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  • 词典编码

    千次阅读 2015-09-25 15:31:39
    第二类算法的想法是企图从输入的数据中创建一个“短语词典(dictionary of the phrases)”,这种短语不一定是像“严谨勤奋求实创新”和“国泰民安是坐稳总统宝座的根本”这类具有具体含义的短语,它可以是任意字符的...
    原作:http://www.cnblogs.com/lookof/articles/1241168.html

    注:这一节我照抄教科书的。因为在网上找到了电子资源,同时觉得教科书本书做的阐述就挺不错。因此直接采纳了。但是在lz77算法中有一点补充,用此风格字体标出了。

    背景

    有许多场合,开始时不知道要编码数据的统计特性,也不一定允许你事先知道它们的统计特性。因此,人们提出了许许多多的数据压缩方法,企图用来对这些数据进行压缩编码,在实际编码过程中以尽可能获得最大的压缩比。这些技术统称为通用编码技术。词典编码(dictionary encoding)技术就是属于这一类,这种技术属于无损压缩技术。

    词典编码(dictionary encoding)的根据是数据本身包含有重复代码这个特性。例如文本文件和光栅图像就具有这种特性。词典编码法的种类很多,归纳起来大致有两类。

    第一类词典法的想法是企图查找正在压缩的字符序列是否在以前输入的数据中出现过,然后用已经出现过的字符串替代重复的部分,它的输出仅仅是指向早期出现过的字符串的“指针”。

    这里所指的“词典”是指用以前处理过的数据来表示编码过程中遇到的重复部分。这类编码中的所有算法都是以abraham lempel和jakob ziv在1977年开发和发表的称为lz77算法为基础的,例如1982年由storer和szymanski改进的称为lzss算法就是属于这种情况。

    第二类算法的想法是企图从输入的数据中创建一个“短语词典(dictionary of the phrases)”,这种短语不一定是像“严谨勤奋求实创新”和“国泰民安是坐稳总统宝座的根本”这类具有具体含义的短语,它可以是任意字符的组合。编码数据过程中当遇到已经在词典中出现的“短语”时,编码器就输出这个词典中的短语的“索引号”,而不是短语本身。
      
    j.ziv和a.lempel在1978年首次发表了介绍这种编码方法的文章。在他们的研究基础上,terry a.weltch在1984年发表了改进这种编码算法的文章,因此把这种编码方法称为lzw(lempel-ziv walch)压缩编码,首先在高速硬盘控制器上应用了这种算法。


    LZ77算法

    为了更好地说明LZ77算法的原理,首先介绍算法中用到的几个术语:
      1.输入数据流(input stream):要被压缩的字符序列。
      2.字符(character):输入数据流中的基本单元。
      3.编码位置(coding position):输入数据流中当前要编码的字符位置,指前向缓冲存储器中的开始字符。
      4.前向缓冲存储器(Lookahead buffer):存放从编码位置到输入数据流结束的字符序列的存储器。
      5.窗口(window):指包含W个字符的窗口,字符是从编码位置开始向后数也就是最后处理的字符数。
      6.指针(pointer):指向窗口中的匹配串且含长度的指针。

    LZ77编码算法的核心是查找从前向缓冲存储器开始的最长的匹配串。编码算法的具体执行步骤如下:
      1.把编码位置设置到输入数据流的开始位置。
      2.查找窗口中最长的匹配串。
      3.以“(Pointer, Length) Characters”的格式输出,其中Pointer是指向窗口中匹配串的指针,Length表示匹配字符的长度,Characters是前向缓冲存储器中的不匹配的第1个字符。
      4.如果前向缓冲存储器不是空的,则把编码位置和窗口向前移(Length+1)个字符,然后返回到步骤2。

      [例4.5] 待编码的数据流如表4-09所示,编码过程如表4-10所示。现作如下说明:
      1.“步骤”栏表示编码步骤。
      2.“位置”栏表示编码位置,输入数据流中的第1个字符为编码位置1。
      3.“匹配串”栏表示窗口中找到的最长的匹配串。
      4.“字符”栏表示匹配之后在前向缓冲存储器中的第1个字符。
      5.“输出”栏以“(Back_chars, Chars_length) Explicit_character”格式输出。其中,(Back_chars, Chars_length)是指向匹配串的指针,告诉译码器“在这个窗口中向后退Back_chars个字符然后拷贝Chars_length个字符到输出”,Explicit_character是真实字符。例如,表4-10中的输出“(5,2) C”告诉译码器回退5个字符,然后拷贝2个字符“AB”
    但wikipedia认为,粗体字这里理解成“从编码位置开始往回数Back_chars个字符,从该字符开始数起的字符串与接下来的Chars_length个字符完全相同”更加合适。
    原文为“each of the next length characters is equal to the character exactly distance characters behind it in the uncompressed stream”


    表4-09待编码的数据流

    位置

    1

    2

    3

    4

    5

    6

    7

    8

    9

    字符

    A

    A

    B

    C

    B

    B

    A

    B

    C

    表4-10 编码过程

    步骤

    位置

    匹配串

    字符

    输出

    1

    1

    --

    A

    (0,0) A

    2

    2

    A

    B

    (1,1) B

    3

    4

    --

    C

    (0,0) C

    4

    5

    B

    B

    (2,1) B

    5

    7

    A B

    C

    (5,2) C



    LZ78算法

     在介绍LZ78算法之前,首先说明在算法中用到的几个术语和符号:
      ●字符流(Charstream):要被编码的数据序列。
      ●字符(Character):字符流中的基本数据单元。
      ●前缀(Prefix): 在一个字符之前的字符序列。
      ●缀-符串(String):前缀+字符。
      ●.码字(Code word):码字流中的基本数据单元,代表词典中的一串字符。
      ●码字流(Codestream): 码字和字符组成的序列,是编码器的输出。
      ●词典(Dictionary): 缀-符串表。按照词典中的索引号对每条缀-符串(String)指定一个码字(Code word)。
      ●当前前缀(Current prefix):在编码算法中使用,指当前正在处理的前缀,用符号P表示。
      ●当前字符(Current character):在编码算法中使用,指当前前缀之后的字符,用符号C表示。
      ●10.当前码字(Current code word): 在译码算法中使用,指当前处理的码字,用W表示当前码字,String.W表示当前码字的缀-符串。

      1. 编码算法
      LZ78的编码思想是不断地从字符流中提取新的缀-符串(String),通俗地理解为新“词条”,然后用“代号”也就是码字(Code word)表示这个“词条”。这样一来,对字符流的编码就变成了用码字(Code word)去替换字符流(Charstream),生成码字流(Codestream),从而达到压缩数据的目的。
      在编码开始时词典是空的,不包含任何缀-符串(string)。在这种情况下编码器就输出一个表示空字符串的特殊码字(例如“0”)和字符流中(Charstream)的第一个字符C,并把这个字符C添加到词典中作为一个由一个字符组成的缀-符串(string)。在编码过程中,如果出现类似的情况,也照此办理。在词典中已经包含某些缀-符串(String)之后,如果“当前前缀P +当前字符C”已经在词典中,就用字符C来扩展这个前缀,这样的扩展操作一直重复到获得一个在词典中没有的缀-符串(String)为止。此时就输出表示当前前缀P的码字(Code word)和字符C,并把P+C添加到词典中作为前缀(Prefix),然后开始处理字符流(Charstream)中的下一个前缀。

    LZ78编码器的输出是码字-字符(W,C)对,每次输出一对到码字流中,与码字W相对应的缀-符串(String)用字符C进行扩展生成新的缀-符串(String),然后添加到词典中。LZ78编码的具体算法如下:
      步骤1: 在开始时,词典和当前前缀P都是空的。
      步骤2: 当前字符C:=字符流中的下一个字符。
      步骤3: 判断P+C是否在词典中:
       (1) 如果“是”:用C扩展P,让P := P+C ;
       (2) 如果“否”:
        ① 输出与当前前缀P相对应的码字和当前字符C;
        ② 把字符串P+C 添加到词典中。
        ③ 令P:=空值。
       (3) 判断字符流中是否还有字符需要编码
        ① 如果“是”:返回到步骤2。
        ② 如果“否”:若当前前缀P不是空的,输出相应于当前前缀P的码字,然后结束编码。

      2. 译码算法
      在译码开始时译码词典是空的,它将在译码过程中从码字流中重构。每当从码字流中读入一对码字-字符(W,C)对时,码字就参考已经在词典中的缀-符串,然后把当前码字的缀-符串string.W 和字符C输出到字符流(Charstream),而把当前缀-符串(string.W+C)添加到词典中。在译码结束之后,重构的词典与编码时生成的词典完全相同。LZ78译码的具体算法如下:
      步骤1: 在开始时词典是空的。
      步骤2: 当前码字W :=码字流中的下一个码字。
      步骤3: 当前字符C := 紧随码字之后的字符。
      步骤4: 把当前码字的缀-符串(string.W)输出到字符流(Charstream),然后输出字符C。
      步骤5: 把string.W+C添加到词典中。
      步骤6: 判断码字流中是否还有码字要译
       (1) 如果“是”,就返回到步骤2。
       (2) 如果“否”,则结束。

      [例4.6] 编码字符串如表4-13所示,编码过程如表4-14所示。现说明如下:
      ●“步骤”栏表示编码步骤。
      ●“位置”栏表示在输入数据中的当前位置。
      ●“词典”栏表示添加到词典中的缀-符串,缀-符串的索引等于“步骤”序号。
      ●“输出”栏以(当前码字W, 当前字符C)简化为(W, C)的形式输出。

    表4-13 编码字符串

    位置

    1

    2

    3

    4

    5

    6

    7

    8

    9

    字符

    A

    B

    B

    C

    B

    C

    A

    B

    A

    表4-14 编码过程

    步骤

    位置

    词典

    输出

    1

    1

    A

    (0,A)

    2

    2

    B

    (0,B)

    3

    3

    B C

    (2,C)

    4

    5

    B C A

    (3,A)

    5

    8

    B A

    (2,A)

      与LZ77相比,LZ78的最大优点是在每个编码步骤中减少了缀-符串(String)比较的数目,而压缩率与LZ77类似。


    LZW算法

    在LZW算法中使用的术语与LZ78使用的相同,仅增加了一个术语—前缀根(Root),它是由单个字符串组成的缀-符串(String)。在编码原理上,LZW与LZ78相比有如下差别:①LZW只输出代表词典中的缀-符串(String)的码字(code word)。这就意味在开始时词典不能是空的,它必须包含可能在字符流出现中的所有单个字符,即前缀根(Root)。②由于所有可能出现的单个字符都事先包含在词典中,每个编码步骤开始时都使用一字符前缀(one-character prefix),因此在词典中搜索的第1个缀-符串有两个字符。
      现将LZW编码算法和译码算法介绍如下。

      1. 编码算法
      LZW编码是围绕称为词典的转换表来完成的。这张转换表用来存放称为前缀(Prefix)的字符序列,并且为每个表项分配一个码字(Code word),或者叫做序号,如表4-15所示。这张转换表实际上是把8位ASCII字符集进行扩充,增加的符号用来表示在文本或图像中出现的可变长度ASCII字符串。扩充后的代码可用9位、10位、11位、12位甚至更多的位来表示。Welch的论文中用了12位,12位可以有4096个不同的12位代码,这就是说,转换表有4096个表项,其中256个表项用来存放已定义的字符,剩下3840个表项用来存放前缀(Prefix)。

    表4-15 词典

    码字(Code word)

    前缀(Prefix)

    1

     

    193

    A

    194

    B

    255

     

    1305

    abcdefxyF01234

      LZW编码器(软件编码器或硬件编码器)就是通过管理这个词典完成输入与输出之间的转换。LZW编码器的输入是字符流(Charstream),字符流可以是用8位ASCII字符组成的字符串,而输出是用n位(例如12位)表示的码字流(Codestream),码字代表单个字符或多个字符组成的字符串。
      LZW编码器使用了一种很实用的分析(parsing)算法,称为贪婪分析算法(greedy parsing algorithm)。在贪婪分析算法中,每一次分析都要串行地检查来自字符流(Charstream)的字符串,从中分解出已经识别的最长的字符串,也就是已经在词典中出现的最长的前缀(Prefix)。用已知的前缀(Prefix)加上下一个输入字符C也就是当前字符(Current character)作为该前缀的扩展字符,形成新的扩展字符串——缀-符串(String):Prefix.C。这个新的缀-符串(String)是否要加到词典中,还要看词典中是否存有和它相同的缀-符串String。如果有,那么这个缀-符串(String)就变成前缀(Prefix),继续输入新的字符,否则就把这个缀-符串(String)写到词典中生成一个新的前缀(Prefix),并给一个代码。
      LZW编码算法的具体执行步骤如下:
      步骤1: 开始时的词典包含所有可能的根(Root),而当前前缀P是空的;
      步骤2: 当前字符(C) :=字符流中的下一个字符;
      步骤3: 判断缀-符串P+C是否在词典中
       (1) 如果“是”:P := P+C // (用C扩展P);
       (2) 如果“否”
        ① 把代表当前前缀P的码字输出到码字流;
        ② 把缀-符串P+C添加到词典;
        ③ 令P := C //(现在的P仅包含一个字符C);
      步骤4: 判断码字流中是否还有码字要译
       (1) 如果“是”,就返回到步骤2;
       (2) 如果“否”
        ① 把代表当前前缀P的码字输出到码字流;
        ② 结束。
      LZW编码算法可用伪码表示。开始时假设编码词典包含若干个已经定义的单个码字。例如,256个字符的码字,用伪码可以表示成:

      Dictionary[j] ← all n single-character, j=1, 2, …,n 
      j ← n+1
      Prefix
     ← read first Character in Charstream
      while((C ← next Character)!=NULL)
      Begin
       If Prefix.C is in Dictionary
        Prefix 
    ← Prefix.C
       else
        Codestream ← cW for Prefix
       Dictionary[j]
     ← Prefix.C 
       j
     ← n+1
       Prefix 
    ← C
      end
      Codestream ← cW for Prefix

      2. 译码算法
      LZW译码算法中还用到另外两个术语:①当前码字(Current code word):指当前正在处理的码字,用cW表示,用string.cW表示当前缀-符串;②先前码字(Previous code word):指先于当前码字的码字,用pW表示,用string.pW表示先前缀-符串。
      LZW译码算法开始时,译码词典与编码词典相同,它包含所有可能的前缀根(roots)。LZW算法在译码过程中会记住先前码字(pW),从码字流中读当前码字(cW)之后输出当前缀-符串string.cW,然后把用string.cW的第一个字符扩展的先前缀-符串string.pW添加到词典中。
      LZW译码算法的具体执行步骤如下:
      步骤1:在开始译码时词典包含所有可能的前缀根(Root)。
      步骤2:cW :=码字流中的第一个码字。
      步骤3:输出当前缀-符串string.cW到码字流。
      步骤4: 先前码字pW := 当前码字cW。
      步骤5: 当前码字cW := 码字流中的下一个码字。
      步骤6: 判断先前缀-符串string.pW是否在词典中
       (1) 如果“是”,则:
        ① 把先前缀-符串string.pW输出到字符流。
        ② 当前前缀P :=先前缀-符串string.pW。
        ③ 当前字符C :=当前前缀-符串string.cW的第一个字符。
        ④ 把缀-符串P+C添加到词典。
       (2) 如果“否”,则:
        ① 当前前缀P :=先前缀-符串string.pW。
        ② 当前字符C :=当前缀-符串string.cW的第一个字符。
        ③ 输出缀-符串P+C到字符流,然后把它添加到词典中。
      步骤7: 判断码字流中是否还有码字要译
       (1) 如果“是”,就返回到步骤4。
       (2) 如果“否”, 结束。
      LZW译码算法可用伪码表示如下:

      Dictionary[j] ← all n single-character, j=1, 2, …,n
      j
     ← n+1
      cW 
    ← first code from Codestream
      Charstream 
    ← Dictionary[cW]
      pW ← cW
      While((cW ← next Code word)!=NULL)
      Begin
       If cW is in Dictionary
        Charstream 
    ← Dictionary[cW]
        Prefix ← Dictionary[pW]
        cW ← first Character of Dictionary[cW]
        Dictionary[j] ← Prefix.cW
        j
     ← n+1
        pW 
    ← cW
       else
        Prefix ← Dictionary[pW]
        cW ← first Character of Prefix
        Charstream 
    ← Prefix.cW
          Dictionary[j] ← Prefix.C
          pW ← cW
          j ← n+1
      end
      [例4.7] 编码字符串如表4-16所示,编码过程如表4-17所示。现说明如下:
      ●“步骤”栏表示编码步骤;
      ●“位置”栏表示在输入数据中的当前位置;
      ●“词典”栏表示添加到词典中的缀-符串,它的索引在括号中;
      ●“输出”栏表示码字输出。

    表4-16 被编码的字符串

    位置

    1

    2

    3

    4

    5

    6

    7

    8

    9

    字符

    A

    B

    B

    A

    B

    A

    B

    A

    C

    表4-17 LZW的编码过程

    步骤

    位置

    词典

    输出

       

    (1)

    A

     
       

    (2)

    B

     
       

    (3)

    C

     

    1

    1

    (4)

    A B

    (1)

    2

    2

    (5)

    B B

    (2)

    3

    3

    (6)

    B A

    (2)

    4

    4

    (7)

    A B A

    (4)

    5

    6

    (8)

    A B A C

    (7)

    6

    --

    --

    --

    (3)

      表4-18解释了译码过程。每个译码步骤译码器读一个码字,输出相应的缀-符串,并把它添加到词典中。例如,在步骤4中,先前码字(2)存储在先前码字(pW)中,当前码字(cW)是(4),当前缀-符串string.cW是输出(“A B”),先前缀-符串string.pW ("B")是用当前缀-符串string.cW ("A")的第一个字符,其结果("B A") 添加到词典中,它的索引号是(6)

    表4-18 LZW的译码过程

    步骤

    代码

    词典

    输出

       

    (1)

    A

     
       

    (2)

    B

     
       

    (3)

    C

     

    1

    (1)

    --

    --

    A

    2

    (2)

    (4)

    A B

    B

    3

    (2)

    (5)

    B B

    B

    4

    (4)

    (6)

    B A

    A B

    5

    (7)

    (7)

    A B A

    A B A

    6

    (3)

    (8)

    A B A C

    C

      LZW算法得到普遍采用,它的速度比使用LZ77算法的速度快,因为它不需要执行那么多的缀-符串比较操作。对LZW算法进一步的改进是增加可变的码字长度,以及在词典中删除老的缀-符串。在GIF图像格式和UNIX的压缩程序中已经采用了这些改进措施之后的LZW算法。
      LZW算法取得了专利,专利权的所有者是美国的一个大型计算机公司—Unisys(优利系统公司),除了商业软件生产公司之外,可以免费使用LZW算法。

    展开全文
  • 麦克米伦高阶词典 7500词汇表 红星

    万次阅读 多人点赞 2017-04-10 15:05:11
    从Macmillan English Dictionary for Advanced Learners提取...可以制成单词表,再使用欧陆导入麦克米伦高阶词典查询含义。 已经制成欧陆词典,使用欧陆扫一扫: a abandon abbreviation ability able abnormal aboa

    从Macmillan English Dictionary for Advanced Learners提取出来的带有五角星单词表。实际提取出来单词6313个,猜测是由于同一个单词可能会在不同释义处带有红星。可以制成单词表,再使用欧陆导入麦克米伦高阶词典查询含义。
    已经制成欧陆课本,使用欧陆扫一扫:
    这里写图片描述

    a
    abandon
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    account
    accountant
    accounting
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    acknowledge
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    adaptation
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    addiction
    addition
    additional
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    adequate
    adjacent
    adjective
    adjust
    adjustment
    administration
    administrative
    administrator
    admiration
    admire
    admission
    admit
    admittedly
    adolescent
    adopt
    adoption
    adult
    advance
    advanced
    advantage
    adventure
    adverb
    adverse
    advert
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    advertisement
    advertising
    advice
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    aeroplane
    affair
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    afraid
    after
    afternoon
    afterwards
    again
    against
    age
    aged
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    agenda
    agent
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    aggressive
    ago
    agony
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    agreed
    agreement
    agricultural
    agriculture
    ahead
    aid
    AIDS
    aim
    air
    air conditioning
    aircraft
    air force
    airline
    airport
    alarm
    alarm clock
    albeit
    album
    alcohol
    alcoholic
    ale
    alert
    alien
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    allege
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    alphabet
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    alter
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    alternatively
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    aluminium
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    ambition
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    among
    amount
    ample
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    ankle
    anniversary
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    ant
    antibody
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    anybody
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    anyone
    anything
    anyway
    anywhere
    apart
    apartment
    apologize
    apology
    apostrophe
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    appealing
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    appearance
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    apple
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    appreciation
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    approved
    approximately
    April
    apt
    Arab
    arbitrary
    arc
    arcade
    arch
    archaeologist
    archaeology
    architect
    architecture
    archive
    area
    arena
    arguably
    argue
    argument
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    arithmetic
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    armchair
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    armed forces
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    arrogant
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    article
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    artistic
    as
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    ash
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    Asian
    aside
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    asleep
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    aspiration
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    auction
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    audition
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    aunt
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    average
    avoid
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    baby
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    back door
    backdrop
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    backwards
    bacon
    bacteria
    bad
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    badly
    bad-tempered
    bag
    baggage
    bail
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    baker
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    balanced
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    ballet
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    ban
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    band
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    bank
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    bar
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    barbed wire
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    bargain
    bark
    barn
    barrel
    barrier
    barrister
    base
    baseball
    basement
    basic
    basically
    basin
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    basket
    basketball
    bass
    bat
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    bath
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    battery
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    be
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    beauty
    because
    become
    bed
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    beer
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    begin
    beginner
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    belly
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    bias
    bible
    bicycle
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    billion
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    binoculars
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    compulsory
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    computer
    computing
    con
    conceal
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    conscience
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    conservation
    conservationist
    conservative
    consider
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    considerably
    consideration
    considering
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    consistency
    consistent
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    consonant
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    constable
    constant
    constantly
    constituency
    constituent
    constitute
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  • 助记词词典帮助学习和记住单词,并且通过为每个单词提供记忆辅助功能(称为助记符)来轻松地表达其含义。 助记符将单词的要记住的含义与系统的,有组织的图像或单词集联系起来,这些图像或单词已经在长期记忆中牢固...
  • 您可以在互联网上选择任何单词,还可以检查其含义,发音,相关图像和一些相关上下文。 这主要针对有兴趣学习该语言的人。 不仅知道单词的含义。 目前,相关上下文仅限于网页,但我们计划也包括视频,SNS等。 将来,...
  • 配置同义词首 扩展词典 停止...停止词汇含义:编辑到 stopword.dic 文件中的词汇 在搜索的时候不会以词组的形式出现 例如:麻痹 这个词组放到了 stopword.dic 中 在搜索时 麻痹 这个词就不会在出现了

      配置同义词首 扩展词典 停止词典等功能 先是要基于中文分词的基础上进行的,如果检索关键词不能够进行中文分词那么是查询不到相关的同义词的(配置中文分词可参考:点击打开链接

      在进行配置前需要先下载下修改后的IK分词jar包:IK分词jar

    找到solrhome中schema.xml文件进行添加如下配置:

    (schema.xml文件需要将同目录下的 managed-schema 改名而来)

    然后编辑/solr-5.5.0/server/solr/core1/conf/solrconfig.xml,将以下代码注释掉:
    <schemaFactory class="ManagedIndexSchemaFactory">
      <bool name="mutable">true</bool>
     <str name="managedSchemaResourceName">managed-schema</str>
    </schemaFactory>


     <fieldType name="text_ik" class="solr.TextField">  
       <analyzer type="query">  
       	<tokenizer class="org.wltea.analyzer.lucene.IKTokenizerFactory" useSmart="false"/>  
       	<filter class="solr.LowerCaseFilterFactory"/>  
       </analyzer>  
       <analyzer type="index">  
      	<tokenizer class="org.wltea.analyzer.lucene.IKTokenizerFactory" useSmart="fasle"/>  
     	<filter class="solr.SynonymFilterFactory" synonyms="synonyms.txt" ignoreCase="true" expand="true" />  
    	<filter class="solr.LowerCaseFilterFactory"/>  
       </analyzer> 
     </fieldType>  
          
    在schema.xml文件中添加一个字段并且引用text_ik分词:

       <field name="content" type="text_ik" indexed="true" stored="true" multiValued="false" />
    完成配置之后保存

    下面我们就需要添加一下我们同义词进行测试下是否成功

    在schema.xml同级目录下有synonyms.txt 这个文件夹 我们配置的同义词就在这个文件中


    格式 ,好隔开  一行为一个同义词 保存 启动服务 到admin页面查看效果



    下面说下扩展词典和停止词典的配置

    解压刚才下载的jar包 将 ext.dic  IKAnalyzer.cfg.xml  stopword.dic 三个文件复制到


    将上面复制的三个文件粘贴到apache-tomcat-7.0.47\webapps\solr\WEB-INF\classes目录下


    为修改ext.dic 如果


    编辑ext.dic文件添加我们要扩展的词汇例如:河北廊坊(格式一行为一个词组)

    添加之后 保存 重新启动服务如图 : 河北廊坊已经成为一次词组出现

    注: 如果编辑ext.dic时候未出现效果 需要将ext.dic格式设置为UTF-8格式




    扩展的停止词汇同理配置

    停止词汇含义:编辑到 stopword.dic 文件中的词汇  在搜索的时候不会以词组的形式出现

    例如:麻痹  这个词组放到了stopword.dic 中  在搜索时 麻痹 这个词就不会在出现了

    展开全文
  • NRC词语情绪词典和词语色彩词典

    千次阅读 2019-12-16 08:55:00
    对于自动自然语言系统(例如,文本含义,释义,机器翻译和情感分析)也可能有用。 当颜色是单词所指概念的显着特征时,或者因为该单词与此类概念相关,则单词与颜色具有很强的关联性。许多概念-颜色关联,例如天鹅...

    Python&Stata数据采集与数据分析实证前沿寒假工作坊  现在开始招生了,有兴趣的同学和老师可以戳进来了解

    情绪和情感词典 是由加拿大国家研究委员会(简称NRC)的专家创建。该词典·具有广泛的应用程序开发,可以在多种环境中使用,例如情绪分析,产品营销,消费者行为,甚至是政治活动分析。

    该技术使用一系列单词来帮助识别情绪,情感,并分析标签,表情符号和单词颜色的关联。这些词典包含英文单词的条目,可用于分析英文文本。

    资源文件夹目录(文章末尾有完整的资源可供下载)

    • AutomaticallyGeneratedLexicons

    • NRC-Affect-Intensity-Lexicon

    • NRC-Colour-Lexicon-v0.92

    • NRC-Emotion-Lexicon-v0.92

    • NRC-VAD-Lexicon

    但是我觉得目前对咱们经管专业最有用可能是

    • NRC-Colour-Lexicon-v0.92

    • NRC-Emotion-Lexicon-v0.92

    我们可以使用上面两个词典度量文本的情绪信息,也可以分析文本的色彩信息。

    词语的色彩

    色彩是成功传递信息的重要组成部分,无论是在销售商业产品(Sable和Akcay,2010),设计网页(Meier,1988;Pribadi等,1990)还是可视化信息(Christ,1975)中 ;Card等,1999)。由于实际概念与某些颜色类别(例如,红色危险和粉红色柔和度)相关联,因此使用适当的颜色来补充语言和非语言信息会带来很多好处,包括:

    • 加强讯息(改善语义连贯性)

    • 减轻接收者的认知负担

    • 快速传达信息

    • 唤起所需的情绪反应

    例如考虑在停车标志中使用红色,驾驶员能够更快地识别该标志,并且会引起与危险有关的潜意识情绪,同样,使用红色标注高犯罪率的区域是很好地使用颜色的例子。另一方面,不恰当的使用颜色可能更有害于理解(Marcus,1982;Meier,1988)。

    大多数语言中许多表达情感的词语都有涉及色彩的表达, 在英语中的例子包括:

    • 嫉妒的绿色

    • 贵族的蓝色血统

    • 牧场的绿色(更好的大道)

    • 黄腹(怯co的)

    • 红地毯(特殊处理)

    • 透过玫瑰色眼镜看(乐观)。

    此外,不断出现新的表达方式,例如灰色和比安卡·马斯登(Bianca Marsden)的诗《混乱》中的不确定性。因此,概念-颜色关联的知识 对于自动自然语言系统(例如,文本含义,释义,机器翻译和情感分析)也可能有用。

    当颜色是单词所指概念的显着特征时,或者因为该单词与此类概念相关,则单词与颜色具有很强的关联性。许多概念-颜色关联,例如天鹅与白色和蔬菜与绿色,都涉及物理实体。但是,即使是抽象的概念和情感也可能具有与社会相关的色彩(诚实–白色,危险–红色,喜悦–黄色,愤怒–红色)。此外,许多协会是特定于文化的(Gage,1969;Chen,2005)。例如,在亚洲大部分地区,繁荣与红色有关。

    不幸的是,没有一个词库能够捕获概念-颜色的关联,并且仍然存在许多问题,例如人类对这些关联的共识程度以及物理概念是否更可能具有颜色关联比抽象的我们期望单词-颜色关联在文本和语音中表现为共现,但是还没有研究表明单词在多大程度上与关联的颜色共存,而不是与其他颜色共存。

    研究发现:

    • 超过30%的术语具有强烈的颜色关联(第4节)

    • 约33%的词库类别具有很强的颜色关联(第5节)。

    • 抽象术语几乎与物理实体一样具有颜色关联(第6节)。

    • 情绪和极性与颜色有很强的联系(第7节)。

    • 词色关联在WordNet中表现为紧密(程度较小),在文本中表现为较高的同时出现率(程度较大)(第8节)。

    色彩词典截图

    词语颜色词典目前只有英文版,截图如下

    情绪词典

    情绪通常通过不同的面部表情来表达(亚里士多德,1913;拉塞尔,1994)。不同的情感也通过不同的语言表达。例如

    • 愉悦和好吃表明喜悦的情绪

    • 忧郁和哭泣表明悲伤

    • 呼喊和沸腾表明愤怒

    • 等等

    本情绪词典支持包括英语、法语、阿拉伯语、中文和西班牙语等在内的105种语言。

    情绪词典截图

    情绪词典是基于英文数据,但扩展为105种语言。如下图,excel有105列+9列,其中前105列是同一个意思在105种语言但不同表达。

    后9列是积极、消极及7种情绪(喜怒哀乐愁怨恨)

    http://sentiment.nrc.ca/lexicons-for-research/ [1]Saif, Mohammad. "Colourful Language: Measuring Word-Colour Associations, 2011a." In Proceedings of the ACL 2011 Workshop on Cognitive Modeling and Computational Linguistics (CMCL). 2011. [2]Mohammad, Saif M., and Peter D. Turney. "Crowdsourcing a word–emotion association lexicon." Computational Intelligence 29, no. 3 (2013): 436-465.

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    Python最被低估的库,用好了效率提升10倍!

    情绪及色彩词典获取方式,请在公众号后台回复关键词“20191216” ,

    如果想做文本分析

    可购买网课 | Python文本数据分析实战(学术) 

    或参加Python&Stata数据采集与数据分析实证前沿寒假工作坊  

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  • java英汉双语词典

    2014-06-03 21:30:55
    源码,可以给地址发给视频 明日英语词典主要包括5个模块:单词...查询统计模块让用户可以打印常用单词的拼写和含义。 小工具模块可以打开Windows系统的记事本和计算器软件,可以使用默认的浏览器打开收藏夹中的网址。
  • WordNet语义词典

    2012-07-21 11:32:26
    WordNet语义词典是基于心理学和语言学以用户的认知过程中所表现出来的义类,而并非如传统的词典一样是基于历史学按照字母的顺序排列。WordNet中采用语义网络作为词汇本体表达的基本方式,利用同义词集合(synonymy ...
  • 根据目前最新版的规格说明书详细解释词典中各个数据库包含的所有字段的含义及填写规范。
  • 注意:您必须下载一个JSON文件,其中包含所有带有其含义的单词,但是由于单词太多,我们无法访问它们,因此我们将制作此脚本。 用Python创建英语词典 (Creating An English Dictionary In Python) First of all, we...
  • 当人们听英语广播、看英语节目或练习听力时听到一个词的发音而又不知其含义时,又如何查到单词的含义呢?按传统的方法,只能先根据单词发音猜测单词的拼写,然后再查词典。由于英文单词拼写不规范,这种查询的效率...
  • 诺基亚经典机型N72手机自带英汉双语词典词库,可以随时随地的使用手机查询英语单词含义,方便快捷。
  • 在线词典的制作

    千次阅读 2013-06-18 16:49:01
    在线词典的功能是用户能够通过自己注册 的账号登陆,查询单词或词组的含义。 项目名称:在线词典 开发环境:linux /C 开发工具:GCC/GDB SQlite 开发流程: 编译流程: 1.cc load_dict.c dict.txt data....
  • 我开始用 LDCE 的含义替换之前使用 OALD 的单词。 马上在 3260 个单词中,单词 (1-173, 2910-3260) 是根据 LDCE,单词 (174-2909) 是根据我打算替换的 OALD。 警告:(MP - 第 12 行)使用 clear 和 clc 命令。 ...

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