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  • C语言:min和max头文件
    千次阅读
    2021-05-21 05:40:41

    HTML5 Web app开发工具Kendo UI Web中如何绑定网格到远程数据

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    openwrt修改flash大小

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    自定义UIPageControl

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  • C语言头文件stdint.h

    千次阅读 2021-05-21 05:40:44
    width integer types Minimum value of greatest-width signed integer type: {INTMAX_MIN} -(263-1) Maximum value of greatest-width signed integer type: {INTMAX_MAX} 263-1 Maximum value of greatest-width ...

    [CX]

    a4c26d1e5885305701be709a3d33442f.pngSome

    of the functionality described on this reference page extends the

    ISO C standard. Applications shall define the

    appropriate feature test macro (see the System Interfaces volume of

    IEEE Std 1003.1-2001,Section

    2.2, The Compilation Environment) to enable the visibility of

    these symbols in this header.

    a4c26d1e5885305701be709a3d33442f.png

    Theheader shall declare sets

    of integer types having specified widths, and shall define

    corresponding sets of macros. It shall also define macros that

    specify limits of integer types corresponding to types defined in

    other standard headers.

    Note:

    The "width" of an integer type is the number of bits used to

    store its value in a pure binary system; the actual type may use

    more bits than that (for example, a 28-bit type could be stored in

    32 bits of actual storage). AnN-bit signed type

    has values in the range

    -2N-1or

    1-2N-1to

    2N-1-1, while anN-bit unsigned

    type has values in the range 0 to

    2N-1.

    Types are defined in the following categories:

    Integer types having certain exact widths

    Integer types having at least certain specified widths

    Fastest integer types having at least certain specified

    widths

    Integer types wide enough to hold pointers to objects

    Integer types having greatest width

    (Some of these types may denote the same type.)

    Corresponding macros specify limits of the declared types and

    construct suitable constants.

    For each type described herein that the implementation provides,

    theheader shall declare

    thattypedefname

    and define the associated macros. Conversely, for each type

    described herein that the implementation does not provide,

    theheader shall not declare

    thattypedefname,

    nor shall it define the associated macros. An implementation shall

    provide those types described as required, but need not provide any

    of the others (described as optional).

    Integer

    Types

    Whentypedefnames

    differing only in the absence or presence of the

    initialuare defined, they shall

    denote corresponding signed and unsigned types as described in the

    ISO/IEC 9899:1999 standard, Section 6.2.5; an

    implementation providing one of these corresponding types shall

    also provide the other.

    In the following descriptions, the symbolNrepresents an unsigned

    decimal integer with no leading zeros (for example, 8 or 24, but

    not 04 or 048).

    Exact-width integer types

    ThetypedefnameintN_tdesignates

    a signed integer type with widthN, no padding

    bits, and a two's-complement representation. Thus,int8_tdenotes a signed integer

    type with a width of exactly 8 bits.

    ThetypedefnameuintN_tdesignates

    an unsigned integer type with widthN.

    Thus,uint24_tdenotes

    an unsigned integer type with a width of exactly 24 bits.

    [CX]a4c26d1e5885305701be709a3d33442f.pngThe

    following types are required:

    int8_t

    int16_t

    int32_t

    uint8_t

    uint16_t

    uint32_t

    a4c26d1e5885305701be709a3d33442f.png

    If an implementation provides integer types with width 64 that

    meet these requirements, then the following types are

    required:int64_tuint64_t

    [CX]a4c26d1e5885305701be709a3d33442f.pngIn

    particular, this will be the case if any of the following are

    true:

    The implementation supports the _POSIX_V6_ILP32_OFFBIG

    programming environment and the application is being built in the

    _POSIX_V6_ILP32_OFFBIG programming environment (see the Shell and

    Utilities volume of

    IEEE Std 1003.1-2001,c99,

    Programming Environments).

    The implementation supports the _POSIX_V6_LP64_OFF64 programming

    environment and the application is being built in the

    _POSIX_V6_LP64_OFF64 programming environment.

    The implementation supports the _POSIX_V6_LPBIG_OFFBIG

    programming environment and the application is being built in the

    _POSIX_V6_LPBIG_OFFBIG programming environment.a4c26d1e5885305701be709a3d33442f.png

    All other types of this form are optional.

    Minimum-width integer types

    Thetypedefnameint_leastN_tdesignates

    a signed integer type with a width of at leastN, such that no

    signed integer type with lesser size has at least the specified

    width. Thus,int_least32_tdenotes

    a signed integer type with a width of at least 32 bits.

    Thetypedefnameuint_leastN_tdesignates

    an unsigned integer type with a width of at leastN, such that no

    unsigned integer type with lesser size has at least the specified

    width. Thus,uint_least16_tdenotes

    an unsigned integer type with a width of at least 16 bits.

    The following types are required:int_least8_tint_least16_tint_least32_tint_least64_tuint_least8_tuint_least16_tuint_least32_tuint_least64_t

    All other types of this form are optional.

    Fastest minimum-width integer types

    Each of the following types designates an integer type that is

    usually fastest to operate with among all integer types that have

    at least the specified width.

    The designated type is not guaranteed to be fastest for all

    purposes; if the implementation has no clear grounds for choosing

    one type over another, it will simply pick some integer type

    satisfying the signedness and width requirements.

    Thetypedefnameint_fastN_tdesignates

    the fastest signed integer type with a width of at

    leastN. Thetypedefnameuint_fastN_tdesignates

    the fastest unsigned integer type with a width of at

    leastN.

    The following types are required:int_fast8_tint_fast16_tint_fast32_tint_fast64_tuint_fast8_tuint_fast16_tuint_fast32_tuint_fast64_t

    All other types of this form are optional.

    Integer types capable of holding object pointers

    The following type designates a signed integer type with the

    property that any valid pointer tovoidcan be converted to this

    type, then converted back to a pointer tovoid, and the

    result will compare equal to the original pointer:intptr_t

    The following type designates an unsigned integer type with the

    property that any valid pointer tovoidcan be converted to this

    type, then converted back to a pointer tovoid, and the

    result will compare equal to the original pointer:uintptr_t

    a4c26d1e5885305701be709a3d33442f.pngOn

    XSI-conformant systems, theintptr_tanduintptr_ttypes

    are required;a4c26d1e5885305701be709a3d33442f.png otherwise,

    they are optional.

    Greatest-width integer types

    The following type designates a signed integer type capable of

    representing any value of any signed integer type:intmax_t

    The following type designates an unsigned integer type capable

    of representing any value of any unsigned integer type:uintmax_t

    These types are required.

    Note:

    Applications can test for optional types by using the

    corresponding limit macro fromLimits

    of Specified-Width Integer Types.

    Limits of

    Specified-Width Integer Types

    The following macros specify the minimum and maximum limits of

    the types declared in theheader. Each macro name

    corresponds to a similar type name inInteger

    Types.

    Each instance of any defined macro shall be replaced by a

    constant expression suitable for use in#ifpreprocessing directives,

    and this expression shall have the same type as would an expression

    that is an object of the corresponding type converted according to

    the integer promotions. Its implementation-defined value shall be

    equal to or greater in magnitude (absolute value) than the

    corresponding value given below, with the same sign, except where

    stated to be exactly the given value.

    Limits of exact-width integer types

    Minimum values of exact-width signed integer types:

    {INTN_MIN}

    Exactly -(2N-1)

    Maximum values of exact-width signed integer types:

    {INTN_MAX}

    Exactly 2N-1-1

    Maximum values of exact-width unsigned integer types:

    {UINTN_MAX}

    Exactly 2N-1

    Limits of minimum-width integer types

    Minimum values of minimum-width signed integer types:

    {INT_LEASTN_MIN}

    -(2N-1-1)

    Maximum values of minimum-width signed integer types:

    {INT_LEASTN_MAX}

    2N-1-1

    Maximum values of minimum-width unsigned integer types:

    {UINT_LEASTN_MAX}

    2N-1

    Limits of fastest minimum-width integer types

    Minimum values of fastest minimum-width signed integer

    types:

    {INT_FASTN_MIN}

    -(2N-1-1)

    Maximum values of fastest minimum-width signed integer

    types:

    {INT_FASTN_MAX}

    2N-1-1

    Maximum values of fastest minimum-width unsigned integer

    types:

    {UINT_FASTN_MAX}

    2N-1

    Limits of integer types capable of holding object pointers

    Minimum value of pointer-holding signed integer type:

    {INTPTR_MIN}

    -(215-1)

    Maximum value of pointer-holding signed integer type:

    {INTPTR_MAX}

    215-1

    Maximum value of pointer-holding unsigned integer type:

    {UINTPTR_MAX}

    216-1

    Limits of greatest-width integer types

    Minimum value of greatest-width signed integer type:

    {INTMAX_MIN}

    -(263-1)

    Maximum value of greatest-width signed integer type:

    {INTMAX_MAX}

    263-1

    Maximum value of greatest-width unsigned integer type:

    {UINTMAX_MAX}

    264-1

    Limits of Other

    Integer Types

    The following macros specify the minimum and maximum limits of

    integer types corresponding to types defined in other standard

    headers.

    Each instance of these macros shall be replaced by a constant

    expression suitable for use in#ifpreprocessing directives,

    and this expression shall have the same type as would an expression

    that is an object of the corresponding type converted according to

    the integer promotions. Its implementation-defined value shall be

    equal to or greater in magnitude (absolute value) than the

    corresponding value given below, with the same sign.

    Limits ofptrdiff_t:

    {PTRDIFF_MIN}

    -65535

    {PTRDIFF_MAX}

    +65535

    Limits ofsig_atomic_t:

    {SIG_ATOMIC_MIN}

    See below.

    {SIG_ATOMIC_MAX}

    See below.

    Limit ofsize_t:

    {SIZE_MAX}

    65535

    Limits ofwchar_t:

    {WCHAR_MIN}

    See below.

    {WCHAR_MAX}

    See below.

    Limits ofwint_t:

    {WINT_MIN}

    See below.

    {WINT_MAX}

    See below.

    Ifsig_atomic_t(see

    theheader)

    is defined as a signed integer type, the value of {SIG_ATOMIC_MIN}

    shall be no greater than -127 and the value of {SIG_ATOMIC_MAX}

    shall be no less than 127; otherwise,sig_atomic_tshall

    be defined as an unsigned integer type, and the value of

    {SIG_ATOMIC_MIN} shall be 0 and the value of {SIG_ATOMIC_MAX} shall

    be no less than 255.

    Ifwchar_t(see

    theheader)

    is defined as a signed integer type, the value of {WCHAR_MIN} shall

    be no greater than -127 and the value of {WCHAR_MAX} shall be no

    less than 127; otherwise,wchar_tshall

    be defined as an unsigned integer type, and the value of

    {WCHAR_MIN} shall be 0 and the value of {WCHAR_MAX} shall be no

    less than 255.

    Ifwint_t(see theheader)

    is defined as a signed integer type, the value of {WINT_MIN} shall

    be no greater than -32767 and the value of {WINT_MAX} shall be no

    less than 32767; otherwise,wint_tshall be defined as an

    unsigned integer type, and the value of {WINT_MIN} shall be 0 and

    the value of {WINT_MAX} shall be no less than 65535.

    Macros for

    Integer Constant Expressions

    The following macros expand to integer constant expressions

    suitable for initializing objects that have integer types

    corresponding to types defined in theheader. Each macro name

    corresponds to a similar type name listed underMinimum-width integer

    typesandGreatest-width integer

    types.

    Each invocation of one of these macros shall expand to an

    integer constant expression suitable for use in#ifpreprocessing directives.

    The type of the expression shall have the same type as would an

    expression that is an object of the corresponding type converted

    according to the integer promotions. The value of the expression

    shall be that of the argument.

    The argument in any instance of these macros shall be a decimal,

    octal, or hexadecimal constant with a value that does not exceed

    the limits for the corresponding type.

    Macros for minimum-width integer constant expressions

    The macroINTN_C(value)

    shall expand to an integer constant expression corresponding to the

    typeint_leastN_t.

    The macroUINTN_C(value)

    shall expand to an integer constant expression corresponding to the

    typeuint_leastN_t.

    For example, ifuint_least64_tis

    a name for the typeunsigned long

    long, thenUINT64_C(0x123)

    might expand to the integer constant 0x123ULL.

    Macros for greatest-width integer constant expressions

    The following macro expands to an integer constant expression

    having the value specified by its argument and the typeintmax_t:

    INTMAX_C(value)

    The following macro expands to an integer constant expression

    having the value specified by its argument and the typeuintmax_t:

    UINTMAX_C(value)

    展开全文
  • 为什么要自定义头文件? 如果在一个文件中,写上成百上千行的代码,那么这些代码让人阅读起来是真的烦。因此,我们可以引入... 第二步,再主程序中引入该头文件(我起的名字是max.h) ​​​​​​​ 注意:...

    为什么要自定义头文件?

            如果在一个文件中,写上成百上千行的代码,那么这些代码让人阅读起来是真的烦。因此,我们可以引入头文件,把自己写的函数放入头文件中,然后直接调用到主程序中,这样在主程序中看起来就比较清晰。

    那如何自定义头文件呢?

            第一步,我们需要创建一个.h文件,再把自己写好的函数放入文件中就ok了

            第二步,再主程序中引入该头文件(我起的名字是max.h)

                    ​​​​​​​        

           注意:自己定义的头文件,一定要用双引号,不能用尖括号的!!!

     

            第三步,调用自定义头文件的函数,实现函数就完事了!

     

    最终结果就是:

     

    是不是我说的,一看就废!!!其实还有一部分问题,比如说重复引入自定义头文件就会报错,但重复引入系统的头文件就没问题,该问题应该如何处理。

    不过先学会使用才是最重要的,之后的问题会一步一步处理的!!!

     

     

    展开全文
  • math.h常用函数 int abs (int x);double acos (double x);double asin (double x);double atan (double x);double atan2 (double y, double x);double atof (const char *s);double ceil (double x);doubl...

    math.h常用函数 int  abs   (int x);

    double  acos  (double x);

    double  asin  (double x);

    double  atan  (double x);

    double  atan2 (double y, double x);

    double  atof  (const char *s);

    double  ceil  (double x);

    double  cos   (double x);

    double  cosh  (double x);

    double  exp   (double x);

    double  fabs  (double x);

    double  floor (double x);

    double  fmod  (double x, double y);

    double  frexp (double x, int *exponent);

    long  labs  (long x);

    double  ldexp (double x, int exponent);

    double  log   (double x);

    double  log10 (double x);

    double  modf  (double x, double *ipart);

    double  pow   (double x, double y);

    double  sin   (double x);

    double  sinh  (double x);

    double  sqrt  (double x);

    double  tan   (double x);

    double  tanh  (double x);

    【C++中的数学函数汇总

    math.h 数学函数库,一些数学计算的公式的具体实现是放在math.h里,具体有:

    1 三角函数

    double sin (double); double cos (double); double tan (double);

    2 反三角函数

    double asin (double); 结果介于[-PI/2, PI/2] double acos (double); 结果介于[0, PI]

    double atan (double); 反正切(主值), 结果介于[-PI/2, PI/2]

    double atan2 (double, double); 反正切(整圆值), 结果介于[-PI/2, PI/2]

    3 双曲三角函数 double sinh (double); double cosh (double); double tanh (double);

    4 指数与对数

    double exp (double);

    double pow (double, double); double sqrt (double);

    double log (double); 以e为底的对数

    double log10 (double);c++中自然对数函数:log(N)   以10为底:log10(N)但没有以2为底的函数但是可以用换底公式解 决:log2(N)=log10(N)/log10(2)

    5 取整

    double ceil (double); 取上整 double floor (double); 取下整

    6 绝对值

    double fabs (double);

    7 标准化浮点数

    double frexp (double f, int *p); 标准化浮点数, f = x * 2^p, 已知f求x, p ( x介于[0.5, 1] )

    double ldexp (double x, int p); 与frexp相反, 已知x, p求f

    8 取整与取余

    double modf (double, double*); 将参数的整数部分通过指针回传, 返回小数部分 double fmod (double, double); 返回两参数相除的余数 source: 《C & C++ Code Capsules》

    9 平方根 sqrt

    stdio.h常用函数包括

    int       fclose   (FILE *stream);

    int       fflush   (FILE *stream);

    int       fgetc    (FILE *stream);

    int       fgetpos  (FILE *stream, fpos_t *pos);

    char    * fgets    (char *s, int n, FILE *stream);

    FILE    * fopen    (const char *path, const char *mode);

    int       fprintf  (FILE *stream, const char *format, ...);

    int       fputc    (int c, FILE *stream);

    int       fputs    (const char *s, FILE *stream);

    size_t    fread    (void *ptr, size_t size, size_t n, FILE *stream);

    FILE    * freopen  (const char *path, const char *mode,

    FILE *stream);

    int       fscanf   (FILE *stream, const char *format, ...);

    int       fseek    (FILE *stream, long offset, int whence);

    int       fsetpos  (FILE *stream, const fpos_t *pos);

    long      ftell    (FILE *stream);

    size_t    fwrite   (const void *ptr, size_t size, size_t n,

    FILE *stream);

    int       printf   (const char *format, ...);

    int       puts     (const char *s);

    int       rename   (const char *oldname, const char *newname);

    void      rewind   (FILE *stream);

    int       scanf    (const char *format, ...);

    stdlib.h常用函数包括

    stdlib 头文件里包含了C、C++语言的一些函数

    该文件包含了的C语言标准库函数的定义

    stdlib.h里面定义了五种类型、一些宏和通用工具函数。类型例如size_t、wchar_t、div_t、ldiv_t和lldiv_t;宏例如EXIT_FAILURE、EXIT_SUCCESS、RAND_MAX和MB_CUR_MAX等等;常用的函数如malloc()、calloc()、realloc()、free()、system()、atoi()、atol()、rand()、srand()、exit()等等。具体的内容你自己可以打开编译器的include目录里面的stdlib.h头文件看看

    int      abs    (int x);

    int      atexit (atexit_t func);

    double   atof   (const char *s);

    int      atoi   (const char *s);

    long     atol   (const char *s);

    void   * bsearch(const void *key, const void *base,

    size_t nelem, size_t width,

    int  (*fcmp)());

    void   * calloc (size_t nitems, size_t size);

    div_t    div    (int numer, int denom);

    void     exit   (int status);

    void     free   (void *block);

    char   * getenv (const char *name);

    long     labs   (long x);

    ldiv_t   ldiv   (long numer, long denom);

    void   * malloc (size_t size);

    void     qsort  (void *base, size_t nelem, size_t width,

    int  (*fcmp)());

    int      rand   (void);

    void   * realloc(void *block, size_t size);

    void     srand  (unsigned seed);

    double   strtod (const char *s, char **endptr);

    long     strtol (const char *s, char **endptr, int radix);

    unsigned long  strtoul (const char *s, char **endptr, int radix);

    int      system (const char *command);

    max(a,b)        (((a) > (b)) ? (a) : (b))

    min(a,b)        (((a) < (b)) ? (a) : (b))

    random(num)     (rand() % (num))

    randomize()     srand((unsigned)time(NULL))

    string.h常用函数包括:

    char * stpcpy (char *dest, const char *src);

    char * strcat (char *dest, const char *src);

    char * strchr (const char *s, int c);

    int   strcmp (const char *s1, const char *s2);

    char * strcpy (char *dest, const char *src);

    size_t   strcspn (const char *s1, const char *s2);

    char * strdup (const char *s);

    char * strerror(int errnum);

    conio.h不是C标准库中的头文件。

    conio是Console Input/Output(控制台输入输出)的简写,其中定义了通过控制台进行数据输入和数据输出的函数,主要是一些用户通过按键盘产生的对应操作,比如getch()函数等等。

    包含的函数

    cgets(char *);

    cprintf(const char *, ...);

    cputs(const char *);

    cscanf(const char *, ...);

    inp(unsigned short);

    inpw(unsigned short);

    getch(void);

    getche(void);

    kbhit(void);

    outp(unsigned short, int);

    outpw(unsigned short, unsigned short);

    putch(int);

    ungetch(int);

    void _Cdecl clreol (void);

    void _Cdecl clrscr (void);

    void _Cdecl delline (void);

    int _Cdecl gettext (int left, int top, int right, int bottom,

    void *destin);

    void _Cdecl gettextinfo (struct text_info *r);

    void _Cdecl gotoxy (int x, int y);

    void _Cdecl highvideo (void);

    void _Cdecl insline (void);

    void _Cdecl lowvideo (void);

    int _Cdecl movetext (int left, int top, int right, int bottom,

    int destleft, int desttop);

    void _Cdecl normvideo (void);

    int _Cdecl puttext (int left, int top, int right, int bottom,

    void *source);

    void _Cdecl textattr (int newattr);

    void _Cdecl textbackground (int newcolor);

    void _Cdecl textcolor (int newcolor);

    void _Cdecl textmode (int newmode);

    int _Cdecl wherex (void);

    int _Cdecl wherey (void);

    void _Cdecl window (int left, int top, int right, int bottom);

    har *_Cdecl cgets (char *str);

    int _Cdecl cprintf (const char *format, ...);

    int _Cdecl cputs (const char *str);

    int _Cdecl cscanf (const char *format, ...);

    int _Cdecl getch (void);

    int _Cdecl getche (void);

    char *_Cdecl getpass (const char *prompt);

    int _Cdecl kbhit (void);

    int _Cdecl putch (int c);

    int _Cdecl ungetch (int ch);

    展开全文
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