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  • backup

    千次阅读 2016-04-30 23:50:04
    backup
    backup
    
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  • Backup

    千次阅读 2013-06-27 17:34:09
    CHANGE ... UNCATALOG CATALOG  DELETE OBSOLETE RECOVERY WINDOW OF 7 DAYS BACKUP   INCREMENTAL LEVEL 0  MAXSETSIZE 10M  DATABASE  TAG 'BACKUP_1';...CONFIGURE BACKUP OPTIMIZATIO
    CHANGE ... UNCATALOG


    CATALOG 


    DELETE OBSOLETE RECOVERY WINDOW OF 7 DAYS


    BACKUP 
      INCREMENTAL LEVEL 0
      MAXSETSIZE 10M
      DATABASE
      TAG 'BACKUP_1';


    CONFIGURE BACKUP OPTIMIZATION ON


    CONFIGURE ARCHIVELOG DELETION POLICY
      TO BACKED UP 1 TIMES TO SBT;


    DELETE 
      ARCHIVELOG ALL
      BACKED UP 2 TIMES TO DEVICE TYPE sbt;


    CHANGE BACKUP OF ARCHIVELOG TAG SECOND_COPY UNAVAILABLE;


    BACKUP DATABASE
      SKIP INACCESSIBLE
      SKIP READONLY
      SKIP OFFLINE;




    Performing Block Media Recovery
    ###############################
    To recover specific data blocks
    ===============================
    RECOVER 
      DATAFILE 8 BLOCK 13 
      DATAFILE 2 BLOCK 199
      FROM TAG mondayam;


    To recover all blocks logged in V$DATABASE_BLOCK_CORRUPTION
    ===========================================================
    RECOVER CORRUPTION LIST;




    make a backup with tag
    ======================
    backup as backupset
      database device type disk 
      format '/disk1/backup_%U'
      tag mondaybkp;


    Making Compressed Backups
    =========================
    The following example backs up the database, switches the online redo logs, and includes archived logs in the backup:
    By archiving the logs immediately after the backup, you ensure that you have a full set of archived logs through the time of the backup. In this way, you guarantee that you can perform media recovery after restoring this backup.


    backup as compressed backupset
      database plus archivelog;




    Backing Up Tablespaces and Datafiles with RMAN
    ==============================================
    RMAN automatically backs up the control file and the server parameter file (if the instance was started with a server parameter file) when datafile 1 is included in the backup. If control file autobackup is enabled, then RMAN writes the current control file and server parameter file to a separate autobackup piece. Otherwise, RMAN includes these files in the backup set that contains datafile 1.


    backup device type sbt
      tablesapce users, tools;


    backup device type sbt
      datafile 1,2,3




    To manually back up the control file
    ====================================
    backup device type sbt
      tablespace users
      include current controlfile;


    BACKUP AS COPY
      CURRENT CONTROLFILE 
      FORMAT '/tmp/control01.ctl';




    To back up the server parameter file
    ====================================
    backup device type sbt spfile;




    Archived Redo Log Failover
    ==========================
    The archived redo log failover feature enables RMAN to complete a backup even when some archiving destinations are missing logs or contain logs with corrupt blocks.



    Online Redo Log Switching
    =========================
    Another important RMAN feature is automatic online redo log switching. To make an open database backup of archived redo logs that includes the most recent online redo log, you can execute the BACKUP command with any of the following clauses:
      PLUS ARCHIVELOG
      ARCHIVELOG ALL
      ARCHIVELOG FROM ...


    Before beginning the backup, RMAN switches out of the current redo log group, and archives all online redo logs that have not yet been archived, up to and including the redo log group that was current when the command was issued. This feature ensures that the backup contains all redo generated before the start of the command.


    One of the most effective ways of backing up archived redo logs is the BACKUP ... PLUS ARCHIVELOG clause, which causes RMAN to do the following:


      1.Runs the ALTER SYSTEM ARCHIVE LOG CURRENT statement.
      2.Runs BACKUP ARCHIVELOG ALL. If backup optimization is enabled, then RMAN skips logs that it has already backed up to the specified device.
      3.Backs up the rest of the files specified in BACKUP command.
      4.Runs the ALTER SYSTEM ARCHIVE LOG CURRENT statement.


    Backs up any remaining archived logs generated during the backup. If backup optimization is not enabled, then RMAN backs up the logs generated in step 1 plus all the logs generated during the backup.


    The preceding steps guarantee that datafile backups taken during the command are recoverable to a consistent state. Also, unless the online redo log is archived at the end of the backup, DUPLICATE is not possible with the backup.



    To back up archived redo log files
    ==================================
    BACKUP DATABASE PLUS ARCHIVELOG;
    BACKUP ARCHIVELOG ALL;
    BACKUP ARCHIVELOG 
      FROM TIME  'SYSDATE-30'
      UNTIL TIME 'SYSDATE-7';




    To back up archived redo logs that need backups
    ===============================================
    BACKUP ARCHIVELOG ALL NOT BACKED UP 2 TIMES;




    To delete archived redo logs after a backup
    ===========================================
    For the following procedure, assume that you archive to /arc_dest1, /arc_dest2, and the fast recovery area.


    BACKUP DEVICE TYPE sbt 
      ARCHIVELOG ALL 
        DELETE ALL INPUT;


    In this case, RMAN backs up only one copy of each log sequence number in these archiving locations. RMAN does not delete any logs from the fast recovery area, but it deletes all copies of any log that it backed up from the other archiving destinations. The logs in the fast recovery area that are eligible for deletion are automatically removed by the database when space is needed.


    If you had specified DELETE INPUT rather than DELETE ALL INPUT, then RMAN would only delete the specific archived redo log files that it backed up. For example, RMAN would delete the logs in /arc_dest1 if these files were used as the source of the backup, but leave the contents of the /arc_dest2 intact.




    The following SQL query determines the number of blocks written to an incremental level 1 backup of each datafile with at least 20% of its blocks backed up
    ====================================================
    SELECT   FILE#, INCREMENTAL_LEVEL, COMPLETION_TIME, 
             BLOCKS, DATAFILE_BLOCKS 
    FROM     V$BACKUP_DATAFILE 
    WHERE    INCREMENTAL_LEVEL > 0 
    AND      BLOCKS / DATAFILE_BLOCKS > .2
    ORDER BY COMPLETION_TIME;




    To make an incremental backup
    =============================
    backup incremental level 0 database;


    backup incremental level 1 tablesapce system, tools;


    backup incremental level 1 cumulative tablesapce users;




    To enable block change tracking
    ===============================
    SHOW PARAMETER DB_CREATE_FILE_DEST


    alter database enable block change tracking
      [using file '/mydir/rman_change_track.f' reuse];


    alter database disable block change tracking;


    SELECT STATUS, FILENAME
    FROM   V$BLOCK_CHANGE_TRACKING;


    Mount the database and move the change tracking file to a location that has more space
    ALTER DATABASE RENAME FILE
       '/disk1/bct/RDBMS/changetracking/o1_mf_2f71np5j_.chg' TO 
       '/disk2/bct/RDBMS/changetracking/o1_mf_2f71np5j_.chg';




    To make a long-term archival backup
    ===================================
    RUN {
      ALLOCATE CHANNEL c1 
        DEVICE TYPE sbt
        PARMS 'ENV=(OB_MEDIA_FAMILY=archival_backup)';
      BACKUP DATABASE
        TAG quarterly
        KEEP FOREVER    # KEEP UNTIL TIME 'SYSDATE+365'
        RESTORE POINT FY06Q4;
    }




    To back up backup sets from disk to tape
    ========================================
    list backupset 3;


    BACKUP device type sbt BACKUPSET ALL
      DELETE INPUT;


    BACKUP device type sbt BACKUPSET 1,2
      DELETE INPUT;




    To back up image copies from disk to tape
    =========================================
    BACKUP DATAFILE COPY FROM TAG monDBCopy;


    BACKUP DEVICE TYPE sbt
      TAG "quarterly_backup"
      COPY OF DATABASE 
      DELETE INPUT;


    ARCHIVELOG DELETION POLICY
    ==========================
    CONFIGURE ARCHIVELOG DELETION POLICY TO BACKED UP 3 TIMES TO DISK;
    RMAN> backup archivelog all delete input;
    RMAN-08138: WARNING: archived log not deleted - must create more backups
    RMAN> delete archivelog all;
    RMAN-08138: WARNING: archived log not deleted - must create more backups


    BACKUP OPTIMIZATION
    ===================
    CONFIGURE BACKUP OPTIMIZATION ON;
    skipping archived log file /u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/db_1/dbs/arch/1_42_808520212.dbf; already backed up 1 time(s)



    Advanced 
    =========


    To limit the size of backup sets
    ================================
    BACKUP DEVICE TYPE sbt
      MAXSETSIZE 100M
      ARCHIVELOG ALL;


    To backup with multisection
    ===========================
    run {
    allocate channel c1 device type disk;
    allocate channel c2 device type disk;
    backup section size 100M database format '/u01/backup/full_%D_%s_%p_%T'
      plus archivelog format '/u01/backup/arc_%D_%s_%p_%T';
    }


    To make a split mirror backup of a tablespace by using SUSPEND/RESUME
    =====================================================================
    SQL 'ALTER TABLESPACE users BEGIN BACKUP'; 

    SQL 'ALTER SYSTEM SUSPEND';

    SQL 'ALTER SYSTEM RESUME';

    SQL 'ALTER TABLESPACE users END BACKUP';

    CATALOG DATAFILECOPY '/dk2/oradata/trgt/users01.dbf'; # catalog split mirror

    BACKUP DATAFILECOPY '/dk2/oradata/trgt/users01.dbf';

    CHANGE DATAFILECOPY '/dk2/oradata/trgt/users01.dbf' UNCATALOG;


    To make dual-mode encrypted backups
    ===================================
    SET ENCRYPTION IDENTIFIED BY password ON FOR ALL TABLESPACES;


    BACKUP DATABASE PLUS ARCHIVELOG;




    To specify a backup duration
    ============================
    BACKUP 
      DURATION 4:00 
      TABLESPACE users;


    restore preview
    ===============
    RESTORE DATABASE PREVIEW;

    RESTORE ARCHIVELOG FROM TIME 'SYSDATE-7' PREVIEW;

    RESTORE DATABASE PREVIEW SUMMARY;

    RESTORE DATABASE validate header;

    You can use RESTORE ... PREVIEW RECALL to instruct the media manager to make offsite backups available.

    RESTORE ARCHIVELOG ALL PREVIEW RECALL




    Restore point
    =============
    SELECT NAME, SCN, TIME, DATABASE_INCARNATION#,
           GUARANTEE_FLASHBACK_DATABASE, STORAGE_SIZE
    FROM   V$RESTORE_POINT
    WHERE  GUARANTEE_FLASHBACK_DATABASE='YES';




    REPORT used to determine whether your database is recoverable are
    =================================================================
    REPORT NEED BACKUP [redundancy n | recovery window of n days]


    Reports which database files require backup because they have been
     affected by some NOLOGGING operation such as a direct-path INSERT
    ==================================================================
    REPORT UNRECOVERABLE

    REPORT SCHEMA

    Displays files that require more than n days' worth of archived redo log files for recovery.
    REPORT NEED BACKUP DAYS n

    REPORT NEED BACKUP INCREMENTAL n

    REPORT NEED BACKUP REDUNDANCY 2 DATAFILE 1;

    report need backup device type tap;


    To report obsolete backups
    ==========================
    CROSSCHECK BACKUP DEVICE TYPE sbt;
    CROSSCHECK BACKUP; # crosshecks all backups on all devices


    REPORT OBSOLETE;
    REPORT OBSOLETE RECOVERY WINDOW OF 3 DAYS;




    To query details about past and current RMAN jobs
    =================================================
    for information about the backup type, status, and start and end time
    ---------------------------------------------------------------------
    COL STATUS FORMAT a9
    COL hrs    FORMAT 999.99
    SELECT SESSION_KEY, INPUT_TYPE, STATUS,
           TO_CHAR(START_TIME,'mm/dd/yy hh24:mi') start_time,
           TO_CHAR(END_TIME,'mm/dd/yy hh24:mi')   end_time,
           ELAPSED_SECONDS/3600                   hrs
    FROM V$RMAN_BACKUP_JOB_DETAILS
    ORDER BY SESSION_KEY;


    for the rate of backup jobs in an RMAN session
    ----------------------------------------------
    COL in_sec FORMAT a10
    COL out_sec FORMAT a10
    COL TIME_TAKEN_DISPLAY FORMAT a10
    SELECT SESSION_KEY, 
           OPTIMIZED, 
           COMPRESSION_RATIO, 
           INPUT_BYTES_PER_SEC_DISPLAY in_sec,
           OUTPUT_BYTES_PER_SEC_DISPLAY out_sec, 
           TIME_TAKEN_DISPLAY
    FROM   V$RMAN_BACKUP_JOB_DETAILS
    ORDER BY SESSION_KEY;


    for the size of the backups in an RMAN session
    ----------------------------------------------
    COL in_size  FORMAT a10
    COL out_size FORMAT a10
    SELECT SESSION_KEY, 
           INPUT_TYPE,
           COMPRESSION_RATIO, 
           INPUT_BYTES_DISPLAY in_size,
           OUTPUT_BYTES_DISPLAY out_size
    FROM   V$RMAN_BACKUP_JOB_DETAILS
    ORDER BY SESSION_KEY;




    Unique Identifiers for Registered Databases
    ===========================================
    Most recovery catalog views contain the columns DB_KEY and DBINC_KEY. Each database registered in the recovery catalog can be uniquely identified by either the primary key, which is the DB_KEY column value, or the DBID, which is the 32-bit unique database identifier. Each incarnation of a database is uniquely identified by the DBINC_KEY column.
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  • BACKUP

    2010-07-23 17:01:00
    <br />    backup(oracle) The following table illustrates the main types of physical backups and the non-RMAN methods for performing these backups. Backup ObjectBackup ...

     

     

    backup(oracle)

    The following table illustrates the main types of physical backups and the non-RMAN methods for performing these backups.

    Backup ObjectBackup MethodExample

    Datafiles

    Operating system utility

    % cp df3.f df3.bak

    Archived logs

    Operating system utility

    % cp log_1_23.arc log_1_23.bak

    Control files

    SQL statement

    SQL> ALTER DATABASE BACKUP CONTROLFILE TO cf1.bak

    Initialization parameter file

    SQL statement

    SQL> CREATE PFILE = init.ora.bak FROM SPFILE;

    Network and password files

    Operating system utility

    % cp tnsnames.ora tnsnames.bak

    C:/> copy tnsnames.ora tnsnames.bak

    Logical objects (tables, indexes, PL/SQL units)

    Export utility

    % export SYSTEM/manager TABLE=hr.emp FILE=emp.dmp


     

     

     

    Consistent and Inconsistent User-Managed Backups

    You can use RMAN or operating system commands to make an inconsistent backup or a consistent backup. An inconsistent backup is a backup of one or more database files made while the database is open or after the database has not been shut down normally. A consistent backup is a backup of one or more database files that you make after the database has been shut down normally. Unlike an inconsistent backup, a consistent backup does not require recovery after it is restored.

    A consistent whole database backup is the only valid backup option for databases running in NOARCHIVELOG mode, because otherwise redo needed for recovery is not available. In NOARCHIVELOG mode, Oracle overwrites redo records without archiving them first.

    If you run the database in ARCHIVELOG mode, then you can back up database files while the database is open. These backups are inconsistent, but as long as you have the necessary archived redo logs you can recover these backups. You can either take a tablespace offline and back up its datafiles, or perform an online backup. An online backup occurs when the tablespace is still online. To perform an online backup, you must begin and end the backup with SQL statements that place the tablespace in and take the tablespace out of backup mode.

     

     

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  • t do a backup. I have always the same error message, and the same thing happens. No backup happens. Memory allowed in my php_ini and wp-config.php are high, and as it doesn't begin at all, I think...
  • BACKUP SET和BACKUP PIECE

    2020-01-06 17:11:29
    RMAN can store backup data in a logical structure called a backup set, which is the smallest unit of an RMAN backup. A backup set contains the data from one or more datafiles, archived redo ...

    先来一段官方解释

    RMAN can store backup data in a logical structure called a backup set, which is the smallest unit of an RMAN backup. A backup set contains the data from one or more datafiles, archived redo logs, control files, or server parameter file. Backup sets, which are only created and accessed through RMAN, are the only form in which RMAN can write backups to media managers such as tape drives and tape libraries.

    A backup set contains one or more binary files in an RMAN-specific format. Each of these files is known as a backup piece. A backup set can contain multiple datafiles.For example, you can back up 10 datafiles into a single backup set consisting of a
    single backup piece. In this case, RMAN creates one backup piece as output. The backup set contains only this backup piece.

    If you specify the SECTION SIZE parameter on the BACKUP command, then RMAN produces a multisection backup. This is a backup of a single large file, produced bymultiple channels in parallel, each of which produces one backup piece. Each backup
    piece contains one file section of the file being backed up.

    For non-multisection backups, RMAN only records backup sets in the repository that complete successfully. There is no such thing as a partial backup set. This differs from an unsuccessful multisection backup, where it is possible for RMAN metadata to
    contain a record for a partial backup set. In the latter case, you must use the DELETE command to delete the partial backup set.

    我的理解就从一个例子开始说吧。

    如果配置了参数MAXSETSIZE就可能遇到这个问题

    RMAN-03002: failure of backup command at 01/05/2020 18:00:07 RMAN-06183: datafile or datafile copy /oracle/oradata/orcl/users01.dbf (file number 4) larger than MAXSETSIZE

    这里设置了MAXSETSIZE为20G,此时的users01.dbf已经超过了20G,导致此报错。

    解决方法

    1、取消MAXSETSIZE;Oracle 默认值是unlimited,可以设置为 CONFIGURE MAXSETSIZE TO UNLIMITED;

    2、调大MAXSETSIZE;此处是20G,可以改为CONFIGURE MAXSETSIZE TO 100G;

    为什么会报这种错误?

    首先从官文中理解下BACKUP SET和BACKUP PIECE:

    1、BACKUP SET是个逻辑概念,是RMAN备份的最小单元;一个BACKUP SET包含一个或多个数据文件、归档日志,控制文件或者SPFILE的数据。

    2、一个BACKUP SET可以包含一个或者多个BACKUP PIECE,BACKUP PIECE的数量取决于是否在备份时设置了MAXPIECESIZE(用在 ALLOCATE CHANNEL or CONFIGURE CHANNEL command);

    3、BACKUP PIECE是个物理概念,存在于磁盘上;一个BACKUP PIECE可以包含一个或多个数据文件;例如当BACKUP SET只有一个BACKUP PIECE,它就包含所有的数据文件

    Oracle的原理是BACKUP SET不能跨数据文件,即如果设置MAXSETSIZE,此值的最小值也要大于占用物理空间最大的数据文件的大小,

    生成BACKUP SET的个数(排除控制文件及SPFILE产生的BACKUP SET)= 数据文件占用总物理空间 / MAXSETSIZE

    BACKUP PIECE可以跨数据文件,一个BACKUP SET下的多个BACKUP PIECE可能来自一个较大的数据文件,也可能一个BACKUP PIECE包含来自两个数据文件的数据。

    以下来自测试环境:

    先看数据文件大小,手动添加test表空间并指定1G大小数据文件test01.dbf

    [oracle@orcl orcl]$ ls -lh

    total 3.0G

    -rw-r----- 1 oracle oinstall 9.6M Dec 24 06:00 control01.ctl

    -rw-r----- 1 oracle oinstall 347M Dec 24 05:40 example01.dbf

    -rw-r----- 1 oracle oinstall  51M Dec 24 05:34 redo01.log

    -rw-r----- 1 oracle oinstall  51M Dec 24 06:00 redo02.log

    -rw-r----- 1 oracle oinstall  51M Dec 24 05:34 redo03.log

    -rw-r----- 1 oracle oinstall 601M Dec 24 05:57 sysaux01.dbf

    -rw-r----- 1 oracle oinstall 761M Dec 24 05:59 system01.dbf

    -rw-r----- 1 oracle oinstall  30M Dec 24 05:35 temp01.dbf

    -rw-r----- 1 oracle oinstall 1.1G Dec 24 05:59 test01.dbf

    -rw-r----- 1 oracle oinstall 101M Dec 24 05:59 undotbs01.dbf

    -rw-r----- 1 oracle oinstall 5.1M Dec 24 05:39 users01.dbf

    执行rman备份后,查看BACKUP SET,此时的MAXSETSIZE设置为1G,MAXPIECESIZE无限制

    RMAN> list backup;


    List of Backup Sets
    ===================


    BS Key  Type LV Size       Device Type Elapsed Time Completion Time
    ------- ---- -- ---------- ----------- ------------ ---------------
    55      Full    1.03M      DISK        00:00:00     24-DEC-19      
            BP Key: 66   Status: AVAILABLE  Compressed: NO  Tag: TAG20191224T060127
            Piece Name: /u01/app/oracle/oradata/Backup/oradb_ORCL_124_1.bak
      List of Datafiles in backup set 55
      File LV Type Ckp SCN    Ckp Time  Name
      ---- -- ---- ---------- --------- ----
      6       Full 1757455    24-DEC-19 /u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/test01.dbf

    BS Key  Type LV Size       Device Type Elapsed Time Completion Time
    ------- ---- -- ---------- ----------- ------------ ---------------
    56      Full    519.12M    DISK        00:00:09     24-DEC-19      
            BP Key: 67   Status: AVAILABLE  Compressed: NO  Tag: TAG20191224T060127
            Piece Name: /u01/app/oracle/oradata/Backup/oradb_ORCL_125_1.bak
      List of Datafiles in backup set 56
      File LV Type Ckp SCN    Ckp Time  Name
      ---- -- ---- ---------- --------- ----
      2       Full 1757457    24-DEC-19 /u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/sysaux01.dbf
      5       Full 1757457    24-DEC-19 /u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/example01.dbf

    BS Key  Type LV Size       Device Type Elapsed Time Completion Time
    ------- ---- -- ---------- ----------- ------------ ---------------
    57      Full    652.44M    DISK        00:00:38     24-DEC-19      
            BP Key: 68   Status: AVAILABLE  Compressed: NO  Tag: TAG20191224T060127
            Piece Name: /u01/app/oracle/oradata/Backup/oradb_ORCL_126_1.bak
      List of Datafiles in backup set 57
      File LV Type Ckp SCN    Ckp Time  Name
      ---- -- ---- ---------- --------- ----
      1       Full 1757469    24-DEC-19 /u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/system01.dbf
      3       Full 1757469    24-DEC-19 /u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/undotbs01.dbf
      4       Full 1757469    24-DEC-19 /u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/users01.dbf

    BS Key  Type LV Size       Device Type Elapsed Time Completion Time
    ------- ---- -- ---------- ----------- ------------ ---------------
    58      Full    9.64M      DISK        00:00:01     24-DEC-19      
            BP Key: 69   Status: AVAILABLE  Compressed: NO  Tag: TAG20191224T060127
            Piece Name: /u01/app/oracle/oradata/Backup/oradb_ORCL_127_1.bak
      SPFILE Included: Modification time: 24-DEC-19
      SPFILE db_unique_name: ORCL
      Control File Included: Ckp SCN: 1757510      Ckp time: 24-DEC-19
    查看BACKUP PIECE大小

    -rw-r----- 1 oracle oinstall 1.1M Dec 24 06:01 oradb_ORCL_124_1.bak 

    --1G的数据文件生成的BACKUP PIECE只有1.1M,证明RMAN只备份USED的数据块

    -rw-r----- 1 oracle oinstall 520M Dec 24 06:01 oradb_ORCL_125_1.bak

    -rw-r----- 1 oracle oinstall 653M Dec 24 06:02 oradb_ORCL_126_1.bak

    -rw-r----- 1 oracle oinstall 9.7M Dec 24 06:02 oradb_ORCL_127_1.bak

    手动设置MAXPIECESIZE为300M,MAXSETSIZE依然为1G,再次执行备份

    RMAN> list backup;


    List of Backup Sets
    ===================


    BS Key  Type LV Size       Device Type Elapsed Time Completion Time
    ------- ---- -- ---------- ----------- ------------ ---------------
    59      Full    1.03M      DISK        00:00:00     24-DEC-19      
            BP Key: 70   Status: AVAILABLE  Compressed: NO  Tag: TAG20191224T061050
            Piece Name: /u01/app/oracle/oradata/Backup/oradb_ORCL_128_1.bak
      List of Datafiles in backup set 59
      File LV Type Ckp SCN    Ckp Time  Name
      ---- -- ---- ---------- --------- ----
      6       Full 1758274    24-DEC-19 /u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/test01.dbf

    BS Key  Type LV Size       Device Type Elapsed Time Completion Time
    ------- ---- -- ---------- ----------- ------------ ---------------
    60      Full    519.14M    DISK        00:00:36     24-DEC-19      
      List of Datafiles in backup set 60
      File LV Type Ckp SCN    Ckp Time  Name
      ---- -- ---- ---------- --------- ----
      2       Full 1758276    24-DEC-19 /u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/sysaux01.dbf
      5       Full 1758276    24-DEC-19 /u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/example01.dbf

      Backup Set Copy #1 of backup set 60
      Device Type Elapsed Time Completion Time Compressed Tag
      ----------- ------------ --------------- ---------- ---
      DISK        00:00:36     24-DEC-19       NO         TAG20191224T061050

        List of Backup Pieces for backup set 60 Copy #1
        BP Key  Pc# Status      Piece Name
        ------- --- ----------- ----------
        71      1   AVAILABLE   /u01/app/oracle/oradata/Backup/oradb_ORCL_129_1.bak
        72      2   AVAILABLE   /u01/app/oracle/oradata/Backup/oradb_ORCL_129_2.bak

    BS Key  Type LV Size       Device Type Elapsed Time Completion Time
    ------- ---- -- ---------- ----------- ------------ ---------------
    61      Full    652.58M    DISK        00:00:34     24-DEC-19      
      List of Datafiles in backup set 61
      File LV Type Ckp SCN    Ckp Time  Name
      ---- -- ---- ---------- --------- ----
      1       Full 1758319    24-DEC-19 /u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/system01.dbf
      3       Full 1758319    24-DEC-19 /u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/undotbs01.dbf
      4       Full 1758319    24-DEC-19 /u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/users01.dbf

      Backup Set Copy #1 of backup set 61
      Device Type Elapsed Time Completion Time Compressed Tag
      ----------- ------------ --------------- ---------- ---
      DISK        00:00:34     24-DEC-19       NO         TAG20191224T061050

        List of Backup Pieces for backup set 61 Copy #1
        BP Key  Pc# Status      Piece Name
        ------- --- ----------- ----------
        73      1   AVAILABLE   /u01/app/oracle/oradata/Backup/oradb_ORCL_130_1.bak
        74      2   AVAILABLE   /u01/app/oracle/oradata/Backup/oradb_ORCL_130_2.bak
        75      3   AVAILABLE   /u01/app/oracle/oradata/Backup/oradb_ORCL_130_3.bak

    BS Key  Type LV Size       Device Type Elapsed Time Completion Time
    ------- ---- -- ---------- ----------- ------------ ---------------
    62      Full    9.64M      DISK        00:00:01     24-DEC-19      
            BP Key: 76   Status: AVAILABLE  Compressed: NO  Tag: TAG20191224T061050
            Piece Name: /u01/app/oracle/oradata/Backup/oradb_ORCL_131_1.bak
      SPFILE Included: Modification time: 24-DEC-19
      SPFILE db_unique_name: ORCL
      Control File Included: Ckp SCN: 1758361      Ckp time: 24-DEC-19
    查看生成的BACKUP PIECE大小,发现被按照最大300M分割成多个文件

    -rw-r----- 1 oracle oinstall 1.1M Dec 24 06:10 oradb_ORCL_128_1.bak

    -rw-r----- 1 oracle oinstall 300M Dec 24 06:11 oradb_ORCL_129_1.bak

    -rw-r----- 1 oracle oinstall 220M Dec 24 06:11 oradb_ORCL_129_2.bak

    -rw-r----- 1 oracle oinstall 300M Dec 24 06:11 oradb_ORCL_130_1.bak

    -rw-r----- 1 oracle oinstall 300M Dec 24 06:11 oradb_ORCL_130_2.bak

    -rw-r----- 1 oracle oinstall  53M Dec 24 06:12 oradb_ORCL_130_3.bak

    -rw-r----- 1 oracle oinstall 9.7M Dec 24 06:12 oradb_ORCL_131_1.bak

    结论:

    1、BACKUP SET设置不能小于最大占用物理空间的数据文件大小

    2、不根据是否使用块判断,只根据占用的物理空间判断分成多少BACKUP SET,当前数据文件总量大约2.7G,根据1G的MAXSETSIZE将全部数据文件备份为3个BACKUP SET

    3、RMAN只备份已经使用的块

    4、概念不要混淆,MAXSETSIZE指的是BACKUPSET大小,MAXPIECESIZE指的是BACKUP PIECE大小

    展开全文
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