• Networking   You are assigned to design network connections between certain points in a wide area. You are given a set of points in the area, and a set of possible routes for the cables...

Networking

You are assigned to design network connections between certain points in a wide area. You are given a set of points in the area, and a set of possible routes for the cables that may connect pairs of points. For each possible route
between two points, you are given the length of the cable that is needed to connect the points over that route. Note that there may exist many possible routes between two given points. It is assumed that the given possible routes connect (directly or indirectly)
each two points in the area.
Your task is to design the network for the area, so that there is a connection (direct or indirect) between every two points (i.e., all the points are interconnected, but not necessarily by a direct cable), and that the total length of the used cable is minimal.

Input
The input file consists of a number of data sets. Each data set defines one required network. The first line of the set contains two integers: the first defines the number P of the given points, and the second the number R of given
routes between the points. The following R lines define the given routes between the points, each giving three integer numbers: the first two numbers identify the points, and the third gives the length of the route. The numbers are separated with white spaces.
A data set giving only one number P=0 denotes the end of the input. The data sets are separated with an empty line.
The maximal number of points is 50. The maximal length of a given route is 100. The number of possible routes is unlimited. The nodes are identified with integers between 1 and P (inclusive). The routes between two points i and j may be given as i j or as j
i.

Output
For each data set, print one number on a separate line that gives the total length of the cable used for the entire designed network.

Sample Input
1 0

2 3
1 2 37
2 1 17
1 2 68

3 7
1 2 19
2 3 11
3 1 7
1 3 5
2 3 89
3 1 91
1 2 32

5 7
1 2 5
2 3 7
2 4 8
4 5 11
3 5 10
1 5 6
4 2 12

0

Sample Output
0
17
16
26
最裸的求最小生成树的题了，但是wa了好久就是因为sort函数没搞明白······
以后做题还是要搞明白，毕竟不是为了应付#include<stdio.h>
#include<algorithm>
using namespace std;
int pre[10000];
int n,m;
int i,j;
struct node
{
int u,v,w;
}edge[10000];
bool cmp(node a,node b)
{
return a.w<b.w;
}
int find(int x)
{
if(pre[x]==x)
return x;
else
{
pre[x]=find(pre[x]);
return pre[x];
}
}
int join(int x,int y)
{
int fx=find(x);
int fy=find(y);
if(fx!=fy)
{
pre[fx]=fy;
return 1;
}
else
return 0;
}
int main()
{
while(scanf("%d",&n)!=EOF)
{
if(n==0)
break;
scanf("%d",&m);
int count=0,sum=0;
for(i=1;i<=n;i++)
pre[i]=i;
if(n==0 && m==0)
break;
for(i=1;i<=m;i++)
{
scanf("%d%d%d",&edge[i].u,&edge[i].v,&edge[i].w);
}
sort(edge+1,edge+m+1,cmp);
for(i=1;i<=m;i++)
{
if(join(edge[i].u,edge[i].v))
{
count++;
sum=sum+edge[i].w;
}
if(count==n-1)
break;
}
printf("%d\n",sum);
}
}


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• - Adds a networking test server that <em>must</em> be running for networking tests to pass. The networking tests will print out an error asking you to run the server if it can't connect. <p>Every ...
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• <div><p>This is the networking fix, they changed the network interface naming scheme. I would hold off on pull requests until I confirm the network interface changes on physical ubuntu machines.</p><p...
• ## Java Networking

千次阅读 2014-11-20 09:07:52
Java Networking
Java Networking 1Java Networking2Java Networking: Socket3Java Networking: ServerSocket4Java Networking: UDP DatagramSocket5Java Networking: URL + URLConnection6Java Networking: JarURLConnection7Java Networking: InetAddress8Java Networking: Protocol DesignJava Networking By Jakob Jenkov Connect with me: Rate article:<iframe frameborder="0" hspace="0" marginheight="0" marginwidth="0" scrolling="no" tabindex="0" vspace="0" width="100%" id="I0_1416445641285" name="I0_1416445641285" src="https://apis.google.com/se/0/_/+1/fastbutton?usegapi=1&origin=http%3A%2F%2Ftutorials.jenkov.com&url=http%3A%2F%2Ftutorials.jenkov.com%2Fjava-networking%2Findex.html&gsrc=3p&ic=1&jsh=m%3B%2F_%2Fscs%2Fapps-static%2F_%2Fjs%2Fk%3Doz.gapi.zh_CN.0KI2lcOUxJ0.O%2Fm%3D__features__%2Fam%3DAQ%2Frt%3Dj%2Fd%3D1%2Ft%3Dzcms%2Frs%3DAGLTcCPnLWTRWXjQ3yHtGTFSsUVyRcOV5g#_methods=onPlusOne%2C_ready%2C_close%2C_open%2C_resizeMe%2C_renderstart%2Concircled%2Cdrefresh%2Cerefresh&id=I0_1416445641285&parent=http%3A%2F%2Ftutorials.jenkov.com&pfname=&rpctoken=41058523" data-gapiattached="true" style="position: absolute; top: -10000px; width: 450px; margin: 0px; border-style: none;"></iframe>Share article:<iframe frameborder="0" hspace="0" marginheight="0" marginwidth="0" scrolling="no" tabindex="0" vspace="0" width="100%" id="I1_1416445641289" name="I1_1416445641289" src="https://apis.google.com/se/0/_/+1/sharebutton?plusShare=true&usegapi=1&action=share&height=24&annotation=none&origin=http%3A%2F%2Ftutorials.jenkov.com&url=http%3A%2F%2Ftutorials.jenkov.com%2Fjava-networking%2Findex.html&gsrc=3p&ic=1&jsh=m%3B%2F_%2Fscs%2Fapps-static%2F_%2Fjs%2Fk%3Doz.gapi.zh_CN.0KI2lcOUxJ0.O%2Fm%3D__features__%2Fam%3DAQ%2Frt%3Dj%2Fd%3D1%2Ft%3Dzcms%2Frs%3DAGLTcCPnLWTRWXjQ3yHtGTFSsUVyRcOV5g#_methods=onPlusOne%2C_ready%2C_close%2C_open%2C_resizeMe%2C_renderstart%2Concircled%2Cdrefresh%2Cerefresh%2Conload&id=I1_1416445641289&parent=http%3A%2F%2Ftutorials.jenkov.com&pfname=&rpctoken=26664239" data-gapiattached="true" style="position: absolute; top: -10000px; width: 450px; margin: 0px; border-style: none;"></iframe>TweetJava has a reasonably easy-to-use builtin networking API which makes it easy to communicate via TCP/IP sockets or UDP sockets over the internet. TCP is typically used more often than UDP, but both options are explained in this tutorial.There are three other tutorials here at tutorials.jenkov.com that are relevant to this Java networking tutorial. These are:Java IO TutorialJava NIO TutorialJava Multithreaded Servers TutorialEven though the Java Networking APIs enable you to open and close network connections via sockets, all communication happens via the Java IO classes InputStream and OutputStream.Alternatively you can use the networking classes in the Java NIO API. These classes are similar to the classes found in the Java Networking API, except the Java NIO API can work in non-blocking mode. Non-blocking mode may give a performance boost in some situations.Java TCP Networking BasicsTypically a client opens a TCP/IP connection to a server. The client then starts to communicate with the server. When the client is finished it closes the connection again. Here is an illustration of that:A client may send more than one request through an open connection. In fact, a client can send as much data as the server is ready to receive. The server can also close the connection if it wants to.Java Socket's and ServerSocket'sWhen a client wants to open a TCP/IP connection to a server, it does so using a Java Socket. The socket is told what IP address and TCP port to connect to and the rest is done by Java.If you want to start a server that listens for incoming connections from clients on some TCP port, you have to use aJava ServerSocket. When a client connects via a client socket to a server's ServerSocket, a Socket is assigned on the server to that connection. The client and server now communicates Socket-to-Socket.Socket's and ServerSocket's are covered in more detail in later texts.Java UDP Networking BasicsUDP works a bit differently from TCP. Using UDP there is no connection between the client and server. A client may send data to the server, and the server may (or may not) receive this data. The client will never know if the data was received at the other end. The same is true for the data sent the other way from the server to the client.Because there is no guarantee of data delivery, the UDP protocol has less protocol overhead.There are several situations in which the connectionless UDP model is preferable over TCP. These are covered in more detail in the text on Java's UDP DatagramSocket's.Next:   Java Networking: Socket
展开全文
• Networking benchmarks
今天来审视一下自己测试的benchmark和其他的一些当年NP还流行时候的一些测试。

Npbench

NPbench的论文

分类方式
将测试用例们根据其按照功能和意义来进行分类，主要有三大类：
TOG  —— Traffic-management and QoS Group
SMG ——  Security and Media processing Group
PPG  ——  Packet Processing Group
test suites
TOG类：

Weighted Fair Queuing（WFQ）
Random Early Detection（RED）
Secure Sockets Layer Dispatcher （SSLD）
Multi Protocol Layer Switching （MPLS）: 多协议标签交换技术SMG类：

Media Transcoding （MTC）
Message Digestion algorithm （MD5）
Diffie-Hellman key exchange （DH）PPG类：

FRAG : a packet fragmentation application
Cyclic Redundancy Check （CRC）
EEMBC networking benchmark V2.0

EEMBC networkingV2.0 主页 netwoking benchmarkV2.0的说明文档

test suites
-IP重组：基于 NetBSD实现。 消耗data cache。
-IP Packet Check：计算校验和。尤其是IPv4包的checksum。
- NAT：仍然基于 NetBSD实现。
- OSPF：使用了Dijkstra最短路径算法，更新路由节点信息。
- QoS：其实这里也是调度进来的packet的队列，使负载均衡。WFQ和RED在其中都被使用。基于 NetBSD。
- Route Lookup：路由查找算法，这个东西本身就是一个值得研究的点。使用的是Patricia Tree lookup算法。
- TCP

NetBench

描述Netbench的paper

分类方式
参照网络七层的IOS标准来进行分类，也大致分为三层： Micro-level program，这个可以看做是链路层及其以下所运行的programs
IP-Level program，在 IP层处理和运算的programs
Application-Level program，处于IP之上的应用层，TCP/UDP等高层用户协议运作的地方。
test suites
Micro level programs： CRC
table lookup routine （TL）
IP level programs :
Route table lookup （RTL） : table lookup along with internet checksum.
Deficit-round robin scheduling （DRR）
IPCHAINS :  防火墙应用
Application level programs
URL
DH
MD5
Commbench

Commbench的主页（内含paper一篇）

分类方式
test suite
FRAG : 针对报文头修改和校验和计算的操作。
DRR : 调度算法的一种，Deficti Round Robin fair scheduling algorithm。和前面的WQF的作用是一样的。
TCP : TCP流量监控应用。
CAST : CAST-128 block cipher algorithm。一个加密算法。
ZIP : 压缩算法，在压缩传输当中比较常见。Lempel-Ziv（LZ77）算法的一个变种。
REED : reed-rolomon forward error correction，前向纠错码和前向纠错算法。
JPEG : 无损压缩图片的一个算法。相比都已经很熟悉啦。
MyNetBench

接下来是我的了，我也沿用了IOS分层的方法。下面是我的test suites：
- LZW 压缩算法
- OSPF
- CRC
- RS-FEC：与前面的reed-Solomon code编码那个一致的。
- MD5
- DRR
- Route table lookup
- Token bucket
- HASH
- SHA

以上。
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• Storm Unity Networking is a fast, simple and flexible networking solution for server-client multiplayer games. Storm hides you from the complexity of the using sockets, allows to use high-level API ...
• unity 局域网Unet Networking ARDemo 资源包，使用Unity内置Unet实现AR对战
• NETWORKING PRE-READING 网络读前活动 To help you get ready for our lectures in this module, I’d like you to read up a bit. I’m waiting with lots of exciting things to teach you about networking. ...

网络读前活动
为了帮助你们准备好这节课的内容，我想让你们先预习一下。我在等着教你很多关于人际交往的令人兴奋的事情。但是，为了帮助您理解这些讲座，请先查看这些链接中的信息。
From the TCP/IP Guide
Introduction to Networking
What Is Networking?

网络是什么?
网络的好处
网络的缺点(成本)

Fundamental Network Characteristics
基本网络特征
Protocols: What Are They, Anyway?
Circuit Switching and Packet Switching Networks
Connection-Oriented and Connectionless Protocols
Messages: Packets, Frames, Datagrams and Cells
Network Structural Models and Client/Server and Peer-to-Peer Networking

协议:到底是什么?
电路交换和分组交换网络
面向连接和无连接协议
消息:包、帧、数据报和单元格
消息格式:标题、有效负载和页脚
消息寻址和传输方法:单播、广播和多播消息
网络结构模型和客户机/服务器以及对等网络

Backgrounder: Data Representation and the Mathematics of Computing
背景:数据表示和计算的数学
Binary Information and Representation: Bits, Bytes, Nibbles, Octets and Characters
Decimal, Binary, Octal and Hexadecimal Numbers
Decimal, Binary, Octal and Hexadecimal Number Conversion
Boolean Logic and Logical Functions
Bit Masking (Setting, Clearing and Inverting) Using Boolean Logical Functions

二进制信息和表示:位、字节、字节、八进制数和字符
十进制、二进制、八进制和十六进制数
十进制、二进制、八进制和十六进制数字转换
二进制、八进制和十六进制算术
布尔逻辑和逻辑函数
位屏蔽(设置、清除和反转)使用布尔逻辑函数

History of the OSI Reference Model
OSI参考模型的历史
General Reference Model Issues
一般参考模型问题
The Benefits of Networking Models
Why Understanding The OSI Reference Model Is Important To You
How To Use The OSI Reference Model
Comparing the OSI Reference Model to Network Architectures and Protocol Stacks

网络模型的好处
为什么理解OSI参考模型对你很重要
如何使用OSI参考模型
比较OSI参考模型与网络架构和协议栈

Key OSI Reference Model Concepts
OSI Reference Model Networking Layers, Sublayers and Layer Groupings
"N" Notation and Other OSI Model Layer Terminology
Protocols: Horizontal (Corresponding Layer) Communication
Data Encapsulation, Protocol Data Units (PDUs) and Service Data Units (SDUs)
Indirect Device Connection and Message Routing

关键OSI参考模型概念
OSI参考模型网络层，子层和层组
“N”符号和其他OSI模型层术语
接口:垂直(相邻层)通信
协议:水平(对应层)通信
数据封装、协议数据单元(pdu)和服务数据单元(sdu)
间接设备连接和消息路由

Understanding The OSI Reference Model: An Analogy
OSI Reference Model Layers
Physical Layer (Layer 1)
Network Layer (Layer 3)
Transport Layer (Layer 4)
Session Layer (Layer 5)
Presentation Layer (Layer 6)
Application Layer (Layer 7)

理解OSI参考模型:一个类比
OSI参考模型层
物理层(层1)
数据链路层(层2)
网络层(层3)
传输层(层4)
会话层(层5)
表示层(层6)
应用层(第7层)

转载于:https://www.cnblogs.com/sec875/articles/10339215.html
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• Mastering Python Networking Your one stop solution to using Python for network automation, DevOps, and SDN Eric Chou
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• <p>Study this topic and related topics: <a href="https://kubernetes.io/docs/concepts/cluster-administration/networking/">Cluster Networking</a>. Bring all of the networking content into a coherent set...
• <div><p>Refactored the networking/p2p module to integrate rpc. This is working, but some features are still missing, to be built out in a future PR for the sync module. Eg: emitting request events and...
• 为了解决VLAN awre VM的问题，Openstack引入了Trunk Networking方案。Trunk Networking方案需解决的问题有：1 VM aware的VLAN ID，在Host内部不能冲突。2 VM aware的VLAN ID，不需要在Host之间的物理网络透传。3 ...
• <p>class Networking extends ApiGroup { constructor(options) { const resources = [ 'networkpolicies' ]; options = Object.assign({}, options, { path: 'apis/networking.k8s.io&#...
• <div><p>I would greatly appreciate some writeup/documentation on the networking topics around lxd. I'd like to use lxd as a faster alternative to Virtualbox for testing and development and also ...
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• Java Networking
• <div><p>I tried to set up bonded networking. There were several issues I ran into. <pre><code> NetworkManager conflicts with Rockstor and they both try to use different interface names and overwrite ...
• Andriod networking 本人从今天开始，会不定时的更新博客，写出自己对Android network 的一些感悟与知识总结。由于本人也在学习之中，如果有错误之处还请五湖四海的各位大神批评指正，感激不尽！ ...
• <div><p>The current networking implementation support bridge networking. <p>We need to support at least one overlay network framework. The first overlay network we need to enable is swarm with the ...

...