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  • px4/apj格式的飞控固件本质上是json格式的文本文件,可以制作一个独立的python脚本来生成飞控固件。 1. 新建脚本文件 touch bin2json.py chmod +x bin2json.py 2. 添加文件内容 #!/usr/bin/env python # encoding: ...

    px4/apj格式的飞控固件本质上是json格式的文本文件,可以制作一个独立的python脚本来生成飞控固件。

    1. 新建脚本文件
    touch bin2json.py
    chmod +x bin2json.py
    
    2. 添加文件内容
    #!/usr/bin/env python
    # encoding: utf-8
    
    import json, time, base64, zlib, sys, os
    
    img = open(sys.argv[1],'rb').read()
    
    d = {
        "board_id": int(9),
        "magic": "APJFWv1",
        "description": "Firmware for a STM32F427xx board",
        "image": base64.b64encode(zlib.compress(img,9)).decode('utf-8'),
        "build_time": int(time.time()),
        "summary": "fmuv3",
        "version": "0.1",
        "image_size": len(img),
        "git_identity": "ecbe67a0",
        "board_revision": 0
    }
    
    apj_file = sys.argv[1].replace(".bin", ".apj")
    if os.path.exists(apj_file):
    	os.remove(apj_file)
    f = open(apj_file, "w")
    f.write(json.dumps(d, indent=4))
    f.close()
    
    if os.path.exists(apj_file):
    	print "生成成功: " + apj_file
    else:
    	print "生成失败: " + apj_file
    
    3. 使用命令生成px4/apj格式飞控固件
    ./bin2json.py arducopter.bin
    

    将.bin格式的固件复制到当前目录,执行命令,即可生成apj格式的固件,需要生成px4格式可以直接修改源码中的扩展名。

    展开全文
  • /usr/bin/env python ############################################################################ # # Copyright (c) 2012-2017 PX4 Development Team. All rights reserved. # # Redistribution and u
    1. 新建脚本文件
    touch uploader.py
    chmod +x uploader.py
    
    2. 添加脚本内容
    #!/usr/bin/env python
    ############################################################################
    #
    #   Copyright (c) 2012-2017 PX4 Development Team. All rights reserved.
    #
    # Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
    # modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
    # are met:
    #
    # 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
    #    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
    # 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
    #    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in
    #    the documentation and/or other materials provided with the
    #    distribution.
    # 3. Neither the name PX4 nor the names of its contributors may be
    #    used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
    #    without specific prior written permission.
    #
    # THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS
    # "AS IS" AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT
    # LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS
    # FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE
    # COPYRIGHT OWNER OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT,
    # INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING,
    # BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS
    # OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED
    # AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
    # LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN
    # ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE
    # POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
    #
    ############################################################################
    
    #
    # Serial firmware uploader for the PX4FMU bootloader
    #
    # The PX4 firmware file is a JSON-encoded Python object, containing
    # metadata fields and a zlib-compressed base64-encoded firmware image.
    #
    # The uploader uses the following fields from the firmware file:
    #
    # image
    #       The firmware that will be uploaded.
    # image_size
    #       The size of the firmware in bytes.
    # board_id
    #       The board for which the firmware is intended.
    # board_revision
    #       Currently only used for informational purposes.
    #
    
    # for python2.7 compatibility
    from __future__ import print_function
    
    import sys
    import argparse
    import binascii
    import serial
    import struct
    import json
    import zlib
    import base64
    import time
    import array
    import os
    
    from sys import platform as _platform
    
    # default list of port names to look for autopilots
    default_ports = [ '/dev/serial/by-id/usb-Ardu*',
                      '/dev/serial/by-id/usb-3D*',
                      '/dev/serial/by-id/usb-APM*',
                      '/dev/serial/by-id/usb-Radio*',
                      '/dev/serial/by-id/usb-*_3DR_*',
                      '/dev/serial/by-id/usb-Hex_Technology_Limited*',
                      '/dev/serial/by-id/usb-Hex_ProfiCNC*',
                      '/dev/tty.usbmodem*']
    
    if "cygwin" in _platform:
        default_ports += [ '/dev/ttyS*' ]
        
    # Detect python version
    if sys.version_info[0] < 3:
        runningPython3 = False
    else:
        runningPython3 = True
    
    class firmware(object):
        '''Loads a firmware file'''
    
        desc = {}
        image = bytes()
        crctab = array.array('I', [
            0x00000000, 0x77073096, 0xee0e612c, 0x990951ba, 0x076dc419, 0x706af48f, 0xe963a535, 0x9e6495a3,
            0x0edb8832, 0x79dcb8a4, 0xe0d5e91e, 0x97d2d988, 0x09b64c2b, 0x7eb17cbd, 0xe7b82d07, 0x90bf1d91,
            0x1db71064, 0x6ab020f2, 0xf3b97148, 0x84be41de, 0x1adad47d, 0x6ddde4eb, 0xf4d4b551, 0x83d385c7,
            0x136c9856, 0x646ba8c0, 0xfd62f97a, 0x8a65c9ec, 0x14015c4f, 0x63066cd9, 0xfa0f3d63, 0x8d080df5,
            0x3b6e20c8, 0x4c69105e, 0xd56041e4, 0xa2677172, 0x3c03e4d1, 0x4b04d447, 0xd20d85fd, 0xa50ab56b,
            0x35b5a8fa, 0x42b2986c, 0xdbbbc9d6, 0xacbcf940, 0x32d86ce3, 0x45df5c75, 0xdcd60dcf, 0xabd13d59,
            0x26d930ac, 0x51de003a, 0xc8d75180, 0xbfd06116, 0x21b4f4b5, 0x56b3c423, 0xcfba9599, 0xb8bda50f,
            0x2802b89e, 0x5f058808, 0xc60cd9b2, 0xb10be924, 0x2f6f7c87, 0x58684c11, 0xc1611dab, 0xb6662d3d,
            0x76dc4190, 0x01db7106, 0x98d220bc, 0xefd5102a, 0x71b18589, 0x06b6b51f, 0x9fbfe4a5, 0xe8b8d433,
            0x7807c9a2, 0x0f00f934, 0x9609a88e, 0xe10e9818, 0x7f6a0dbb, 0x086d3d2d, 0x91646c97, 0xe6635c01,
            0x6b6b51f4, 0x1c6c6162, 0x856530d8, 0xf262004e, 0x6c0695ed, 0x1b01a57b, 0x8208f4c1, 0xf50fc457,
            0x65b0d9c6, 0x12b7e950, 0x8bbeb8ea, 0xfcb9887c, 0x62dd1ddf, 0x15da2d49, 0x8cd37cf3, 0xfbd44c65,
            0x4db26158, 0x3ab551ce, 0xa3bc0074, 0xd4bb30e2, 0x4adfa541, 0x3dd895d7, 0xa4d1c46d, 0xd3d6f4fb,
            0x4369e96a, 0x346ed9fc, 0xad678846, 0xda60b8d0, 0x44042d73, 0x33031de5, 0xaa0a4c5f, 0xdd0d7cc9,
            0x5005713c, 0x270241aa, 0xbe0b1010, 0xc90c2086, 0x5768b525, 0x206f85b3, 0xb966d409, 0xce61e49f,
            0x5edef90e, 0x29d9c998, 0xb0d09822, 0xc7d7a8b4, 0x59b33d17, 0x2eb40d81, 0xb7bd5c3b, 0xc0ba6cad,
            0xedb88320, 0x9abfb3b6, 0x03b6e20c, 0x74b1d29a, 0xead54739, 0x9dd277af, 0x04db2615, 0x73dc1683,
            0xe3630b12, 0x94643b84, 0x0d6d6a3e, 0x7a6a5aa8, 0xe40ecf0b, 0x9309ff9d, 0x0a00ae27, 0x7d079eb1,
            0xf00f9344, 0x8708a3d2, 0x1e01f268, 0x6906c2fe, 0xf762575d, 0x806567cb, 0x196c3671, 0x6e6b06e7,
            0xfed41b76, 0x89d32be0, 0x10da7a5a, 0x67dd4acc, 0xf9b9df6f, 0x8ebeeff9, 0x17b7be43, 0x60b08ed5,
            0xd6d6a3e8, 0xa1d1937e, 0x38d8c2c4, 0x4fdff252, 0xd1bb67f1, 0xa6bc5767, 0x3fb506dd, 0x48b2364b,
            0xd80d2bda, 0xaf0a1b4c, 0x36034af6, 0x41047a60, 0xdf60efc3, 0xa867df55, 0x316e8eef, 0x4669be79,
            0xcb61b38c, 0xbc66831a, 0x256fd2a0, 0x5268e236, 0xcc0c7795, 0xbb0b4703, 0x220216b9, 0x5505262f,
            0xc5ba3bbe, 0xb2bd0b28, 0x2bb45a92, 0x5cb36a04, 0xc2d7ffa7, 0xb5d0cf31, 0x2cd99e8b, 0x5bdeae1d,
            0x9b64c2b0, 0xec63f226, 0x756aa39c, 0x026d930a, 0x9c0906a9, 0xeb0e363f, 0x72076785, 0x05005713,
            0x95bf4a82, 0xe2b87a14, 0x7bb12bae, 0x0cb61b38, 0x92d28e9b, 0xe5d5be0d, 0x7cdcefb7, 0x0bdbdf21,
            0x86d3d2d4, 0xf1d4e242, 0x68ddb3f8, 0x1fda836e, 0x81be16cd, 0xf6b9265b, 0x6fb077e1, 0x18b74777,
            0x88085ae6, 0xff0f6a70, 0x66063bca, 0x11010b5c, 0x8f659eff, 0xf862ae69, 0x616bffd3, 0x166ccf45,
            0xa00ae278, 0xd70dd2ee, 0x4e048354, 0x3903b3c2, 0xa7672661, 0xd06016f7, 0x4969474d, 0x3e6e77db,
            0xaed16a4a, 0xd9d65adc, 0x40df0b66, 0x37d83bf0, 0xa9bcae53, 0xdebb9ec5, 0x47b2cf7f, 0x30b5ffe9,
            0xbdbdf21c, 0xcabac28a, 0x53b39330, 0x24b4a3a6, 0xbad03605, 0xcdd70693, 0x54de5729, 0x23d967bf,
            0xb3667a2e, 0xc4614ab8, 0x5d681b02, 0x2a6f2b94, 0xb40bbe37, 0xc30c8ea1, 0x5a05df1b, 0x2d02ef8d])
        crcpad = bytearray(b'\xff\xff\xff\xff')
    
        def __init__(self, path):
    
            # read the file
            f = open(path, "r")
            self.desc = json.load(f)
            f.close()
    
            self.image = bytearray(zlib.decompress(base64.b64decode(self.desc['image'])))
    
            # pad image to 4-byte length
            while ((len(self.image) % 4) != 0):
                self.image.append('\xff')
    
        def property(self, propname):
            return self.desc[propname]
    
        def __crc32(self, bytes, state):
            for byte in bytes:
                index = (state ^ byte) & 0xff
                state = self.crctab[index] ^ (state >> 8)
            return state
    
        def crc(self, padlen):
            state = self.__crc32(self.image, int(0))
            for i in range(len(self.image), (padlen - 1), 4):
                state = self.__crc32(self.crcpad, state)
            return state
    
    
    class uploader(object):
        '''Uploads a firmware file to the PX FMU bootloader'''
    
        # protocol bytes
        INSYNC          = b'\x12'
        EOC             = b'\x20'
    
        # reply bytes
        OK              = b'\x10'
        FAILED          = b'\x11'
        INVALID         = b'\x13'     # rev3+
        BAD_SILICON_REV = b'\x14'     # rev5+
    
        # command bytes
        NOP             = b'\x00'     # guaranteed to be discarded by the bootloader
        GET_SYNC        = b'\x21'
        GET_DEVICE      = b'\x22'
        CHIP_ERASE      = b'\x23'
        CHIP_VERIFY     = b'\x24'     # rev2 only
        PROG_MULTI      = b'\x27'
        READ_MULTI      = b'\x28'     # rev2 only
        GET_CRC         = b'\x29'     # rev3+
        GET_OTP         = b'\x2a'     # rev4+  , get a word from OTP area
        GET_SN          = b'\x2b'     # rev4+  , get a word from SN area
        GET_CHIP        = b'\x2c'     # rev5+  , get chip version
        SET_BOOT_DELAY  = b'\x2d'     # rev5+  , set boot delay
        GET_CHIP_DES    = b'\x2e'     # rev5+  , get chip description in ASCII
        MAX_DES_LENGTH  = 20
    
        REBOOT          = b'\x30'
        SET_BAUD        = b'\x33'     # set baud
    
        INFO_BL_REV     = b'\x01'        # bootloader protocol revision
        BL_REV_MIN      = 2              # minimum supported bootloader protocol
        BL_REV_MAX      = 5              # maximum supported bootloader protocol
        INFO_BOARD_ID   = b'\x02'        # board type
        INFO_BOARD_REV  = b'\x03'        # board revision
        INFO_FLASH_SIZE = b'\x04'        # max firmware size in bytes
    
        PROG_MULTI_MAX  = 252            # protocol max is 255, must be multiple of 4
        READ_MULTI_MAX  = 252            # protocol max is 255
    
        NSH_INIT        = bytearray(b'\x0d\x0d\x0d')
        NSH_REBOOT_BL   = b"reboot -b\n"
        NSH_REBOOT      = b"reboot\n"
        MAVLINK_REBOOT_ID1 = bytearray(b'\xfe\x21\x72\xff\x00\x4c\x00\x00\x40\x40\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\xf6\x00\x01\x00\x00\x53\x6b')
        MAVLINK_REBOOT_ID0 = bytearray(b'\xfe\x21\x45\xff\x00\x4c\x00\x00\x40\x40\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\xf6\x00\x00\x00\x00\xcc\x37')
    
        def __init__(self, portname, baudrate_bootloader, baudrate_flightstack, baudrate_bootloader_flash=None):
            # open the port, keep the default timeout short so we can poll quickly
            self.port = serial.Serial(portname, baudrate_bootloader, timeout=1.0)
            self.otp = b''
            self.sn = b''
            self.baudrate_bootloader = baudrate_bootloader
            if baudrate_bootloader_flash is not None:
                self.baudrate_bootloader_flash = baudrate_bootloader_flash
            else:
                self.baudrate_bootloader_flash = self.baudrate_bootloader
            self.baudrate_flightstack = baudrate_flightstack
            self.baudrate_flightstack_idx = -1
    
        def close(self):
            if self.port is not None:
                self.port.close()
    
        def open(self):
            timeout = time.time() + 0.2
    
            # Attempt to open the port while it exists and until timeout occurs
            while self.port is not None:
                portopen = True
                try:
                    portopen = self.port.is_open
                except AttributeError:
                    portopen = self.port.isOpen()
    
                if not portopen and time.time() < timeout:
                    try:
                        self.port.open()
                    except OSError:
                        # wait for the port to be ready
                        time.sleep(0.04)
                    except serial.SerialException:
                        # if open fails, try again later
                        time.sleep(0.04)
    
                else:
                    break
    
        def __send(self, c):
            # print("send " + binascii.hexlify(c))
            self.port.write(c)
    
        def __recv(self, count=1):
            c = self.port.read(count)
            if len(c) < 1:
                raise RuntimeError("timeout waiting for data (%u bytes)" % count)
            # print("recv " + binascii.hexlify(c))
            return c
    
        def __recv_int(self):
            raw = self.__recv(4)
            val = struct.unpack("<I", raw)
            return val[0]
    
        def __getSync(self):
            self.port.flush()
            c = bytes(self.__recv())
            if c != self.INSYNC:
                raise RuntimeError("unexpected %s instead of INSYNC" % c)
            c = self.__recv()
            if c == self.INVALID:
                raise RuntimeError("bootloader reports INVALID OPERATION")
            if c == self.FAILED:
                raise RuntimeError("bootloader reports OPERATION FAILED")
            if c != self.OK:
                raise RuntimeError("unexpected response 0x%x instead of OK" % ord(c))
    
        # attempt to get back into sync with the bootloader
        def __sync(self):
            # send a stream of ignored bytes longer than the longest possible conversation
            # that we might still have in progress
            # self.__send(uploader.NOP * (uploader.PROG_MULTI_MAX + 2))
            self.port.flushInput()
            self.__send(uploader.GET_SYNC +
                        uploader.EOC)
            self.__getSync()
    
        def __trySync(self):
            try:
                self.port.flush()
                if (self.__recv() != self.INSYNC):
                    # print("unexpected 0x%x instead of INSYNC" % ord(c))
                    return False
                c = self.__recv()
                if (c == self.BAD_SILICON_REV):
                    raise NotImplementedError()
                if (c != self.OK):
                    # print("unexpected 0x%x instead of OK" % ord(c))
                    return False
                return True
    
            except NotImplementedError:
                raise RuntimeError("Programing not supported for this version of silicon!\n"
                                   "See https://pixhawk.org/help/errata")
            except RuntimeError:
                # timeout, no response yet
                return False
    
        # send the GET_DEVICE command and wait for an info parameter
        def __getInfo(self, param):
            self.__send(uploader.GET_DEVICE + param + uploader.EOC)
            value = self.__recv_int()
            self.__getSync()
            return value
    
        # send the GET_OTP command and wait for an info parameter
        def __getOTP(self, param):
            t = struct.pack("I", param)  # int param as 32bit ( 4 byte ) char array.
            self.__send(uploader.GET_OTP + t + uploader.EOC)
            value = self.__recv(4)
            self.__getSync()
            return value
    
        # send the GET_SN command and wait for an info parameter
        def __getSN(self, param):
            t = struct.pack("I", param)  # int param as 32bit ( 4 byte ) char array.
            self.__send(uploader.GET_SN + t + uploader.EOC)
            value = self.__recv(4)
            self.__getSync()
            return value
    
        # send the GET_CHIP command
        def __getCHIP(self):
            self.__send(uploader.GET_CHIP + uploader.EOC)
            value = self.__recv_int()
            self.__getSync()
            return value
    
        # send the GET_CHIP command
        def __getCHIPDes(self):
            self.__send(uploader.GET_CHIP_DES + uploader.EOC)
            length = self.__recv_int()
            value = self.__recv(length)
            self.__getSync()
            peices = value.split(",")
            return peices
    
        def __drawProgressBar(self, label, progress, maxVal):
            if maxVal < progress:
                progress = maxVal
    
            percent = (float(progress) / float(maxVal)) * 100.0
    
            sys.stdout.write("\r%s: [%-20s] %.1f%%" % (label, '='*int(percent/5.0), percent))
            sys.stdout.flush()
    
        # send the CHIP_ERASE command and wait for the bootloader to become ready
        def __erase(self, label):
            print("\n", end='')
            self.__send(uploader.CHIP_ERASE +
                        uploader.EOC)
    
            # erase is very slow, give it 20s
            deadline = time.time() + 20.0
            while time.time() < deadline:
    
                # Draw progress bar (erase usually takes about 9 seconds to complete)
                estimatedTimeRemaining = deadline-time.time()
                if estimatedTimeRemaining >= 9.0:
                    self.__drawProgressBar(label, 20.0-estimatedTimeRemaining, 9.0)
                else:
                    self.__drawProgressBar(label, 10.0, 10.0)
                    sys.stdout.write(" (timeout: %d seconds) " % int(deadline-time.time()))
                    sys.stdout.flush()
    
                if self.__trySync():
                    self.__drawProgressBar(label, 10.0, 10.0)
                    return
    
            raise RuntimeError("timed out waiting for erase")
    
        # send a PROG_MULTI command to write a collection of bytes
        def __program_multi(self, data):
    
            if runningPython3:
                length = len(data).to_bytes(1, byteorder='big')
            else:
                length = chr(len(data))
    
            self.__send(uploader.PROG_MULTI)
            self.__send(length)
            self.__send(data)
            self.__send(uploader.EOC)
            self.__getSync()
    
        # verify multiple bytes in flash
        def __verify_multi(self, data):
    
            if runningPython3:
                length = len(data).to_bytes(1, byteorder='big')
            else:
                length = chr(len(data))
    
            self.__send(uploader.READ_MULTI)
            self.__send(length)
            self.__send(uploader.EOC)
            self.port.flush()
            programmed = self.__recv(len(data))
            if programmed != data:
                print("got    " + binascii.hexlify(programmed))
                print("expect " + binascii.hexlify(data))
                return False
            self.__getSync()
            return True
    
        # send the reboot command
        def __reboot(self):
            self.__send(uploader.REBOOT +
                        uploader.EOC)
            self.port.flush()
    
            # v3+ can report failure if the first word flash fails
            if self.bl_rev >= 3:
                self.__getSync()
    
        # split a sequence into a list of size-constrained pieces
        def __split_len(self, seq, length):
            return [seq[i:i+length] for i in range(0, len(seq), length)]
    
        # upload code
        def __program(self, label, fw):
            print("\n", end='')
            code = fw.image
            groups = self.__split_len(code, uploader.PROG_MULTI_MAX)
    
            uploadProgress = 0
            for bytes in groups:
                self.__program_multi(bytes)
    
                # Print upload progress (throttled, so it does not delay upload progress)
                uploadProgress += 1
                if uploadProgress % 256 == 0:
                    self.__drawProgressBar(label, uploadProgress, len(groups))
            self.__drawProgressBar(label, 100, 100)
    
        # verify code
        def __verify_v2(self, label, fw):
            print("\n", end='')
            self.__send(uploader.CHIP_VERIFY +
                        uploader.EOC)
            self.__getSync()
            code = fw.image
            groups = self.__split_len(code, uploader.READ_MULTI_MAX)
            verifyProgress = 0
            for bytes in groups:
                verifyProgress += 1
                if verifyProgress % 256 == 0:
                    self.__drawProgressBar(label, verifyProgress, len(groups))
                if (not self.__verify_multi(bytes)):
                    raise RuntimeError("Verification failed")
            self.__drawProgressBar(label, 100, 100)
    
        def __verify_v3(self, label, fw):
            print("\n", end='')
            self.__drawProgressBar(label, 1, 100)
            expect_crc = fw.crc(self.fw_maxsize)
            self.__send(uploader.GET_CRC +
                        uploader.EOC)
            report_crc = self.__recv_int()
            self.__getSync()
            if report_crc != expect_crc:
                print("Expected 0x%x" % expect_crc)
                print("Got      0x%x" % report_crc)
                raise RuntimeError("Program CRC failed")
            self.__drawProgressBar(label, 100, 100)
    
        def __set_boot_delay(self, boot_delay):
            self.__send(uploader.SET_BOOT_DELAY +
                        struct.pack("b", boot_delay) +
                        uploader.EOC)
            self.__getSync()
    
        def __setbaud(self, baud):
            self.__send(uploader.SET_BAUD +
                        struct.pack("I", baud) +
                        uploader.EOC)
            self.__getSync()
    
        # get basic data about the board
        def identify(self):
            # make sure we are in sync before starting
            self.__sync()
    
            # get the bootloader protocol ID first
            self.bl_rev = self.__getInfo(uploader.INFO_BL_REV)
            if (self.bl_rev < uploader.BL_REV_MIN) or (self.bl_rev > uploader.BL_REV_MAX):
                print("Unsupported bootloader protocol %d" % uploader.INFO_BL_REV)
                raise RuntimeError("Bootloader protocol mismatch")
    
            self.board_type = self.__getInfo(uploader.INFO_BOARD_ID)
            self.board_rev = self.__getInfo(uploader.INFO_BOARD_REV)
            self.fw_maxsize = self.__getInfo(uploader.INFO_FLASH_SIZE)
    
        # upload the firmware
        def upload(self, fw, force=False, boot_delay=None):
            # Make sure we are doing the right thing
            if self.board_type != fw.property('board_id'):
                msg = "Firmware not suitable for this board (board_type=%u board_id=%u)" % (
                    self.board_type, fw.property('board_id'))
                print("WARNING: %s" % msg)
                if force:
                    print("FORCED WRITE, FLASHING ANYWAY!")
                else:
                    raise IOError(msg)
            if self.fw_maxsize < fw.property('image_size'):
                raise RuntimeError("Firmware image is too large for this board")
    
            # OTP added in v4:
            if self.bl_rev > 3:
                for byte in range(0, 32*6, 4):
                    x = self.__getOTP(byte)
                    self.otp = self.otp + x
                    print(binascii.hexlify(x).decode('Latin-1') + ' ', end='')
                # see src/modules/systemlib/otp.h in px4 code:
                self.otp_id = self.otp[0:4]
                self.otp_idtype = self.otp[4:5]
                self.otp_vid = self.otp[8:4:-1]
                self.otp_pid = self.otp[12:8:-1]
                self.otp_coa = self.otp[32:160]
                # show user:
                try:
                    print("type: " + self.otp_id.decode('Latin-1'))
                    print("idtype: " + binascii.b2a_qp(self.otp_idtype).decode('Latin-1'))
                    print("vid: " + binascii.hexlify(self.otp_vid).decode('Latin-1'))
                    print("pid: " + binascii.hexlify(self.otp_pid).decode('Latin-1'))
                    print("coa: " + binascii.b2a_base64(self.otp_coa).decode('Latin-1'))
                    print("sn: ", end='')
                    for byte in range(0, 12, 4):
                        x = self.__getSN(byte)
                        x = x[::-1]  # reverse the bytes
                        self.sn = self.sn + x
                        print(binascii.hexlify(x).decode('Latin-1'), end='')  # show user
                    print('')
                    print("chip: %08x" % self.__getCHIP())
                    if (self.bl_rev >= 5):
                        des = self.__getCHIPDes()
                        if (len(des) == 2):
                            print("family: %s" % des[0])
                            print("revision: %s" % des[1])
                            print("flash %d" % self.fw_maxsize)
                except Exception:
                    # ignore bad character encodings
                    pass
    
            if self.baudrate_bootloader_flash != self.baudrate_bootloader:
                print("Setting baudrate to %u" % self.baudrate_bootloader_flash)
                self.__setbaud(self.baudrate_bootloader_flash)
                self.port.baudrate = self.baudrate_bootloader_flash
                self.__sync()
    
            self.__erase("Erase  ")
            self.__program("Program", fw)
    
            if self.bl_rev == 2:
                self.__verify_v2("Verify ", fw)
            else:
                self.__verify_v3("Verify ", fw)
    
            if boot_delay is not None:
                self.__set_boot_delay(boot_delay)
    
            print("\nRebooting.\n")
            self.__reboot()
            self.port.close()
    
        def __next_baud_flightstack(self):
            self.baudrate_flightstack_idx = self.baudrate_flightstack_idx + 1
            if self.baudrate_flightstack_idx >= len(self.baudrate_flightstack):
                return False
    
            try:
                self.port.baudrate = self.baudrate_flightstack[self.baudrate_flightstack_idx]
            except Exception:
                return False
    
            return True
    
        def send_reboot(self):
            if (not self.__next_baud_flightstack()):
                return False
    
            print("Attempting reboot on %s with baudrate=%d..." % (self.port.port, self.port.baudrate), file=sys.stderr)
            print("If the board does not respond, unplug and re-plug the USB connector.", file=sys.stderr)
    
            try:
                # try MAVLINK command first
                self.port.flush()
                self.__send(uploader.MAVLINK_REBOOT_ID1)
                self.__send(uploader.MAVLINK_REBOOT_ID0)
                # then try reboot via NSH
                self.__send(uploader.NSH_INIT)
                self.__send(uploader.NSH_REBOOT_BL)
                self.__send(uploader.NSH_INIT)
                self.__send(uploader.NSH_REBOOT)
                self.port.flush()
                self.port.baudrate = self.baudrate_bootloader
            except:
                try:
                    self.port.flush()
                    self.port.baudrate = self.baudrate_bootloader
                except Exception:
                    pass
    
            return True
    
    
    def main():
    
        # Parse commandline arguments
        parser = argparse.ArgumentParser(description="Firmware uploader for the PX autopilot system.")
        parser.add_argument('--port', action="store", help="Comma-separated list of serial port(s) to which the FMU may be attached",
                            default=None)
        parser.add_argument('--baud-bootloader', action="store", type=int, default=115200, help="Baud rate of the serial port (default is 115200) when communicating with bootloader, only required for true serial ports.")
        parser.add_argument('--baud-bootloader-flash', action="store", type=int, default=None, help="Attempt to negotiate this baudrate with bootloader for flashing.")
        parser.add_argument('--baud-flightstack', action="store", default="57600", help="Comma-separated list of baud rate of the serial port (default is 57600) when communicating with flight stack (Mavlink or NSH), only required for true serial ports.")
        parser.add_argument('--force', action='store_true', default=False, help='Override board type check and continue loading')
        parser.add_argument('--boot-delay', type=int, default=None, help='minimum boot delay to store in flash')
        parser.add_argument('firmware', action="store", help="Firmware file to be uploaded")
        args = parser.parse_args()
    
        # warn people about ModemManager which interferes badly with Pixhawk
        if os.path.exists("/usr/sbin/ModemManager"):
            print("==========================================================================================================")
            print("WARNING: You should uninstall ModemManager as it conflicts with any non-modem serial device (like Pixhawk)")
            print("==========================================================================================================")
    
        # Load the firmware file
        fw = firmware(args.firmware)
        print("Loaded firmware for %x,%x, size: %d bytes, waiting for the bootloader..." % (fw.property('board_id'), fw.property('board_revision'), fw.property('image_size')))
        print("If the board does not respond within 1-2 seconds, unplug and re-plug the USB connector.")
    
        # Spin waiting for a device to show up
        try:
            while True:
                portlist = []
                if args.port is None:
                    patterns = default_ports
                else:
                    patterns = args.port.split(",")
                # on unix-like platforms use glob to support wildcard ports. This allows
                # the use of /dev/serial/by-id/usb-3D_Robotics on Linux, which prevents the upload from
                # causing modem hangups etc
                if "linux" in _platform or "darwin" in _platform or "cygwin" in _platform:
                    import glob
                    for pattern in patterns:
                        portlist += glob.glob(pattern)
                else:
                    portlist = patterns
    
                baud_flightstack = [int(x) for x in args.baud_flightstack.split(',')]
    
                for port in portlist:
    
                    # print("Trying %s" % port)
    
                    # create an uploader attached to the port
                    try:
                        if "linux" in _platform:
                            # Linux, don't open Mac OS and Win ports
                            up = uploader(port, args.baud_bootloader, baud_flightstack, args.baud_bootloader_flash)
                        elif "darwin" in _platform:
                            # OS X, don't open Windows and Linux ports
                            if "COM" not in port and "ACM" not in port:
                                up = uploader(port, args.baud_bootloader, baud_flightstack, args.baud_bootloader_flash)
                        elif "cygwin" in _platform:
                            # Cygwin, don't open MAC OS and Win ports, we are more like Linux. Cygwin needs to be before Windows test
                            up = uploader(port, args.baud_bootloader, baud_flightstack, args.baud_bootloader_flash)
                        elif "win" in _platform:
                            # Windows, don't open POSIX ports
                            if "/" not in port:
                                up = uploader(port, args.baud_bootloader, baud_flightstack, args.baud_bootloader_flash)
                    except Exception:
                        # open failed, rate-limit our attempts
                        time.sleep(0.05)
    
                        # and loop to the next port
                        continue
    
                    found_bootloader = False
                    while (True):
                        up.open()
    
                        # port is open, try talking to it
                        try:
                            # identify the bootloader
                            up.identify()
                            found_bootloader = True
                            print("Found board %x,%x bootloader rev %x on %s" % (up.board_type, up.board_rev, up.bl_rev, port))
                            break
    
                        except Exception:
    
                            if not up.send_reboot():
                                break
    
                            # wait for the reboot, without we might run into Serial I/O Error 5
                            time.sleep(0.25)
    
                            # always close the port
                            up.close()
    
                            # wait for the close, without we might run into Serial I/O Error 6
                            time.sleep(0.3)
    
                    if not found_bootloader:
                        # Go to the next port
                        continue
    
                    try:
                        # ok, we have a bootloader, try flashing it
                        up.upload(fw, force=args.force, boot_delay=args.boot_delay)
    
                    except RuntimeError as ex:
                        # print the error
                        print("\nERROR: %s" % ex.args)
    
                    except IOError:
                        up.close()
                        continue
    
                    finally:
                        # always close the port
                        up.close()
    
                    # we could loop here if we wanted to wait for more boards...
                    sys.exit(0)
    
                # Delay retries to < 20 Hz to prevent spin-lock from hogging the CPU
                time.sleep(0.05)
    
        # CTRL+C aborts the upload/spin-lock by interrupt mechanics
        except KeyboardInterrupt:
            print("\n Upload aborted by user.")
            sys.exit(0)
    
    if __name__ == '__main__':
        main()
    
    # vim: tabstop=4 expandtab shiftwidth=4 softtabstop=4
    
    3. 上传固件操作
    ./uploader.py arducopter.apj
    
    展开全文
  • 1、/bin/sh python:command not found安装python 并添加路径2、ModuleNotFoundError: No module named 'future'“future”模块未安装升级PIP到最新板python -m pip install --upgrade pip安装futurepip install ...

    1、/bin/sh python:command not found

    安装python 并添加路径

    2、ModuleNotFoundError: No module named 'future'

    “future”模块未安装

    升级PIP到最新板

    python -m pip install --upgrade pip

    安装future

    pip install future

    3、/bin/sh: arm-none-eabi-gcc: command not found

    添加px4 交叉编译链路径到系统环境变量

    我的路径是:

    F:\Program_file\PX4_3.5\pixhawk_toolchain\toolchain\bin

    在环境变量PATH中添加

    4、python import error:  No module named 'em'

    windows 安装模块 empy catkin_pkg:

    easy_install empy catkin_pkg

    展开全文
  • 树莓派4B与Pixhawk4飞控之状态监控读取飞控配置树莓派配置程序代码...这里用的是一个相对简单一些的python写成的库dronekit,大家可以了解一下 还是上结果图看下,读取的状态 飞控配置 首先连接地面站,因为调试过程
  • Python 符号运算

    2020-12-12 14:57:53
    Sugar 起初在 MultiMCU EDU 上写的都是有飞控、嵌入式操作系统、控制算法类的推文。 最近推的 Matlab 和 Python 似乎与 MCU 不在一个世界里,其实不然。机器人身上的 MCU 所跑的程序是有运行控制算法的,而控制算法...

    背景介绍:
    Sugar 起初在 MultiMCU EDU 上写的都是有飞控、嵌入式操作系统、控制算法类的推文。
    最近推的 Matlab 和 Python 似乎与 MCU 不在一个世界里,其实不然。机器人身上的 MCU 所跑的程序是有运行控制算法的,而控制算法的学习必须有扎实的数学功底。
    当代学数学除了 Matlab 工具可用,还有开源的 Python 模块。学数学必须借助好工具,把抽象变具象才能理解。本篇 Sugar 就来说一说 Python 中的符号运算。

    sympy

    一、安装 sympy 模块

    Sugar 使用 Python 3.8.6 安装 sympy 模块,安装命令如下:

    pip install sympy
    

    二、sympy 使用

    1、symbols() 函数定义符号

    import sympy as sy
    x,y = sy.symbols("x y")
    

    如上定义 xy 为符号变量,可以用 type() 函数查看变量类型,如下:

    2、字符表达式输出方法:

    f"...{}"字符串前加 f{} 里的内容格式化输出。

    3、符号表达式的数值解

    subs() 函数用于将表达式里的变量替换成数值。
    f字符串里凡是要求值的地方都用 {} 括起来。

    4、变量替换(适用于复合函数)

    subs() 函数可以将表达式里的变量替换成其他符号表达式。

    5、算术表达式求值

    Rational(a,b) 表示分数 a/b
    sqrt(a) 表示求 a 的平方根。
    evalf() 函数用于求算数表达式的数值解。

    6、输出更易懂的表达式

    init_printing()pprint() 就能以更易懂的方式输出符号表达式。

    7、输出更专业的表达式

    这里要用到 jupyter notebook,关于 jupyter 的安装和使用 Sugar 下面会单独说。

    sympy 模块更多强大的功能可以参考简书上的《Python科学计算利器——SymPy库》,以上内容 Sugar 有参照知乎上的《sympy: 符号运算-1》,在知乎专栏《sympy:符号运算》中有更多内容。本篇意在让初学者简单入门,选得都是简单好用的示例,避免初学者看一大篇长文引起畏难情绪。

    jupyter

    参考《Python安装Jupyter Notebook配置使用教程》

    jupyter notebook 是用来学代码的不二之选,相当于一个活的可运行的代码笔记,功能上类似于 Matlab 的实时脚本。

    一、安装 jupyter

    pip 安装命令 pip install jupyter

    二、简单配置和使用

    1、换 jupyter notebook 启动目录
    (1) 在 D 盘新建文件夹 D:\jupyter_notebook
    (2) 生成配置文件,命令是:jupyter notebook --generate-config
    (3) 修改配置文件(搜索关键词 c.NotebookApp.notebook_dir),如下图:

    2、基本使用:在 jupyter 里用 python3 输出公式。
    (1) 在 Windows PowerShell 里输入命令 jupyter notebook 打开 jupyter 网页,然后新建 Python3 文件,如下图:

    (2) 自动跳转到 Python3 页面,如下图:

    (3) 输入如下代码并运行,结果如代码下面的图:

    from IPython.display import display, Latex
    import sympy as sy
    sy.init_printing()
    
    x,y=sy.symbols("x y")
    f=x**2+3*x-5
    display(Latex(f"$$f(x)={sy.latex(f)}$$"))
    
    xx=3
    sy.pprint(f"f({xx})={f.subs({x:xx})}")
    yy=4
    f1=sy.sqrt(x**2+y**2)
    
    display(Latex(f"$$f_1(x,y)={sy.latex(f1)}$$"))
    sy.pprint(f"f1({xx},{yy})={f1.subs({x:xx, y:yy})}")
    

    三、更多功能

    如上图,jupyter 还支持更 MarkDown 等更多功能,使用方法也是动手弄一弄就会。结合这些功能一起,就能理解为什么叫 jupyter notebook 了,这实在是做代码笔记的不二之选。

    简书上有一篇《Jupyter Notebook介绍、安装及使用教程》非常详细地讲述了 jupter 从安装使用以及加入其他功能插件的各种操作。

    PS

    对于数学工具,Sugar 推荐相似功能先学习 Matlab 再学 Python,Matlab 环境下查看变量和断点调试更方便。

    关注作者

    欢迎扫码关注我的公众号MultiMCU EDU

    提示:在公众号“关于我”页面可加作者微信好友。

    喜欢本文求点赞,有打赏我会更有动力。

    展开全文
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  • 今天把树莓派zero和stm32接起来了,先接的是面包板上的用的是下载口,然后再接了飞控上的stm32用的是数传的那个串口,测试下来都没什么问题。 就是以后软件上要改一下,现在还是用minicom在通信,以后要自己用...
  • 大学学的是测绘工程,后来接触无人机,想学python往无人机飞控方向做,但是不知道往什么方向做,希望大佬们能给我个方向。</p>
  • python 代码片段4

    2016-01-02 22:07:00
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  • 我用了这些代码,现在树莓派和服务器都能自动启动图传相关的程序了,客户端这里打开程序就能看到图像。我下楼也测试过,信号不好时最好还是用320x240。 quadcopter rc.local ...sudo python /home/pi/q...
  • 寻找了一段时间,发现Dronekit-Python可以实现脱离遥控器来控制无人机,找到了一些较好的教程,但是中间也踩了一些坑。 先转载一下教程,遇到的哪些坑以后再写
  • 这是用socket转发串口数据,然后另一头socket收到后进行解码。 serial_socket.py是转发程序,注意这里串口读取是50个全部读到才发socket,否则会有问题,刷新速度很快,但是实际更新不.../usr/bin/python # coding...
  • 我申请了一个华为云免费服务器。然后这两天做了一下各种自动启动的操作,毕竟在外面试飞的...但是我发现运行python代码的时候会自动配置上路由表,效果跟route一样。 服务器首先要在华为的网站上开启我要用的端口...
  • 打算自己用python搞一个。 本人以前做树莓派坦克也有图传,是根据下文改的: https://blog.csdn.net/huhumama0/article/details/9164873 但是今天发现用不了,原因是客户端现在是16.04,apt装的opencv不带...
  • 昨天试飞了飞机,发现两个问题: 1.有时候传输数据出错,会导致图传有问题,可能图传也要加校验。 2.另外飞到70多米处断线后没法自动重连,可能是lte模块拨号的问题。 .../usr/bin/python # ...
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