• 数字集成电路物理设计
• 数字集成电路物理设计，详细讲解了数字电路PD全流程，是华为后端设计部门红宝书
• 数字集成电路物理设计I have always found the digital world fascinating. The way that something can exist in a virtual realm, yet reflect properties of the physical world, makes it unusual yet strangely...
数字集成电路物理设计I have always found the digital world fascinating. The way that something can exist in a virtual realm, yet reflect properties of the physical world, makes it unusual yet strangely tangible. 我总是发现数字世界着迷。 某种事物可以存在于虚拟领域中，但又反映了物理世界的属性的方式，使其变得异常而又奇怪。
Is it appropriate to treat digital representations as objects or entities in their own right? What are their similarities and differences and what do they mean to us? What dangers do these properties present? 将数字表示本身视为对象或实体是否合适？ 它们的异同是什么？它们对我们意味着什么？ 这些特性会带来什么危险？
数字东西的属性 (Properties of digital stuff)
I recall having a conversation years ago with an old friend. We both had computers, which was still a relative novelty at the time. My father has an electrical engineering background and so computers were in our family for as long as they were available (even a kit computer, with a wooden box!). My friend’s family on the other hand, had teaching backgrounds and cared little for computers. 我记得几年前和一个老朋友谈话。 我们俩都拥有计算机，这在当时还是一个相对新颖的事物。 我父亲拥有电气工程背景，因此只要有电脑，我们就一直在我们家庭中生活(甚至是一台装有木箱的成套计算机！)。 另一方面，我朋友的家人有教学背景，对计算机一点也不在乎。
My friend’s father had written a document and was contemplating printing it. There’s nothing unusual about that, but his fear that it would no longer be on the computer was; sending the document to the printer meant just that to him — it would go from within the computer to outside of it, materialising in paper form. How we chuckled at the time! 我朋友的父亲已经写了一份文件，正在考虑打印。 这没有什么不寻常的，但是他担心它将不再存在于计算机中。 将文档发送给打印机意味着对他来说就意味着–从计算机内部到计算机外部，都以纸质形式出现。 当时我们多么轻笑！
Feed me! 喂我！ I have never forgotten this conversation. It made me think about how people may apply real world properties to something where they don’t exist. It helped me to understand that computers do not always work as expected. The language used to describe operations with a computer may both help and hinder the understanding of them. 我从未忘记过这次谈话。 这让我思考了人们如何将现实世界的财产应用于不存在的财产。 它使我了解到计算机并非总是能够按预期运行。 用于描述计算机操作的语言可能会帮助并阻碍对它们的理解。
Data can be copied, cloned, moved and destroyed in moments. Access to it can be granted easily, then taken away just as fast. There is no manufacturing of data in a traditional sense, as once there is a single copy, it can be duplicated over and over again, at near zero cost. 可以立即复制，克隆，移动和销毁数据。 可以轻松授予访问权限，然后以同样快的速度将其删除。 传统意义上没有数据制造，因为一旦有了一个副本，就可以一次又一次地复制数据，而成本几乎为零。
物理物品的属性 (Properties of physical stuff)
For those of us who dwell in the digital realm, real stuff can be a pain. If I want to change the design of an application, I just type some words onto the screen and give it a try. I don’t need to put my old rags on, I don’t need to wear safety glasses, nor do I need to pull on protective gloves. I don’t expect to work up a sweat, strain my muscles or get physically exhausted. 对于那些生活在数字领域的人来说，真实的东西可能会很痛苦。 如果要更改应用程序的设计，只需在屏幕上键入一些单词并尝试一下。 我不需要穿旧衣服，不需要戴安全眼镜，也不需要戴防护手套。 我不希望出汗，拉紧肌肉或疲惫。
Creating a new class or function is simple. Effort is minimal and if it doesn’t work, a few taps on the delete key erases it from the application. In the real world, I have to machine, build and construct something. I may have to design it and even the tools to make it. It will take time, money and skill. If I get it wrong, it may be useless. Even if I get it right, it may still break when I’m using it. I may even get broken using it! 创建新的类或函数很简单。 付出的努力是最小的，如果不起作用，请轻按几次Delete键会将其从应用程序中删除。 在现实世界中，我必须进行机械加工，构建和构造。 我可能不得不设计它，甚至需要设计它的工具。 这将需要时间，金钱和技能。 如果我弄错了，那可能没用。 即使我做对了，使用时它也可能会破裂。 我什至会被它弄碎！
Something physical in need of replacement 需要替换的物理物品 Then there are the forces acting upon real stuff. It may be heavy, due to gravity acting on its mass. There may be friction with one thing rubbing against another. Wear and tear will occur, even when correctly lubricated. Even the lubrication itself must be monitored and replaced. None of this applies to software. The idea of servicing software to stop it wearing out is as nonsensical to a computer as a document being moved from a disk to a piece of paper after printing. 然后是作用在真实物品上的力量。 由于重力作用于其质量，它可能很重。 一物与另一物摩擦可能会产生摩擦。 即使正确润滑，也会发生磨损。 甚至润滑本身也必须进行监控和更换。 这些都不适用于软件。 维修软件以防止其磨损的想法对于计算机而言是毫无意义的，就像文档在打印后从磁盘移到一张纸上一样。
物理和数字事物之间的平行 (Parallels between physical and digital stuff)
Despite many differences, there are still parallels. 尽管存在许多差异，但仍然存在相似之处。
We patch software to keep it up to secure and safe, which is reassuringly similar to what we do with physical items, such as cars. 我们对软件进行修补以确保其安全性，这令人放心地类似于我们对诸如汽车之类的物理物品所做的工作。
While software may not wear, the world around it changes in a way that doesn’t happen in the physical world. The digital ecosystem is evolving and constantly reinventing itself. It happens at such a rapid pace that it impacts on the digital things that reside within it. 虽然软件可能不会磨损，但是它周围的世界却以物理世界中不会发生的方式发生变化。 数字生态系统正在不断发展，并且不断自我改造。 它以如此快的速度发生，以至影响其中的数字事物。
We can think about sending an email or message to someone online and it feels very much like a letter. It appears to leave the outbox and arrive in an inbox, much like a physical letter does. Of course, much of this is an illusion to make the process feel familiar, but this helps us feel comfortable with these processes. 我们可以考虑向网上某人发送电子邮件或消息，感觉就像一封信。 它似乎离开发件箱并到达收件箱，就像物理信件一样。 当然，这很多都是使过程变得熟悉的幻觉，但这有助于我们对这些过程感到满意。
Some times we just abandon any notion of similarity. We just say something is ‘in the cloud’, to express that it is out there somewhere. We don’t know exactly where or how, but we often don’t want or need to know either. 有时我们只是放弃任何相似性的概念。 我们只是说某物在“云中”，以表示它在某处。 我们不知道确切的位置或方式，但是我们通常也不想要或不需要知道。
是无知幸福吗？ (Is ignorance bliss?)
Life is sometimes complex enough without knowing the exact locations of our stuff. Accepting that it is it is safely where we left it is sufficient. The same is true of our data. 生活有时很复杂，却不知道我们物品的确切位置。 放心地将它放在我们离开的地方就足够了。 我们的数据也是如此。
There is no cloud. It is just someone else’s computer. 没有云。 它只是别人的计算机。 Should we be content to leave our data in the cloud though? Should we be concerned that the applications we use now often belong to someone else? Should we be worried that this data may not be safe and secure? 我们是否应该满足于将数据保留在云中？ 我们是否应该担心我们现在使用的应用程序经常属于其他人？ 我们应该担心这些数据可能不安全吗？
There was a time when we installed all of our applications. The entirety of the application was loaded onto our computers and they operated totally independently. There was no server to connect to, even if we were able to get online at all. Ownership of the application and the data it created were obvious — they belonged to us on our machines. 曾经有一段时间，我们安装了所有应用程序。 整个应用程序已加载到我们的计算机上，它们完全独立运行。 即使我们完全能够上网，也没有服务器可以连接。 该应用程序及其创建的数据的所有权很明显-它们属于我们在我们计算机上的所有权。
With the physical world, this is largely true too. We buy tools, machines, equipment and so forth which we store at our property. There is no ambiguity over ownership. Finance and leasing may have blurred this ownership model in the modern world, but there is almost always a choice. We can elect to own both the equipment and the results they produce. 对于物理世界，这在很大程度上也是正确的。 我们购买工具，机器，设备等存放在我们物业中的物品。 所有权没有任何歧义。 金融和租赁在现代世界中可能已经模糊了这种所有权模式，但是几乎总是有选择的余地。 我们可以选择拥有设备及其产生的结果。
Who is behind the cloud? Can they be trusted? 谁在云后面？ 他们可以信任吗？ When tools are run in the cloud, we don’t take ownership of them. When the product of these tools is also held in the cloud, we don’t take ownership of that either. We’re beholden to the corporations behind the cloud. Not only do we rent their tools, but we also rent our data. Is it even legally our data at all? 当工具在云中运行时，我们不拥有它们的所有权。 当这些工具的产品也保存在云中时，我们也不拥有这些所有权。 我们着迷于云背后的公司。 我们不仅出租他们的工具，还出租我们的数据。 甚至在法律上我们的数据吗？
云不应该是围墙花园 (The cloud shouldn’t be a walled garden)
Ownership of our stuff is important. We must be able to own tools and the products created with them. It is key to our personal independence and it prevents our productivity being stifled and our creativity being censored. 我们的东西的所有权很重要。 我们必须能够拥有工具以及使用它们创建的产品。 这是我们个人独立的关键，它可以防止我们的生产力受到窒息和创造力受到审查。
In the physical world, it is hard to obfuscate ownership. A restriction in our ability to move or retain stuff is obvious. In the digital world, the edges are much more blurred and gaining a complete understanding is more difficult. 在物理世界中，很难混淆所有权。 我们移动或保留物品的能力受到明显限制。 在数字世界中，边缘变得更加模糊，要获得全面的了解就更加困难。
Data can move with very little friction or momentum, which can be a double edged sword. On one had it can be extremely easy to give everyone the ability to access new tools and create compelling content. On the other hand, it can be trivial to restrict access to these tools and confiscate the products created by them. 数据可以以很小的摩擦或动量移动，这可能是一把双刃剑。 一方面，让每个人都可以访问新工具并创建引人入胜的内容非常容易。 另一方面，限制对这些工具的访问并没收由它们创建的产品可能是微不足道的。
We must remain vigilant and be aware of where we access our digital tools and how our content is stored. We need to understand the key differences and parallels between the digital and the physical world. If we don’t, sending data somewhere may indeed be as we may naively imagine — it is no longer on our computers and access to it in the cloud may evaporate. 我们必须保持警惕，并了解我们在哪里访问我们的数字工具以及如何存储我们的内容。 我们需要了解数字世界与物理世界之间的主要区别和相似之处。 如果我们不这样做，那么在某个地方发送数据的确可能是我们天真地想像的那样-它不再存在于我们的计算机上，并且对云中数据的访问可能会消失。
翻译自: https://medium.com/swlh/exploring-physical-vs-digital-1a30943219b5数字集成电路物理设计
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• 数字集成电路物理设计Nineteen Eighty-Four is my favourite novel; I must have read it half a dozen times. There are many reasons why I believe it to be a work of literary genius, but recently I’ve been...
数字集成电路物理设计Nineteen Eighty-Four is my favourite novel; I must have read it half a dozen times. There are many reasons why I believe it to be a work of literary genius, but recently I’ve been thinking about one specific aspect of it that has a very clear analogue to video games: vocabulary. More specifically, I’m referring to the idea that applying deliberate constraints to vocabulary can directly restrict the concepts that one can think and discuss. Before I touch on video games specifically, I hope you’ll indulge a brief aside about vocabulary as it relates to Nineteen Eighty-Four. ñ ineteen八四 是我最喜欢的小说; 我一定已经读了六遍。 我认为它是文学天才的作品有很多原因，但是最近我一直在思考与视频游戏非常相似的一个特定方面：词汇。 更具体地说，我指的是这样一种思想，即对词汇表施加故意约束可以直接限制人们可以思考和讨论的概念。 在我专门介绍视频游戏之前，希望您先简单介绍一下与“ 十九四十四”相关的词汇。
新闻和思想控制 (Newspeak and thought control)
In the novel, protagonist Winston Smith lives in a totalitarian state (known as Oceania) ruled by a single political entity simply known as “The Party”. Much like the totalitarian states that we are familiar with today (Russia, for example), The Party utilises sophisticated propaganda as one of many methods to control and influence the populous. But in Nineteen Eighty-Four, the dissemination of false news dovetails with a broader — and perhaps more sinister — effort to physically control language itself through the application of Newspeak. 在小说中，主角温斯顿·史密斯(Winston Smith)生活在一个由单一政治实体(简称“政党”)统治的极权国家(大洋洲)中。 就像我们今天所熟悉的极权主义国家(例如俄罗斯)一样，该党利用复杂的宣传作为控制和影响人口的许多方法之一。 但是在十九四十四中 ，虚假新闻的传播与通过Newspeak的应用在物理上控制语言本身的努力更加广泛，甚至更加危险。
Scene from 1984 by Virgin Films 1984年维珍电影公司的现场 Newspeak is the official language of the state, and is subject to continuous revision by The Party in an effort to progressively restrict both grammar and vocabulary. The aim is to ensure that all language — and therefore, all possible thought — is guided through a strictly-controlled funnel that aligns with the principles of Ingsoc (the ideological orthodoxy of The Party). Consequently, unorthodox language and thought is avoided to the maximum degree possible. Newspeak是国家的官方语言，为了不断限制语法和词汇量，该党不断受到党的修改。 目的是确保通过严格控制的与Ingsoc原则相符的渠道来指导所有语言以及所有可能的思想   (党的思想正统思想)。 因此，最大程度地避免了非正统的语言和思想。
A great example can be found on the relevant Wikipedia page: 可以在相关的Wikipedia页面上找到一个很好的例子：
The Oldspeak word ‘free’ existed in Newspeak, but could only be used in terms of something not present, as in the sentences “The dog is free from lice.” and “This field is free from weeds.” Politically, the word free could not denote free will, because such a humanist concept does not exist in the society of Oceania. The linguistic design of Newspeak is for thought control, by diminishment of the user’s range of thought, which is realised with a minimal vocabulary of limited denotation and connotation; hence words such as: crimethink (thought crime), doublethink (accepting contradictory beliefs), and Ingsoc (English Socialism). “新闻”中存在“ Oldspeak”一词“ free”，但只能用于不存在的词语，例如“狗没有虱子”。 和“这个领域没有杂草。” 从政治上讲，自由一词不能表示自由意志 ，因为在大洋洲社会中不存在这样的人本主义概念。 Newspeak的语言设计是通过减少用户的思维范围来进行思想控制的，而这种思想的实现是通过最小化具有有限外延和内涵的词汇来实现的。 因此，诸如： 犯罪思维(思想犯罪)， 双重思维 (接受矛盾的信念)和英 格索克 (英语社会主义)之类的词。 Take a moment to consider the implications of this. The idea is very simple: if you have no way to articulate a particular concept through language, then your ability to think of or imagine the concept is either diminished or entirely negated. There is a very real sense in which your articulation of the thing enables your conceptualisation of the thing. 花一点时间来考虑一下这个含义。 这个想法非常简单：如果您无法通过语言表达特定的概念，那么您思考或想象该概念的能力就会减弱或完全消失。 在非常真实的意义上，您对事物的表达可以使您对事物进行概念化。
In this way, I see language and its constituent parts (vocabulary and grammar) as tools that can enable us conceptualise something with greater or lesser degrees of fidelity. 这样，我将语言及其组成部分(词汇和语法)视为可以使我们以某种程度的保真度概念化某些东西的工具。
拉弦 (Pulling the strings)
I might be drawing a long bow, but I think there’s a clear comparison to be made with video games here. If the game is the thing or the concept — and if we are interacting with or interpreting that concept — then surely the controller is our vocabulary and grammar. You might argue that there are other elements at play (like graphics and sound), and you’d be right. But your ability to manipulate the game (to not simply view it passively, but to “conceptualise” it in literal terms) really comes down to the tools you’re using to physically pull the strings. 我可能会鞠躬致意，但我认为这里可以与电子游戏进行明显的比较。 如果游戏是事物或概念，并且我们正在与之交互或解释该概念，那么控制者无疑就是我们的词汇和语法。 您可能会争辩说还有其他因素在起作用(例如图形和声音)，这是正确的。 但是，您操纵游戏的能力(不仅仅是简单地被动看游戏，而是按照字面意义“概念化”游戏)确实取决于您用来实际拉弦的工具。
If you accept this argument, then my underlying thesis might be that much more salient: game controllers can fundamentally limit or expand the kinds of experiences we can have with video games. To some degree, I’d argue that controllers influence this even more than raw processing power. 如果您接受这种说法，那么我的基本论点可能会更加突出：游戏控制器可以从根本上限制或扩展我们在视频游戏中可以拥有的体验。 在某种程度上，我认为控制器对这一点的影响甚至大于原始处理能力。
Here’s a little thought experiment I went through, which might help to underscore the point. It relates to the first time I played Super Mario 64 (this works especially well for me because I’m ancient enough to remember the pre-N64 consoles when they were still new). 这是我经过的一些思想实验，可能有助于强调这一点。 这与我第一次玩Super Mario 64有关 (对我来说效果特别好，因为我足够古老，可以记住N64之前的游戏机还很新)。
I will never forget the moment when Mario triumphantly leapt out of the warp pipe at the beginning of the game, large as life, barely a moustache-whisker away from the camera lense. 我永远不会忘记在游戏开始时马里奥(Mario)胜利地跳出扭曲管的那一刻，就像生活一样大，几乎没有胡子从镜头上移开。
Mario in 3D! Wow! 3D马里奥！ 哇！
And then I tilted the little analogue stick on the Nintendo 64 controller (which, at first glance, seemed like a completely bonkers way of doing much of anything in a video game). It all felt so new; I remember tentatively nudging the stick upwards. 然后，我将小模拟杆倾斜到Nintendo 64控制器上(乍看之下，这似乎完全是傻瓜式的方式，可以在视频游戏中完成很多事情)。 一切感觉如此新 ; 我记得试探性地将棒向上推。
Mario is…tip-toeing? 马里奥(Mario)是……脚尖踩？
Now a more confident tilt. 现在更加自信。
He’s walking! 他在走路！
And now — complete with an ear-to-ear grin — full tilt. 而现在- 充满耳目一笑- 完全倾斜 。
He’s running! Look at his little arms and legs go! 他在跑步！ 看他的小胳膊和腿去！
It seems so simple now because it’s totally and utterly granted in virtually every modern game. Back then, though, this felt like magic! 现在看来是如此简单，因为几乎所有现代游戏都完全认可了它。 但是，那时感觉就像魔术一样！
Super Mario 64 was played with the “right position” 超级马里奥64以“正确位置”进行比赛 I’d seen 3D games before, having played a Sega Saturn well before I ever laid eyes on a Nintendo 64 in the flesh. Although Super Mario 64 was visually more advanced than anything I’d witnessed on the Saturn to date, the concept of 3D graphics wasn’t new to me. Mario felt so new — so different, and so liberating — because until that point, I’d never manipulated a character in a 3D space with true 360 degrees of movement and the precision that analogue controls afford. 我以前看过3D游戏，在玩过Sega Saturn之前还没看过Nintendo 64。 尽管Super Mario 64在视觉上比迄今为止我在土星上所见的任何东西都要先进，但3D图形的概念对我来说并不陌生。 Mario感到如此新颖-如此不同，如此自由-因为在那一点之前，我从未真正以360度的运动度和模拟控件所能提供的精度来操纵3D空间中的角色。
As much as the Nintendo 64’s processing power enabled those large and beautiful worlds to unfold before my eyes, it wouldn’t have meant anything — and it wouldn’t have been so utterly delightful — without that revolutionary controller. Nintendo 64的处理能力可以使那些广阔而美丽的世界展现在我的眼前，如果没有那个革命性的控制器，那将毫无意义，也不会那么令人愉悦。
Gaming history buffs may be tempted to note that Sega actually beat Nintendo to the market with its 3D control pad for the Saturn. That’s true, although I’d say it was the combination of Super Mario 64 and the Nintendo 64 controller that represented an enormous leap forward for video games. 游戏史上的爱好者可能会想起，世嘉公司凭借其土星3D控制板实际上击败了任天堂。 没错，尽管我想说的是Super Mario 64和Nintendo 64控制器的结合，代表了视频游戏的巨大飞跃。
优胜劣汰 (Survival of the fittest)
Throughout video game history, there have been many unique controller designs, but very few become mainstream or maintain their influence across many generations of games. 在整个视频游戏历史上，都有许多独特的控制器设计，但很少有成为主流或在多代游戏中保持其影响力的。
Atari 2600 Paddle Controller Atari 2600桨式控制器 The Atari 2600 Paddle Controller is one of many designs that was popular for a brief window and was then superceded by other designs. This particular controller debuted alongside Atari’s Pong (arcade version), and a similar design was later used across numorous platforms (including everything from the Magnavox Odyssey to the Apple II. This particular form factor actually survived for some time and was well-suited to certain genres (including various driving and sports titles). The underlying technology underwent several revisions, though, because the original potentiometer-based design loses accuracy when the potentiometer contacts become worn or dirty. Although this particular design appeared in various forms throughout the years — particularly in arcades — it never became a mainstream design for most games (in contrast to something like the D-Pad, which is still an important standard, even in an age of 3D analogue-based game controllers). Atari 2600桨式控制器是众多设计中的一种，该设计在一个简短的窗口中很受欢迎，然后被其他设计取代。 这个特殊的控制器与Atari的Pong (街机版)一起首次亮相，后来在众多平台上使用了类似的设计(包括从Magnavox Odyssey到Apple II的所有东西)，这种特殊的形状实际上可以保存一段时间，并且非常适合某些潜在的技术经过了几次修改，因为最初的基于电位计的设计会在电位计触点磨损或变脏时失去准确性，尽管这种特殊的设计多年来一直以各种形式出现-特别是在街机游戏中，它从未成为大多数游戏的主流设计(与D-Pad之类的东西相反， D-Pad仍然是重要的标准，即使在基于3D模拟的游戏控制器时代)。
That said, not all game controllers were necessarily intended to unseat the mainstream designs. The highly-unique Dreamcast Fishing Controller, for example, was really only ever designed for use with Sega Bass Fishing, although it was compatible with some other games (such as Virtua Tennis). 话虽如此，并非所有游戏控制器都一定要超越主流设计。 以高度独特的Dreamcast Fishing Controller为例，尽管它与某些其他游戏(例如Virtua Tennis )兼容，但实际上仅设计用于Sega Bass Fishing 。
运动是未来……对吗？ (Motion is the future…right?)
Not so long ago, you might have been tempted to claim that some form of motion control would unseat the humble — but ubiquitous — analogue stick. That time may have long since passed, but when the Wii first exploded, the survival of “traditional” controller didn’t seem so certain. Not only did the Wii become a massive global phenomenon, but it did so in large part thanks to the innovative Wii Remote controller. 不久之前，您可能会想声称某种形式的运动控制将取代不起眼的但无处不在的模拟摇杆。 那段时间可能已经过去很久了，但是当Wii第一次爆炸时，“传统”控制器的生存期似乎还不确定。 Wii不仅成为一种全球性的现象，而且在很大程度上要归功于创新的Wii遥控器。
Wii Remote (MotionPlus version) Wii遥控器(MotionPlus版本) When I first played WiiSports, I definitely felt that the experience was new; arguably as new as the feeling I’d first had with Super Mario 64. What was different, though, was that the Wii Remote wasn’t some complex controller that only longtime game enthusiasts could enjoy; it completely levelled the playing field in a way that I don’t think I’d seen since the original D-Pad design launched. So-called “lapsed gamers” (people who hadn’t played games in years, perhaps since the 16-bit era) and “non-gamers” (people who had never played a game at all) apparently made up a large proportion of the Wii’s audience. This made sense: the Wii Remote relied on natural, physical movement rather than complex button combinations. 当我第一次玩WiiSports时 ，我绝对觉得这种体验是新的。 可以说跟我对超级马里奥64的感觉一样新。 不过不同的是，Wii Remote并不是一个只有长期游戏发烧友才能享受的复杂控制器。 自从最初的D-Pad设计发布以来，它就以我认为从未见过的方式完全平衡了比赛环境。 所谓的“失败的游戏玩家”(也许是自16位时代以来多年没有玩过游戏的人)和“非游戏玩家”(根本没有玩过游戏的人)显然占了Wii的听众。 这是有道理的：Wii遥控器依靠自然的物理运动，而不是复杂的按钮组合。
It didn’t take very long for Nintendo’s competitors to not only recognise this “blue ocean strategy”, but to begin responding in kind. 任天堂的竞争对手很快就不仅意识到了这一“蓝海战略”，而且开始采取实物应对措施。
Sony more or less mirrored the Wii Remote with the PlayStation Move, which is functionally quite similar to the Wii Remote, except that it is underpinned by different technology (it tracks its position in 3D space by having the PlayStation Camera track the glowing balls atop each controller). 索尼通过PlayStation Move或多或少地镜像了Wii Remote，它在功能上与Wii Remote十分相似，只是它受不同技术的支持(通过让PlayStation Camera跟踪每个顶部的发光球来跟踪其在3D空间中的位置)控制器)。
Kinect for Xbox One Xbox One的Kinect Microsoft went in a completely different — and to their credit, quite bold — direction with Kinect. Originally unveiled as “Project Natal”, Kinect promised a very different future for video games: digital characters would be able to converse directly with the player and interact with them naturally without the need for any kind of physical controller, thanks to a highly sophisticated motion tracking/image recognition software. 微软与Kinect的发展方向截然不同，而且值得赞扬。 Kinect最初以“纳塔尔计划”(Project Natal)亮相，它承诺了视频游戏的一个截然不同的未来：由于高度复杂的动作，数字角色将能够直接与玩家对话并自然地与他们互动， 而无需任何类型的物理控制器。跟踪/图像识别软件。
I think the best representation of what Kinect promised was the E3 2009 Milo demo video. In recent interviews, Peter Molyneux was asked about Milo and he said that as development of Kinect progressed, the technology was progressively stripped back in order to achieve a reasonable price point at retail. The rest is history, really: Microsoft valiantly continued on with Kinect for a while (even including it in the first-generation Xbox One hardware), but it was ultimately relegated to the status of a pricey (and optional) accessory. 我认为Kinect承诺的最好代表是E3 2009 Milo演示视频 。 在最近的采访中，彼得·莫利纽克斯(Peter Molyneux)被问及有关Milo的问题 ，他说随着Kinect的发展，该技术逐渐被剥离，以实现零售价的合理价位。 剩下的就是历史了：微软勇敢地继续使用Kinect了一段时间(甚至包括在第一代Xbox One硬件中)，但最终降级为昂贵(和可选)配件的地位 。
Motion control has never really seen the ubiquity it achieved during the Wii years. Even the Wii U — which did support the Wii Remote — ended up focusing on a controller/tablet hybrid design, which didn’t set the world on fire (although the concept of using touch screens for games has become as ubiquitous as the D-Pad, if you consider the proliferation of games on smart devices like phones and tablets). 运动控制从未真正看到过Wii年来实现的普遍性。 甚至支持Wii Remote的Wii U最终也将注意力集中在控制器/平板电脑混合设计上，该设计并没有引起世界的关注(尽管使用触摸屏进行游戏的概念已经像D-如果您考虑在智能设备(例如手机和平板电脑)上大量开发游戏，请使用Pad。
新领域 (New frontiers)
It was only quite recently when entirely new video game experiences could be achieved solely by improving graphics technology. If you move from NES to SNES, for example, games don’t just become prettier; the palette for developers becomes sufficiently larger to offer gameplay designs that simply weren’t possible before. Whether it’s about adding more characters to the screen, or creating a realistic feeling of driving through the use of technology like Mode 7, increasing hardware power allowed for new experiences to emerge. 直到最近，仅通过改进图形技术即可获得全新的视频游戏体验。 例如，如果您从NES迁移到SNES，则游戏不仅变得更漂亮，而且还变得更加漂亮。 开发人员的调色板变得足够大，可以提供以前根本不可能实现的游戏设计。 无论是在屏幕上添加更多字符，还是通过使用模式7之类的技术来营造逼真的驾驶感觉，增加硬件功能都会带来新的体验。
I would argue that we are no longer living in a world where iterative advances in graphics technology alone can foster completely new gameplay experiences. 我认为，我们不再生活在仅凭图形技术的迭代进步就可以带来全新游戏体验的世界中。
At this point, it’s worth going back to the Sega Saturn vs Nintendo 64 example I mentioned earlier. 在这一点上，值得回到我前面提到的Sega Saturn vs Nintendo 64示例。
Compared with its predecessors, the Saturn offered a new paradigm in terms of graphics technology — for the first time in a home game console, players were able to truly explore 3D worlds in a fidelity that hadn’t been previously available outside the arcades. I remember playing Nights into Dreams and being completely blown away at how stunningly beautiful it was at the time. 与之前的产品相比，土星在图形技术方面提供了新的范例-首次在家用游戏机中，玩家能够以前所未有的高保真度真正探索3D世界。 我记得曾经玩过《入梦的夜晚》 ，并被当时的惊人魅力完全震撼了。
Nights into Dreams for Sega Saturn 世嘉土星的梦想之夜 Why is it, then, that playing Super Mario 64 felt like crossing the rubicon into a completely new world? 那么，为什么玩超级马里奥64感觉就像是将魔鬼图标带入了一个全新的世界？
It was not just about visual fidelity — it was about the intersection of advanced graphics and innovative 3D controls that dovetailed to create an experience which looked and felt like nothing else. 这不仅与视觉保真度有关，还与先进的图形和创新的3D控件的交汇点相吻合，从而创造出一种看上去和感觉都不外的体验。
PlayStation VR with Move controllers 带Move控制器的PlayStation VR This is where game controllers — or, more generally, the way we interact with games — play an increasingly important role. 在这里，游戏控制器(或更广泛地说，我们与游戏的交互方式)发挥着越来越重要的作用。
Consider that games like Half-Life: Alyx are best experienced — and arguably only truly possible — thanks to highly-sophisticated VR controllers that provide a degree of movement and dexterity in 3D space which has never been possible before. Of course, the graphics technology and the VR headset are also crucial. But imagine playing a game like that with, say, a traditional Xbox or PlayStation game pad. Your relationship to the in-game action would be abstracted by many orders of magnitude. 考虑到像《 半条命：Alyx》这样的游戏是最有经验的，而且只有真正可行，这要归功于高度复杂的VR控制器，该控制器在3D空间中提供了前所未有的移动和灵巧程度。 当然，图形技术和VR耳机也至关重要。 但是，想象一下使用传统的Xbox或PlayStation游戏手柄玩类似的游戏。 您与游戏中动作的关系可以从多个数量级中抽象出来。
DualSense controller for PlayStation 5 适用于PlayStation 5的DualSense控制器 Even “traditional” controllers continue to evolve in an effort to establish finer and more nuanced points of connection between our hands and the digital worlds we’re interacting with. Sony’s DualSense controller for PlayStation 5 is a great example. Not only does the entire pad apparently feature a form of force-feedback that is even more advanced than we see on the Nintendo Switch Joy-Cons, but the analogue triggers are able to “push back” against your fingers (one potential use case here involves, say, drawing back on a bow and arrow, where the trigger will provide greater resistance a the tension in the string increases). 甚至“传统”控制器也在不断发展，以期在我们的手与与之互动的数字世界之间建立更精细，更细微的联系。 索尼针对PlayStation 5的DualSense控制器就是一个很好的例子。 整个打击垫不仅具有明显的力反馈形式，甚至比我们在Nintendo Switch Joy-Cons上看到的还要先进，而且模拟触发器也可以“推回”手指(这里有一个潜在的用例)包括拉回弓箭，其中扳机将提供更大的阻力(琴弦中的张力增加)。
It’s easy to forget just how much controller design influences the way games feel and the possible range of interactions we can have with them. If you’re in any way tempted to underrate the importance of this, I recommend going back and playing Super Mario 64 DS using only the D-Pad. The central importance of the analogue stick immediately becomes apparent. It feels something like wearing heavy gardening gloves while trying to do fine calligraphy; clearly, it’s the wrong tool for the job. 很容易忘记，多少控制器设计会影响游戏的感觉以及我们与之互动的可能范围 。 如果您想以任何方式低估它的重要性，我建议您回过头来仅使用D-Pad播放Super Mario 64 DS 。 模拟棒的中心重要性立即变得显而易见。 感觉就像在尝试制作精美的书法时戴着沉重的园艺手套； 显然，这是工作的错误工具。
I think it is also important to understand that when we talk about user interfaces in games, we aren’t just talking about the GUI (graphical user interface) within the game itself. All components that connect player to game are part of the interface — including both the controller in your hands and the technologies through which audiovisual information is being relayed to you (your screen and speakers, in other words). 我认为了解我们在谈论游戏中的用户界面时，不仅要谈论游戏本身内的GUI(图形用户界面)，这一点也很重要。 将玩家连接到游戏的所有组件都是界面的一部分—包括您手中的控制器以及通过其将视听信息中继到您的技术(换句话说，就是您的屏幕和扬声器)。
In the same way that Newspeak applied deliberate constraints to vocabulary as a way of restricting possible thought, the mechanical constraints of game controllers ultimately determine the range of possible actions within a video game. It may be tempting to think that controller design has reached its zenith with dual analogue sticks, four face buttons, and comfortable shoulder triggers. But I’d argue that the industry should continue to explore both evolutions of this model as well as entirely new models. So, in conclusion, I feel the need to borrow a concept from Satoru Iwata here: we live on a planet we call “game controllers” — but what other planets could we discover? It’d sure be fun to find out. 就像Newspeak对词汇表施加刻意的约束以限制可能的思想一样 ，游戏控制器的机械约束最终决定了视频游戏中可能采取的行动的范围。 可能会很想起，控制器的设计达到了顶峰，它具有双重模拟手柄，四个面部按钮和舒适的肩部扳机。 但是我认为行业应该继续探索该模型的演变以及全新的模型。 因此，总而言之，我觉得有必要在此向岩田聪提出一个概念：我们生活在一个被称为“游戏控制者”的星球上，但是还能发现什么其他星球呢？ 肯定会很有趣。
Derek Story.Derek Story撰写 。 翻译自: https://medium.com/super-jump/physical-vocabulary-for-digital-worlds-59bbbfe0877f数字集成电路物理设计
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• 这是一本国家集成电路工程领域工程硕士系列教材之一，内容包括集成电路物理设计方法、物理设计建库与验证、布图规划和布局、时钟树综合、布线、静态时序分析、功耗分析、信号完整性分析、低功耗设计技术与实施等，既...
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CIW，command in window
WC（worst case）进行建立时间的检查
时钟频率快时，要注意PAE（工艺天线效应）。收集空间电荷的金属又称工艺天线。
签核GDSII
时序收敛
trial route 实验布线法
静态时序分析STA
DRC design rule check
LVS layout versus schematic 验证版图和电路原理图的电路结构是否一致
MUX multiplexer
PTV：process（工艺），temperature（温度）,voltage（电压）
版图规划-布局-布线
sdc标准设计约束
芯片面积较大，时序较为紧张时，可以用flip-chip(倒置封装)，即IO放在芯片中间
电源环参数：宽度，间距，对数。
宽线要打孔散热，slotting和spliting，因此电源环不能太宽。

transition沿变
setup时间受slow影响，hold时间受fast影响


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• 　最近在学习数字后端的知识，主要是了解一下概念和流程。这里写博客一方面是进行学习记录，以防丢失；另一方面是可以给博友一些参考。 转载于:https://www.cnblogs.com/IClearner/p/6580012.html...
PS：字丑，禁止转载！！！
最近在学习数字后端的知识，主要是了解一下概念和流程。这里写博客一方面是进行学习记录，以防丢失；另一方面是可以给博友一些参考。

转载于:https://www.cnblogs.com/IClearner/p/6580012.html
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• ps:字丑，禁止转载！！！
• PS：字丑，禁止转载！！！
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