• https://blog.csdn.net/a592733740/article/details/106292148
• Unity C# 《有限状态机》的用法教程详解Demo 助力快速理解 FSM 有限状态机，完成游戏状态的切换 教程地址：https://blog.csdn.net/ChinarCSDN/article/details/82263126
• 翻译了一下unity wiki上对于有限状态机的案例,等有空时在详细写一下。在场景中添加两个游戏物体，一个为玩家并修改其Tag为Player，另一个为NPC为其添加NPCControl脚本，并为其将玩家角色和路径添加上去。（该案例...

翻译了一下unity wiki上对于有限状态机的案例,等有空时在详细写一下。在场景中添加两个游戏物体，一个为玩家并修改其Tag为Player，另一个为NPC为其添加NPCControl脚本，并为其将玩家角色和路径添加上去。（该案例利用状态机简单的实现了一个NPC的简单AI---巡逻---看到玩家----追逐玩家----丢失玩家----巡逻）
效果：

状态机：

1 using System;
2 using System.Collections;
3 using System.Collections.Generic;
4 using UnityEngine;
5
6 /**
7 A Finite State Machine System based on Chapter 3.1 of Game Programming Gems 1 by Eric Dybsand
8
9 Written by Roberto Cezar Bianchini, July 2010
10
11
12 How to use:
13     1. Place the labels for the transitions and the states of the Finite State System
14         in the corresponding enums.
15
16     2. Write new class(es) inheriting from FSMState and fill each one with pairs (transition-state).
17         These pairs represent the state S2 the FSMSystem should be if while being on state S1, a
18         transition T is fired and state S1 has a transition from it to S2. Remember this is a Deterministic（确定的） FSM.
19         You can't have one transition leading to two different states.
20
21        Method Reason is used to determine which transition should be fired.
22        You can write the code to fire transitions in another place, and leave this method empty if you
23        feel it's more appropriate 合适 to your project.
24
25        Method Act has the code to perform the actions the NPC is supposed do if it's on this state.
26        You can write the code for the actions in another place, and leave this method empty if you
27        feel it's more appropriate to your project.
28
29     3. Create an instance of FSMSystem class and add the states to it.
30
31     4. Call Reason and Act (or whichever methods you have for firing transitions and making the NPCs
33
34     Asynchronous transitions from Unity Engine, like OnTriggerEnter, SendMessage, can also be used,
35     just call the Method PerformTransition from your FSMSystem instance with the correct Transition
36     when the event occurs 重现.
37
38
39
40 THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED,
41 INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
42 AND NON-INFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM,
43 DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM,
44 OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.
45 */
46
47
48 /// <summary>
49 /// Place the labels for the Transitions in this enum.
50 /// Don't change the first label, NullTransition as FSMSystem class uses it.
51 /// 为过渡加入枚举标签
52 /// 不要修改第一个标签，NullTransition会在FSMSytem类中使用
53 /// </summary>
54 public enum Transition
55 {
56     NullTransition = 0, // Use this transition to represent a non-existing transition in your system
57     //用这个过度来代表你的系统中不存在的状态
58     SawPlayer,//这里配合NPCControl添加两个NPC的过渡
59     LostPlayer,
60 }
61
62 /// <summary>
63 /// Place the labels for the States in this enum.
64 /// Don't change the first label, NullStateID as FSMSystem class uses it.
65 /// 为状态加入枚举标签
66 /// 不要修改第一个标签，NullStateID会在FSMSytem中使用
67 /// </summary>
68 public enum StateID
69 {
70     NullStateID = 0, // Use this ID to represent a non-existing State in your syste
71     //使用这个ID来代表你系统中不存在的状态ID
72     ChasingPlayer,//这里配合NPCControl添加两个状态
73     FollowingPath,
74
75 }
76
77 /// <summary>
78 /// This class represents the States in the Finite State System.
79 /// Each state has a Dictionary with pairs (transition-state) showing
80 /// which state the FSM should be if a transition is fired while this state
81 /// is the current state.
82 /// Method Reason is used to determine which transition should be fired .
83 /// Method Act has the code to perform the actions the NPC is supposed do if it's on this state.
84 /// 这个类代表状态在有限状态机系统中
85 /// 每个状态都有一个由一对搭档（过渡-状态）组成的字典来表示当前状态下如果一个过渡被触发状态机会进入那个状态
86 /// Reason方法被用来决定那个过渡会被触发
87 /// Act方法来表现NPC出在当前状态的行为
88 /// </summary>
89 public abstract class FSMState
90 {
91     protected Dictionary<Transition, StateID> map = new Dictionary<Transition, StateID>();
92     protected StateID stateID;
93     public StateID ID { get { return stateID; } }
94
95     public void AddTransition(Transition trans, StateID id)
96     {
97         // Check if anyone of the args is invalid
98         //验证每个参数是否合法
99         if (trans == Transition.NullTransition)
100         {
101             Debug.LogError("FSMState ERROR: NullTransition is not allowed for a real transition");
102             return;
103         }
104
105         if (id == StateID.NullStateID)
106         {
107             Debug.LogError("FSMState ERROR: NullStateID is not allowed for a real ID");
108             return;
109         }
110
111         // Since this is a Deterministic FSM,
112         //   check if the current transition was already inside the map
113         //要知道这是一个确定的有限状态机（每个状态后金对应一种状态，而不能产生分支）
114         //检查当前的过渡是否已经在地图字典中了
115         if (map.ContainsKey(trans))
116         {
117             Debug.LogError("FSMState ERROR: State " + stateID.ToString() + " already has transition " + trans.ToString() +
118                            "Impossible to assign to another state");
119             return;
120         }
121
123     }
124
125     /// <summary>
126     /// This method deletes a pair transition-state from this state's map.
127     /// If the transition was not inside the state's map, an ERROR message is printed.
128     /// 这个方法用来在状态地图中删除transition-state对儿
129     /// 如果过渡并不存在于状态地图中，那么将会打印出一个错误
130     /// </summary>
131     public void DeleteTransition(Transition trans)
132     {
133         // Check for NullTransition
134         if (trans == Transition.NullTransition)
135         {
136             Debug.LogError("FSMState ERROR: NullTransition is not allowed");
137             return;
138         }
139
140         // Check if the pair is inside the map before deleting
141         //再删除之前确认该键值对是否存在于状态地图中（键值对集合）
142         if (map.ContainsKey(trans))
143         {
144             map.Remove(trans);
145             return;
146         }
147         Debug.LogError("FSMState ERROR: Transition " + trans.ToString() + " passed to " + stateID.ToString() +
148                        " was not on the state's transition list");
149     }
150
151     /// <summary>
152     /// This method returns the new state the FSM should be if
153     ///    this state receives a transition and
154     /// 该方法在该状态接收到一个过渡时返回状态机需要成为的新状态
155     /// </summary>
156     public StateID GetOutputState(Transition trans)
157     {
158         // Check if the map has this transition
159         if (map.ContainsKey(trans))
160         {
161             return map[trans];
162         }
163         return StateID.NullStateID;
164     }
165
166     /// <summary>
167     /// This method is used to set up the State condition before entering it.
168     /// It is called automatically by the FSMSystem class before assigning it
169     /// to the current state.
170     /// 这个方法用来设立进入状态前的条件
171     /// 在状态机分配它到当前状态之前他会被自动调用
172     /// </summary>
173     public virtual void DoBeforeEntering() { }
174
175     /// <summary>
176     /// This method is used to make anything necessary, as reseting variables
177     /// before the FSMSystem changes to another one. It is called automatically
178     /// by the FSMSystem before changing to a new state.
179     /// 这个方法用来让一切都是必要的，例如在有限状态机变化的另一个时重置变量。
180     /// 在状态机切换到新的状态之前它会被自动调用。
181     /// </summary>
182     public virtual void DoBeforeLeaving() { }
183
184     /// <summary>
185     /// This method decides if the state should transition to another on its list
186     /// 动机-->这个方法用来决定当前状态是否需要过渡到列表中的其他状态
187     /// NPC is a reference to the object that is controlled by this class
188     /// NPC是被该类约束下对象的一个引用
189     /// </summary>
190     public abstract void Reason(GameObject player, GameObject npc);
191
192     /// <summary>
193     /// This method controls the behavior of the NPC in the game World.
194     /// 表现-->该方法用来控制NPC在游戏世界中的行为
195     /// Every action, movement or communication the NPC does should be placed here
196     /// NPC的任何动作，移动或者交流都需要防止在这儿
197     /// NPC is a reference to the object that is controlled by this class
198     /// NPC是被该类约束下对象的一个引用
199     /// </summary>
200     public abstract void Act(GameObject player, GameObject npc);
201
202 } // class FSMState
203
204
205 /// <summary>
206 /// FSMSystem class represents the Finite State Machine class.
207 ///  It has a List with the States the NPC has and methods to add,
208 ///  delete a state, and to change the current state the Machine is on.
209 /// 该类便是有限状态机类
210 /// 它持有者NPC的状态集合并且有添加，删除状态的方法，以及改变当前正在执行的状态
211 /// </summary>
212 public class FSMSystem
213 {
214     private List<FSMState> states;
215
216     // The only way one can change the state of the FSM is by performing a transition
217     // Don't change the CurrentState directly
218     //通过预装一个过渡的唯一方式来盖面状态机的状态
219     //不要直接改变当前的状态
220     private StateID currentStateID;
221     public StateID CurrentStateID { get { return currentStateID; } }
222     private FSMState currentState;
223     public FSMState CurrentState { get { return currentState; } }
224
225     public FSMSystem()
226     {
227         states = new List<FSMState>();
228     }
229     /// <summary>
230     /// This method places new states inside the FSM,
231     /// or prints an ERROR message if the state was already inside the List.
232     /// First state added is also the initial state.
233     /// 这个方法为有限状态机置入新的状态
234     /// 或者在该状态已经存在于列表中时打印错误信息
235     /// 第一个添加的状态也是最初的状态!
236     /// </summary>
238     {
239         // Check for Null reference before deleting
240         //在添加前检测空引用
241         if (s == null)
242         {
243             Debug.LogError("FSM ERROR: Null reference is not allowed");
244         }
245
246
247
248         // First State inserted is also the Initial state,
249         //   the state the machine is in when the   begins
250         //被装在的第一个状态也是初始状态
251         //这个状态便是状态机开始时的状态
252         if (states.Count == 0)
253         {
255             currentState = s;
256             currentStateID = s.ID;
257             return;
258         }
259
260         // Add the state to the List if it's not inside it
261         //如果该状态未被添加过，则加入集合
262         foreach (FSMState state in states)
263         {
264             if (state.ID == s.ID)
265             {
266                 Debug.LogError("FSM ERROR: Impossible to add state " + s.ID.ToString() +
268                 return;
269             }
270         }
272     }
273
274     /// <summary>
275     /// This method delete a state from the FSM List if it exists,
276     ///   or prints an ERROR message if the state was not on the List.
277     /// 该方法删除一个已存在以状态几个中的状态
278     /// 在它不存在时打印错误信息
279     /// </summary>
280     public void DeleteState(StateID id)
281     {
282         // Check for NullState before deleting
283         //在删除前检查其是否为空状态
284         if (id == StateID.NullStateID)
285         {
286             Debug.LogError("FSM ERROR: NullStateID is not allowed for a real state");
287             return;
288         }
289
290         // Search the List and delete the state if it's inside it
291         //遍历集合如果存在该状态则删除它
292         foreach (FSMState state in states)
293         {
294             if (state.ID == id)
295             {
296                 states.Remove(state);
297                 return;
298             }
299         }
300         Debug.LogError("FSM ERROR: Impossible to delete state " + id.ToString() +
301                        ". It was not on the list of states");
302     }
303
304     /// <summary>
305     /// This method tries to change the state the FSM is in based on
306     /// the current state and the transition passed. If current state
307     ///  doesn't have a target state for the transition passed,
308     /// an ERROR message is printed.
309     /// 该方法基于当前状态和过渡是否通过来尝试改变状态机的状态，当当前的状态没有目标状态用来过渡（叫通道应该更合适吧）时通过时则打印错误消息
310     /// </summary>
311     public void PerformTransition(Transition trans)
312     {
313         // Check for NullTransition before changing the current state
314         //在改变当前状态前检测NullTransition
315         if (trans == Transition.NullTransition)
316         {
317             Debug.LogError("FSM ERROR: NullTransition is not allowed for a real transition");
318             return;
319         }
320
321         // Check if the currentState has the transition passed as argument
322         //在改变当前状态前检测当前状态是否可作为过渡的参数
323
324         StateID id = currentState.GetOutputState(trans);
325         if (id == StateID.NullStateID)
326         {
327             Debug.LogError("FSM ERROR: State " + currentStateID.ToString() + " does not have a target state " +
328                            " for transition " + trans.ToString());
329             return;
330         }
331
332         // Update the currentStateID and currentState
333         //更新当前的状态个和状态编号
334         currentStateID = id;
335         foreach (FSMState state in states)
336         {
337             if (state.ID == currentStateID)
338             {
339                 // Do the post processing of the state before setting the new one
340                 //在状态变为新状态前执行后处理
341                 currentState.DoBeforeLeaving();
342
343                 currentState = state;
344
345                 // Reset the state to its desired condition before it can reason or act
346                 //在状态可以使用Reason（动机）或者Act(行为)之前为它的的决定条件重置它自己
347                 currentState.DoBeforeEntering();
348                 break;
349             }
350         }
351
352     } // PerformTransition()
353
354 } //class FSMSystem

NPCControl:

1 using System;
2 using System.Collections.Generic;
3 using System.Text;
4 using UnityEngine;
5
6 [RequireComponent(typeof(Rigidbody))]
7 public class NPCControl : MonoBehaviour
8 {
9     public GameObject player;
10     public Transform[] path;
11     private FSMSystem fsm;
12
13     public void SetTransition(Transition t)
14     {
15         //该方法用来改变有限状态机的状体，有限状态机基于当前的状态和通过的过渡状态。
16         //如果当前的状态没有用来通过的过度状态，则会抛出错误
17         fsm.PerformTransition(t);
18     }
19
20     public void Start()
21     {
22         MakeFSM();
23     }
24
25     public void FixedUpdate()
26     {
27         fsm.CurrentState.Reason(player, gameObject);
28         fsm.CurrentState.Act(player, gameObject);
29     }
30
31
32     //NPC有两个状态分别是在路径中巡逻和追逐玩家
33     //如果他在第一个状态并且SawPlayer 过度状态被出发了，它就转变到ChasePlayer状态
34     //如果他在ChasePlayer状态并且LostPlayer状态被触发了，它就转变到FollowPath状态
35
36     private void MakeFSM()//建造状态机
37     {
38         FollowPathState follow = new FollowPathState(path);
40
41         ChasePlayerState chase = new ChasePlayerState();
43
44         fsm = new FSMSystem();
47     }
48 }
49
50 public class FollowPathState : FSMState
51 {
52     private int currentWayPoint;
53     private Transform[] waypoints;
54
55     //构造函数装填自己
56     public FollowPathState(Transform[] wp)
57     {
58         waypoints = wp;
59         currentWayPoint = 0;
60         stateID = StateID.FollowingPath;//别忘设置自己的StateID
61     }
62
63     public override void DoBeforeEntering()
64     {
65         Debug.Log("FollowingPath BeforeEntering--------");
66     }
67
68     public override void DoBeforeLeaving()
69     {
70         Debug.Log("FollowingPath BeforeLeaving---------");
71     }
72
73     //重写动机方法
74     public override void Reason(GameObject player, GameObject npc)
75     {
76         // If the Player passes less than 15 meters away in front of the NPC
77         RaycastHit hit;
78         if (Physics.Raycast(npc.transform.position, npc.transform.forward, out hit, 15F))
79         {
80             if (hit.transform.gameObject.tag == "Player")
81                 npc.GetComponent<NPCControl>().SetTransition(Transition.SawPlayer);
82         }
83     }
84
85     //重写表现方法
86     public override void Act(GameObject player, GameObject npc)
87     {
88         // Follow the path of waypoints
89         // Find the direction of the current way point
90         Vector3 vel = npc.GetComponent<Rigidbody>().velocity;
91         Vector3 moveDir = waypoints[currentWayPoint].position - npc.transform.position;
92
93         if (moveDir.magnitude < 1)
94         {
95             currentWayPoint++;
96             if (currentWayPoint >= waypoints.Length)
97             {
98                 currentWayPoint = 0;
99             }
100         }
101         else
102         {
103             vel = moveDir.normalized * 10;
104
105             // Rotate towards the waypoint
106             npc.transform.rotation = Quaternion.Slerp(npc.transform.rotation,
107                                                       Quaternion.LookRotation(moveDir),
108                                                       5 * Time.deltaTime);
109             npc.transform.eulerAngles = new Vector3(0, npc.transform.eulerAngles.y, 0);
110
111         }
112
113         // Apply the Velocity
114         npc.GetComponent<Rigidbody>().velocity = vel;
115     }
116
117 } // FollowPathState
118
119 public class ChasePlayerState : FSMState
120 {
121     //构造函数装填自己
122     public ChasePlayerState()
123     {
124         stateID = StateID.ChasingPlayer;
125     }
126
127     public override void DoBeforeEntering()
128     {
129         Debug.Log("ChasingPlayer BeforeEntering--------");
130     }
131
132     public override void DoBeforeLeaving()
133     {
134         Debug.Log("ChasingPlayer BeforeLeaving---------");
135     }
136
137     public override void Reason(GameObject player, GameObject npc)
138     {
139         // If the player has gone 30 meters away from the NPC, fire LostPlayer transition
140         if (Vector3.Distance(npc.transform.position, player.transform.position) >= 3)
141             npc.GetComponent<NPCControl>().SetTransition(Transition.LostPlayer);
142     }
143
144     public override void Act(GameObject player, GameObject npc)
145     {
146         // Follow the path of waypoints
147         // Find the direction of the player
148         Vector3 vel = npc.GetComponent<Rigidbody>().velocity;
149         Vector3 moveDir = player.transform.position - npc.transform.position;
150
151         // Rotate towards the waypoint
152         npc.transform.rotation = Quaternion.Slerp(npc.transform.rotation,
153                                                   Quaternion.LookRotation(moveDir),
154                                                   5 * Time.deltaTime);
155         npc.transform.eulerAngles = new Vector3(0, npc.transform.eulerAngles.y, 0);
156
157         vel = moveDir.normalized * 10;
158
159         // Apply the new Velocity
160         npc.GetComponent<Rigidbody>().velocity = vel;
161     }
162
163 } // ChasePlayerState

Unity最受欢迎的插件，可以让您的游戏如虎添翼，为您节省大量时间可以投入在游戏的创意和细节上

转载于:https://www.cnblogs.com/Firepad-magic/p/6185201.html
展开全文
• 当然无论是FSM、行为树、亦或者简单粗暴的ifelse都能制作AI，但是考虑到FSM比ifelse、switch架构更清晰方便管理，比行为树更好把控（毕竟自己纯手撸代码），最后决定使用FSM。 核心代码 FSM管理类 using System; ...
前言
这段时间写游戏遇到实现敌人AI的需求，打算使用FSM。当然无论是FSM、行为树、亦或者简单粗暴的ifelse都能制作AI，但是考虑到FSM比ifelse、switch架构更清晰方便管理，比行为树更好把控（毕竟自己纯手撸代码），最后决定使用FSM。
代码多处使用到里氏替换原则，不了解的同学可以先了解一下更便于理解。
核心代码
FSM管理类
using System;
using System.Collections;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using UnityEngine;
using System.Linq;

//AI状态
public enum FSMStateType
{
Idle, Patrol, Seek, Attack,LookAt, Hit, Death
}

public class FSM : MonoBehaviour
{
//这里使用list主要考虑到有可能需要状态并行
private List<IState> currentState = new List<IState>();
//存储所有状态
protected Dictionary<FSMStateType, IState> states = new Dictionary<FSMStateType, IState>();

//初始化状态机，传入所需状态并切换到初始状态
protected void InitFSM(Dictionary<FSMStateType, IState> states, List<FSMStateType> startState)
{
this.states = states;
TransitionState(startState);
}

//执行所有状态的OnUpdate方法
void Update()
{
if(currentState.Count != 0)
{
for (int i = 0; i < currentState.Count; i++)
{
currentState[i].OnUpdate();
}
}
}

//状态切换
public void TransitionState(List<FSMStateType> type)
{
//执行当前状态的OnExit
if (currentState != null)
currentState.ForEach(_ => _.OnExit());

//切换成传入的新状态
currentState.Clear();
List<IState> stateList = new List<IState>();
currentState = stateList;

//执行新状态的OnEnter
currentState.ForEach(_ => _.OnEnter());
}
}

IState类，所实现的具体状态类需集成该接口
public interface IState
{
void OnEnter();

void OnUpdate();

void OnExit();
}

实际应用
具体的AI类，需继承FSM类。
using System.Collections;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using UnityEngine;

public class Enemy1AI : FSM
{
//实现的状态类
private SeekState seekState;
private EnemyAttackState attackState;
private LookAtTargetState lookAtState;
private EnemyDeathState deathState;

private void Start()
{
seekState = GetComponent<SeekState>();
attackState = GetComponent<EnemyAttackState>();
lookAtState = GetComponent<LookAtTargetState>();
deathState = GetComponent<EnemyDeathState>();

//初始化FSM
InitFSM(new Dictionary<FSMStateType, IState>() {
{ FSMStateType.Seek, seekState },
{ FSMStateType.Attack, attackState },
{ FSMStateType.LookAt,lookAtState},
{ FSMStateType.Death,deathState}
}, new List<FSMStateType>() { FSMStateType.Seek });
}
}

具体实现状态，这里是实现了一个寻路状态。注意继承IState接口。
using System;
using System.Collections;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using UnityEngine;
using UnityEngine.AI;

public class SeekState : MonoBehaviour,IState
{
private NavMeshAgent agent;

public string tagStr; //根据标签寻找
public Transform target; //目标
public Vector3 targetPos; //目标点
public float arriveDis; //距离多少为到达
public float speed; //移速
public float acceleration; //加速度
public float angularSpeed; //角速度
public List<string> nextState; //完成后是否切换到下一个状态

bool isComplete;

void Start()
{
agent = GetComponent<NavMeshAgent>();
}

public void OnEnter()
{
isComplete = false;

if (tagStr != string.Empty)
{
target = GameObject.FindWithTag(tagStr).transform;
}
}

public void OnUpdate()
{
//Debug.Log(Vector3.Distance(target.position, transform.position));
if (isComplete)
return;

if (target != null)
{
DoSeek(target.position);
}
else
{
DoSeek(targetPos);
}
}

public void OnExit()
{
}

void DoSeek(Vector3 pos)
{
agent.stoppingDistance = arriveDis;
agent.angularSpeed = angularSpeed;
agent.speed = speed;
agent.acceleration = acceleration;
agent.SetDestination(pos);

if (Vector3.Distance(pos, transform.position) <= arriveDis)
{
//Debug.Log(Vector3.Distance(pos, transform.position));
//Debug.Log("完成");

isComplete = true;

if (nextState.Count != 0)
{
List<FSMStateType> temp = new List<FSMStateType>();

//由于里氏替换原则我们不需要获取Enemy1AI直接获取FSM即可
GetComponent<FSM>().TransitionState(temp);
}
}
}
}


展开全文
• 为了解决游戏过于麻烦的状态转换（人物动画过多），使用有限状态机 缺点：代码量大 编写 使用多态和Switch new（状态设计模式） 类的介绍 PlyayCtrl:挂载在角色身上的脚本，用来控制状态机，（控制状态机...
前言
为了解决游戏过于麻烦的状态转换（人物动画过多），使用有限状态机。  缺点：代码量大
编写
使用多态和Switchnew（状态设计模式）
类的介绍
PlyayCtrl:挂载在角色身上的脚本，用来控制状态机，（控制状态机中状态的切换）。  Machine:状态机器类，储存所有状态，对状态进行切换，和状态的保持工作。  Base: 状态的基类，给子类提供接口（方法）  Template:泛型类当前状态的拥有者  Idle Run Attack …等各个具体状态的实现(播放动画)
各个类的关系图介绍

脚本代码
1.状态基类
/// <summary>
/// 状态的基础类：给子类提供方法
/// </summary>
///
public class StateBase {

//给每个状态设置一个ID
public int ID{get;set;}

//被当前机器所控制
public StateMachine machine;

public StateBase(int id)
{
this.ID = id;
}

//给子类提供方法
public virtual void OnEnter(params object[] args){}
public virtual void OnStay(params object[] args){}
public virtual void OnExit(params object[] args){}

}

2.状态拥有者类（泛型类）
/// <summary>
/// 状态拥有者
/// </summary>
public class StateTemplate<T> : StateBase {

public T owner;   //拥有者(范型)

public StateTemplate(int id,T o):base(id)
{
owner = o;
}
}

3.玩家脚本类
/// <summary>
/// PlayerCtrl
/// 挂载在角色身上的脚本，用来控制状态机器类
/// </summary>
///
public enum PlayerState
{
None,
Idle,
Run,
Attack
}

public class Player : MonoBehaviour {

public Animation ani;
public PlayerState ps = PlayerState.Idle;

//控制机器
public StateMachine machine;

void Start()
{
ani = GetComponent<Animation> ();

IdleState idle = new IdleState (1, this);
RunState run = new RunState (2, this);
AttackState attack = new AttackState (3, this);

machine = new StateMachine (idle);
}

void Update()
{
if (Input.GetMouseButtonDown (0)) {
ps = PlayerState.Attack;
}
if (Input.GetKey (KeyCode.A)) {
ps = PlayerState.Run;
}
if (Input.GetKeyUp (KeyCode.A)) {
ps = PlayerState.Idle;
}

//根据枚举 让状态机器类去切换状态
UpdateAnimation ();
}
private void UpdateAnimation()
{
switch (ps) {
case PlayerState.Idle:
machine.TranslateState (1);
break;
case PlayerState.Run:
machine.TranslateState (2);
break;
case PlayerState.Attack:
machine.TranslateState (3);
break;
}
}

void LateUpdate()
{
machine.Update ();
}
}


4.状态机类
using UnityEngine;
using System.Collections;
using System.Collections.Generic;

/// <summary>
/// 状态机器类：由Player控制。完成状态的存储，切换，和状态的保持
/// </summary>

public class StateMachine {

//用来存储当前机器所控制的所有状态
public Dictionary<int,StateBase> m_StateCache;

//定义上一个状态
public StateBase m_prviousState;
//定义当前状态
public StateBase m_currentState;

//机器初始化时，没有上一个状态
public StateMachine(StateBase beginState)
{
m_prviousState = null;
m_currentState = beginState;

m_StateCache = new Dictionary<int, StateBase> ();
//把状态添加到集合中
m_currentState.OnEnter ();
}

{
if (!m_StateCache.ContainsKey (state.ID)) {
state.machine = this;
}
}

//通过Id来切换状态
public void TranslateState(int id)
{
if (!m_StateCache.ContainsKey (id)) {
return;
}

m_prviousState = m_currentState;
m_currentState = m_StateCache[id];
m_currentState.OnEnter ();
}

//状态保持
public void Update()
{
if (m_currentState != null) {
m_currentState.OnStay ();
}
}
}

5.人物普通状态类
/// <summary>
/// Idle状态
/// </summary>
public class IdleState : StateTemplate<Player> {

public IdleState(int id,Player p):base(id,p){
}

public override void OnEnter (params object[] args)
{
base.OnEnter (args);
owner.ani.Play ("Idle");
}
public override void OnStay (params object[] args)
{
base.OnStay (args);
}
public override void OnExit (params object[] args)
{
base.OnExit (args);
}
}

6.跑步状态类
using UnityEngine;
using System.Collections;

/// <summary>
/// Run状态
/// </summary>

public class RunState : StateTemplate<Player> {

public RunState(int id,Player p):base(id,p){
}

public override void OnEnter (params object[] args)
{
base.OnEnter (args);
owner.ani.Play ("Run");
}
public override void OnStay (params object[] args)
{
base.OnStay (args);
}
public override void OnExit (params object[] args)
{
base.OnExit (args);
}
}

7.攻击状态类
using UnityEngine;
using System.Collections;

/// <summary>
/// Attack状态
/// </summary>
public class AttackState : StateTemplate<Player> {

public AttackState(int id,Player p):base(id,p){
}

public override void OnEnter (params object[] args)
{
base.OnEnter (args);
owner.ani.Play ("Attack");
}
public override void OnStay (params object[] args)
{
base.OnStay (args);
if (!owner.ani.IsPlaying ("Attack")) {
OnExit ();
}
}
public override void OnExit (params object[] args)
{
base.OnExit (args);
owner.ps = PlayerState.Idle;
}
}

总结
通过即只添加代码，不删除代码的设计原则来写有限状态机。  FSM简单来说就是  4个类  1. 状态基类 状态基类需要3个虚方法，以及虚拟机对象  2. 拥有者泛型类 继承状态基类，构造出使用者对象  3. 玩家脚本类  在Start方法里构造new各个状态机类（传入枚举id，使用者this（自己）），new状态机对象，添加各个状态类对象。  在Update通过按键，并一直调用状态机的切换方法。  在LateUpdate()调用状态机的保持状态方法  4. 状态机类  包含添加状态类，切换状态类方法（控制Enter()），保存状态类方法(控制（Stay()）)  加若干个状态类  每个状态具体有3种状态方法（OnEnter，OnStay，OnExit）需要重写来具体实现，通过OnExit()方法改变使用者的枚举id来切换状态
展开全文
• //石头人各种状态 这里就先写三个 代码可视化 private void Awake() { Instance = this; } public enum StoneStates { StoneIdle, StoneHit3, StoneWalk, Max//数组长度时用到 } public void ChangeStoneAnimation...
做了一个非常简单的demo，用来演示上一次封装框架的用法，只用了三个动作。这个框架够用，但是还是要完善一下，目前来说最大的缺陷是切换动作时会打断其他动作的播放，在OnStay返回值改为bool，ChangeState的时候如果动作没有完成就return这样应该就可以了。
using System.Collections;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using UnityEngine;
public class StoneIdle : FSMBase
{
Animator animator;
public StoneIdle(Animator animator)
{
this.animator = animator;
}
public override void OnEnter()
{
animator.SetInteger("Index", (int)StoneCtrl.StoneStates.StoneIdle);
}
}
public class StoneHit3: FSMBase
{
//判断该动画是否播放完毕

Animator animator;
public StoneHit3(Animator animator)
{
this.animator = animator;
}
public override void OnEnter()
{

animator.SetInteger("Index", (int)StoneCtrl.StoneStates.StoneHit3);
}
//扩展
//像攻击这样的特殊动作 可以在这里写攻击判定
public override void OnStay()
{
base.OnStay();
if (timeCount>3.3f)
{
timeCount = 0;
StoneCtrl.Instance.ChangeStoneAnimation(StoneCtrl.StoneStates.StoneIdle);
}

}
}
public class StoneWalk : FSMBase
{
Animator animator;
public StoneWalk(Animator animator)
{
this.animator = animator;
}
public override void OnEnter()
{
animator.SetInteger("Index", (int)StoneCtrl.StoneStates.StoneWalk);
}
}


public class StoneCtrl : MonoBehaviour
{
public static StoneCtrl Instance;
Animator animator;
FSMManager fsmMrg = new FSMManager((int)StoneStates.Max);
//石头人各种状态 这里就先写三个 代码可视化
private void Awake()
{
Instance = this;
}
public enum StoneStates
{
StoneIdle,
StoneHit3,
StoneWalk,
Max//数组长度时用到
}
public void ChangeStoneAnimation(StoneStates states)
{
fsmMrg.ChangeState((int)states);
}
{
animator = GetComponent<Animator>();
}
void Start()
{
}

void Update()
{
if (fsmMrg!=null)
{
fsmMrg.Update();
}

}
}


展开全文
• using System.Collections; using System.Collections.Generic;... //进入这个状态 public abstract void OnEnter(); //正处在这个状态 public virtual void OnStay() { } //退出这个状态 public virtual void
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• /// /// 巡逻状态 /// 在有限的几个点内来回行动 /// public class EnemyPatrol : FSMStateBase { public override FSMState fsmState => FSMState.Patrol; private EnemyAIData data; private Vector3 curPoint; ...
• ## Unity--FSM有限状态机

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...