-Incoterm "Free In Store (FIS)". This term places the maximum obligations on the seller and minimum obligations on the buyer. No risk or responsibility is transferred to the buyer until delivery of the goods at the named place of destination.

    The most important consideration for DDP terms is that the seller is responsible for clearing the goods through customs in the buyer's country, including both paying the duties and taxes, and obtaining the necessary authorizations and registrations from the authorities in that country. Unless the rules and regulations in the buyer's country are very well understood, DDP terms can be a very big risk both in terms of delays and in unforeseen extra costs, and should be used with caution.

    Rules for sea and inland waterway transport

    To determine if a location qualifies for these four rules, please refer to 'United Nations Code for Trade and Transport Locations (UN/LOCODE)'.

    The four rules defined by Incoterms 2010 for international trade where transportation is entirely conducted by water are as per the below. It is important to note that these terms are generally not suitable for shipments in shipping containers; the point at which risk and responsibility for the goods passes is when the goods are loaded on board the ship, and if the goods are sealed into a shipping container it is impossible to verify the condition of the goods at this point.

    Also of note is that the point at which risk passes under these terms has shifted from previous editions of Incoterms, where the risk passed at the ship's rail.

    FAS – Free Alongside Ship (named port of shipment)

    The seller delivers when the goods are placed alongside the buyer's vessel at the named port of shipment. This means that the buyer has to bear all costs and risks of loss of or damage to the goods from that moment. The FAS term requires the seller to clear the goods for export, which is a reversal from previous Incoterms versions that required the buyer to arrange for export clearance. However, if the parties wish the buyer to clear the goods for export, this should be made clear by adding explicit wording to this effect in the contract of sale. This term should be used only for non-containerized seafreight and inland waterway transport.

    FOB – Free on Board (named port of shipment)

    Under FOB terms the seller bears all costs and risks up to the point the goods are loaded on board the vessel. The seller's responsibility does not end at that point unless the goods are "appropriated to the contract" that is, they are "clearly set aside or otherwise identified as the contract goods." Therefore, FOB contract requires a seller to deliver goods on board a vessel that is to be designated by the buyer in a manner customary at the particular port. In this case, the seller must also arrange for export clearance. On the other hand, the buyer pays cost of marine freight transportation, bill of lading fees, insurance, unloading and transportation cost from the arrival port to destination. Since Incoterms 1980 introduced the FCA incoterm, FOB should only be used for non-containerized seafreight and inland waterway transport. However, FOB is commonly used incorrectly for all modes of transport despite the contractual risks that this can introduce. In some common law countries such as the United States of America, FOB is not only connected with the carriage of goods by sea but also used for inland carriage aboard any "vessel, car or other vehicle."

    CFR – Cost and Freight (named port of destination)

    The seller pays for the carriage of the goods up to the named port of destination. Risk transfers to buyer when the goods have been loaded on board the ship in the country of Export. The Shipper is responsible for origin costs including export clearance and freight costs for carriage to named port. The shipper is not responsible for delivery to the final destination from the port (generally the buyer's facilities), or for buying insurance. If the buyer does require the seller to obtain insurance, the Incoterm CIF should be considered. CFR should only be used for non-containerized seafreight and inland waterway transport; for all other modes of transport it should be replaced with CPT.

    CIF – Cost, Insurance & Freight (named port of destination)

    This term is broadly similar to the above CFR term, with the exception that the seller is required to obtain insurance for the goods while in transit to the named port of destination. CIF requires the seller to insure the goods for 110% of their value under at least the minimum cover of the Institute Cargo Clauses of the Institute of London Underwriters (which would be Institute Cargo Clauses (C)), or any similar set of clauses. The policy should be in the same currency as the contract. The seller must also turn over documents necessary, to obtain the goods from the carrier or to assert claim against an insurer to the buyer. The documents include (as a minimum) the invoice, the insurance policy, and the bill of lading. These three documents represent the cost, insurance, and freight of CIF. The seller's obligation ends when the documents are handed over to the buyer. Then, the buyer has to pay at the agreed price. Another point to consider is that CIF should only be used for non-containerized seafreight; for all other modes of transport it should be replaced with CIP.

     

     

    Previous terms from Incoterms 2000 eliminated from Incoterms 2010

    While these terms do not feature in the current version of Incoterms it is possible that they may be seen in sales order contracts. Care must be taken to ensure that both parties agree on their obligations in this case.

    DAF – Delivered at Frontier (named place of delivery)

    This term can be used when the goods are transported by rail and road. The seller pays for transportation to the named place of delivery at the frontier. The buyer arranges for customs clearance and pays for transportation from the frontier to his factory. The passing of risk occurs at the frontier.

    DES – Delivered Ex Ship

    Where goods are delivered ex ship, the passing of risk does not occur until the ship has arrived at the named port of destination and the goods made available for unloading to the buyer. The seller pays the same freight and insurance costs as he would under a CIF arrangement. Unlike CFR and CIF terms, the seller has agreed to bear not just cost, but also Risk and Title up to the arrival of the vessel at the named port. Costs for unloading the goods and any duties, taxes, etc. are for the Buyer. A commonly used term in shipping bulk commodities, such as coal, grain, dry chemicals; and where the seller either owns or has chartered their own vessel.

    DEQ – Delivered Ex Quay (named port of delivery)

    This is similar to DES, but the passing of risk does not occur until the goods have been unloaded at the port of discharge.

    DDU – Delivered Duty Unpaid (named place of destination)

    This term means that the seller delivers the goods to the buyer to the named place of destination in the contract of sale. A transaction in international trade where the seller is responsible for making a safe delivery of goods to a named destination, paying all transportation and customs clearance expenses but not the duty. The seller bears the risks and costs associated with supplying the goods to the delivery location, where the buyer becomes responsible for paying the duty and taxes.

     

    转载于:https://www.cnblogs.com/jellour/p/7093384.html

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