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  • 2020-12-28 19:52:29

    动词ing形式的用法

    a. 表示现在( 指说话人说话时) 正在发生的事情。

    We are waiting for you.

    b. 习惯进行:表示长期的或重复性的动作,说话时动作未必正在进行。

    Mr. Green is writing another novel.

    (说话时并未在写,只处于写作的状态。)

    She is learning piano under Mr. Smith.

    c. 表示渐变的动词有:get, grow, become, turn, run, go, begin等。

    The leaves are turning red.

    It's getting warmer and warmer.

    d. 与always, constantly, forever 等词连用,表示反复发生的动作或持续存在的状态,往往带有说话人的主观色彩。

    You are always changing your mind.

    动词 ing变化规律

    1.英语动词加-ing,通常是在原形词尾直接加-ing构成:cough—coughing,climb—climbing,stand—standing,fight—fighting

    2.以-e结尾的动词

    (1)如果动词原形以一辅音加一不发音的-e结尾,一般应去掉e再加ing:

    write—writing,hope—hoping,care—caring,stare—staring,plane—plan-ing,have—having,save—saving, produce—producing, breathe—breathing

    (2)以-ie结尾的动词应先将e去掉,将i变成y然后再加-ing:

    die—dying,tie—tying,vie—vying,lie—lying

    (3)以-ee,-oe,-ye结尾的动词加-ing时应保留词尾e:

    see—seeing,flee—fleeing,free—freeing,agree—agreeing,hoe—hoeing, dye—dyeing,eye—eyeing

    (4)以-ue结尾的动词大多应先去e再加-ing:

    sue—suing,imbue—imbuing,construe—construing,pursue—pursuing, rue—ruing

    有时,词尾e可去掉也可保留:

    glue—gluing或 glueing,cue—cuing或 cueing, blue—blueing或 bluing,  true—truing或trueing,clue—clueing或cluing

    3.以一元音加一辅音结尾的动词

    (1)如果动词最后一音节为重读闭音节,最后一个字母需要重复:

    run—running, stop—stopping,  hop—hopping, plan—planning,star—starring, control—controlling但辅音x是个例外,无需重复(x其实起着两个辅音的作用):

    tax—taxing,relax—relaxing

    (2)如果动词最后一个音节为次重读音节,最后一个字母有时也重复:

    kidnap—kadnapping或kidnaping,program—programming或programing

    (3)如果动词最后一个音节为非重读音节,最后一个字母大多无需重复:

    open—opening,offer—offering, audit—auditing但在有些动词中,重复或不重复均可:

    worship—worshiping或 worshipping,focus—focusing或 focussing,cancel—canceling或cancelling,travel—traveling或travelling

    以非重读的-el结尾的动词加-ing时,英国英语习惯于重复词尾l,而美国英语则习惯于不重复1。

    4.若动词以一元音加一半元音(y或w)结尾,可直接加-ing:

    pay—paying, throw—throwing,follow—following, draw—drawing, em-ploy—employing  5.以-ic结尾的动词应先在字母c后加一字母k再加-ing:

    frolic—frolicking,panic—panicking,mimic—mimicking,picnic—picnicking,traffic—trafficking  这主要是为在动词后加-ing之后保留/k/这个音。若不在字母c后加字母k而直接加-ing,字母 c的发音就不再是/k/,而是/s/:

    其实,保持发音不变是英语中的一条一般规则。再如,在-ing前面无论是增加、保留还是去掉一个字母,都倾向于保留原先的长元音或短元音的发音:

    hoping与hopping staring与starring playing与planning

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  • 动词ing形式的用法及变化规则

    千次阅读 2021-01-17 05:54:59
    各位家长好,我是51学霸(51xueba.cn)专栏作者,甜老师全文共计2018字,建议阅读2分钟动词-ing形式包含传统式...动词ing形式转变标准的7种动词如今分词由动词原型在词尾加ing组成,其标准以下:1)一般状况下立即加...

    各位家长好,我是51学霸(51xueba.cn)专栏作者,甜老师

    全文共计2018字,建议阅读2分钟

    动词-ing形式包含传统式英语的语法的动名词和如今分词2个一部分。动词的-ing形式具备动词的特点,另外又具备专有名词、修饰词和介词的特点,因而它能够在句中作主语、表语、定语、宾语、宾语补足语和状语。

    动词ing形式转变标准的7种

    动词如今分词由动词原型在词尾加ing组成,其标准以下:

    1)一般状况下立即加ing

    2fd5b92d008067364030e03f7f22bfe1.png

    think---thinkingsleep---sleepingstudy---studyingspeak---speakingcarry---carryingsay---saying

    2)以不音标发音的字母e结尾的英语单词,除掉字母e,再加ing

    wake---wakingmake---makingcome---comingtake---takingleave---leavinghave---having

    3)以重读闭音节结尾,展现“辅,元,辅”构造的动词,先双写结尾的辅音字母,再加ing。初初中过的这种词有:begin,cut,get,hit,run,set,sit,spit,stop,swim,beg,drop,fit,nod,dig,forget,regret,rid,等。(visit并不是以重读闭音节结尾,无需双写)

    travel尽管复读第一声调,词尾声调不复读,可是如今分词仍要双写结尾辅音字母,随后再加ing,如:travel---travelling.中学环节该类词只能这一个。

    4)以y结尾的动词立即加ing

    carry——carryingenjoy——enjoying

    5)以ie结尾的动词,把ie改成y,再加ing

    die---dyinglie---lying

    要需注意一些动词沒有开展时.

    1、表达情况、观念、情感和觉得的动词,如:see,hear,love,know,want,hope,think等,沒有开展时。

    2、当have/has做为“有着”时,沒有开展时,但表达“汇报工作,用餐,玩得开心”等含意时,可以用完成时表述。Iamhavingmanybooks.(它是不正确的语句)

    Iamhavingagoodtime.(这才算是恰当的语句)动词ing形式转变标准

    -ing形式标准

    1.一般状况立即+ing

    例:sweep-sweepingread-reading

    2.以不音标发音e结尾的去e+ing

    例:take-takingmake-makinghave-having

    ride-riding

    3.重读闭音节一个辅音字母结尾,双写辅音字母+ing

    例:shop-shoppingsit-sittingswim-swimming

    动词ing形式转变标准一般小结为:

    1.–ing分词的组成积极形式普攻形式doingbeingdone一般式进行式havingdonehavingbeendone否认式:not --ing/nothaving(been)done并不是havingnot(been)done

    2.一般式和进行式的使用方法--ing分词的一般式表达和宾语动词所表达的姿势另外开展的一个姿势;进行式表达在于宾语动词姿势以前的一个姿势。如:Walkingalongthestreet,hecaughtsightofanoldfriendofhis.Nothavingstudiedhislessonsveryhard,hefailedtheexaminations.

    3.---ing分词的被动式当-ing分词与它的逻辑主语组成普攻关联时,必须用普攻形式。依据-ing分词姿势产生的時间,-ing分词的被动式分成一般被动式(beingdone)和进行被动式(havingbeendone),如:Thequestionbeingdiscussedisveryimportant.Havingbeenpraisedbytheteacher,heworksevenharder.

    4.---ing分词的语法作用1)---ing分词作主语LearningEnglishhasbecomeapartofhislife.Itisnousetryingtorepairtheship.Theseholesaremuchtoobig.2)---ing分词作宾语下列动词务必跟---ing分词作宾语:admit/appreciate/avoid/consider/delay/deny/dislike/enjoy/excuse/finish/image/keep/mind/miss/postpone/putoff/practise/risk/stand/stop/suggest/giveup/cannothelp

    展开全文
  • 本博文源于《语法知识清单》,语气和时态、语态一样,是谓语动词的一种形式,表明说话的目的和意图。英语中有四种语气:陈述语气、疑问语气、祈使语气。

    本博文源于《语法知识清单》,语气和时态、语态一样,是谓语动词的一种形式,表明说话的目的和意图。英语中有四种语气:陈述语气、疑问语气、祈使语气。

    语气的分类

    • 陈述语气:用来陈述事实或提出想法,包括肯定与否定
    • 疑问语气:用来提出问题
    • 祈使语气:用来向对方提出请求、邀请、给予、忠告、指示、警告、发出命令等的语气称为祈使语气。在祈使语气中,直接用动词原形,主语you一般省略。
    • 虚拟语气:在表示一种完全假设的情况或主观愿望时,动词需用一种特殊的形式。

    虚拟语气在条件句的用法

    条件句分为真实条件句和虚拟条件句

    真实条件句

    可能实现的条件句叫真实条件句,这种条件句实现的可能性非常大,在条件句中从句常用一般现在表将来,遵循主将从现原则。

    • If I have time,I’ll come over to see you.

    虚拟条件句

    虚拟条件句则表示不能实现的或纯假想的情况,其谓语动词用虚拟语气。
    在这里插入图片描述

    虚拟语气在条件句的其他用法

    错综时间条件句(也称为“混合虚拟语气”)

    有些条件句的主句谓语和从句谓语表示的动作在时间上并不一致,这类句子称为错综时间条件句。
    例子:
    If you had taken my advice then,you wouldn’t be in trouble now.

    含蓄虚拟条件句

    有些句子不含条件从句,而是通过介词或介词短语(but for,without)、上下文、连词(but、or等)或其他方式表现出来,意思和条件句差不多,这种句子称为“含蓄虚拟条件句”
    例子:
    Without electricity,the world would be dark.
    (=If there were no electricity,the would would be dark.)

    虚拟语气的倒装

    如果条件句中含有were,should或had,有时可将if省略,把were,should或had,有时可将if省略,把were,should或had移到主语之前
    例子:
    If you had taken my advice,you wouldn’t have failed in the examination.
    ---->Had you taken my advice,you wouldn’t have failed in the examination.

    虚拟语气在三大从句的运用

    主语从句中的运用

    在以下几个句型中,it是形式主语,that引导的是主语从句,谓语部分常用“(should+)动词原形”虚拟语气形式.

    It be + adj. + that…常见的形容词有:important,necessary等,should意为“应该,竟然”

    It is necessary that you (should) seize every possible chance.

    It be + n.+that…常见的名词有:pity/shame/surprise/wonder等,should意为“竟然”

    It is pity that you (should) have to leave.

    It be + 过去分词 + that…常见的过去分词有:suggested/required/ordered/proposed等

    It is suggested that parents (should) spend more time with their children.

    虚拟语气在宾语从句中的运用

    wish后的宾语从句中虚拟语气的用法
    主句表达的愿望宾语从句中谓语动词的形式
    表示与现在事实相反的愿望过去式(be用were)
    表示与过去事实相反的愿望had+过去分词
    表示与将来事实相反的愿望would/could+动词原形

    例子:
    I wish I were ten years yonger.

    would rather后的宾语从句谓语动词常用过去式,表示对现在或将来的虚拟;用“had+过去分词”表示对过去的虚拟.

    Dont’t always make noise.I’d rather you kept silent.

    表示“建议、命令、要求”等动词的宾语从句常用“(should+)动词原形”虚拟结构.

    “一、二、四、四法”:一个“坚持(insist)”,两个“命令(order,command)”,四个“建议(suggest propose recommend advise)”,四个“要求(demand,require,request,desire)”
    例子:
    My parents advise I should not watch too much TV.

    虚拟语气在表语从句和同位语从句中的运用

    在suggestion,proposal,order,request,advice等名词(表建议、命令、要求…)后的表语从句和同位语从句中要用虚拟语气,其谓语动词构成是“(should+)动词原形”

    His suggestion is that we (should) go to Dalian for sightseeing.

    as if/as though引导的表语从句虚拟语气
    对事实的假设表语从句中的谓语动词
    与现在事实相反did/were(一般过去时)
    与过去事实相反had done(过去完成时)
    与将来事实相反would/might/could+动词原形(过去将来时)
    <b>例子:</b>
    He treats me as if I were a stranger.
    

    虚拟语气在定语从句中的运用

    虚拟语气可用于定语从句中。这种从句常用在It is(high)time (that)…句型中.从句中谓语动词一般用过去式或“should+动词原形”的虚拟结构

    It’s time that public should raise their awareness of using shared bikes reasonably.

    虚拟语气在状语从句中的运用

    as if/though引导的方式状语从句所表达内容如果与实际相反或者发生的可能性不大,则从句中需用虚拟语气,形式和as if/though引导表语从句时一样

    He speaks as though he were sick.

    在in case,for fear that,in order that,so that 引导的目的状语从句中,谓语用“should /could/would +动词原形”

    He took his raincoat with him in case / for fear that he should be caught in the rain.

    虚拟语气的其他用法

    表示祝愿:常用“May + 主语 + 动词原形 + 其他”结构,有时也会只用动词原形

    May God bless you!

    if only 句型:if only 后跟虚拟语气表示“要是…就好了”。用过去式表示与现在事实相反;用“had+过去分词”表示与过去事实相反,用“would+动词原形”表示将来事实相反

    If only she would listen to me carefully.=I wish she would listen to me carefully.

    表示“本打算做而未做成”:hope、want、plan、mean、intended、expect等动词的“had+过去分词”形式和这些动词的“过去式+to have done”形式都表示过去未曾实现的希望、打算、意图

    I had meant to phone you,but I forgot your phone number.=I meant to have phoned you,but I forgot your phone number.

    展开全文
  • 动词和情态动词

    千次阅读 2019-08-08 11:50:07
    文章目录助动词定义分类be类助动词have类助动词will类助动词情态动词定义 助动词 定义 协助主要动词构成谓语的词叫助动词,也叫辅助动词。被协助的动词被称作主要动词。助动词用来构成时态和语态。助动词具有语法...

    助动词

    定义

    协助主要动词构成谓语的词叫助动词,也叫辅助动词。被协助的动词被称作主要动词。助动词用来构成时态和语态。助动词具有语法意义,但没有词汇意义,不可单独作谓语。
    助动词

    分类

    be类助动词

    be类助动词:be, am, is, are, was, were, been, being。这类助动词与现在分词构成进行时态,与过去分词构成被动语态。例如:
    They were watching TV when we got there.(构成过去进行时)
    【翻译】当我们到那儿时他们正在看电视。
    We are doing our lessons now.(构成现在进行时)
    【翻译】我们正在做功课。
    The project was finished last month.(构成被动语态)
    【翻译】工程上个月已完工了。
    The trees are being planted now.(构成被动语态)
    【翻译】人们正在植树。

    have类助动词

    have类助动词:have, has, had, having。这类助动词与过去分词构成完成时态。
    My uncle has come back home.(构成现在完成时)
    【翻译】我叔叔已到家了。
    They haven’t finished their match yet.(构成现在完成时)
    【翻译】他们还没有结束比赛。
    Before we went home, we had had a little rest.(构成过去完成时)
    【翻译】在回家之前我们休息了一会。
    Having done the work, we had a bath.(构成现在分词的完成时)
    【翻译】干完活后,我们洗了个澡。

    补充说明
    have done 和 have been done 都表示的是现在完成时,having done 和 having been done 都是动词ing 的完成形式,在句子中作状语,起到补充说明的作用。
    这里要注意的是,having 所接的动词发生的时间在主句中谓语动词发生的时间之前。比如:Having driven all day,we were so tired. 这个例子中,having driven表示“我们”的状态,“开了一天的车”,并且,drive 的动作发生在 be tired的之前。了解了上面的概念,再来解释having done 和 having been done的区别,前者having done表示的是主动,后者having been done表示的是被动。例:
    1、Having driven all day,we were so tired.
    【翻译】我们开了一天的车,现在都很累了。

    having driven表示的是主动,是“我们开了一天的车”

    2、Having been criticized today, he was so sad.
    【翻译】今天被批评了,他很难过。

    是"he"被批评,而这个原因状语又是修饰"he",所以要用被动,have been done。还有一种情况,having been doing,理解了之前两种用法,那么也会很清楚,这个用法也是动词ing的完成进行时,表主动。

    will类助动词

    will类助动词:will, would, shall, should。这类助动词与行为动词原形连用构成将来时。例如:
    She will invite her good friends to her new house.(构成一般将来时)
    【翻译】她将邀请她的好朋友到她的新房子里。
    He said that he would go shopping tomorrow if possible.(构成过去将来时)
    【翻译】他说如果可能的话他明天将会去购物。

    do类助动词

    do类助动词:do, does, did。这类助动词与其它行为动词一起构成否定句和疑问句。例如:
    Do you enjoy living in China?(构成一般疑问句)
    【翻译】你喜欢住在中国吗?
    Does your sister like playing computer games?(构成一般疑问句)
    【翻译】你的姐姐喜欢打电子游戏吗?
    He didn’t watch TV last night.(构成否定句)
    【翻译】他昨天晚上没看电视。
    I don’t get up early in the morning.(构成否定句)
    【翻译】我早上起床不早。

    情态动词

    定义

    情态动词本身有词义,但不能独立构成谓语,用来表明特定的感情和态度。情态动词没有人称和数的变化,其后必须跟动词原型。

    分类

    只做情态动词:can, could, may, might, must, had better, be able to
    可做情态动词又可做实义动词:need, dare
    具有情态动词特征:have(has, had) to, used to, ought to
    可做情态动词又可作助动词:shall(should),will(would)

    常见情态动词

    原型过去式词义相近短语
    cancould能够,可能be able to
    maymight可以,可能
    mustmust必须have(has, had) to
    willwould愿意
    shallshould应该,必须ought to
    had betterhad better最好
    needneeded需要
    daredared敢于
    ought to
    be able to
    used to过去经常做……

    情态动词用法要点

    1. 动词原型跟后面,说话语气较委婉
      can 表 “能力”
      may 表 “许可”
      must 表 “责任”或“义务”,否定回答needn’t换
      need 表 “需要”
      dare 表 “敢”
      should 表 “应该”
      would 表 “愿”
      have to 表 “被迫”,表客观。
    2. 对must构成的一般疑问句作否定回答只能用needn’t
    3. dare和need一般在疑问句或否定句中才算情态动词,而肯定句中作行为动词。

    情态动词用法

    表示征求对方意见或许可

    情态动词:must, can, could, may, might, shall。例如
    Must I hand in my homework today?
    Yes, you must.\Yes, you have to.
    No, you needn’t.\No, you don’t have to.

    Can I come in and have a good look at your house with my girlfriend now?(比较口语化)
    Could I use your mobile phone as mine is power off?(语气委婉)
    Yes, you can.(回答不能用could)

    May \ Might I use your bicycle?(比较正式,用might语气更委婉)

    Shall I open the window to let in some fresh air?(shall此用法只用于第一和第三人称)
    Shall he come to sit in this seat and listen to your speech?(同上)

    表示邀请或请求

    情态动词:can, will, would, could, 一般用于第二人称;用would和could表示语气更加委婉。如
    Can \ Could you lend me some money to buy some books and dictionaries?

    Will \ Would you please tell us a story or joke for pleasure?

    表示允许或许可

    情态动词:can, may。如:
    You can sit here and do your homework because the seat is not occupied.

    You may go to bed and get up as late as you like; nobody cares about that.

    表示禁止

    情态动词:can’t, mustn’t, shan’t, shan’t多表按照某规定“不能”。如
    They can’t wear whatever they like when they are at school.

    Anybody mustn’t take books out of the library without permission.

    You shan’t hand in your papers ahead of time in the examinations according to the regulations.

    表示建议或劝告

    情态动词:ought to, should, had better, need。如
    Parents ought to take care of their children when they are young and children ought to look after their parents when they are old.(ought to表示义务,为别人做某事)

    You should do a lot of exercise regularly to improve your health.(should表建议,多指为自己做某事)

    You had better put more clothes in case it is cold on the mountain.(多用于上级对下级,长辈对晚辈之间)

    In order to learn English well, you need practice speaking English more often besides reading.(比较口语化)

    表示能力

    情态动词:can, could, be able to,can表示现在的能力,could表示过去的能力,be able to用来填充can,could没有的时态,但was\were able to除了表示过去的能力以外还表示“过去设法做成某事”,等于managed to do something或succeeded in doing something 。如
    When I was in China I couldn’t speak English, but now in USA I can speak it fluently.

    I am sure that this promising young man will be able to support his family in the future.

    They charged 20 thousand dollars for the car but I was able to bring the price down.(managed to\succeeded in)

    表示推测

    情态动词:may, might, must, can, could, should, ought to,must表推测语气最强,但只用于肯定句,否定式中用can’t或couldn’t代替;must\may\might\can’t\could\couldn’t\couldn’t + have done表示对过去发生事情的推测;should,ought to表示"按理说应该"。如
    It may be the headmaster’s office. I am not sure.(把握性不大)

    He was careless, He might have won the first place otherwise.(过去的可能性很小)

    Who can it be?(can 代替 must)
    It must be our manager.
    No, It can’t be him. He is in Japan at the moment.(must 不能用于否定句,由can’t代替)

    Was it in the street that he played football yesterday?
    It could be in the street, but I am not sure.(可能性不大)

    There were five men in your car during the long journey. It must have been uncomfortable.(= It couldn’t have been comfortable.可能性很大)

    He was with me in the class at that time yesterday. He couldn’t have played basketball on the playground yesterday.(动词是过去式时用couldn’t have done,不用can’t have done)

    He should be over fifteen years old, because he is a student in the 11th grade.

    She ought to turn up at any moment, for she is always on time for work.

    表示轻微埋怨、责备或后悔

    情态动词:should\ought to\needn’t\could\might + have done,如
    The movie star has died. You should \ ought to have come here earlier.(过去该做而没做)

    She is unhappy now. I shouldn’t \ oughtn’t to have told her the bad news.(过去不该做而做了)

    I needn’t have carried so much cash. All my bank cards could be available actually.(做了没必要做的事)

    You could have married me at that time. I loved and love you but he doesn’t.(过去本可以做但没做)

    She was out of mind. She might have passed the exam otherwise.(过去也许会但没有)

    表示警告、允诺、命令或威胁

    情态动词:shall,常用于第二、三人称,如
    You shall take the book to read as long as I finish it before Friday.

    All the candidates shall remain at their seats until the bell rings announcing the end of the exam.

    表示偏执

    情态动词:must,如
    If you must want to know my age, which is a privacy, let me tell you unwillingly.

    Must you smoke at a no-smoking area? You will be punished seriously.

    表示怀疑

    情态动词:should(竟然), dare, can’t,如
    Such a high official should be so rude to that little girl. What a shame!

    How dare you say that I treated you unfairly? Actually I did it right.

    Why can’t you know my telephone number and email address? We are good friends.

    表示习惯性

    情态动词:will,would,will表示现在反复,would表示过去反复,如
    After work he will go to the cafe to have a cup of coffee every day.

    Whenever and wherever he met him, he would stop the soldier and ask the same questions again and again in the army.

    情态动词用法区别

    1. must & have to。must表示主观上“必须”,have to表示客观逼迫“不得不”,如
      We must study English very hard, which I like very much.
      I have to study English very hard, because I have to pass the exam in the next.
    2. would, used to, be used to doing & be used to do something。would表示过去反复的动作,而used to则侧重“过去如此,现在已经不是那样了”以及“过去存在的状态”;be used to doing是表示“习惯于做某事”,其中be有时态和人称的变化,后跟动名词;be used to do something表示“某东西被用来做某事”,如
      When he was in that factory, he would go to that coffee shop at the corner after work every day.
      He used to smoke and drink a lot, but now he doesn’t.
      There used to be a big temple where there is a school now.(过去的状态)
      He has been used to working in such bad conditions.
      Wood can be used to make desks and chairs as well houses.
    3. didn’t need to do & needn’t have done。didn’t need to do表示“过去没必要做也没做”,而needn’t have done表示“过去没必要做但已经做了”,如
      It was raining yesterday, I didn’t need to work in the fields, so I stayed at home.(没去工作)
      It was Sunday yesterday, I needn’t have gone to school. But I forgot it and went as usual.(去学校了)
    4. need & dare。这两个词既可用作情态动词,又可用作实义动词,一般来说,情态动词多用于否定和疑问句;实义动词用于各种句式,后跟动词不定式,I dare say是固定短语,意为“ 我认为、我相信”,如
      Need I finish my report by six o’clock today?(情态动词)
      Yes, you must \ you have to.
      No, you needn’t \ you don’t have to.
      As a Chinese high school student, I need to work at lest 10 hours a day.(实义动词)
      My cat need repairing \ to be repaired thoroughly.(实义动词,后跟动名词主动表被动)
      Tom darn’t go out alone when it is dark at night.(情态动词)
      Dare you go home to face your parents when you haven’t done well in the exam?(情态动词)
      I don’t dare to feel the snake even if it is dead.(实义动词)
    5. can’t have done & couldn’t have done \ could have done。can’t have done 和 couldn’t have done均可表示must的否定推测,强调从现在角度出发推测过去某事“不可能”;但当主句的谓语动词是过去式时,就必须用couldn’t have done;could have done表示“过去有能力或有可能做某事但没有做”,有惋惜、遗憾、批评、责备等意思,如
      His jacket is till here, so he can’t(couldn’t) have gone home.(must的否定式)
      My sister met him at the Grand theatre yesterday, so he couldn’t have attended your lecture.(过去不可能)
      You could have walked here instead of taking a taxi; it is so near.
    6. would like to do & would like to have done。would like to do表示现在或将来“想做某事”,而would like to have done表示过去“想做某事但没做成”。如
      I would like to go to the concert tonight, but my parents don’t allow me to.
      I would like to have gone to the concert last night but I had to review lessons for the exams.

    参考:https://www.ixueshu.com/document/9fce56a574be9f97318947a18e7f9386.html
    https://www.ixueshu.com/document/aa451c49bc16d15f318947a18e7f9386.html
    https://baike.baidu.com/item/情态动词/3443430?fr=aladdin

    展开全文
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动词原形的用法