• Modal verbs

    2012-03-04 13:23:16
    1.表示可能性与能力 The company can / could argue all the information was provided. Sorry, we can't make it tonight. The speaker couldn't get here on time. 2.表示义务与必要性 ...


    The company can / could argue all the information was provided.

    Sorry, we can't make it tonight.

    The speaker couldn't get here on time.


    All advertisers must look at what they are saying.

    I mustn't forget my appointment at two.


    You didn't have to work late. why did you?

    You needn't do any more on this. I'll finish it.


    I think you should tell him about your new job.

    We shouldn't  invest in that company.


    They shouldn't have come if they weren't interested.

    She ought to have said something about leaving a month ago.


    He's late.He must be stuck in traffic.

    The flght must have been delayed.

  • modal verbs(一)

    2017-09-19 22:21:00
    什么是modal verb?翻译成中文就是情态动词。 modal的意思是模式的,情态的,形式的。Bootstrap中的模态框就是这个词modal。 情态动词翻译挺准确的,就是表达说话人的情绪,态度或语气的词,本身就有一定的意义。...

    什么是modal verb?翻译成中文就是情态动词。



    英语中情态动词总共就那么几个:can , could, may, might, shall, should, will, would, must, have to, used to ,ought to, dare, need.

    • need和dare既可以做情态动词也可以做实义动词,所以容易提到情态动词不太容易想到这两个。
    • have (has,had) to , used to是具有情态动词特征的动词。

    一、modal verb的formulation

    接下来看看modal verb的formulation公式,也就是它的一些feature.

    • They are always follwed by the 'infinitive without to' 后面加不带to的动词不定式
    • They are same for all the pronouns. 所有的代词都用同样的modal verb,没有什么单三之类的。
    • They do not need auxiliaries. They take direct negative and question forms.modal verb不需要助动词,它直接加not就是否定形式。比如want“想要”,表达“不想要”我们需要助动词do的否定形式我们会说do not want;但是情态动词can 直接就是can not。
    • They never combine with another modal verb.



    1,Ability or lack of ability in the present or future.


    • They can't dance.
    • Man can not live without air.

    表示能力的can也可以被be able to 代替。

    2,Giving / not giving permission

    • You can use my office.
    • You can't smoke here.



    • Can this be true?
    • How can you be so careless!
    • This cannot be done by him.

    4,can(could) + have + 过去分词”的疑问或否定形式表示对过去发生的行为怀疑或不肯定

    • He cannot have been to that town.
    • Can he have got the book?


    • You cannot be too careful to cross the street.
    • I can not thank enough for your kindness.我再怎么感谢你的好意也不为过。(我应该好好感谢你。)


     1,Ability or lack of ability in the past

    • I could read without glasses last year.去年我还可以不戴眼镜看书,言外之意就是今年就不可以啦,我老啦之类的.
    • I could not sleep last night.

    2,在疑问句中making a request时候用

    • Could you repeat that please?
    • Could we have a break please?


    Could I come to see you tomorrow?

    • Yes, you can.
    • No, I'm afraid not.

    3,用在肯定句中Making a suggestion

    记得是only in the affirmative.

    What do you suggest we have for dinner? We could have fish.




  • tips about model verbs (ZT)

    2009-10-18 20:50:00
    English Modal Verbs Article by



    English Modal Verbs

    Article by Heather Marie Kosur (9,036 pts ) , published Jul 14, 2009

    Read more: http://www.brighthub.com/education/languages/articles/37641.aspx#ixzz0UI9TrOtJ



    The following article lists and explains the nine modal verbs in English and discusses some of the possible definitions and meanings of these modal verbs. A printable reference sheet on English modal verbs is also available for download via a link at the end of the article.

    <script type="text/javascript">GA_googleFillSlot("BH_Education_LanguageLearning_ATF_Body_LargeRectangle_336x280");</script>

    Modal verbs are common auxiliary verbs in Germanic languages including English that indicate modality. Modality is the expression of possibility, necessity, and contingency.

    The Modal Verbs in English

    The nine modals verbs in English are:

    • can
    • could
    • may
    • might
    • must
    • shall
    • should
    • will
    • would

    Position of Modal Verbs

    Modal verbs always appear in the first position at the beginning of the verb phrase in English. Unlike other verbs, modal verbs do not show tense or number. The seven possible verb phrase combinations that contain modal verbs in English are:

    • modal verb + base form = will eat
    • modal verb + be + present participle = will be eating
    • modal verb + have + past participle = will have eaten
    • modal verb + be + past participle = will be eaten
    • modal verb + have + been + present participle = will have been eating
    • modal verb + have + been + past participle = will have been eaten
    • modal verb + have + been + being + past participle = will have been being eaten

    Double Modals

    Although most varieties of English only allow for the use of one modal verb per verb phrase, some English dialects such as Southern American English allow for double modals. For example, the double modal might could as in He might could build a new machine shed expresses both possibility and ability. However, prescriptive grammars proscribe against the use of double modals.

    Some Definitions of English Modal Verbs

    Modal verbs are difficult to define in any language because of the wide range of pragmatic uses of modal verbs by native speakers. Some of the more common definitions (in no particular order) of the modal verbs in English are:

    • can – ability, permission, possibility, request
    • could – ability, permission, possibility, request, suggestion
    • may – permission, probability, request
    • might – possibility, probability, suggestion
    • must – deduction, necessity, obligation, prohibition
    • shall – decision, future, offer, question, suggestion
    • should – advice, necessity, prediction, recommendation
    • will – decision, future, intention, offer, prediction, promise, suggestion
    • would – conditional, habit, invitation, permission, preference, request, question, suggestion

    Examples of Modal Verb Usage

    The following sentences are examples of usage of modal verbs in English. For example, the following four sentences all ask for permission but with different degrees and types of modality:

    • Can I go to the bathroom? (asking for permission)
    • May I go to the bathroom? (more politely asking for permission)
    • Could I go to the bathroom? (asking for permission with less certainty)
    • Might I go to the bathroom? (asking for permission with uncertainty)

    The following sentences also demonstrate the subtle meanings in regards to modal verbs of suggestion:

    • You could listen to me. (suggestion)
    • You might listen to me. (uncertain suggestion)
    • You should listen to me. (strong suggestion)
    • You must listen to me. (stronger suggestion)
    • You will listen to me. (strongest suggestion)

    The meanings of modal verbs are very pragmatic and must be learned through use.

    Modal Verbs Practice Exercise

    Identify the modal verb and modality (definition) in the following sentences.


    1. You could ride your bike across the country, but I advise against it.
    2. Since all dogs are mammals, this golden retriever must be a mammal.
    3. You might consider finishing your degree.
    4. I will finish my essay tonight even if I have to forgo sleep.
    5. The puppy can sit on command.
    6. I would eat cereal every day as a child.
    7. You may encounter some difficult patrons on occasion.
    8. The train should arrive in a few minutes.
    9. The situation would not be so bad if we all remained calm.
    10. I will have earned my graduate degree next spring.

    Possible Answers

    1. could – possibility
    2. must – deduction
    3. might – suggestion
    4. will – intention
    5. can – ability
    6. would – habit
    7. may – probability
    8. should – prediction
    9. would – conditional
    10. will – future

    For a printable reference sheet on English modal verbs, please download the supplement to this article English Modal Verbs Reference Sheet .


    For information on other verb forms in English, please read the article The English Verb System for ESL Students .


    For more information on verbs, please see:



  • Week7-2POS tagging

    2015-12-31 16:57:40
    nouns, non-modal verbs, adjectives, adverbs Closed class prepositions, modal verbs, conjunctions, particles, determiners, pronouns Penn Treebank tag set: the label IN indicates all of


    • Open class
      • nouns, non-modal verbs, adjectives, adverbs
    • Closed class
      • prepositions, modal verbs, conjunctions, particles, determiners, pronouns

    Penn Treebank tag set: the label IN indicates all of the prepositions except for TO which has only to, even if to is the type of particle.

    Some observations

    • ambiguity: the tag type of the words, and even the pronunciation of the words could be different

    Useful for parsing, machine translation, word sense disambiguation, etc.

    Main techniques

    • rule-based
    • machine learning(crf, maximum entropy, markov models)
    • transformation-based


    Source of information

    • Knowledge about individual words (unigram)
      • lexical information
      • spelling(-or, -er)
      • capitalization(IBM)
    • Knowledge about neighboring words


    • Baseline(relatively high)
      • tag each word with its most likely tag
      • tag each OOV word as a noun
      • accuracy around 90%
    • current accuracy
      • around 97% for english
      • 98% for human performance

    Rule-based tagging

    • use dictionary or finite-state transducers to find all possible POS
    • use disambiguation rules
      • e.g., ART + V( article + verb is never allowed )
    • hundreds of rules can be designed

    Rule examples


    Useful for unseen languages

  • voa 2015 / 4 / 18

    2016-04-25 10:04:14
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  • 情态动词(Modal verbs)本身有一定的词义,表示语气的单词。但是不能独立作谓语,只能和动词原形一起构成谓语。情态动词用在行为动词前,表示说话人对这一动作或状态的看法或主观设想。 情态动词是时表词 情态动词...
  • ACL 2016 Accepted Papers

    千次阅读 2017-05-30 22:39:09
    Causality of Verbs for Grounded Language Understanding Qiaozi Gao, Malcolm Doering, Shaohua Yang and Joyce Chai CFO: Conditional Focused Neural Question Answering with Large-scale Knowledge ...
  • iOS 开发库(iOS Developer Library)

    千次阅读 2012-11-06 09:52:31
    iOS 开发库(iOS Developer Library)
  • iOS 各版本中的新特性(What's New in iOS)- 目录翻译完成
  • Verbs can be divided into lexical verbs that belong to an open-class and auxiliary verbs that belong to a closded class. 动词可以被分为实义动词(属于开放性词类)和助动词(封闭性词类
  • 动词

    2020-08-12 00:21:26
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  • 论文写作时态

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    TENSE USE  IN THE ABSTRACT   type of information verb form (tense or commonly occurring verbs) examples giving background details present tense The industry is already well know
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    2020-12-13 09:17:39
    while particles are only used to create infinitives and to form certain phrasal verbs. Articles There are three grammatical articles: the, a, and an The definite article the is used to identify a ...
  • 英语语法--名词

    2020-07-31 00:13:54
    verbs, 动词, adjectives, 形容词、 adverbs, 副词、 prepositions, 介词 conjunctions 连词 particles, 小品词(与动词构成短语动词的副词或介词); determiners, 限定...
  • 文章目录Morphology 词法Classification of Nouns 名词的分类Person Pronouns 人称代词Notional Verbs 实义动词The Present Indefinite 一般现在时 跟英语外教讨论语法现象时,好多语法术语都不会。整理个语法术语表...
  • Would

    2012-07-06 12:10:38
    is an auxiliary verb, a modal auxiliary verb. We use would mainly to: talk about the past talk about the future in the past express the conditional mood We also use would fo...
  • 5. 动词

    2009-07-13 15:36:00
    2) 根据其在句中的功能,动词可分为四类,分别是:实义动词(Notional Verb)、系动词(Link Verb)、助动词(Auxiliary Verb)、情态动词(Modal Verb)。说明:有些情况下,有些动词是兼类词,例如: We are ...
  • 'verbs' => [ 'class' => VerbFilter::className(), 'actions' => [ 'logout' => ['post'], ], ], ]; } /***/ public function actions() { return [ 'error' => [ 'class' => '...
  • Professional.MFC.with.VC6

    2009-06-28 21:23:02
    Modal Dialogs Modeless Dialogs Your Dialog Classes Working with Controls in Your Dialog Edit Controls Edit Notifications The Rich Edit Control List Controls Button Controls Static Controls ...
  • In the Create Client ID modal dialog: Application Type: Web Application Authorized Javascript origins: http://localhost:8080 Authorized redirect URI: http://localhost:8080/auth/google/callback ...
  • stdafx.h代码

    2018-12-01 15:31:46
    stdafx.h的代码// This is a part of the Microsoft Foundation Classes C++ library. ...// All rights reserved. // // This source code is only intended as a supplement to the // Microsoft Foundation Classes ...
  • 效果图 前端代码: @{ Layout = null; } <!DOCTYPE html> <html> <head> <meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width" />...link href="~/Scripts/ea...
  •  第一行代码的作用是一个允许用户添加新联系人的按钮,第二行代码是一个空div,方便后面显示信息,第三行代码是jQuery modal 提示验证对话框的一部分,用于提示用户是否删除一条记录。  还需要在页面中添加3个js...
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    Modal tabs   Standard ribbon tabs   Groups   Standard ribbon groups   Commands   General   Presentation   Interaction   Galleries   Previews   Icons   Enhanced tooltips   Access keys and ...



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