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  • 文章目录使用nltk中的wordnet语料库找出以下单词的同义词集、查看同义词... dog, cat找出以下单词的蕴含(entailments)关系反义词:walk, supply, hot判断下列句子中是否存在的共指指代,有的话找出共指链 使用n...

    使用nltk中的wordnet语料库

    找出以下单词的同义词集、查看同义词集中的所有单词、查看同义词的具体定义及例子:dog, apple, fly

    from nltk.corpus import wordnet as wn
    dog_set = wn.synsets('dog')
    print('dog的同义词集为:', dog_set)
    print('dog的各同义词集包含的单词有:',[dog.lemma_names() for dog in dog_set])
    print('dog的各同义词集的具体定义是:',[dog.definition() for dog in dog_set])
    print('dog的各同义词集的例子是:',[dog.examples() for dog in dog_set])
    
    dog的同义词集为: [Synset('dog.n.01'), Synset('frump.n.01'), Synset('dog.n.03'), Synset('cad.n.01'), Synset('frank.n.02'), Synset('pawl.n.01'), Synset('andiron.n.01'), Synset('chase.v.01')]
    dog的各同义词集包含的单词有: [['dog', 'domestic_dog', 'Canis_familiaris'], ['frump', 'dog'], ['dog'], ['cad', 'bounder', 'blackguard', 'dog', 'hound', 'heel'], ['frank', 'frankfurter', 'hotdog', 'hot_dog', 'dog', 'wiener', 'wienerwurst', 'weenie'], ['pawl', 'detent', 'click', 'dog'], ['andiron', 'firedog', 'dog', 'dog-iron'], ['chase', 'chase_after', 'trail', 'tail', 'tag', 'give_chase', 'dog', 'go_after', 'track']]
    dog的各同义词集的具体定义是: ['a member of the genus Canis (probably descended from the common wolf) that has been domesticated by man since prehistoric times; occurs in many breeds', 'a dull unattractive unpleasant girl or woman', 'informal term for a man', 'someone who is morally reprehensible', 'a smooth-textured sausage of minced beef or pork usually smoked; often served on a bread roll', 'a hinged catch that fits into a notch of a ratchet to move a wheel forward or prevent it from moving backward', 'metal supports for logs in a fireplace', 'go after with the intent to catch']
    dog的各同义词集的例子是: [['the dog barked all night'], ['she got a reputation as a frump', "she's a real dog"], ['you lucky dog'], ['you dirty dog'], [], [], ['the andirons were too hot to touch'], ['The policeman chased the mugger down the alley', 'the dog chased the rabbit']]
    
    apple_set = wn.synsets('apple')
    print('apple的同义词集为:', apple_set)
    print('apple的各同义词集包含的单词有:',[apple.lemma_names() for apple in apple_set])
    print('apple的各同义词集的具体定义是:',[apple.definition() for apple in apple_set])
    print('apple的各同义词集的例子是:',[apple.examples() for apple in apple_set])
    
    apple的同义词集为: [Synset('apple.n.01'), Synset('apple.n.02')]
    apple的各同义词集包含的单词有: [['apple'], ['apple', 'orchard_apple_tree', 'Malus_pumila']]
    apple的各同义词集的具体定义是: ['fruit with red or yellow or green skin and sweet to tart crisp whitish flesh', 'native Eurasian tree widely cultivated in many varieties for its firm rounded edible fruits']
    apple的各同义词集的例子是: [[], []]
    
    fly_set = wn.synsets('fly')
    print('fly的同义词集为:', fly_set)
    print('fly的各同义词集包含的单词有:',[fly.lemma_names() for fly in fly_set])
    print('fly的各同义词集的具体定义是:',[fly.definition() for fly in fly_set])
    print('fly的各同义词集的例子是:',[fly.examples() for fly in fly_set])
    
    fly的同义词集为: [Synset('fly.n.01'), Synset('tent-fly.n.01'), Synset('fly.n.03'), Synset('fly.n.04'), Synset('fly.n.05'), Synset('fly.v.01'), Synset('fly.v.02'), Synset('fly.v.03'), Synset('fly.v.04'), Synset('fly.v.05'), Synset('fly.v.06'), Synset('fly.v.07'), Synset('fly.v.08'), Synset('fly.v.09'), Synset('fly.v.10'), Synset('flee.v.01'), Synset('fly.v.12'), Synset('fly.v.13'), Synset('vanish.v.05'), Synset('fly.s.01')]
    fly的各同义词集包含的单词有: [['fly'], ['tent-fly', 'rainfly', 'fly_sheet', 'fly', 'tent_flap'], ['fly', 'fly_front'], ['fly', 'fly_ball'], ['fly'], ['fly', 'wing'], ['fly'], ['fly', 'aviate', 'pilot'], ['fly'], ['fly'], ['fly'], ['fly'], ['fly', 'fell', 'vanish'], ['fly'], ['fly'], ['flee', 'fly', 'take_flight'], ['fly'], ['fly'], ['vanish', 'fly', 'vaporize'], ['fly']]
    fly的各同义词集的具体定义是: ['two-winged insects characterized by active flight', 'flap consisting of a piece of canvas that can be drawn back to provide entrance to a tent', 'an opening in a garment that is closed by a zipper or by buttons concealed under a fold of cloth', '(baseball) a hit that flies up in the air', "fisherman's lure consisting of a fishhook decorated to look like an insect", 'travel through the air; be airborne', 'move quickly or suddenly', 'operate an airplane', 'transport by aeroplane', 'cause to fly or float', 'be dispersed or disseminated', 'change quickly from one emotional state to another', 'pass away rapidly', 'travel in an airplane', 'display in the air or cause to float', 'run away quickly', 'travel over (an area of land or sea) in an aircraft', 'hit a fly', 'decrease rapidly and disappear', '(British informal) not to be deceived or hoodwinked']
    fly的各同义词集的例子是: [[], [], [], [], [], ['Man cannot fly'], ['He flew about the place'], ['The pilot flew to Cuba'], ['We fly flowers from the Caribbean to North America'], ['fly a kite'], ['Rumors and accusations are flying'], ['fly into a rage'], ['Time flies like an arrow', 'Time fleeing beneath him'], ['she is flying to Cincinnati tonight', 'Are we driving or flying?'], ['fly a kite', 'All nations fly their flags in front of the U.N.'], ['He threw down his gun and fled'], ['Lindbergh was the first to fly the Atlantic'], [], ['the money vanished in las Vegas', 'all my stock assets have vaporized'], []]
    

    查看以下单词对的语义相似度:good, beautiful;good, bad; dog, cat

    goods = wn.synsets('good')
    beautifuls = wn.synsets('beautiful')
    bads = wn.synsets('bad')
    dogs = wn.synsets('dog')
    cats = wn.synsets('cat')
    print('good和beautiful的语义相似度为: ', max([0 if good.path_similarity(beautiful) == None else good.path_similarity(beautiful) for good in goods for beautiful in beautifuls]))
    print('good和bad的语义相似度为: ', max([0 if good.path_similarity(bad) == None else good.path_similarity(bad) for good in goods for bad in bads]))
    print('dog和cat的语义相似度为: ', max([0 if dog.path_similarity(cat) == None else dog.path_similarity(cat) for dog in dogs for cat in cats]))
    
    good和beautiful的语义相似度为:  0
    good和bad的语义相似度为:  0.3333333333333333
    dog和cat的语义相似度为:  0.2
    

    找出以下单词的蕴含(entailments)关系和反义词:walk, supply, hot

    walks = wn.synsets('walk')
    supplys = wn.synsets('supply')
    hots = wn.synsets('hot')
    print('walk的蕴含关系包括: ', [walk.entailments() for walk in walks if len(walk.entailments())])
    print('supply的蕴含关系包括: ', [supply.entailments() for supply in supplys if len(supply.entailments())])
    print('hot的蕴含关系包括: ', [hot.entailments() for hot in hots if len(hot.entailments())])
    
    walk的蕴含关系包括:  [[Synset('step.v.01')]]
    supply的蕴含关系包括:  []
    hot的蕴含关系包括:  []
    
    print('walk的反义词包括: ', [walk_lemma.antonyms() for walk_lemmas in [walk.lemmas() for walk in walks] for walk_lemma in walk_lemmas if walk_lemma.antonyms()!=[]])
    print('supply的反义词包括: ', [supply_lemma.antonyms() for supply_lemmas in [supply.lemmas() for supply in supplys] for supply_lemma in supply_lemmas if supply_lemma.antonyms()!=[]])
    print('hot的反义词包括: ', [hot_lemma.antonyms() for hot_lemmas in [hot.lemmas() for hot in hots] for hot_lemma in hot_lemmas if hot_lemma.antonyms()!=[]])
    
    walk的反义词包括:  [[Lemma('ride.v.02.ride')]]
    supply的反义词包括:  [[Lemma('demand.n.02.demand')], [Lemma('recall.v.06.recall')]]
    hot的反义词包括:  [[Lemma('cold.a.01.cold')], [Lemma('cold.a.02.cold')]]
    

    判断下列句子中是否存在的共指指代,有的话找出共指链

    import spacy
    nlp = spacy.load('en_core_web_sm')
    
    # Add neural coref to SpaCy's pipe
    import neuralcoref
    neuralcoref.add_to_pipe(nlp)
    
    <spacy.lang.en.English at 0x1b772de7550>
    
    s1 = nlp(u"My sister has a dog. She loves him.")
    s2 = nlp(u"Some like to play football, others are fond of basketball.")
    s3 = nlp(u"The more a man knows, the more he feels his ignorance.")
    
    if s1._.has_coref:
        print(s1.text+'存在共指指代,共指链为: ' ,s1._.coref_clusters)
    else:
        print(s1.text+'不存在共指指代')
    
    My sister has a dog. She loves him.存在共指指代,共指链为:  [My sister: [My sister, She], a dog: [a dog, him]]
    
    if s2._.has_coref:
        print(s2.text+'存在共指指代,共指链为: ' ,s2._.coref_clusters)
    else:
        print(s2.text+'不存在共指指代')
    
    Some like to play football, others are fond of basketball.不存在共指指代
    
    if s3._.has_coref:
        print(s3.text+'存在共指指代,共指链为: ' ,s3._.coref_clusters)
    else:
        print(s3.text+'不存在共指指代')
    
    The more a man knows, the more he feels his ignorance.存在共指指代,共指链为:  [The: [The, the], a man: [a man, he, his]]
    
    展开全文
  • 参考链接: 如何在Python中从NLTK WordNet获取同义词/反义词 ... dog, cat找出以下单词的蕴含(entailments)关系反义词:walk, supply, hot 判断下列句子中是否存在的共指指代,有的话找出共指链 使用nlt...

    参考链接: 如何在Python中从NLTK WordNet获取同义词/反义词

    文章目录

     使用nltk中的wordnet语料库找出以下单词的同义词集、查看同义词集中的所有单词、查看同义词的具体定义及例子:dog, apple, fly查看以下单词对的语义相似度:good, beautiful;good, bad; dog, cat找出以下单词的蕴含(entailments)关系和反义词:walk, supply, hot

      判断下列句子中是否存在的共指指代,有的话找出共指链

     

     

    使用nltk中的wordnet语料库 

    找出以下单词的同义词集、查看同义词集中的所有单词、查看同义词的具体定义及例子:dog, apple, fly 

    from nltk.corpus import wordnet as wn

    dog_set = wn.synsets('dog')

    print('dog的同义词集为:', dog_set)

    print('dog的各同义词集包含的单词有:',[dog.lemma_names() for dog in dog_set])

    print('dog的各同义词集的具体定义是:',[dog.definition() for dog in dog_set])

    print('dog的各同义词集的例子是:',[dog.examples() for dog in dog_set])

     

    dog的同义词集为: [Synset('dog.n.01'), Synset('frump.n.01'), Synset('dog.n.03'), Synset('cad.n.01'), Synset('frank.n.02'), Synset('pawl.n.01'), Synset('andiron.n.01'), Synset('chase.v.01')]

    dog的各同义词集包含的单词有: [['dog', 'domestic_dog', 'Canis_familiaris'], ['frump', 'dog'], ['dog'], ['cad', 'bounder', 'blackguard', 'dog', 'hound', 'heel'], ['frank', 'frankfurter', 'hotdog', 'hot_dog', 'dog', 'wiener', 'wienerwurst', 'weenie'], ['pawl', 'detent', 'click', 'dog'], ['andiron', 'firedog', 'dog', 'dog-iron'], ['chase', 'chase_after', 'trail', 'tail', 'tag', 'give_chase', 'dog', 'go_after', 'track']]

    dog的各同义词集的具体定义是: ['a member of the genus Canis (probably descended from the common wolf) that has been domesticated by man since prehistoric times; occurs in many breeds', 'a dull unattractive unpleasant girl or woman', 'informal term for a man', 'someone who is morally reprehensible', 'a smooth-textured sausage of minced beef or pork usually smoked; often served on a bread roll', 'a hinged catch that fits into a notch of a ratchet to move a wheel forward or prevent it from moving backward', 'metal supports for logs in a fireplace', 'go after with the intent to catch']

    dog的各同义词集的例子是: [['the dog barked all night'], ['she got a reputation as a frump', "she's a real dog"], ['you lucky dog'], ['you dirty dog'], [], [], ['the andirons were too hot to touch'], ['The policeman chased the mugger down the alley', 'the dog chased the rabbit']]

     

    apple_set = wn.synsets('apple')

    print('apple的同义词集为:', apple_set)

    print('apple的各同义词集包含的单词有:',[apple.lemma_names() for apple in apple_set])

    print('apple的各同义词集的具体定义是:',[apple.definition() for apple in apple_set])

    print('apple的各同义词集的例子是:',[apple.examples() for apple in apple_set])

     

    apple的同义词集为: [Synset('apple.n.01'), Synset('apple.n.02')]

    apple的各同义词集包含的单词有: [['apple'], ['apple', 'orchard_apple_tree', 'Malus_pumila']]

    apple的各同义词集的具体定义是: ['fruit with red or yellow or green skin and sweet to tart crisp whitish flesh', 'native Eurasian tree widely cultivated in many varieties for its firm rounded edible fruits']

    apple的各同义词集的例子是: [[], []]

     

    fly_set = wn.synsets('fly')

    print('fly的同义词集为:', fly_set)

    print('fly的各同义词集包含的单词有:',[fly.lemma_names() for fly in fly_set])

    print('fly的各同义词集的具体定义是:',[fly.definition() for fly in fly_set])

    print('fly的各同义词集的例子是:',[fly.examples() for fly in fly_set])

     

    fly的同义词集为: [Synset('fly.n.01'), Synset('tent-fly.n.01'), Synset('fly.n.03'), Synset('fly.n.04'), Synset('fly.n.05'), Synset('fly.v.01'), Synset('fly.v.02'), Synset('fly.v.03'), Synset('fly.v.04'), Synset('fly.v.05'), Synset('fly.v.06'), Synset('fly.v.07'), Synset('fly.v.08'), Synset('fly.v.09'), Synset('fly.v.10'), Synset('flee.v.01'), Synset('fly.v.12'), Synset('fly.v.13'), Synset('vanish.v.05'), Synset('fly.s.01')]

    fly的各同义词集包含的单词有: [['fly'], ['tent-fly', 'rainfly', 'fly_sheet', 'fly', 'tent_flap'], ['fly', 'fly_front'], ['fly', 'fly_ball'], ['fly'], ['fly', 'wing'], ['fly'], ['fly', 'aviate', 'pilot'], ['fly'], ['fly'], ['fly'], ['fly'], ['fly', 'fell', 'vanish'], ['fly'], ['fly'], ['flee', 'fly', 'take_flight'], ['fly'], ['fly'], ['vanish', 'fly', 'vaporize'], ['fly']]

    fly的各同义词集的具体定义是: ['two-winged insects characterized by active flight', 'flap consisting of a piece of canvas that can be drawn back to provide entrance to a tent', 'an opening in a garment that is closed by a zipper or by buttons concealed under a fold of cloth', '(baseball) a hit that flies up in the air', "fisherman's lure consisting of a fishhook decorated to look like an insect", 'travel through the air; be airborne', 'move quickly or suddenly', 'operate an airplane', 'transport by aeroplane', 'cause to fly or float', 'be dispersed or disseminated', 'change quickly from one emotional state to another', 'pass away rapidly', 'travel in an airplane', 'display in the air or cause to float', 'run away quickly', 'travel over (an area of land or sea) in an aircraft', 'hit a fly', 'decrease rapidly and disappear', '(British informal) not to be deceived or hoodwinked']

    fly的各同义词集的例子是: [[], [], [], [], [], ['Man cannot fly'], ['He flew about the place'], ['The pilot flew to Cuba'], ['We fly flowers from the Caribbean to North America'], ['fly a kite'], ['Rumors and accusations are flying'], ['fly into a rage'], ['Time flies like an arrow', 'Time fleeing beneath him'], ['she is flying to Cincinnati tonight', 'Are we driving or flying?'], ['fly a kite', 'All nations fly their flags in front of the U.N.'], ['He threw down his gun and fled'], ['Lindbergh was the first to fly the Atlantic'], [], ['the money vanished in las Vegas', 'all my stock assets have vaporized'], []]

     

    查看以下单词对的语义相似度:good, beautiful;good, bad; dog, cat 

    goods = wn.synsets('good')

    beautifuls = wn.synsets('beautiful')

    bads = wn.synsets('bad')

    dogs = wn.synsets('dog')

    cats = wn.synsets('cat')

    print('good和beautiful的语义相似度为: ', max([0 if good.path_similarity(beautiful) == None else good.path_similarity(beautiful) for good in goods for beautiful in beautifuls]))

    print('good和bad的语义相似度为: ', max([0 if good.path_similarity(bad) == None else good.path_similarity(bad) for good in goods for bad in bads]))

    print('dog和cat的语义相似度为: ', max([0 if dog.path_similarity(cat) == None else dog.path_similarity(cat) for dog in dogs for cat in cats]))

     

    good和beautiful的语义相似度为:  0

    good和bad的语义相似度为:  0.3333333333333333

    dog和cat的语义相似度为:  0.2

     

    找出以下单词的蕴含(entailments)关系和反义词:walk, supply, hot 

    walks = wn.synsets('walk')

    supplys = wn.synsets('supply')

    hots = wn.synsets('hot')

    print('walk的蕴含关系包括: ', [walk.entailments() for walk in walks if len(walk.entailments())])

    print('supply的蕴含关系包括: ', [supply.entailments() for supply in supplys if len(supply.entailments())])

    print('hot的蕴含关系包括: ', [hot.entailments() for hot in hots if len(hot.entailments())])

     

    walk的蕴含关系包括:  [[Synset('step.v.01')]]

    supply的蕴含关系包括:  []

    hot的蕴含关系包括:  []

     

    print('walk的反义词包括: ', [walk_lemma.antonyms() for walk_lemmas in [walk.lemmas() for walk in walks] for walk_lemma in walk_lemmas if walk_lemma.antonyms()!=[]])

    print('supply的反义词包括: ', [supply_lemma.antonyms() for supply_lemmas in [supply.lemmas() for supply in supplys] for supply_lemma in supply_lemmas if supply_lemma.antonyms()!=[]])

    print('hot的反义词包括: ', [hot_lemma.antonyms() for hot_lemmas in [hot.lemmas() for hot in hots] for hot_lemma in hot_lemmas if hot_lemma.antonyms()!=[]])

     

    walk的反义词包括:  [[Lemma('ride.v.02.ride')]]

    supply的反义词包括:  [[Lemma('demand.n.02.demand')], [Lemma('recall.v.06.recall')]]

    hot的反义词包括:  [[Lemma('cold.a.01.cold')], [Lemma('cold.a.02.cold')]]

     

    判断下列句子中是否存在的共指指代,有的话找出共指链 

    import spacy

    nlp = spacy.load('en_core_web_sm')

     

    # Add neural coref to SpaCy's pipe

    import neuralcoref

    neuralcoref.add_to_pipe(nlp)

     

    <spacy.lang.en.English at 0x1b772de7550>

     

    s1 = nlp(u"My sister has a dog. She loves him.")

    s2 = nlp(u"Some like to play football, others are fond of basketball.")

    s3 = nlp(u"The more a man knows, the more he feels his ignorance.")

     

    if s1._.has_coref:

        print(s1.text+'存在共指指代,共指链为: ' ,s1._.coref_clusters)

    else:

        print(s1.text+'不存在共指指代')

     

    My sister has a dog. She loves him.存在共指指代,共指链为:  [My sister: [My sister, She], a dog: [a dog, him]]

     

    if s2._.has_coref:

        print(s2.text+'存在共指指代,共指链为: ' ,s2._.coref_clusters)

    else:

        print(s2.text+'不存在共指指代')

     

    Some like to play football, others are fond of basketball.不存在共指指代

     

    if s3._.has_coref:

        print(s3.text+'存在共指指代,共指链为: ' ,s3._.coref_clusters)

    else:

        print(s3.text+'不存在共指指代')

     

    The more a man knows, the more he feels his ignorance.存在共指指代,共指链为:  [The: [The, the], a man: [a man, he, his]]

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  • 反义词是同一语言、同一历史时期,在一定的语境中具有对举关系,在一个或几个义位上相对或相反而词性相同的词。《盐铁论》中不仅反义词数量丰富,而且在语法类型、词汇意义和对应关系方面也显示出一些独具的特征。其...
  • 自然语言处理(NLP)-第三方库(工具包):WordNet(在nltk.corpus下)【英文:同义词、反义词、蕴含关系、语义相似度】

    WordNet是面向语义的英语词典,与传统辞典类似,但结构更丰富。nltk中包括英语WordNet,共有155287个单词和117659个同义词。

    一、寻找同义词

    这里以motorcar为例,寻找它的同义词集。

    1 >>> from nltk.corpus import wordnet as wn
    2 >>> wn.synsets('motorcar')                                //找到同义词集
    3 [Synset('car.n.01')]
    4 >>> wn.synset('car.n.01').lemma_names
    5 <bound method Synset.lemma_names of Synset('car.n.01')>
    6 >>> wn.synset('car.n.01').lemma_names()                   //访问同义词集
    7 ['car', 'auto', 'automobile', 'machine', 'motorcar']
    8 >>>
    

    二、WordNet的层次结构




    参考资料:
    python WordNet的使用方法(整理版)
    wordnet python处理中文与英文

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  • 考研英语近义词与反义词·十一

    千次阅读 2017-04-05 16:24:49
    quarterly:季度的,按季度的;按季地,一季一次地;n季刊 quest:(历时较长)寻求;调查研究;v寻找,寻求;同义:inquiry,pursuit,pursue,seek ...同义:basic,fundamental,extreme,utm
    quarterly:季度的,按季度的;按季地,一季一次地;n季刊
    quest:(历时较长)寻求;调查研究;v寻找,寻求;同义词:inquiry,pursuit,pursue,seek
    quiver:颤抖,抖动;同义词:shiver,tremble,shake
    radical:根本的,基本的,固有的,与生俱来的,极端的,激进的;同义词:basic,fundamental,extreme,utmost;反义词:superficial
    rag:破布,碎步,抹布;[-s]破旧衣服
    ragged:破烂的,衣衫褴褛的
    rage:一阵狂怒,一阵盛怒;同义词:anger,fury,outrage;反义词:quiet,calm
    raid:袭击,搜查;抢劫,挖取;同义词:attack,invasion
    raise:举起,提高,提升;竖起,建起;种植,喂养;唤起,引起;提出,发出;筹集,募集;同义词l:lift,increase,feed,arouse,produce,create;反义词:decrease,diminish,lessen,reduce
    rake:(长柄)耙,耙机,耙状物;v耙;大量搜索,翻检,核查
    rally:集合,团结;恢复(健康等),重新振作;n群众大会,公路汽车赛;同义词:gather,assemble,recover,improve
    random:胡乱的,任意的,随意的;n任意,随意(现在只用于at-);同义词:accidental,irregular,aimless,haphazard;反义词:deliberate
    rape:强奸;蹂躏,破坏;同义词:force,violate,spoil
    rash:鲁莽的,轻率莽撞的;仓促作出的,轻率说出的;同义词:reckless,imprudent,brash,hasty,careless,sudden;反义词:calculating,cautious,careful
    raw:未煮过的,生的;未加工的,自然状态的;无经验的,未经训练的;同义词:uncooked,inexperienced,immune;反义词:ripe
    rebel:反叛分子,反抗者,造反者;反叛,造反,反对,不接受;同义词:traitor,revolt,riot
    reconcile:使和解,使和好;调停;调和,使一致;同义词:conform,harmonize;反义词:estrange(使疏远)
    recover:追回,重新得到;恢复,康复;重新找出,再次发现;同义词:recollect,regain,restore,resume;反义词:lose
    recur:再发生,反复出现;再现,重新浮上心头;同义词:repeat,return,come again;
    rectify:纠正,改正,矫正;调正,校正;同义词:correct,amend,adjust
    redundant:过多的,剩余的,累赘的;(因人员过剩而)被解雇的,失业的;清一色的,千篇一律的;同义词:wordy,superfluous,superfluous,surplus,repetitious;反义词:concise
    reflect:反映,表明,显示;深思,考虑,反省;同义词:indicate,mirror,think,consider
    refrain:忍住,节制,克制,抑制;同义词:keep,withhold,check,curb,inhibit,restrain;反义词:persist;
    refresh:使恢复活力,使振作精神;同义词:renew,revive,regenerate(使恢复,使复兴,使,再生);反义词:exhaust
    refuge:避难,庇护;避难所,庇护所;庇护人,慰藉;同义词:shelter,protection
    refute:驳斥,驳倒;否认……的争取性(或真实性);同义词:contradict,disprove;反义词:prove,acknowledge
    regulate:管理,控制,为……制定规章;校准,调节;同义词:manage,入了,control,adjust
    release:v/n,排放,释出;解除,解脱;发行,发布;同义词:discharge,liberate,free,relieve;反义词:arrest,capture
    relevant:有关的,切题的;相关联的,相称的;有重大关系的,有意义的;同义词:applicable,suitable,fitting;反义词:irrelevant
    remnant:剩余,残余,[常作-s]残存部分,残余分子;边角剩料,零布头;同义词:leftover,remains,remainder
    remove:移开,挪去,;去掉,消除,搬迁,移动;开除,逐出;同义词:move,withdraw,eliminate,expel,discard;
    renaissance:再生,复活,复兴;同义词:revival
    renovate:修复,整修;革新,更新;同义词:renew,restore,reform,innovate
    repel:击退,抵制,拒绝,排斥;使厌恶;同义词:resist,reject,disgust;反义词:attract
    repent:后悔,懊悔,改变主意;同义词:regret
    represent:代表,象征;表述,描绘;集中地体现,反映;同义词:symbolize,characterize,express,describe,illustrate,stand for
    resign:辞职,引退;听任,顺从;放弃,抛弃;同义词:quit,submit,give up
    热搜驴儿:决定,打定主意要;解决,消除;分解,解析;n.决心,决定,决议;同义词:decide,determine,settle;反义词:hesitate
    revise:修订,校订;修改,修正;同义词:correct,change,improve,amend
    rigid:刚性的,坚硬的;刻板的,严苛的;同义词:hard,stiff,strict;反义词:flexible,elastic;
    rigour: 严格,严厉;(生活等的)艰苦,(气候等的)严酷;同义词:difficulty,harshness,roughness,sternness,severity;反义词:amenity(环境舒适,设施便利)
    ripe:成熟的,时机成熟的;做好充分准备的;同义词:mature,ready,green;反义词:raw,immature
    rise:v起床,起立;升起,上升;上涨,增加;反抗,起义;n升起,上升;上涨,增加;源头,发源;同义词:ascend,mount,increase,grow,revolt,rebel;反义词:fall,set,descend
    robust:强壮的,强健的;坚定的,坚强的;同义词:strong,healthy,powerful,vigorous;反义词:delicate
    ruthless:无情的,残忍的,冷酷的;
    ruthful:悲哀的,充满感伤的,引起怜悯的
    展开全文
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