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  • 徐磊英语语法整理1-3 词性,语序

    万次阅读 2018-11-01 18:13:20
    句子变adv 叫做形容词性从句,句子变副词 叫做 副词性从句(传统语法叫做状语从句) 动词变副词 名词变形容词 动词变形容词 非常像 v. 因为形容词和副词都是修饰成分 名词性从句 句子变名词 动词变...

    句子学习,句子的形成

    名词,动词,形容词,副词
    
    Noun 名词
    Verb 动词
    Adjective形容词
    Adverb 副词
    
    adjective 
    英 ['ædʒɪktɪv]  美 ['ædʒɪktɪv]
    adj. 形容词的;从属的
    n. 形容词
    
    adverb 
    英 ['ædvɜːb]  美 ['ædvɝb]
    n. 副词
    adj. 副词的
    
    一个句子中有且只有一个动词
    从句的本质是句子词话,句子里面包含动词的成分,整个变成了另一个词性
    
    看
    
    N+v
    
    同学们 停 等一等
    
    N+V+N
    N+V+N+N
    你 给 我 一杯水 
    
    副词 修饰 动词的 词 (修饰动词,副词  形容词,因为形容词用来修饰名词,所以副词,就不修饰名词了)
    
    (Adj)n+adv+v+(adj)n
    帅气的 我 非常 爱 温柔的 你
    
    副词 可以修饰 形容词
    
    

    在这里插入图片描述

    名词性 
    动词性 
    形容词性 
    副词性
    
    谓语 谓语动词 =动词
    主语 发出动作的名词
    宾语 承受动作的名字
    定语 形容词
    状语 副词
    补语 (主补,宾补) 形容词
    
    
    1. 定语 形容词
    2. 状语 副词
    3. 补语 (主补,宾补) 形容词

    词性

    v.词性

    形容词 变 副词 +ly

    可以做 谓语的

    任何词不能变成动词
    只有动词变成其他词性

    只有动词是单独的,动词只有一个,有且只有一个东西

    N.词性

    1. =n 的词 名词 代词 数词(number)

    2. 其他词性变n 形容词 副词 动词 变名词

      1. 形容词 the+形容词=名词 The old 老人 一类人
      2. 动词 变 名词 动词的名词化
        1. Donging 动词的ing形式
        2. To do 形式 动词不定式 (可以是 名词 形容词 副词)
    3. 句子变名词

      1. 名词性从句(一个句子对另一个句子说 你从了我吧) 一个句子当 名词 使 我知道 你们都是好学生

    Adj.词性

    1. =adj
    2. 其他词性变adj
      1. 名词变形容词 名词直接当形容词使用 A babe gril
      2. 名词’s 等于形容词 Xulei’s car
      3. 介词+名词=形容词 The car of介词 our shcool
      4. 副词变形容词 副词 去掉 ly 变成形容词
      5. 动词变形容词
        1. Doing ed to do
    3. 句子变形容词
      1. 定语从句 当形容词用 修饰名词 用来做定语

    preposition
    下载 纠错
    英 [,prepə’zɪʃ(ə)n] 美 [,prɛpə’zɪʃən]
    n. 介词;前置词

    介词:帮助名词完成词性转化 将名词变成形容词或者副词
    介词宾语 介词+名词 与被修饰之间的逻辑关系

    从句分为:
    名词性从句 词性
    定语从句 语法成分 形容词性从句
    状语从句 语法成分

    名词性从句 形容词性从句 副词性从句

    主语从句 宾语 定语 状语 同位语 表语

    Adv.词性

    1. =adv
    2. 其他词性变adv
      1. 名词变副词
        1. i. 介词+名词=副词 (介词短语做状语) ii. 介词:帮助名词完成词性转化的
      2. 形容词变副词
        1. 形容词+ly=副词
      3. c) 动词变副词
        1. ing ed to do
      4. 句子变adv 叫做形容词性从句,句子变副词 叫做 副词性从句(传统语法叫做状语从句)

    动词变副词
    名词变形容词
    动词变形容词
    非常像
    v. 因为形容词和副词都是修饰成分

    名词性从句 句子变名词
    动词变名词 ing to do
    动词变形容词 ing ed to do
    动词变副词 ing ed to do
    这三个叫做 非谓语动词
    定语从句 形容词性从句 句子变形容词
    状语从句 句子变副词
    非谓语动词

    语序

    把面 蛋 奶 一块烘烤,而得到的食物
    食物 烘烤了的 主要成分是 面 蛋 奶
    A cake is a kind of food +定语从句 that was bakeing and a conpernate of face is ….
    修饰成分 往后放

    当你 孤单的时候 你会想起谁
    谁 你会 想起 当你 孤单的时候
    Who will you miss when you are alone?

    句子核心往后放

    修饰成分长度是一个词,前置
    修饰成分长多是多个次,后置

    名词 变 形容词 介词+形容词 后置

    Ing形式,单个 前置
    Ing +承受着 后置
    Ed 单个 前置
    Ed by 后置
    To do 后置

    修饰成分,如果长度是1,前置,否则后置

    展开全文
  • 英语语法,我自己整理英语语法包含一些往年考试试题。希望能对大家英语学习有帮助。
  • 参考资料:《零基础英语语法》 文章目录参考资料:《零基础英语语法》一、词法篇1、实词1、名词I. 根据意义分为专有名词和普通名词1. 专有名词2、普通名词3、名词的所有格II. 根据可数性分为可数名词和不可数名词1、...

    参考资料:《零基础英语语法》

    一、词法篇

    1、实词

    1、名词

    I. 根据意义分为专有名词和普通名词

    1. 专有名词

    1、专有名词是指特定的人、物、地点等名称的词
    2、专有名词首字母都要大写、前面加the时、the不大写。另外,专有名词一般都是不可数名词

    2、普通名词

    1、集合名词
    \qquad 1、作为主语时表示整个集体概念时、要看成的单个主语、谓语动词要用单数形式
    2、可数名词
    3、不可数名词

    3、名词的所有格

    1、名词的所有格是指名词中表示所有关系的格式,一种‘从属’关系,常被译为‘…的’
    2、表现形式
    \qquad 1、名词+'s 常用于表示人或动物等有生命的名词
    \qquad 2、of+名词 常用于表示无生命的名词所有格
    3、所有关系
    \qquad 1、人、国家、动物的所有关系
    \qquad 2、某人工作、学习或生活的所属关系
    \qquad 3、亲属关系
    \qquad 4、品质或性格
    \qquad 5、有生命的名词所有格形式也可以用‘of+名词’的形式。如the car of John
    \qquad 6、时间的所有格形式用’s。如a day’s work
    \qquad 7、定冠词the加店铺名、餐馆名或职位名再加’s表示相应的名称。如the doctor’s 医院

    II. 根据可数性分为可数名词和不可数名词

    1、可数名词

    1、单数形式需要在前面加a、an、the来修饰
    2、可数名词是可以量化可数的名词
    3、可数名词有单数和复数之分
    4、可数名词可以用many修饰
    5、可数名词的复数变化
    \qquad 1、一般情况下单词变复数形式在末尾加s
    \qquad 2、单词以s/ch/x/sh结尾、变复数时加es
    \qquad 3、单词以y结尾、且y的前面的字母是辅音字母、要把y变i再加es
    \qquad 4、单词以o结尾、加es
    \qquad 5、单词以f或fe结尾、把f或fe变v再加es
    \qquad 6、特殊变形
    \qquad \qquad 1、把词尾的is变成es
    \qquad \qquad 2、元音发生变化,oo变es、an变en
    \qquad \qquad 3、ous变ic
    \qquad \qquad 4、其他特殊变形
    \qquad 7、单复同形的名词

    2、不可数名词

    1、不可数名词没有复数形式
    2、不可数名词是由量而不是数来量化的
    3、不可数名词前面不加限定词a、an或者其他表示数字的词
    4、不可数名词可用much修饰

    3、注意事项

    1、much修饰不可数名词、many修饰可数名词
    2、little修饰不可数名词、few修饰可数名词
    3、a little of 只能修饰不可数名词
    4、有些词既可以修饰可数又可以修饰不可数
    \qquad 1、some/any
    \qquad 2、a lot of/lots of
    \qquad 3、enough
    \qquad 4、no
    \qquad 5、plenty of
    5、有些单词在不同含义时持有可数二义性
    \qquad 1、Light 当为‘灯光、光亮’时,是不可数名词、当为‘灯泡’时,是可数名词
    \qquad 2、experience 当为‘经验’时,是不可数名词、当为‘经历’时,是可数名词
    \qquad 3、用动词加上ing形式构成的名词叫做动名词
    \qquad 4、由两个或两个以上的词复合而成的名词叫做复合名词

    4、复合名词

    1、形式
    \qquad 1、由两个单词组成而成。如bedroom
    \qquad 2、通过连字符‘-’连接成复合词。如check-in
    2、注意事项
    \qquad 1、大多数复合名词都是由名词与另外一个名词或者形容词复合而成的

    2、动词

    1、动词按照其谓语的功能分为以下四类

    1、系动词

    1、系动词be
    2、非be形式的系动词
    3、注意事项
    \qquad 1、系动词后必须接表语才能完整表达主语的意思,不能单独作谓语使用
    \qquad 2、必须与名词或形容词连用来表示主语的性质、状态、特征等情况,与系动词连用的这些名词或形容词叫做主语补足语
    \qquad 3、系动词是用来表示主语的动词。如am、is
    \qquad 4、如何判断动词为系动词
    \qquad \qquad 1、用am/is/are代替该动词,若仍然读的通,则可判断其为系动词
    \qquad 5、系动词和副词连用的形式是错误的。如looked happily
    \qquad 6、连接主语和补语中间的动词叫做系动词。如She is…的is
    \qquad 7、系动词后面可以加宾语也可以不加宾语,主要看特定的系动词

    2、实意动词

    1、及物动词
    \qquad 1、动词后面需要接宾语的动词叫做及物动词
    \qquad 2、动词后面可以接直接宾语和间接宾语的动词叫做双及物动词
    2、不及物动词
    \qquad 1、动词后面不需要接宾语就能表达完整的意思的动词叫做不及物动词
    3、注意事项
    \qquad 1、大多数动词既是及物动词又是不及物动词
    \qquad 2、实意动词也叫行为动词,即表示行为动作的动词,它们是表示动态的动词,标志着某事正在发生

    3、助动词

    1、助动词be
    \qquad 1、进行时态
    \qquad \qquad 1、She is/was playing golf 现在/过去进行时
    \qquad \qquad 2、She has/had been playing golf 现在/过去完成进行时
    \qquad 2、被动语态
    \qquad \qquad 1、The house is/was built 一般现在/过去被动时
    \qquad \qquad 2、The house has/had been bulit 现在/过去完成被动时
    \qquad \qquad 3、The house will be built 将来被动时
    \qquad 3、注意事项
    \qquad \qquad 1、其后面必须接另一个动词
    \qquad \qquad 2、助动词have
    \qquad \qquad \qquad 1、使用方式
    \qquad \qquad \qquad \qquad 1、He has/had played football 现在/过去完成时
    \qquad \qquad \qquad \qquad 2、He has/had been playing football 现在/过去完成进行时
    \qquad \qquad \qquad \qquad 3、The house has/had been built 现在/过去完成被动语态
    \qquad \qquad \qquad 2、注意事项
    \qquad \qquad \qquad \qquad 1、have可以用作助动词、也可以用作主要动词
    \qquad \qquad 3、助动词will
    \qquad \qquad \qquad 1、使用方式
    \qquad \qquad \qquad \qquad 1、He will not play football 将来时
    \qquad \qquad \qquad \qquad 2、He will have played football 将来完成时
    \qquad \qquad \qquad 2、注意事项
    \qquad \qquad \qquad \qquad 1、will只能用作助动词、构成将来时态
    \qquad \qquad \qquad \qquad 2、否定句中will not=won’t
    \qquad \qquad 4、助动词do
    \qquad \qquad \qquad 1、使用方式
    \qquad \qquad \qquad \qquad 1、否定句
    \qquad \qquad \qquad \qquad \qquad 1、He does/did not play football 一般现在/过去时
    \qquad \qquad \qquad \qquad 2、疑问句
    \qquad \qquad \qquad \qquad \qquad 1、Does/Did he play football 一般现在/过去时
    \qquad \qquad \qquad 2、注意事项
    \qquad \qquad \qquad \qquad 1、do可以用作助动词、也可以用作主要动词
    \qquad \qquad \qquad \qquad 2、作助动词时只能用于一般现在时和一般过去时的否定句和疑问句中
    \qquad \qquad \qquad \qquad 3、如果我们在否定句或者疑问句中需要用do来做主要动词、那么就需要另外一个do来做助动词。如
    \qquad \qquad \qquad \qquad \qquad 1、She doesn’t do her homework every day
    \qquad \qquad \qquad \qquad \qquad 2、Does she do her homework every day?
    \qquad \qquad 5、注意事项
    \qquad\qquad \qquad 1、助动词是指用来帮助主要动词共同表示谓语的动词,不可单独使用
    \qquad \qquad \qquad 2、助动词主要用来构成动词的时态和语态,如be、have、shall

    4、情态动词

    1、指形容说话人的情绪、看法或语气的动词。如can、could、must、may
    2、情态动词不能单独使用,必须后接动词原形
    3、情态动词的用法
    \qquad 1、must=have to 必须
    \qquad 2、must not=not allowed to 不必
    \qquad 3、can=be able to 可能
    \qquad 4、may=be allowed to 可能
    \qquad 5、need=have to 需要
    \qquad 6、need not=not have to 不需要
    \qquad 7、情态动词的表推测:用于表达某种可能或不可能的情况
    \qquad 8、can和could表示能力
    \qquad 9、must用来表示某事极其的重要或对某事的肯定,汉语翻译为‘准是,必须’;should用来表示一种劝告或建议,译为‘应该’
    \qquad 10、can、could、may用来表示某种请求、允许和拒绝
    \qquad 11、will、would用来表示某种习惯或倾向
    4、注意事项
    \qquad 1、在英语中总共有10个情态动词,常用的有8个动词,如can(could),may(might),will(would),need,must,dare,shall(should),ought
    \qquad 2、情态动词没有人称和数的变化,在与第三人称单数连用时不需要加s。
    \qquad 3、在任何句型中,后面都必须加动词原形

    2、动词按照在句中的作用分为谓语动词和非谓语动词

    1、这类动词可以在句子中做主要动词或者充当形容词或名词
    2、谓语动词

    1、可以在句子中做主要动词、它的形式由主语人称与数的变化而决定

    3、非谓语动词

    1、不定式
    \qquad 1、是由动词前面加上to构成的,可作名词、形容词或副词、具有动词的特性、有时态和语态的变化
    \qquad 2、使用方式
    \qquad \qquad 1、不定式作主语
    \qquad \qquad \qquad 1、To follow his advice seemed logical
    \qquad \qquad 2、作定语
    \qquad \qquad \qquad 1、Phil agreed to give me a ride
    \qquad \qquad 3、作补语
    \qquad \qquad \qquad 1、His ambition is to fly
    \qquad \qquad 4、作形容词
    \qquad \qquad \qquad 1、He lacked the strength to resist
    \qquad \qquad 5、作副词
    \qquad \qquad \qquad 1、We must study to learn
    2、动名词
    \qquad 1、是指动词+ing形式构成的名词,可以作主语、直接宾语、主语补足语和介词宾语
    \qquad 2、动词的特性
    \qquad \qquad 1、动名词以ing形式结尾,作名词使用
    \qquad \qquad 2、动名词短语由动名词+修饰词、宾语或补语组成
    \qquad 3、使用方式
    \qquad \qquad 1、动名词作主语
    \qquad \qquad 2、作直接宾语
    \qquad \qquad 3、作主语补足语
    \qquad \qquad 4、作介词宾语
    3、分词
    \qquad 1、动词的过去分词
    \qquad \qquad 1、用在完成时态中。如I have spoken
    \qquad \qquad 2、用在被动语态中。如The letter was written
    \qquad \qquad 3、用作形容词形式。如I was bored to death
    \qquad 2、动词的现在分词
    \qquad \qquad 1、在进行时态中。如I am speaking
    \qquad \qquad 2、作动名词。如He is afraid of flying
    \qquad \qquad 3、作形容词。如The film is interesting
    \qquad 3、分词短语中逗号的使用
    \qquad \qquad 1、当分词短语放在句首时,必须使用逗号与主句隔开
    \qquad \qquad 2、当分词放在句中,在句中不充当重要成分时必须前后都用逗号隔开
    \qquad 4、注意事项
    \qquad \qquad 1、分词的作用是在句子充当形容词使用,因此可以修饰名词或代词
    \qquad \qquad 2、过去分词以ed结尾、现在分词以ing结尾
    \qquad \qquad 3、分词短语包括分词和修饰词,包括修饰名词或代词
    \qquad \qquad 4、分词和分词短语必须紧跟名词或代词,这些名词或代词必须明确

    4、注意事项

    1、不可以在句子中做主要动词、不受主语的变化影响,也不能决定时态的变化
    \qquad 1、Arriving at the store,I found that it had been closed
    2、一般在句子充当名词、副词或形容词的作用
    \qquad 1、Sid,watching an old movie,drifted in and out of sleep

    3、按照动词时态变形的规则可分为规则动词和不规则动词

    1、规则动词

    1、是指过去式和过去分词一致,且都是由动词加上-d(动词结尾是e)或-ed形式构成的词

    2、不规则动词
    3、代词

    	-------------------------------------------------------
    	  人称代词	    物主代词           反身代词
    	主格  宾格   形容词性  名词性  
        -------------------------------------------------------
    	I     me       my      mine        myself
    	you  you      your     yours       yourself
    	he   him      his      his         himself
    	she  her      her      hers        herself
    	it   it       its      its         itself
    	we   us       our      ours        ourselves
    	you  you      your     yours       yourselves
    	they them     their    theirs      themselves
    	-------------------------------------------------------
    


    	      关系代词          指示代词   疑问代词  不定代词
    	指人  指物  指人或指物    this       what     some 
    	----------------------
    	who   which  that	    that       who       any
    	whom  that   that	    these      whose     something
    	whose whose  of which   those	   which     anything
    	      of which whose
    	--------------------------------------------------------
    

    1、人称代词
    \qquad 1、主格
    \qquad 2、宾格
    \qquad 3、注意事项
    \qquad \qquad 1、在数的变化上与名词保持一致
    \qquad \qquad 2、在人称上与名词保持一致
    \qquad \qquad 3、清楚地指代具体的名词
    \qquad \qquad 4、单词everyday、anybody、anyone、each、neither、nobody、someone只能用单数代词
    2、指示代词
    \qquad 1、是用来指代一个或多个名词,基本的指示代词有四个:this、that、these和those
    \qquad 2、注意事项
    \qquad \qquad 1、指示代词可以指示时间或日期
    3、物主代词
    \qquad 1、形容词性物主代词
    \qquad 2、名词性物主代词
    \qquad 3、注意事项
    \qquad \qquad 1、 是指事物的属性、有所属关系、具有指代作用
    4、反身代词
    \qquad 1、是指自身动作对自身的影响,反应的是当某人或某事受一个动作影响时,动作的实施者就是它本身。
    \qquad 2、用作加强所指代词,用在居中加强前面代词的语气
    5、关系代词
    \qquad 1、指人
    \qquad 2、指物
    \qquad 3、指人或指物
    \qquad 4、限定性关系从句
    \qquad \qquad 1、关系代词在句中修饰主语
    \qquad \qquad 2、修饰宾语
    \qquad \qquad \qquad 1、在指代宾语的人或物时,关系代词可以省略
    \qquad \qquad 3、关系代词在句中作所有格形式
    \qquad \qquad \qquad 1、whose是英语中唯一的一个所有格关系代词,whose的先行词可以是人也可以是物
    \qquad 5、非限定性关系从句
    \qquad \qquad 1、关系代词在句中修饰主语
    \qquad \qquad 2、修饰宾语
    \qquad 6、常见关系代词的使用
    \qquad \qquad 1、that与who/which
    \qquad \qquad \qquad 1、that只能用在限定性关系从句中,在指代人时可以被who代替;在指代物时可以被which代替。that常用在口语中,who/which常用在书面语中
    \qquad \qquad 2、that/who
    \qquad \qquad \qquad 1、在指代人时,that与who可以互换
    \qquad \qquad \qquad 2、在指代特定的人时,要用who
    \qquad \qquad 3、that/which
    \qquad \qquad \qquad 1、 在一些情况下,常用that而不用which
    \qquad \qquad \qquad \qquad 1、在不定代词all,any(anything),every(everything),few,little,many,much,no(nothing),none,some(something)之后
    \qquad \qquad \qquad \qquad 2、放在被形容词的最高级修饰的名词之后
    \qquad \qquad 4、在most,many,some,both,none之后用of whom指代人,用of which指代物
    \qquad 7、注意事项
    \qquad \qquad 1、关系代词引导关系从句,而关系从句是一种独立的从句,修饰一个单词、词组或者主句的中心词,被修饰的部分被称为先行词。
    \qquad \qquad 2、关系代词在限定性关系从句中不用逗号隔开。限定性关系从句在主句中增加先行词的基本信息,基本信息对正确理解句子至关重要,不能省略。也就是 说,没有限制性关系从句,句子就没有意义。
    \qquad \qquad 3、关系代词在非限定性关系从句中需要用逗号隔开。
    \qquad \qquad 4、that不能用于非限定性关系从句中,可以用who/which代替
    \qquad \qquad 5、用who指代人;which指代物或者在非限定性从句中指代前面的整个主句
    \qquad \qquad 6、that前面不能加逗号
    6、疑问代词
    \qquad 1、被用作提问我们不知道的人或物
    \qquad 2、who/whom
    \qquad \qquad 1、who用于提问人的主语,用于提问动作的实施者
    \qquad \qquad 2、whom用于提问人的宾语,也就是提问动作的接受者
    7、不定代词
    \qquad 1、指代的不是具体的人或物,可以是单数也可以是复数
    \qquad 2、单数
    another、anybody、anyone、anything、each、either、everybody、everyone、everything、little、much、neither、nobody、no one、nothing、
    one、other、somebody、someone、something
    \qquad 3、复数
    both、few、many、others、several
    \qquad 4、单复数都可以用
    all、any、more、most、none、some
    8、注意事项
    1、代词是指在句子中可以代替名词的词

    4、数词

    1、基数词
    \qquad 1、主要表示数目的多少
    \qquad 2、基数词的表示方法
    \qquad \qquad 1、表示1-12的基数词。如
    \qquad \qquad \qquad 1、eleven twelve
    \qquad \qquad 2、数词13-19以teen结尾。特殊的
    \qquad \qquad \qquad 1、thirteen fifteen eighteen
    \qquad \qquad 3、十位数之内的整数以ty结尾。特殊的
    \qquad \qquad \qquad 1、twenty thirty forty
    \qquad \qquad 4、几十几的数词要加连字符“-”如
    \qquad \qquad \qquad 1、thirty-two
    \qquad \qquad 5、百位以上的数词,用hundred和thousand。包含十位数及以下的数字用and连接。如
    \qquad \qquad \qquad 1、two thousand one hundred and twenty-three
    \qquad \qquad 6、英语中没有“万”的概念,常常用thousand来表示。如
    \qquad \qquad \qquad 1、ten thousand
    \qquad \qquad 7、百万以上用million/billion
    \qquad 3、注意事项
    \qquad \qquad 1、表示确切的数目时用单数,表示不确切的数目时用复数+of的形式。如
    \qquad \qquad \qquad 1、tens of thousands of 成千上百

    2、序数词
    \qquad 1、主要表示数目的先后顺序
    \qquad 2、第一、第二、第三的序数词形式特殊记。如 first second third,可以缩写为1st 2nd 3rd
    \qquad 3、20以内的序数词由“基数词+th”构成。特殊的
    \qquad \qquad 1、fifth 5th eighth 8th ninth 9th twelfth 12th
    \qquad 4、整十的基数变序数:把词尾y变i再加eth。如
    \qquad \qquad 1、twentieth 20th
    \qquad 5、表达第几十几的序数词,用连字符“-”,前面用基数词、后面用序数词。如
    \qquad \qquad 1、twenty-first 21th
    \qquad 6、百位以上的序数词,在词尾直接加th。如
    \qquad \qquad 1、one hundredth 100th one thousandth 1000th 注:这里的one不能用a代替
    3、数词的读法
    \qquad 1、序数词的读法
    \qquad \qquad 1、在读序数词时、在序数词前面要加上the。如
    \qquad \qquad \qquad 1、the first 1st
    \qquad 2、分数的读法
    \qquad \qquad 1、分子用基数词,分母用序数词。如
    \qquad \qquad \qquad 1、1/3 one third、1/4 one quarter、1/2 one half
    \qquad \qquad 2、五又二分之一的表示方法
    \qquad \qquad \qquad 1、在整数与分数之间加and。如
    \qquad \qquad \qquad \qquad 1、five and a half
    \qquad 3、小数的读法
    \qquad \qquad 1、需用到point且小数点后面的数字都是各发各音。如
    \qquad \qquad \qquad 1、one point two five 1.25
    \qquad 4、日期的读法
    \qquad \qquad 1、按照月、日、年的顺序表示,这是美式英语的表达。如
    \qquad \qquad \qquad 1、March 6, 2008读作March sixth two thousand and eight
    \qquad \qquad 2、按照日、月、年的顺序表示、这是英式英语的表达。如
    \qquad \qquad \qquad 1、6th March, 2008读作the sixth of March,two thousand and eight
    4、数词的用法
    \qquad 1、表示日期
    \qquad \qquad 1、年
    \qquad \qquad \qquad 1、世纪的表达
    \qquad \qquad \qquad \qquad 1、用序数词,并在前面加the。如
    \qquad \qquad \qquad \qquad \qquad 1、the twentieth century 公元20世纪
    \qquad \qquad \qquad \qquad 2、用定冠词the加表示世纪的基数词加’s。如
    \qquad \qquad \qquad \qquad \qquad 1、the 1880’s 19世纪80年代
    \qquad \qquad 2、日
    \qquad \qquad \qquad 1、表达日期要用序数词、也可以直接写成基数词,但是读法要读成序数词。如
    \qquad \qquad \qquad \qquad 1、March 6 三月六日,读作March sixth
    \qquad 2、表示时间
    \qquad \qquad 1、整点的时间
    \qquad \qquad \qquad 1、用基数词-o’clock来表示。如
    \qquad \qquad \qquad \qquad 1、three o’clock 三点
    \qquad \qquad 2、具体的时间
    \qquad \qquad \qquad 1、用to或past来表示。如
    \qquad \qquad \qquad \qquad 1、7:15 a quarter past seven 或 seven fifteen
    \qquad \qquad \qquad \qquad 2、7:30 half past seven 或 seven thirty
    \qquad \qquad \qquad \qquad 3、7:45 a quarter to eight 或 seven forty-five

    5、形容词与副词

    1、形容词
    \qquad 1、表示性质的形容词。如honest、kind、large
    \qquad 2、表示数量的形容词(但不提供确切的数字、只是告诉名词相对数量或全部数量)。如all、half、many
    \qquad 3、表示数目的形容词
    \qquad \qquad 1、具体的数字形容词。如基数词和序数词
    \qquad \qquad 2、非具体的数字形容词。如some、many、few、any
    \qquad \qquad 3、分配形容词。如either、neither、each、another、other
    \qquad \qquad \qquad 例:Taxes have to be paid by every employed citizen
    \qquad 4、指示形容词。如this、that、these、those
    \qquad \qquad 例:I really like those shoes
    \qquad 5、表示疑问的形容词。如where、what、which、whose
    \qquad \qquad 例:what assignment did I miss out on?
    2、并列形容词
    \qquad 1、指两个或以上的形容词可以随意排列、语法依然正确的一类形容词,中间需要用逗号隔开或者and连接
    \qquad \qquad 例:She was a lovin, kind and generous human being
    3、非并列形容词
    \qquad 1、指不能随意排列、只能放在固定位置,不需要用逗号隔开或用and连接的形容词
    4、副词
    \qquad 1、是指在句子中修饰动词、形容词或另一个副词的词,常被译为‘…地’
    \qquad 2、形容词至副词的变换
    \qquad \qquad 1、以y结尾的形容词变副词时把y变i再加‘-ly’
    \qquad \qquad 2、以e结尾的形容词变副词时去掉e再加‘-ly’
    \qquad\qquad 3、有些以ly结尾的形容词可作副词使用
    \qquad 3、副词的用法
    \qquad \qquad 1、副词修饰形容词,放在形容词之前
    \qquad \qquad \qquad 例:That’s really nice
    \qquad \qquad 2、副词修饰另一个副词时,也放在该副词之前
    \qquad \qquad \qquad 例:She did it really well
    \qquad \qquad 3、副词修饰名词,表示时间或地点
    \qquad \qquad \qquad 例:The concert tomorrow
    \qquad \qquad 4、一些表示程度的副词可以修饰名词短语
    \qquad \qquad \qquad 例:We had quite a good time
    \qquad \qquad 5、副词修饰限定词、数词和代词
    \qquad \qquad \qquad 例:Nearly everyone,who was invited,came to the party
    \qquad \qquad 6、副词修饰整个句子
    \qquad \qquad \qquad 例:Luckily the car stopped in time
    \qquad 4、副词的种类
    \qquad \qquad 1、时间副词
    \qquad \qquad 2、地点副词
    \qquad \qquad 3、方式副词
    \qquad \qquad 4、频度副词
    \qquad \qquad 5、程度副词
    \qquad \qquad 6、表示肯定和否定的副词
    \qquad \qquad 7、表示评论,如简单,困难等副词
    \qquad \qquad 8、可作连词使用的副词。使用这类副词时要在它前面加上分号
    \qquad \qquad \qquad 例:He was going for an important interview;accordingly,he made sure he reached on time
    \qquad\qquad\qquad 1、该类副词还有:
    \qquad\qquad\qquad\qquad 1、表转折however/yet/on the other hand/in spite of
    \qquad\qquad\qquad\qquad 2、表结果consequently/as a result/resulting in
    \qquad\qquad\qquad\qquad 3、表递进moreover/beside/in addition
    \qquad\qquad\qquad\qquad 4、表对立conversely/opposite of/contrary to

    2、虚词

    1、冠词

    1、是指用于名词前面说明名词是特指还是泛指,可数还是不可数的一种虚词
    2、一般而言、冠词就是形容词,用于修饰名词
    3、定冠词(the)
    \qquad 1、the用来修饰特定的、具体的名词
    \qquad 2、定冠词的用法
    \qquad\qquad 1、用在之前已经有所提到的名词或客观存在的名词之前
    \qquad\qquad 2、定冠词可以用单数和复数名词之前
    4、不定冠词(a/an)
    \qquad 1、a/an用来修饰不明确的、泛指的名词
    \qquad 2、不定冠词的用法
    \qquad\qquad 1、a放在开头发辅音的单词之前,放在以h发音的单词之前
    \qquad\qquad 2、an放在开头发元音的单词之前,放在以h开头不发音、但后跟的字母发元音的单词之前
    \qquad\qquad 3、不定冠词修饰的都是可数名词单数,不能修饰复数名词或不可数名词
    \qquad\qquad 4、首次谈到某事物时、用不定冠词
    \qquad\qquad 5、在询问某事是否存在时、用不定冠词
    \qquad\qquad 6、在介绍谈论的事物类型的时候、也用不定冠词
    5、冠词的省略
    \qquad 1、在一些类型的名词前面不加冠词
    \qquad\qquad 1、语言和国籍的名称
    \qquad\qquad 2、体育运动的名称
    \qquad\qquad 3、学科的名称
    \qquad\qquad 4、城市、城镇或政府的名称
    \qquad\qquad 5、街道的名称
    \qquad\qquad 6、湖泊的名称
    \qquad\qquad 7、大陆的名称
    \qquad 2、加the的情况
    \qquad\qquad 1、河流、海洋的名字
    \qquad\qquad 2、地理区域,如 the North Pole

    2、连词

    1、是指联系两个单词、短语或句子,并表示它们之间关系的单词
    2、并列连词
    \qquad 1、连接句子的各个部分,可以是两个独立的句子、名词短语、形容词、副词等,被连接的两部分在句法上的地位平等
    \qquad 2、常见的并列连词有:
    \qquad\qquad for and nor but or yet so 其中nor必须放在neither…nor结构中使用
    3、从属连词
    \qquad 1、连接从属分句和主要动词,并表示他们之间的关系。从属连词主要引导名词性从句和状语从句
    \qquad 2、常见的从属连词有:
    \qquad\qquad after although because before if therefore unless when while
    4、关联词
    \qquad 1、指成对出现的连词
    \qquad 2、并列连词中有:
    \qquad\qquad 1、both…and 两者都…
    \qquad\qquad 2、either…or 两者选其一
    \qquad\qquad 3、neither…nor 两者都不
    \qquad\qquad 4、not only…but also 不但…而且…
    \qquad 3、从属连词中有:
    \qquad\qquad 1、if…then 如果…那么…
    \qquad\qquad 2、less…han 比…少
    \qquad\qquad 3、more…than 比…多
    \qquad\qquad 4、so…that 如此…以至…
    \qquad\qquad 5、whether…or 是…还是…;不管…还是…
    \qquad\qquad 6、just as…so 像…一样,所以…

    3、介词和感叹词

    1、介词
    \qquad 1、不能单独使用、大多数都放在名词之前,介词没有任何变形
    \qquad 2、方位介词
    \qquad \qquad 1、指用来指代某物的具体位置的介词。有三个方位介词。如 at in on
    \qquad 3、时间介词
    \qquad\qquad 1、at 表示精准的时间
    \qquad \qquad 2、in 用在表示年、月、世纪等日期之前
    \qquad \qquad 3、on 用在日期之前
    \qquad 4、表运动的介词
    \qquad \qquad 1、to 表地点
    \qquad \qquad 2、towards 表朝着…方向
    \qquad\qquad 3、through 表通过…,从这边到那边
    \qquad\qquad 4、into 表示从外部进入内部
    \qquad\qquad 5、across 表示从一端运动到另一端
    \qquad \qquad 6、over 表示在…之上
    \qquad \qquad 7、along 表示沿着…运动
    \qquad \qquad 8、in 表示在…内部
    \qquad\qquad 9、on 表示在…之上
    2、感叹词

    二、句法篇

    1、句子分类

    1、陈述句
    \qquad 1、肯定句
    \qquad 2、否定句
    2、祈使句
    \qquad 1、第一种是以动词原型开头,或者是在动词原型之前+do,否定形式则加don’t。如
    \qquad \qquad 1、Stand up!
    \qquad \qquad 2、Do study hard 一定要努力学习
    \qquad \qquad 3、Don’t stay up late 不要熬夜
    \qquad 2、第二种是用let开头
    \qquad \qquad 1、有两种形式、let’s…和let us…。其区别主要体现在它们的反义疑问句和否定句中。
    \qquad \qquad 2、反义疑问句
    \qquad \qquad \qquad 1、Let’s have a rest,shall we? 我们休息一下吧,好吗?
    \qquad \qquad \qquad 2、Let us have a rest,will you? 你让我们休息一下吧,好吗?
    \qquad \qquad 3、否定句
    \qquad\qquad \qquad 1、Let’s not play games all day. 我们不要整天打游戏了
    \qquad \qquad \qquad 2、Let us not play games all day. 你不要让我们整天打游戏了
    3、感叹句
    \qquad 1、由how引导的感叹句
    \qquad \qquad 1、how+形容词
    \qquad \qquad \qquad 1、how beautiful she is!
    \qquad \qquad 2、how+副词
    \qquad \qquad \qquad 1、How quickly you did your homework!
    \qquad \qquad \qquad 1、How I want to see you again!
    \qquad 2、由what引导的感叹句
    \qquad \qquad 1、what后面接可数名词单数,要用到不定冠词a,an
    \qquad \qquad \qquad 1、what a beautiful park it is!
    \qquad \qquad 2、what后面接可数复数名词
    \qquad \qquad \qquad 1、What lovely children they are!
    \qquad 3、what后面接不可数名词
    \qquad \qquad 1、What cold water it is!
    \qquad 4、陈述句如何转化至感叹句
    \qquad \qquad 1、原句:He is a very handsome boy.
    \qquad \qquad 2、加词,在句首加上what或者how。 What he is a very handsome boy!
    \qquad \qquad 3、换位,将主语和谓语he is调到后面。What a very handsome boy he is!
    \qquad \qquad 4、去修饰,感叹句已经含有程度上的含义。What a handsome boy he is!
    4、疑问句
    \qquad 1、一般疑问句
    \qquad \qquad 1、一般疑问句询问“是与否”。其语序一般是倒装,be动词、组动词和情态动词放在句子开头
    \qquad 2、特殊疑问句
    \qquad \qquad 1、由特殊疑问词引导的疑问句叫作特殊疑问句。特殊疑问词有what,who,where,when,why,how。
    \qquad \qquad 2、特殊疑问词+一般疑问句
    \qquad \qquad \qquad 1、一般在特殊疑问词做句子的宾语、状语、表语时使用。
    \qquad \qquad \qquad \qquad 1、What do you want?
    \qquad \qquad \qquad \qquad 2、Where did you play with him?
    \qquad \qquad 3、陈述语序
    \qquad \qquad \qquad 1、当特殊疑问词做主语的时候,句子使用陈述语序
    \qquad \qquad \qquad \qquad 1、Who finished homework?
    \qquad 3、反意疑问句
    \qquad \qquad 1、用于说话者对某种情形没有足够的把握,需要有所证实。
    \qquad \qquad 2、反意疑问句前后由两部分组成,前面是陈述语序的句子,后面则是一般疑问句。一般情况,其前后肯定与否定相反。
    \qquad \qquad 3、当疑问词作为否定反问时、要使用简写。
    \qquad \qquad \qquad 1、Tom is a good student,isn’t he?
    \qquad 4、选择疑问句
    \qquad \qquad 1、指在问句中给出两个部分让听者选择。听者的答案一般是用完整的句子表示,不能简单用yes或no。
    \qquad \qquad \qquad 1、Is he a student or a teacher? He is a teacher
    5、反问句
    \qquad 1、反问句是把动词或者组动词的否定形式放在句子开头。
    \qquad \qquad 1、Can’t you go out with me?
    \qquad 2、除了表示疑问以外,反问句还可以表达建议或者邀请。
    \qquad \qquad 1、Won’t you…?
    \qquad \qquad 2、Isn’t it better to…?
    \qquad \qquad 3、Why don’t…?

    2、句子成分

    1、主语

    1、简单主语
    2、完全主语
    \qquad 1、包括简单主语和修饰词
    3、复合主语
    \qquad 1、由两个或多个主语组成,拥有一个谓语,相互之间用and或者or连接

    2、谓语

    1、简单谓语
    2、完全谓语
    \qquad 1、简单谓语和修饰词
    3、复合谓语
    \qquad 1、相互之间用and或者or连接。如
    \qquad \qquad I came in,sat down and sighed

    3、宾语

    1、指的是谓语动词的动作执行对象
    2、双宾语
    \qquad 1、Pass me the box,please
    \qquad 2、Pass the box to me,please 在间接宾语前添加介词的用法更加通用
    3、复合宾语

    4、表语

    1、一般用于系动词之后
    2、正常语序
    \qquad 1、He feels cold
    3、倒装语序
    \qquad 1、在what和how引导的感叹句中,表语要前置。如
    \qquad \qquad 1、What an intersting story it is!
    \qquad 2、当as引导让步状语从句时,表语要前置。如
    \qquad \qquad 1、Famous as the book is, he never read it 尽管这本书很有名,他却从没有读过
    \qquad 3、表示强调时。如
    \qquad \qquad 1、Inside the house is a stranger
    \qquad 4、保持句子平衡,主语较长时。如
    \qquad \qquad 1、Such is the man who was a murder

    5、定语

    1、是用来修饰名词或者代词的句子成分

    6、状语

    1、时间状语
    2、地点状语
    3、原因状语
    4、结果状语
    5、目的状语
    6、条件状语
    7、让步状语
    8、伴随状语

    7、补语

    1、放在句子后面使句子变得完整的单词或者短语叫做补语。如She is…

    3、句型

    1、主语+谓语

    1、主谓一致的用法
    \qquad 1、当句子的主语包括两个或两个以上用and连接的名词或代词时,谓语动词用复数。如
    \qquad \qquad 1、You and I are good friends
    \qquad \qquad 2、注:用and连接主语时,不可以把I放在前面
    \qquad 2、当两个或两个以上单数名词或代词用or或者nor连接作主语时,谓语动词用单数。如
    \qquad \qquad 1、The book or the pen is in the drawer
    \qquad 3、do(don’t)和does(doesn’t)的用法
    \qquad 4、谓语必须与主语保持一致,与句子中的短语无关
    \qquad 5、each,each one,either,neither,everyone,everybody,anybody,anyone,nobody,somebody,someone,no one等表示单数的名词,后面用谓语单数
    \qquad 6、civics,mathematics,dollars,measles,news等像复数但是单数的名词,谓语动词用单数形式
    \qquad 7、scissors,gloves,tweezers,trousers,shears等表达的事物本身由多部分组成的单词,用复数
    \qquad 8、these is或these are位于句首,is/are和其后面的主语保持一致
    \qquad 9、group,team,committee,class,family等集体名词,谓语动词用单数形式
    \qquad 10、with,together with,including,accompanied by,in addition to,as well等词在句中修饰名词,谓语必须与主语保持一致

    2、主语+系动词+表语

    1、The tree looks very high
    2、表示主语状态的系动词。如be、look、sound
    3、表示主语状态变化的系动词。如become、get、go、turn

    3、主语+谓语+宾语

    1、宾语为名词时。如 He grabbed the purse and run away
    2、宾语为代词时。如 He helps me when I have difficulties
    3、宾语为不定式时。如 I intend to go out for a while
    4、宾语为从句时。如 I never know who he is

    4、主语+谓语+宾语+宾语补足语

    1、He made me feel uncomfortable
    2、I have my sister play outside

    5、主语+谓语+间接宾语+直接宾语

    1、My father bought me some toys
    2、My father bought some toys for me

    6、there be句型

    1、there be句型的构成:there + be动词的各种形式(is,are)+名词+地点状语。
    2、there be句型中be动词的形式要遵循“就近原则”。如
    \qquad 1、There is a little girl and five little boys on the playground
    \qquad 2、There are five little boys and little girl on the playground
    3、there和be之间经常插入一些情态动词或短语。如
    \qquad 1、There must be some salt leftin the bottle
    \qquad 2、There is going to be a birthday party this evening
    4、there be,has或have表示“有”时的区别
    \qquad 1、there be 表示“存在”
    \qquad 2、has/have 表示“拥有”
    5、there be+主语+动名词+介词短语表示某人或某物正在呈现某种状态或者动作。如
    \qquad 1、There is a bird singing in the sky

    7、省略句

    1、语篇省略
    \qquad 1、He is one of the richest man in the city,if not the richest (man)
    2、情景省略
    \qquad 1、(You) Sit down,please
    3、简单省略
    \qquad 1、不定式的省略,为了避免重复,往往会省略不定式的动词原型,剩下to。如
    \qquad \qquad 1、He wanted to go out for a while but his mother told him not to
    \qquad 2、介词的省略。如
    \qquad \qquad 1、They have lived there (for)five years
    \qquad \qquad 2、注意事项
    \qquad \qquad \qquad 1、当句子为否定句时,表示时间的for不能省略
    \qquad \qquad \qquad 2、It’s no use (in) doing sth 做某事没有用
    \qquad \qquad \qquad 3、spend…(in/on) doing sth
    4、并列省略
    \qquad 1、They learn English and we German 省略谓语
    \qquad 2、He planned and acted 省略主语
    \qquad 3、I eat an apple and Jim eats two 省略宾语
    5、复合句省略
    \qquad 1、状语从句中的省略
    \qquad \qquad 1、当主句的主语与从句的主语一致时,从句的主语和谓语可以省略。如
    \qquad \qquad \qquad 1、When permitted to enter the room,we will be too glad
    \qquad \qquad \qquad 2、If not happy,you can listen to many pieces of beautiful songs
    \qquad 2、定语从句中的省略
    \qquad \qquad 1、关系代词做宾语时,关系代词是可以省略的。如
    \qquad \qquad \qquad 1、It is the question (which) we are going to ask
    \qquad \qquad \qquad 2、The child (whom) you are looking for is onthe way home
    \qquad 3、宾语从句中的省略
    \qquad \qquad 1、若由that引导的宾语从句不长,that可以省略,如果较长,不可省略。
    \qquad \qquad \qquad 1、I hope (that) he will come here

    8、倒装句

    1、是为了突出强调作用则将谓语动词移到主语的前面。
    2、完全倒装
    \qquad 1、是谓语动词全部谓语主语之前
    \qquad \qquad 1、通常以here、there等副词开头的句子,其语序为完全倒转。如
    \qquad \qquad \qquad 1、There is a table in the room
    \qquad 2、谓语句首的介词短语表示地点,语序也是完全倒装。如
    \qquad \qquad 1、At the end of the road stands a person
    3、部分倒装
    \qquad 1、只是助动词或者情态动词放在主语之前,谓语动词没有变动。
    \qquad 2、当only修饰主语之外的成分做句子的状语时,句子要用部分倒装。如
    \qquad \qquad 1、Only in this way can he overcome this difficulty
    \qquad 3、little,seldom,never,not only,not until等具有否定含义的词语位于语句首时,句子应该使用部分倒装
    \qquad \qquad 1、Seldom does he go to school
    \qquad \qquad 2、Not until midnight did I feel asleep
    \qquad 4、as/though引导的让步状语从句有时也会用到部分倒装。如
    \qquad\qquad 1、Though the boy is young,he is talented
    \qquad \qquad 2、Young as the boy is,he is talented
    \qquad 5、为了避免重复,往往会使用“so/neither/nor+be动词或者助动词、情态动词+主语”。如
    \qquad \qquad 1、Tom wants to read this novel.So do I
    \qquad \qquad 2、Tom doesn’t want to read this novel.Neither do I
    \qquad 6、当if虚拟条件从句中含有were、had、should时,省略if,可以使用部分倒装。如
    \qquad \qquad 1、If I were you,I would tell her my love —> Were I you,I would tell her my love
    \qquad 7、may在句首时,表示祝福和祝愿。如
    \qquad \qquad 1、May you succeed 祝你成功

    9、强调句

    1、加强语气的作用。一般使用it is/was…that…来表示
    \qquad 1、Jim lost the purse in the street yesterday
    \qquad 2、It was Jim that (who) lost the purse in the street yesterday 强调主语
    \qquad 3、It was the purse that Jim lost in the street yesterday 强调宾语
    \qquad 4、It was in the street that Jim lost the purse yesterday 强调状语
    2、It is/was…that…不能强调谓语动词,但可以使用do,does或did来强调。如
    \qquad 1、I do remember your words
    \qquad 2、He does work hard
    3、还有另一个常用到的强调句型not…until…
    \qquad 1、原句:She didn’t find her bag until her father told her
    \qquad 2、强调句:It was not until her father told her that she find her bag
    \qquad 3、注意事项
    \qquad \qquad 1、在强调句中didn’t后面的动词在强调句中不使用原形

    10、祈使句

    1、祈使句+and+陈述句
    \qquad 1、Keep on and you will succeed
    2、祈使句+or+陈述句
    \qquad 1、Keep on,or you won’t succeed
    3、他人的言语的引用
    \qquad 1、直接引语
    \qquad \qquad 1、“Don’t move!” the robber said to me
    \qquad 2、间接引语
    \qquad \qquad 1、The robber asked me not to move

    4、从句

    1、名词性从句

    1、主语从句
    \qquad 1、指从句在句子中作主语。一般由that,whether,关系代词,连接代词或者连接副词引导。
    \qquad 2、that:That you have passed the exam is not true
    \qquad 3、whether:Whether he can succeed is not certain
    \qquad 4、关系代词:What you did is wrong 你做的事情是错误的
    \qquad 5、连接代词:Whatever you want is beyond my reach 你想要的任何东西我都无法得到
    \qquad 6、连接副词:Why she weeps is a secret 她为什么哭泣没人知道

    2、宾语从句

    1、指从句在句子中作宾语。一般由that,whether,if,关系代词,连接代词或者连接副词引导。
    2、that在引导宾语从句时一般可以省略,而且that在句子中不充当句子成分,只是用于连接主语和从句。如
    \qquad 1、I don’t know (that) he is a student
    \qquad 2、注意事项
    \qquad \qquad 1、句子中包含不止一个宾语从句的时候,第一个that可以省略,但后面的就不能省略。如
    \qquad \qquad \qquad 1、He says (that) he wants to be a scientist and that he is going to study hard
    \qquad \qquad 2、当that前面有插入语时,that不能省略。如
    \qquad \qquad \qquad 1、I know, for the first time, that the game is so exciting 我第一次知道游戏是如此地令人兴奋
    \qquad \qquad 3、当that引导的宾语从句位于双宾语结构中时,that不能省略。如
    \qquad \qquad \qquad 1、I want to tell you that he doestn’t he doesn’t like you
    \qquad \qquad 4、如果that引导的宾语从句之前的主句谓语是think,believe等词语,其否定形式要转移到主句。如
    \qquad \qquad \qquad 1、I don’t think he loves you
    3、whether和if在引导宾语从句时,译为“是否”,一般whether通用些而if在特定情况不能使用。
    \qquad 1、当从句中有or not时。如
    \qquad \qquad 1、I don’t know whether he is in or not
    \qquad 2、在介词后面时
    \qquad \qquad 1、I take no interest in whether he is in
    \qquad 3、在带to的不定式之前时
    \qquad \qquad 1、I decided whether to his company
    \qquad 4、当使用if容易产生歧义时
    \qquad \qquad 1、Please let me know if you want to buy it
    \qquad 5、当宾语从句是否定含义时,只能由if引导
    \qquad \qquad 1、He asked if his girlfriend didn’t go home
    4、关系代词和连接代词、连接副词引导时可以从当许多种类成分。如
    \qquad 1、Do you know who he is? 做表语
    \qquad 2、I know what you are looking for 做宾语
    \qquad 3、I finally knew who came into my room 作主语
    \qquad 4、Can you tell me where I can buy these books? 做状语
    5、宾语从句的时态问题
    \qquad 1、若主句是现在时,宾语从句时态不受主句限制,但若主句为过去时,便需要分情况看待。如
    \qquad \qquad 1、如果从句中含有过去意义上的时间词语,从句要使用一般过去时。如
    \qquad \qquad \qquad 1、I found that he came to her room yesterday
    \qquad 2、如果主句的动作和从句的动作同时发生,从句要用一般过去时或者过去进行时。如
    \qquad \qquad 1、I found that he was a teacher
    \qquad \qquad 2、I saw that she was playing with a toy
    \qquad 3、如果从句的动作已经在主句的动作之前完成,从句要用过去完成时。如
    \qquad \qquad 1、I knew that he had left home
    \qquad 4、如果宾语从句中讲述的是可观事实,从句的时态通常是一般现在时,不受主语的时态限制。如
    \qquad \qquad 1、My teacher told us that light travels faster than sound

    3、表语从句

    1、从属连词
    \qquad 1、that引导表语从句
    \qquad \qquad 1、that在这里只起到连接主句和从句的作用,不作任何成分,但不能省略。如
    \qquad \qquad \qquad 1、What I know is that you don’t like to read his books
    \qquad\qquad 2、当主句中的动词是do时,that是可以省略的。如
    \qquad \qquad \qquad 1、What I want to do is (that) I enter this room and sit for a while
    \qquad 2、whether引导表语从句
    \qquad \qquad 1、What I want to know is whether you want to read his book
    \qquad \qquad 2、if虽然与whether意思相同,但不能引导表语从句
    \qquad 3、as引导表语从句
    \qquad\qquad 1、He looked as he had looked many years ago
    \qquad 4、as if/as though引导表语从句
    \qquad \qquad 1、使用时要注意语态问题。
    \qquad \qquad \qquad 1、当从句中的含义与现在事实相反时,从句中的谓语要用一般过去时
    \qquad \qquad \qquad \qquad 1、It looks as if he were dead 与现在事实相反
    \qquad \qquad \qquad 2、当从句表示的含义与过去事实相反时,谓语要过去完成时
    \qquad \qquad \qquad \qquad 1、The man told me the truth.It seemed as if he had escaped from the prison many times
    \qquad \qquad \qquad 3、当从句表示将来发生的可能性比较小时,谓语要用would等情态动词+动词原形
    \qquad \qquad \qquad \qquad 1、The man smiles.It seems as if he would let me go
    \qquad 5、beacause引导表语从句
    \qquad \qquad 1、That is because we don’t like to attend that meeting
    2、连接代词和连接副词引导表语从句
    \qquad 1、He didn’t become what wanted to be what做表语
    \qquad 2、The problem is where he went where做状语
    \qquad 3、What she worries is who will borrow her money who做主语
    3、reason做主语,若表语从句表原因要用that,不用because;why引导主语从句,表语从句用that
    \qquad 1、The reason is that I don’t know his name
    \qquad 2、Why he doesn’t talk me is that he doesn’t know me

    4、同位语从句

    1、同位语
    \qquad 1、是对所修饰的名词进行具体的说明,在内容是同一关系。引导同位语的词语有that、whether、what、which和who等
    \qquad 2、如果同位语从句的意义完整,不用再添加任何成分,就使用that引导。如
    \qquad \qquad 1、We heard the news that my father would return
    \qquad 3、如果同位语从句之前是demand、suggestion等词语时、同位语使用虚拟语气、从句的谓语部分用should+动词原形,should可以省略。如
    \qquad \qquad 1、The suggestion that the tooth (should) be pulled out was right
    \qquad 4、如果同位语从句意义不完整,需要添加“是否”时,就要使用whether引导同位语从句,但if不能引导同位语从句。如
    \qquad \qquad 1、I have a question whether he will come
    \qquad 5、连接代词或者连接副词引导同位语。如
    \qquad \qquad 1、I have no idea what it is
    \qquad \qquad 2、It is a question when he starts
    \qquad 6、同位语从句和定语从句的区别
    \qquad \qquad 1、同位语从句属于名词性从句,用于说明名词的内容。而定语从句属于形容词性从句,用于突出名词的不同。如
    \qquad \qquad \qquad 1、We heard the news that my father would return 同位语从句
    \qquad \qquad \qquad 2、The news that my father told me excited me 定语从句
    \qquad \qquad 2、what、how、whatever等词语只能引导同位语从句,不能引导定语从句
    \qquad \qquad 3、that在引导同位语从句时,不作任何成分,但是在引导定语从句时则要充当成分
    \qquad \qquad 4、被修饰词语也有所不同。
    \qquad \qquad \qquad 1、同位语从句修饰词语有限,一般是hope、suggestion、idea、news、truth等具有内涵的名词
    2、宾语从句
    \qquad 1、在句子中作定语,用来修饰某个名词或者代词,甚至整个主句的从句。定语从句修饰的词语叫先行词,一般定语从句置于先行词之后,由关系词引导。
    \qquad 2、
    3、状语从句

    \qquad 1、时间状语从句
    \qquad 2、地点状语从句
    \qquad 3、原因状语从句
    \qquad 4、结果状语从句
    \qquad 5、目的状语从句
    \qquad 6、让步状语从句
    \qquad 7、条件状语从句
    \qquad 8、方式状语从句
    \qquad 9、比较状语从句

    三、时态语态语气篇

    1、常用的时态

    1、现在时态
    2、过去时态
    3、将来时态

    2、语态

    1、被动语态的构成
    2、主动语态变被动语态

    3、虚拟语气

    1、虚拟语气的类别
    2、虚拟语气的用法

    展开全文
  • 视频链接(B站):... ... 视频讲的很清晰,梳理了我的语法体系,nice!(PS:适合一定英语基础的!!!) 一、按照结构分类时,所有英文句子能够被分为三类 1.简单句 主语+谓语...

    视频链接(B站):https://www.bilibili.com/video/av47618740

    原视频链接:http://v.baidu.com/watch/8940889961055651689.html

    视频讲的很清晰,梳理了我的语法体系,nice!(PS:适合一定英语基础的!!!)

    一、按照结构分类时,所有英文句子能够被分为三类

        1.简单句

            主语+谓语+宾语

        2.并列句

            主谓宾1,并列词+主谓宾2   

    • 同等地位,并列关系

    • 主谓宾是简单句

    • 并列词,比如:and,or,but,not only等

        3.符合句

            主谓宾1,从句引导词+主谓宾2—>从句

    • 主谓宾1是简单句,主句,主导地位

    • 主谓宾2是简单句,从属地位

    • 从句引导词,比如:which,what,where...

    • 从句类型:

      • 名词性从句(名词)

      • 定于从句(形容词)

      • 状语从句(副词)

    二、主谓宾以及简单句的六个基本句型

        1.主(名) +  谓(及物) + 宾(名)

                    I play games.

        2.主(名) +  谓(不及物)

                    Spring comes.

        3.主(名) + 系 (共3种)+ 表

    • (1)系动词:

      • <1>Be动词

        • am,is,was,were

      • <2>感官动词

        • look看起来

        • sound听起来

        • smell闻起来

        • taste闻起来

        • feel摸起来...,感觉...

      • <3>变化动词

        • become变得

        • turn变成

        • go变得

        • get变得

        • grow成长为

      • <4>静止动词

        • stay

        • remain

        • keep(表示“保持”)

    • (2)表语

      • 名词、形容词、不定式([to do],介宾)

        4.主(名) + 谓(及物) + 宾 (名) + 宾 (名)

            直接宾语、间接宾语

            I give you money.

            I tell you a story.

        5.主 (名) + 谓 (及物)+ 宾(名) + 补(形容词、不定式)

            补语用于补充说明意思

            The music makes me sad.

            He tells me to go.

        6.There be句型 ,表达“存在”

            There be表示存在,have表示拥有

            There is a dog.

    三、从语

        1.名词性从句

    • (1)主语从句

      • That he likes football surprised us.

    • (2)宾语从句

      • He said that he likes football.

    • (3)表语从句

      • The fact is that he likes football.

    • (4)同位语从句

      • 什么是同位语?同位语起解释说明名词作用,和其所解释的名词相等,同位语是[名词]。

        • 如,主,同位语,谓宾/主(+同从)谓宾

        • 主谓宾,同位语/主谓宾(+同从)

      • The fact that he likes football surprised us.

      • He states the fact that he likes football.

        2.定语从句

    • (1)什么是定语?

      • <1>修饰限定名词

      • <2>分两种

        • 形容词

        • 短语或从句

    • (2)定1 + 主(名)+ 定2    + 谓(动)    + 定1' + 宾(名)+ 定2'

    • A beautiful girl from Mars who likes spring shared a fascinating story about her people which moved us.

        3.状语从句

    • (1)什么是状语?

      • <1>副词

        • 1>修饰动词

          • wlk slowly

        • 2>修饰形容词(或定语)

          • slightly higher

      • <2>起副词作用的句子

        • 状语从句

      • <3>按作用分

        • 1>时间状语(从句):何时?

          • He came yesterday.

        • 2>地点状语(从句):在哪?

          • He celebrated his birthday at school.

        • 3>原因状语(从句):为什么?原因

          • He likes spring for it id beautiful.

        • 4>条件状语(从句):在什么状况下?如果...;只要...;只有...;

          • If you win, there will be a reward.

        • 5>目的状语(从句):为什么?为了...;这样就能...

          • I study for my well-bing.

        • 结果状语(从句):导致了什么?结果是...;以至于...;

          • He tried so hard that he finally succeeded.

        • 让步状语(从句):转折前奏,强调前的不强调;虽然...

          • Although you have a point there, I don’t agree with your proposal.

        • 方式状语(从句):怎么做的/怎么发生的?用…;通过...

          • I learned English through an online course.

          • I contact my friends via Wechat.

          • I draw with my pen.

          • I found differences by contrasting the two.

          • She looks at me as if she knows me.

        4.三个特殊句型

           (1) 其实就是对六种基本举行的操纵

    • (2)强调句

      • He hit me.

      • It wa him that hit me.

    • (3)倒装句

      • 谓 主 (宾)

      • 强调加强语气的作用

      • Only when we try harder can we win.

      • Long live The Queen.

    • (4)虚拟语气

      • <1>假设一件事有可能发生的一件事—>条件状语

        • If it rains,the event will canceled.

      • <2>假设一件不可能发生的事—>虚拟语气

        • 现在不可能:If I were a boy, I would be a soldier.

        • 过去不可能(和既成事实相反)

          • If I had studied English, it would been easier now.

          • If hadn’t had that extra cafe, i wouldn’t have been feeling guilty.

        5.时态

    • (1)一般时(习惯性)

      • <1>现在

        • do/does通常做

      • <2>过去

        • did做了

      • <3>未来

        • will do/be going to do将要做

    • (2)进行时(正在发生)

      • <1>现在

        • am/is/are doing现在正在做

      • <2>过去

        • was/were doing当时正在做

      • <3>未来

        • will be doing/be going to be doing将会正在做

    • (3)完成时(有结果)

      • <1>现在 

        • have finished

      • <2>过去

        • had finished

      • <3>未来

        • will have finished

    • (4)完成进行时(持续性,一直在做)

      • <1>现在

        • have been working on

      • <2>过去

        • had been working on

      • <3>未来

        • will have been working on

        6.语态

    • (1)主动

    • (2)被动语态

      • Be动词+动词过去分词done(过去分词!=过去式) 

        7.非谓语

    • (1)分词

      • <1>现在分词(doing):和主句主语为主动关系

      • <2>过去分词(done):和主句主语为被动关系

     

    展开全文
  • 英语语法

    2019-07-28 21:36:23
    文章目录语法句子成分句型五种句型主语+系动词+主语补足语(表语)主语+谓语(+状语)主语+谓语+宾语主语+谓语+间宾+直宾主语+谓语+宾语+宾语补足语区分双宾语和复合宾语动词的分类实义动词(Notional V...

    更新中,未完结,可前往我的博客查看最新版本
    https://hk-shao.github.io/
    内容整理自Yjango
    https://github.com/YJango/ENGLISH

    文章目录

    语法

    **句子是人类语言的核心构造,动词是句子的核心。**所以学习英语语法需从句子开始。

    学习语法–>分析句子
    分析句子–>理清句子成分
    分析句子–>理清句子关系

    句子成分

    1. 主语:句子所陈述的对象。
    2. 谓语:主语发出的动作。一般是有动作意义的动词。
    3. 宾语:分为动词宾语和介词宾语,属于动作的承受者。
    4. 系动词:表示状态或状态变化的动词,没有实际的动作意义。
      如 be动词(am, is, are);感官系动词(look, sound, smell, taste, feel);保持类系动词(keep, stay, remain);状态变化类系动词(become, get, turn, go)等。
    5. 表语:紧跟系动词后面的成分。
    6. 定语:修饰名词或代词的成分。
    7. 状语: 修饰形容词、副词、动词或句子的成分。
    8. 补语:分为宾语补足语和主语补足语。是对宾语和主语的补充说明,与其有主动或被动的逻辑关系。

    句型

    句子的基本结构:主语部分+谓语部分(名词+动词)

    五种句型

    模式 例句 分析
    主 系 表 I am a student I主语 am系动词 a student表语
    主 谓 I am studying I主语 am studying谓语
    主 谓 宾 I study English I主语 study谓语 English宾语
    主 谓 间宾 直宾 Our teacher taught us English Our teacher主语 taught谓语 us间宾 English直宾
    主 谓 宾 宾补 I learn English well I主语 learn谓语 English宾语 well宾补

    关键在于谓语动词,它构成了一个句子的骨架

    主语+系动词+主语补足语(表语)

    ​ 系动词(Linking Verb)
    ​ ​ 作用:无具体动作,仅起连接作用
    ​ ​ 后面所接成分:说明主语特点性质特征
    ​ ​ 种类:be动词(am, is, are)
    ​ ​ look, sound, smell, taste, feel, seem, appear, become, turn
    ​ ​ 表语:名词 or 形容词

    主语+谓语(+状语)

    ​ 不及物动词(Intransitive Verb)vi.
    ​ ​ 特点:主语自身可以完成,不需要作用对象
    ​ ​ 习惯:带状语(修饰动作的成分)

    主语+谓语+宾语

    ​ 及物动词(Transitive Verb)vt.
    ​ ​ 作用:说明主语动作的作用对象
    ​ ​ 宾语:主语动作承受对象

    主语+谓语+间宾+直宾

    ​ 双宾动词(Dative Verb)
    ​ ​ 特点:后面成分有(间接宾语[接受者])又有(直接宾语[承受者])

    主语+谓语+宾语+宾语补足语

    ​ 宾补动词(Factitive Verb)

    区分双宾语和复合宾语

    ​ 在间接宾语后加上be动词,若能成句,则是补足语。

    动词种类 句型
    Linking verb(连系动词) 主+系+表
    Intransitive Verb(不及物动词) 主+谓
    Transitive Verb(及物动词) 主+谓+宾
    Transitive Verb with direct object and indirect object 主+谓+间宾+直宾
    Transitive Verb with direct object and object complement 主+谓+宾+宾补

    动词的分类

    实义动词(Notional Verb)

    词义:完整
    作用:能独立充当谓语
    分类:助动词和情态动词以外的动词

    助动词(Auxiliary Verb)

    词义:不完整
    作用:无法独立充当谓语
    ​ 必须和实义动词连用,构成各种时态、语态、语气、否定、疑问
    分类
    ​ Be: am, is, are, was, were, been, being
    ​ Do: does, did
    ​ Have: has, had, having

    Be类

    变化形式:am, is, are, was, were, been, being
    功能:
    ​ 1,帮助构成进行时态
    ​ ​ I am studying grammar.
    ​ ​ He is playing football.
    ​ 2,帮助构成被动语态
    ​ ​ I was cheated.

    Do类

    变化形式:Does, did
    功能:
    ​ 1,帮助实义动词构成否定
    ​ ​ I do not like English.
    ​ 2,帮助实义动词构成疑问
    ​ ​ Do you like English?

    Have类

    变化形式:Has, had, having
    功能:
    ​ 1,帮助构成完成时态
    ​ ​ I have studied English for 3 years.

    be, do, have可作实义动词又可作助动词

    分类 例句 词义 词性及作用
    be I am a student “是” 系动词,作谓语
    - I am studying grammar 无词义 助动词,构成进行时
    have I have two brothers “有” 实义动词,作谓语
    - I have studied English for 3 years 无词义 助动词,构成完成时
    do I often do my homework at home “做” 实义动词,作谓语
    - I do not like English 无词义 助动词,构成否定
    情态动词(Modal Verb)

    词义:有词义,表示说话者对某种行为或状态的看法态度
    ​ ​ 表示可能、建议、愿望、必要、允许、能力、怀疑
    作用:无法独立充当谓语,必须和实义动词一起构成复合谓语
    常见: can/could/may/might/must/shall/should/will/would/have to/ought to/used to/need/dare

    句子的变化

    陈述句否定
    谓语动词含有助动词或情态动词

    ​ 变形:助动词或情态动词后+not
    ​ 例:He is a teacher. He is not a teacher.
    ​ ​ I can swim. I cannot swim.
    ​ ​ He will come to the party. he will not come to the party

    谓语动词是实义动词

    ​ 变形:借助助动词do not来构成,第三人称用does+not+动词原形,过去式did+not
    ​ 例:I like English. I do not like English.
    ​ ​ He likes English. He does not like English.
    ​ ​ There are some dogs. There aren’t any dogs.

    助动词否定的缩写
    原型 否定 缩写
    I am Am not
    We/You/They are Are not Aren’t
    She/He/It is Is not Isn’t
    I/He/She/It was Was not Wasn’t
    We/You/They were Were not Weren’t
    I/You/We/They do Do not Don’t
    He/She/It does Does not Doesn’t
    Did Did not Didn’t
    I/You/We/They have Have not Haven’t
    He/She/It has Has not Hasn’
    Had Had not Hadn’t
    情态动词否定的缩写
    原型 否定 缩写
    Will Will not Won’t
    Would Would not Wouldn’t
    Shall Shall not Shan’t
    Should Should not Shouldn’t
    Can Cannot Can’t
    Could Could not Couldn’t
    May May not
    Might Might not Mightn’t
    Must Must not Mustn’t

    ​ 其他词变化:and->or;already->yet;both->either;some->any
    ​ 祈使句:祈使句前+don’t 例:Don’t open the door.
    ​ 不定式:不定式前+not 例:She asks the boy not to play in the street.

    一般疑问句
    谓语动词含有助动词或情态动词

    ​ 变形:助动词 or 情态动词移至句首
    ​ 例:He is a teacher. Is he a teacher? Yes, he is./No, he isn’t.

    谓语动词是实义动词

    ​ 变形:加do does did于句首,实义动词变原形
    ​ 例:He likes English. Does he like English? Yes, he does/No, he doesn’t.
    ​ I like English. Do you like English? Yes, I do/No, I don’t.

    特殊疑问句
    不接名词连用的疑问句

    对人提问:who
    ​ He can sing in English. Who can sing in English.
    ​ I saw him at the party last night. Who did you see at the party last night?

    对事或物:what
    ​ I like English. What do you like?
    ​ I am studying English grammar. What are you doing?
    ​ I am studying English grammar. What are you studying?
    ​ I’d like to go swimming tomorrow. What would you like to do tomorrow?

    对时间提问:when
    ​ I was born in 1980. When were you born?

    对地点提问:where
    ​ He lives in Beijing. Where does he live?

    对方式提问:how
    ​ He goes to school by bus. How does he go to school?

    对原因提问:why
    ​ I often study at the library because it’s quiet. Why do you often study at the library?

    接名词连用的疑问词

    ​ Which:
    ​ Could you lend me your pen?
    ​ Sure. I have two pens. This pen has black ink. That pen has red ink.
    ​ Which pen/Which one/Which do you want?
    ​ That red one. Thanks.
    ​ Which也可不接名词,这时which用作代词。

    ​ Whose:
    ​ 必须接名词
    ​ This is his book. Whose book is this?
    ​ I borrowed Jack’s car last night. Whose car did you borrow last night?

    How用法详解

    ​ 单独使用:对动作方式的提问
    ​ How do you go to work?
    ​ I drive/By car/I take a taxi/I take a bus/By bus.
    ​ How did he break his leg?
    ​ He fell off the ladder.

    ​ 和形容词 or 副词连用
    ​ How old are you?
    ​ How tall is he?
    ​ How big is your new house?
    ​ How far is it from your home to school?
    ​ How well does he speak English?
    ​ How quickly can you get here?

    ​ 对频率提问:how often/how many times?
    ​ I write to my parents once a month. How often do you write to your parents?
    ​ I go shopping twice a week. How often do you go shopping?/How many times a week
    ​ do you go shopping?

    其他频率短语
    ​ (Every/Once a/Twice a/Three times a)(day/week/month/year)

    时态

    一般时态和现在时态

    一般现在时

    The present simple tense is used to express a general truth or fact, or an action that occurs regularly or habitually. Generally, the present simple tense verb conveys a sense of permanence.
    Truth or fact
    ​ The sun rises in the east and sets in the west.
    ​ The earth moves around the sun.
    An action that occurs regularly or habitually
    ​ I often spend two hours reading English in the morning.
    ​ Classes begin at nine in the morning

    1. 事实
      ​ The world is round.
    2. 经常性,习惯性动作或状态
      ​ He doesn’t work hard.
      ​ 常连用频率副词(助动词后,实义动词前)
      ​ always frequently usually sometimes generally occasionally often
      ​ never seldom rarely
    3. 以there或here开头句子中,表正在发生的短暂动作
      ​ Here comes your wife=your wife is coming.
      ​ There goes our bus; we’ll have to wait for the next one.
    4. 条件状语(if unless),时间状语(when as soon as before after )从句中,表示将来动作
      ​ Please let me know when he comes back.
      ​ What are you going to do when you leave school?
      ​ I’ll be glad if she comes over to visit me.
    一般过去时

    The past simple tense is used to express a completed action which took place eat a specified time in the past.
    ​ The specified time is either stated or implied.
    A completed action
    ​ I saw him in the library yesterday morning.
    ​ I began to learn English ten years ago.
    A past action that occurred regularly or habitually
    ​ I slept for eight hours last night.
    ​ She lived in our town for three years, but now she is living in Beijing.

    1. 过去动作或状态
      ​ He was late for school this morning.
      ​ I bought this computer three years ago.
    2. 过去一段时间一直持续或反复发生的动作
      ​ I lived in the country for ten years.
      ​ He used to do morning exercises.
      ​ He took a walk after supper when he was alive.
    一般将来时

    The future simple tense is used to express an action that will occur at some time in the future.
    Will or Be Going To can be used to express sort of certainty.
    ​ According to the weather report, it will be windy tomorrow. 说话人认为将要发生
    ​ According to the weather report, it is going to be windy tomorrow. 根据明显迹象判断
    Be Going To is used to express a definite plan.
    ​ I have bought a computer and I’m going to learn the computer science.
    Will is used to express a willingness.
    ​ The telephone is ringing; I will answer it.

    will(说话时做出的决定)
    be going to(对话前做出的决定)

    进行时态

    时态构成
    ​ 助动词+进行分词 be+doing
    意义
    ​ 该时刻(具体时间,另一个具体活动背景下),活动正在进行

    现在进行时
    1. 说话此刻正在进行
      ​ What program are you watching?
      ​ He is not available now. He is talking on another phone.
    2. 现阶段正在持续的动作
      ​ what are you doing these days?
      ​ I am learning the usage of verb tenses.
    3. 最近的将来已定的安排(计划 安排做)
      ​ What are you doing on Saturday night?
      ​ I’m doing some shopping with Jane. I am taking a makeup test tomorrow.
    4. 与always forever continually constantly等连用,表示抱怨,厌烦
      ​ Jack is always borrowing money and forgetting to pay you back.
      ​ He’s continually asking me for money.
    过去进行时
    1. 过去特定时刻发生的事情
      ​ I was discussing my thesis with my director at this time last night.
      ​ What were you doing at 10 o’clock last night? I was having dinner with my friends.
    2. 过去进行时(背景)+一般过去时(背景下发生的短暂动作或状态)
      ​ The phone rang while I was having my bath, as usual.
      ​ I was watching TV when the phone rang.
    将来进行时(will be doing)
    1. 将来某特定时刻活动正在进行
      I’ll be lying on a beach in Santa this time tomorrow.
      Don’t telephone after eight tomorrow. I’ll be having a meeting.

    名词

    名词短语(名词与它前面的修饰语)
    These red roses are for you.
    ​ I have three close friends.
    ​ I really need a new computer.

    1. 功能
      ​ 主语 宾语(介词不能单独使用,后面所接宾语) 表语
    2. 修饰语
      ​ 限定词: 泛指,特指,定量,不定量(these/three/a/the/my/that),冠词(a/an/the)
      ​ 形容词: red close new best small
    3. 位置
      ​ 限定词在形容词前: 限定词+形容词+名词: three red roses.
    名词可数与不可数
    名词分类

    ​ 专有名词 Paris, the United States, Bill Gates
    ​ 普通名词
    ​ ​ 可数名词
    ​ ​ ​ 个体名词 student tree hospital house piano
    ​ ​ ​ 集体名词 team committee police group family
    ​ ​ 不可数名词
    ​ ​ ​ 物质名词 paper water cotton air
    ​ ​ ​ 抽象名词 birth happiness evolution technology hope
    ​ 简单名词 story student teacher
    ​ 复合名词 girlfriend roommate mother-in-law

    是否可数的相对性

    ​ 例如 paper
    ​ I need some paper to write a letter(纸 不可数)
    ​ I have a term paper to write on weekends(论文 可数)
    ​ I bought a paper(报纸 可数)
    ​ room(空间 不可数;房间 可数)

    可数名词与不可数名词比较

    ​ 可数名词: 前面可以+a or an or 数词(two)
    ​ 不可数名词: 不可+a or an or 数词(two)

    不可数名词
    1. 物质名词不可数
      ​ beer blood coffee cream gasoline honey juice milk oil tea water wine
      ​ bread butter cheese ice ice-cream meat beef chicken fish chalk copper cotton glass gold iron
      ​ air fog oxygen smoke
    2. 抽象名词
      ​ advice anger beauty confidence fun happiness health honesty information love lunch peace
    3. 总称名词不可数
      ​ furniture fruit jewelry luggage equipment poetry machinery
    不可数名词的度量
    1. piece
      ​ advice bread baggage chalk equipment furniture information jewelry luggage music news
    2. bottle/cup/drop/glass
      ​ beer blood coffee milk tea water wine
    3. otherwise
      ​ a loaf of bread/a tube of toothpaste/a pack of cigarette/a slice of meat
    名词所有格
    1. 单数名词后+'s
    2. 复数名词后+s’ or 复数型名词后+‘s
      ​ her friends’ money
      ​ the children’s Day
    3. 复合名词后+'s
      ​ my father-in-law’s company
      ​ everyone else’s viewpoints
      ​ Henry the Eighth’s wives
      ​ the President of America’s secretary
    4. and连接的并列名词: 共有情况: 最后+'s ; 各自所有情况: 每个名词后+'s
    5. 重量 度量 价值
      ​ two pounds’ weight/a ton’s weight/a ton’s steel/two dollars’ worth of sugar
    6. 省略
      ​ 1)前文以出现,避免重复
      ​ This bike is mine, not Michael’s
      ​ 2)表示店铺或教堂(要加the)
      ​ at the baker’s/at the butcher’s/at the chemist’s/at the doctor’s
      ​ 3)人名后的所有格省去名词表示住宅
      ​ go to my sister’s/I called at my uncle’s yesterday.
    7. of所有格的其他关系
      ​ 1)主谓关系
      ​ the visitor’s departure/the teacher’s request/the growth of agriculture
      ​ 2)动宾关系
      ​ the children’s education/the boy’s punishment/the discussion of the plan

    人称代词

    主格人称代词

    ​ 作用:主句或从句中做主语
    ​ She is my daughter.
    ​ It was he who helped me when I was in trouble.
    ​ 顺序: you, he, I;we, you, they(I总是放在最后)

    表示泛指的主格代词

    ​ one:任何人,包括说话人
    One is knocking at the door.(错误,说话人不算,所以不能用one)
    ​ Somebody is knocking at the door.
    ​ One后面使用的代词,美国一般用he,him,himself,his.
    ​ We/You/They 可以表示泛指:人们
    ​ They say=People say or It is said
    ​ They say it is going to be a cold winter.

    she(her)的拟人化

    表示country, motherland, moon, earth, ship
    ​ The ship lost most of her rigging in the storm

    宾格人称代词

    ​ 作用:做宾语(也可做表语)
    ​ I like her.
    ​ Who is it? It’s me.
    ​ 注意:做表语时,后面跟定语从句时,需要用主格人称代词。
    ​ It was he in whom we had the greatest faith(he在从句中做介词宾语)
    ​ 主格和宾格人称代词可以做同位语:
    We teachers should be patient with students.
    ​ Our teachers are all nice to us students.

    做宾语时的位置

    ​ 直接宾语前: He bought me a pen as birthday gift.
    ​ 直接宾语后:He bought a pen for me as a birthday gift;I’ve lent much monery to him.
    ​ 若直接宾语是人称代词,只能置后,但是不适用于不定代词:
    ​ I will give it to you.
    ​ I’ll show you something;I didn’t give Rex any.
    ​ 在短语动词中间:Hand them in;throw it away;pick it up.
    ​ 若是名词,则中间和后边都可:hand your papers in=hand in your papers.

    物主代词(名词性&形容词性)

    作用:人称代词的所有格形式,表所有关系。
    形容词性:不能单独使用: Your book is over there;His sister is lovely.
    ​ 表强调时后+own:I wish I had my own house.
    名词性:单独使用;避免重复:This is not my book. Mine(=my book) is in my bag.
    ​ of+名词性物主代词: a friend of mine;a teacher of hers=a teacher of her own.

    反身代词

    ​ 必须主语宾语为同一人时,做宾语:God helps those who help themselves.
    ​ 强调主语:
    ​ ​ He himself went to visit the old lady(他亲自去看望那个老太太的)
    ​ ​ ​ 不产生歧义下可置后:
    ​ ​ ​ ​ He went to visit the old lady himself.
    ​ ​ ​ ​ He spoke to the boss himself.(有歧义)
    ​ 强调宾语:反身代词在宾语后
    ​ ​ He saw Tom himself(他看到Tom本人了)
    ​ ​ I will send this gift to John himself(给john本人,不是通过转交)
    ​ 介词+反身动词
    ​ ​ by oneself:独自一人地
    ​ ​ ​ I went there by myself(我自己一个人去了那里)
    ​ ​ ​ I went there myself(我亲自去了那)
    ​ ​ of oneself:自动地
    ​ ​ ​ The door opened of itself(门自动地开了)

    介词

    特点:不能单独使用,后面需带宾语(名词,代词,数词,动名词,动名词短语,名词从句)
    搭配:在介词前的词:动词(depend on)名词(pay attention to)形容词(be kind to)
    充当:与其宾语构成介词短语后可充当主语,补足语 ,定语,状语
    作用:词与词之间的表示关系
    种类
    ​ 简单介词(at, by, for, from, in, near, of, off, on)
    ​ 复合介词
    ​ 简单链接:inside, into, onto, out of, outside, throughout, upon, within, without
    ​ 搭配连用:as to, from above, from behind, from beneath, from under, until after

    介词短语

    ​ at the cost of, at the mercy of, at odds with, by means of, by reason of, by virtue of,
    ​ by way of, in place of, in favor of, in spite of, with an eye to.
    ​ 关于:in/with reference to, in/with respect to, in/with regard to

    时间介词

    at, in, on

    ​ 1)at(时间点)
    ​ a.特定时刻:at nine after ten
    ​ b.不确定时刻:at night, at dawn, at midnight, at that time, at the moment, at Christmas
    ​ c.年龄段:
    ​ at the age of eight/at eight
    ​ He got married at twenty

    ​ 2)in(时间段)
    ​ a.长时间段
    ​ in the morning/afternoon/evening
    ​ in spring/summer/autumn/winter
    ​ in the past, in the past ten years
    ​ in the twenty-first century
    ​ a man in his thirties
    ​ b.在时间之内/后,表将来时
    ​ He said he would come back in a month
    ​ The train is leaving in a minute
    ​ c.in+动名词:在做…过程中
    ​ In crossing the river, we caught some fish.
    ​ In working, we can learn a lot.
    ​ d.几月:in October

    ​ 3)on(表示具体日期)
    ​ a.具体日期和星期
    ​ On Monday On my birthday
    ​ b.特定某天上午、下午等
    ​ On the night of December 31, 1999
    ​ On the eve of Christmas/New Year
    ​ On a hot midnight in July
    ​ c.在第几天
    ​ On his first day to school.
    ​ On the tenth day I was in Beijing.
    ​ d.on+动名词 or 名词=as soon as:一…就…
    ​ On hearing the bad news, she burst into tears.
    ​ On arriving, I came directly to visit you.
    ​ The first thing I did on arrival of Beijing was visit him.

    from
    和to或till/until连用
    Most people work from nine to five.

    since
    ​ 和时间点连用,从那一时刻起。现在完成时,过去完成时连用
    ​ He has been here since last Sunday
    ​ I haven’t seen him since two years ago
    ​ I haven’t seen him for two years
    ​ It’s two years since I last saw him

    for
    ​ 和时间段连用,表示动作延续到说话的那一刻。现在完成时,过去完成时连用
    ​ I have lived here for a year
    ​ I have lived here since this time last year

    by
    a.no later than:不迟于某个时间,到了某个时间
    ​ by the end of next year
    ​ b.by引导时间状语常与将来完成时 or 过去完成时连用
    ​ By the end of next year I’ll have learned 2000 words
    ​ By the end of last year I had learned 2000 words

    时间介词短语

    at the beginning of 在…的开头
    at the beginning of a book there is often a table of contents.
    at the beginning of the concert.
    at the beginning of January.

    in the beginning:at first=in the early stages
    In the beginning, I wrote to my family regularly. later I just gave up

    at the end of
    ​ But at the end of this process, unfortunately, the students are none the wiser.
    ​ At the end of a book there may be an index
    ​ At the end of the concert
    ​ At the end of January

    in the end:eventually=at last:最终…
    ​ Jim couldn’t decide where to go for his holidays. He didn’t go anywhere in the end.

    有last/next/this/every不再加介词
    ​ I’ll see your next Friday.

    during for
    ​ during在…期间内,强调这时间内发生了什么 for表示延续时间的长短
    ​ I had lived in the countryside for 8 years before I moved to Beijing.
    ​ I studied in this university for 4 years. During that time most of my time was spent in learning English.
    ​ My father was in hospital for six weeks during the summer.

    during接表示一段时间的名词:stay, visit, travel
    ​ During my visit to China
    ​ During the travel to the south
    ​ During the Middle ages

    for+时间段
    ​ for six years for two months for ever for two hours

    方位介词

    at, in

    at(小地方)
    ​ ​ at home, at the office, at school, at the bridge, at the crossroads, at the bus-stop
    ​ ​ at the doctor, at the hairdresser

    in(表示大地方)
    ​ ​ in a country, in a town, in a village, in the street, in the forest, in a field, in a desert

    其他情况(固定搭配)
    ​ ​ in a line/in a row/in a queue
    ​ ​ in a photo/in a picture
    ​ ​ in a mirror
    ​ ​ in the sky/in the world
    ​ ​ in a book/in a newspaper/in a magazine/in a letter
    ​ ​ in the front/back row(at the front/back)
    ​ ​ in the front/back of the car
    ​ ​ at the front/back of the building/cinema/classroom

    谈论建筑

    at表示事情发生场合
    ​ ​ I met him at the cinema last night.
    in表示建筑物本身
    ​ ​ I enjoyed the film but it was very cold in the cinema
    in强调在建筑里,at包括建筑物周围及里面
    ​ ​ at the restaurant(可以是餐馆内,也可以是在餐馆附近的某个地方)
    ​ ​ in the restaurant(在餐馆里)
    ​ ​ at the cinema(在电影院,不一定在里面)
    ​ ​ in the cinema(在里面)
    ​ ​ There were a lot of people in the shop, It was very crowed
    ​ ​ Go along this road, then turn left at the shop

    on, over, above

    on表示两者接触
    ​ ​ Put away the books on the desk
    ​ ​ The dictionary on the table is not mine
    ​ ​ There is some water in the bottle
    ​ ​ There is a label on the bottle
    ​ ​ There is somebody at the door. Shall I go and see who it is?
    ​ ​ There is a notice on the door. It says “Do not disturb”

    on的其他情况
    ​ ​ on the left/on the right
    ​ ​ on the first/second floor
    ​ ​ on a map
    ​ ​ on the page/on page seven(at the top/bottom of the page)
    ​ ​ on the menu
    ​ ​ on the list
    ​ ​ on a farm
    ​ ​ on the way to school
    ​ ​ on the corner of street, in the corner of the room

    over不仅接触,还有覆盖的含义
    ​ ​ Spread the cloth over the table
    ​ ​ Mon put a rug over me when I was asleep

    over还可以表示正上方
    ​ ​ There is a bridge over the river
    ​ ​ There is a lamp over the desk

    above仅表示上下位关系,不接触,也不是正上方
    ​ ​ The sun rose above the horizon
    ​ ​ There is a bridge above the river
    ​ ​ He is over me(He is my immediate superior)
    ​ ​ He is above me

    below, under, beneath

    under在下方,可接触,可不接触
    ​ ​ I put the money under the mattess(床垫)
    ​ ​ The dog is groveling under the table

    below表示两个表面之间间隔距离
    ​ ​ They live below us

    beneath可以替换under,但是偏向抽象含义
    ​ ​ He would think it beneath him to tell a lie
    ​ ​ She married beneath her

    手段介词

    by
    表示行为方式

    ​ send something by post
    ​ do something by hand
    ​ pay by check/by credit card(pay in cash)
    ​ 某事发生:by mistake/by accident/by chance(on purpose)

    表示交通工具

    ​ by car, by train, by plane/air, by boat/sea/ship, by bus
    ​ by bicycle/bike, by metro/subway/underground(on foot)
    ​ by car(in a car, in my car, in the car)
    ​ I don’t mind going by car but I don’t want to go in your car

    ​ car, taxi前用介词in
    ​ ​ They didn’t come in their car. They came in a taxi.

    ​ 自行车和公共交通设施前用on
    ​ ​ on the train/by train, on his bicycle/by bicycle

    ​ 表示通过 某种手段达到预期效果(与with区别)
    ​ ​ We succeeded by cooperating with them
    ​ ​ Our mission is to help our clients achieve their business goals by providing a service
    ​ ​ for the timely delivery of qualified staff to support their operational needs.

    with

    ​ 表示用具体的工具做某事
    ​ I killed a fly with a fly-flap(苍蝇拍)
    ​ We can see with our eyes and write with our hands

    in

    ​ 表示以某种方式做某事
    ​ Write in pencil/in ink
    ​ Express this in your own words
    ​ Speak in a low voice
    ​ Pay in installments(分期付款)

    through

    ​ 与by相近,through一般多根名词连用, by多跟动名词连用
    ​ they talked to each other through an interpreter.

    动名词

    做主语

    直接句首做主语:谓语动词用单数

    ​ a. Seeing is believing.
    ​ b. Reading is like permitting a man to talk a long time, and refusing you the right to answer.
    ​ c. Having a successful marriage takes effort and patience, and communication is the key.

    It is no good doing sth.句型

    ​ it形式主语,真正主语是doing sth.
    ​ no可以替换为:any/some good, any/some/no use, a waste of time.
    ​ a. Is it any good trying to explain?
    ​ c. It’s not much use my buying salmon if you don’t like fish.
    ​ d. it’s simply a waste of time and money seeing that movie.

    there be句型

    ​ 1) there is no point (in) doing something, 做某事没有意义
    ​ a. there is no point in my going out to date someone, I might really like if I met him a the time, but who, right now, has no chance of being anything to me but a transitional man
    ​ 2) there is no use/good (in) doing something
    ​ a. there is no use your arguing with him
    ​ b. there is no use your complaining to me about this.
    ​ 3) there is no doing something=it’s impossible to do something=we can’t do something.
    ​ a. there is no denying the fact that…毋庸置疑
    ​ b. there is no gainsaying the fact that…毋庸置疑
    ​ c. there is no telling what will happen tomorrow.
    ​ d. there’s no knowing the future=it’s impossible to know the future, or we can’t know it.

    做宾语

    一些动词后只能用动名词做宾语

    ​ appreciate, avoid, consider, delay, dislike, enjoy, escape, feel like, finish, can’t help, invlove,
    ​ overlook, permit, postpone, practice, risk, can’t stand, suggest, tolerate, understand.
    ​ a. I will overlook your being so rude to my sister this time but don’t let it happen again.
    ​ b. Many of the things we do involve taking some risk in order to achieve a satisfactory result
    ​ c. Being a bad-tempered man, he would not tolerate having this lectures interrupted.

    接动名词和不定式有区别的动词

    ​ 很多动词接动名词和不定式均可,但是意思有很大差别。

    demand, deserve, need, require, want

    ​ 动名词:主动形式表示被动
    ​ 不定式:必须用被动形式
    ​ a. The garden needs watering/to be watered. 不说 The garden needs being watered.
    ​ b. Your hair needs cutting/to be cut.

    remember, forget, stop, go on, regret

    ​ 动名词:表示发生于这些动词之前的事
    ​ 不定式:表示发生在这些动词之后的事

    remember

    remember doing sth.: remember/recall something that happened in the past.
    ​ 记得已做过某事
    ​ a. I still remember being taken to Beijing for the first time.
    ​ b. I don’t remember/recall locking my suitcase
    ​ =as far as I know, my suitcase should be open
    remember to do sth.: remember to perform a responsibility, duty or task.
    ​ 记得需要履行的职责 or 任务。
    ​ a. Remember to go to the post office, won’t you?
    ​ b. Remember to do some shopping after work.
    ​ c. Clint always remembers to turn off the lights when he leaves the room.

    forget

    forget doing sth.: forget something that happened in the past.
    ​ 忘记了已做过的某事
    ​ I forgot locking the door. So when I came back, I found the door locked.
    ​ as far as I know, the door should be open.
    forget to do sth.: forget to perform a responsibility, duty or task.
    ​ 忘记要做的事
    ​ As well as getting on everybody’s nerves, he’s got a habit of borrowing money and forgetting to pay it back.

    stop

    stop doing: 停下经常做的或手头正在做的事情
    ​ I really must stop smoking.
    stop to do: 停下来去做某事
    ​ stop to have a rest.

    go on

    go on doing sth.: 继续做一直在做的事情。
    ​ a. The teacher went on explaining the text.
    ​ b. Peter went on sleeping despite the noise.
    go on to do sth.: 改做另一件事
    ​ a. He welcomed the new students and then went on to explain the college regulations.
    ​ b. Finishing the new words, the teacher went on to attack the text.

    regret

    regret doing sth.: regret something that happened in the past.
    ​ 对已发生的事情感到遗憾
    ​ a. I don’t regret telling her what I thought, even if it upset her.
    ​ b. I regret letting slip that opportunity.
    ​ c. I regret lending him so much money. He never paid me back.
    ​ d. Now he regrets not having gone to university.

    regret to do something: regret to say, to tell someone, or to inform someone of some bad news 遗憾的告诉或通知某人某个坏消息。
    ​ a. We regret to inform you that we are unable to offer you employment.
    ​ b. I regret to tell you that you failed the test.
    ​ c. We regret to inform you that the flight has been canceled.

    动名词的其他结构

    have difficulty (in) doing sth.
    ​ trouble
    ​ problem
    ​ (a lot of fun)
    ​ (lots of) pleasure
    ​ a hard time
    ​ a good time
    ​ a difficult time

    ​ 注意: take the trouble to do sth., trouble to do sth., have (no) time to do sth…
    ​ a. I worked sos late in the office last night that I hardly had time to catch the last bus.
    ​ b. I have a hard time getting used to living in a big place.

    can’t help doing, can’t resist doing, can’t keep from doing, can’t hold back from doing
    ​ can’t keep back from doing
    ​ 注意: can’t help but do, can’t but do, can’t choose but do, etc.
    ​ No one can help liking Tom;he is such a cute boy.

    be worth doing值得做;主动形式表示被动
    ​ be worthy of being done 或 be worthy to be done.
    ​ a. The book is worth reading.
    ​ b. The book is worthy of being read.
    ​ c. The book is worthy to be read.

    动名词的复合结构

    ​ 物主代词(his, my, your等)所有格名词(Mary’s Tom’s)与动名词连用,即构成动名词的符合结构。用来引出动名词的逻辑主语,以区别于句子主语。
    ​ Clint insisted on reading the letter. (Clint看了信)
    ​ Clint insisted on my reading the letter. (我不得不看信)
    ​ Would you mind telling us the whole story? (你告诉)
    ​ Would you mind Tom’s telling us the whole story?=Would you mind if Tom tells us the story
    ​ He disliked working late
    ​ He disliked my working late
    ​ I object to making private calls on this phone
    ​ I object to his making private calls on this phone.

    用法

    ​ 做主语或宾语
    ​ a. Tom’s coming home at last was a great consolation (做主语)
    ​ b. Do you mind my making a suggestion? (做及物动词宾语)
    ​ c. Our discussion of earthquakes would be incomplete if we didn’t raise the possibility of their being caused by external forces.

    ​ 物主代词(his)可以改为宾格代词(him) or 所有格名词(Tom’s)改成普通格名词(Tom)
    ​ a. It’s no use Tom arguing with his boss.
    ​ b. Do you mind me making a suggestion?
    ​ c. I am annoyed about John forgetting to pay.

    ​ 应用原则:
    ​ 1) 若动名词复合结构在句中做主语,最好用所有格形式
    ​ a. Tom’s refusing to accept the invitation upset me.
    ​ b. His refusing to accept the invitation upset me.
    ​ c. It was a great consolation his coming home at last.
    ​ 2)动名词复合结构在句中做宾语时候,用普通格或所有格均可
    ​ a. Do you mind me making a suggestion?
    ​ b. I am annoyed about John forgetting to pay.

    动词不定式

    做主语

    It+to do sth.句型

    1. It+to do sth.句型;it做形式主语
    ​ a. It is easier to spend money than to make money.
    ​ b. It takes time to study English well.
    ​ 形式主语it不能用this或that替换
    ​ This is impossible for people to stare directly at the sun.应用it

    2. 不定式置于句首做主语,谓语动词要用单数。
    ​ a. To err is human;to forgive, divine
    ​ b. To solve this problem takes a genius like Einstein.
    ​ c. To love for the sake of being loved is human, but to love for the sake of loving is angelic.
    ​ d. To send a letter is a good way to go somewhere without moving anything but your heart.

    做宾语

    动词+ to do

    1. 直接跟在一个及物动词后面做宾语
    ​ 特点一:句子的主语和不定式的逻辑主语是一致的,动作都是由主语发出。
    ​ 特点二:这时句子谓语动词多是描写态度;不定式动作则说明行为。
    ​ a. I hope to see you again.
    ​ b. This company refused to cooperate with us.
    ​ c. He promised not to tell anyone about it.

    ​ 接不定式做宾语的动词有
    ​ agree, appear, beg, begin, dare, decide, expect, fail, forget, happen, hate, hesitate
    ​ hope, intend, like, love, manage, mean, prefer, prepare, pretend, promise, propose
    ​ refuse, regret, remember, seem, start, swear, try, want, wish

    2. 连接词引导宾语从句的简略形式:动词+连接代词or连接副词or连词whether+to do
    ​ a. I wonder who to invite. (= who I should invite)
    ​ b. Show us what to do. (= what we must do)
    ​ c. I don’t know whether to answer his letter. (= whether I should answer)
    ​ 类似动词还有:ask, consider, decide, discover, explain, forget, find out, guess, imagine, know, learn, observe, remember, see, tell, teach, think, understand, wonder

    做宾语补足语

    动词+ sb. to do sth.

    1. 通常结构:动词+sb. to do sth.
    ​ a. They don’t allow people to smoke in the theater.
    ​ b. The chairman declared the meeting to be over.
    ​ c. Allow me to drink to your success.
    ​ d. Allow me to propose a toast to our friendship.
    ​ f. My mother wishes me to return to China.

    ​ 常用动词:advise, allow, ask, beg, cause, encourage, expect, forbid, force, get, help, like, order, permit, persuade, remind, teach, tell, want, warn, wish(hope不可)

    2. 在let, make, have, see, hear, feel, watch, notice, listen to等动词后面,不定式做宾语补足语
    ​ to要省略,改为被动语态,则必须带to(详见“不带to的不定式”)

    做定语

    名词+ to do sth.

    1. 动宾关系
    ​ 被修饰名词在逻辑上做不定式的宾语
    ​ a. She has four children to take care of.
    ​ b. I had no place to live in.
    ​ c. You just regard me as a thing, an object to look at, to use, to touch, but not to listen to or to take seriously.
    ​ d. I gave the kid a comic to read.
    ​ e. He needs a place to live in.
    ​ f. I have no partner to speak English with.
    ​ g. I need a pen to write with.
    ​ h. I need a piece of paper to write on.

    ​ ** 注意:**
    ​ 1. 不定式一般不用被动形式
    ​ 2. 不定式动词后面不能再加宾语
    ​ a. I gave the kid a comic to read it. *
    ​ b. I need something to eat it. *
    ​ 3. 不定式动词后介词不省略
    ​ a. I have no partner to speak English. *
    ​ b. I need a pen to write. *

    ​ 4. 被only, last, next, 序数词, 最高级修饰的名词通常用不定式做定语
    ​ a. I don’t think he is the best man to do the job.
    ​ b. The next train to arrive is from New York.
    ​ c. Clint was the second person to fall into this trap.
    ​ d. Clint was the only person to survive the air crash.

    做独立成分

    ​ 修饰整个句子: to begin with, to tell the truth, to make a long story short, so to speak, to be brief/exact/frank/honest, to say nothing of(姑且不所说), to say the least(至少可以这么说)
    ​ a. To begin with, on behalf of (代表)all of your American guests, I wish to thank you for the incomparable hospitality.
    ​ b. I have a point there, to say the least.
    ​ c. To make a long story short, he is in hospital now.

    做状语

    目的在状语 or 结果状语

    做目的状语

    ​ a. Hating people is like burning down your own house to get rid of a rat.
    ​ b. To avoid criticism, do nothing, say nothing, be nothing.
    ​ c. To acquire knowledge, one must study;but to acquire wisdom, one must observe.
    ​ d. We had better start early to catch the train.
    ​ e. I went to the post office to mail a letter.

    ​ 可以用in order to do或so as to do强调目的状语
    ​ a. We had better start early so as to catch the train.
    ​ b. I went to the post office in order to mail a letter.
    ​ c. I quote others in order to better express my own self.
    ​ d. The teacher raised her voice in order for us to hear more clearly.
    ​ 注意:so as to不放在句首;to do和in order to do可以放句首。

    做结果状语
    1. 直接做结果状语
      ​ a. He lived to be a hundred years.
      ​ b. What have I done to offend you?
      ​ c. He lived to see second world war.(= he lived until he saw world war II)
    2. never to do表结果
      ​ a. John left his hometown ten years ago, never to return.
      ​ b. We parted never to see each other.
    3. only to do引出意想不到或不愉快的结果
      ​ a. We hurried to the railway station, only to find the train had just left.
      ​ b. All too often, women complain that they’re educated as equals, only to go out into the workforce to be treated as inferiors.
      ​ c. He worked very hard, only to find he had not finished half of the job.
    4. enough to
      ​ a. He is not old enough to go to school.
      ​ b. The teacher speaks loudly enough to make himself heard clearly.
    5. too…to结构:太…而不能
      ​ a. The box is too heavy for me to even move.
      ​ b. The tea is too hot to drink.

    形容词后的不定式

    1. 句子主语不定式可以构成逻辑上的主谓关系
      ​ 这类形容词通常表示性格特征行为表现
      ​ brave, careful, careless, clever, considerate, cruel, foolish, generous, kind, modest, nice
      ​ polite, rude, selfish, silly, stupid, thoughtful.
      ​ a. He was surprised to learn how much he had spent.
      ​ b. The boy was careless to break the window.
    2. 句子主语不定式构成逻辑上的动宾关系
      ​ a. She is interesting to listen to=It is interesting to listen to her.
      ​ b. Relativity theory isn’t easy to understand=it isn’t easy to understand relativity theory.
      ​ c. She is very nice to talk to=It is very nice to talk to her.
      ​ d. Mary is easy to get on with=It is easy to get on with Mary.
      ​ e. English is difficult to speak.
      ​ f. Football is very interesting to watch.
      ​ g. Barbara is interesting to listen to because she reads a lot.
      ​ 在动宾关系的情况需要注意:
      ​ 1)不定式动词不用被动式(最容易出错)
      ​ a. English is difficult to be spoken.*
      ​ b. Football is interesting to be watched.*
      ​ 2)不定式后不加宾语
      ​ a. Football is very interesting to watch it.*
      ​ b. She is nice to talk to her.*
      ​ 3)不定式动词所带介词不能省略
      ​ a. She is interesting to listen.*
      ​ b. She is easy to get on.*
    • It’s impossible for fish to live without water.
    • it’s necessary for students to do more exercise in learning English.
    • The boy was made to sing the song once again.
    • He couldn’t help bursting into tears after he heard the news.
    • She could not but admit that they were justified in this
    • They forbade him to go to the park
    • The first explorer to reach California by land was Strong Smith, a trapper who crossed the southwestern deserts of the United States in 1826
    • He was the first to arrive and the last to leave
    • The teachers don’t know what it takes to start and run a school.

    不带to的不定式

    动词的复合宾语中to省去

    ​ 1. 感觉动词:see, hear, watch, notice, feel, observe
    ​ 2. 使役动词:let, make, have
    ​ a. The teacher has us write a composition every week.
    ​ b. I saw a man enter the shop.
    ​ 但为被动结构时,后面需要+to
    ​ a. A man was seen to enter the shop.

    一些短语中to省略

    ​ had better, would rather, would sooner, would just a soon, might(just) as well, cannot but
    ​ cannot choose but, cannot help but
    ​ a. I cannot but admire his courage.
    ​ b. We might as well put up here for tonight.
    ​ c. I couldn’t help but fall in love with you.

    do nothing/anything/everything but do省略

    ​ a. I have nothing to do but wait.
    ​ b. I have no choice but to wait(but前没有do,则不定式+to)
    ​ c. He needs nothing but to succeed.
    ​ d. He will do anything but give in
    ​ 在解释do的精确含义的名词从句和定语从句做主语的句子中,be动词后直接+do
    ​ e. All that I could do then was wait.
    ​ f. What I could do then was wait.
    ​ g. All you do now is complete this form.
    ​ h. No mountains too high for you to climb. All you have to do is have some climbing faith.
    ​ No rivers too wide for you to make it across. All you have to do is believe it when you pray.

    被动语态

    构成:be +过去分词

    不同时态的被动语态be变化
    is, is being, has been, was, was being, had been, will be, will have been.

    不用by情况
    1. 实施者明显
      ​ a. The rubbish hasn’t been collected.
      ​ b. Your hand will be X-rayed.
      ​ c. The streets are swept every day.

    2. 实施者未知或没必要提及
      ​ a. The President has been murdered.
      ​ b. My car has been moved.
      ​ c. Rice is grown in many countries.
      ​ d. The library was built in 1890.

    3. 泛指人们
      ​ acknowledge, assume, believe, claim, consider, estimate, feel, find, know, presume, report, say, think.
      ​ People believe him to be honest. He is believed to be honest.

    4. 主句主语是one, you, they 通常用被动语态
      ​ One/You see this kind of advertisement everywhere.
      ​ This kind of advertisement is seen everywhere.
      ​ They are building a new public library in our town.
      ​ A new public library is being built in our town.

    5. 避免改换主语(可以接by短语)
      ​ When he arrived home, a detective arrested him.
      ​ When he arrived home, he was arrested.

    不及物动词没有被动语态

    ​ He came here last night.
    ​ He looks fine.

    双宾语可以有两种被动语态(人做主语更常见)

    ​ Someone gave me a gift. I was given a gift.
    ​ Someone gave a gift to me. A gift was given to me.

    静态被动语态
    句子 分析
    I locked the door two minutes ago. The door was locked by me two minutes ago. 这里的was locked强调动作
    Now the door is locked. 这里的is locked 只是强调动作,起着形容词的作用

    ​ Clint broke the window last night
    ​ The window was broken last night
    ​ Now the window is broken.
    ​ 常见interested, excited, satisfied, married, disappointed, scared, frightened, worried, lost
    ​ a. I am interested in grammar.
    ​ b. I am satisfied with Clint’s grammar course.
    ​ c. She is married to her teacher.
    ​ d. The table is made of wood.
    ​ e. Are you scared of snake?

    get与被动语态(get与过去分词连用)
    可以构成被动语态

    ​ a. My watch got broken while I was playing with the children.
    ​ b. He got caught by the police because he exceeded the speed limit.

    可以接静态的被动形式,表示主语的状态

    ​ a. I stopped working because I got tired.
    ​ b. I got worried because he was two hours late.
    ​ c. She is getting dressed to the party and has trouble deciding what clothes to wear.

    have/get sth. done

    ​ have sth. done或者get sth. done

    1. 安排别人把事情做好(主要用法)
      ​ a. Are you going to repair the car yourself?
      ​ b. No, I’m going to have it repaired.
      ​ c. I want to have/get my items repaired. (My items need repairing.)
      ​ d. I must get my hair cut=I want someone to cut my hair.
      ​ e. You should get/have your bike repaired.
      ​ g. If you don’t get our of my house, I’ll have you arrested.

    2. 意外或不行的事情
      ​ a. I got my car stolen last year.
      ​ b. Have you ever had your passport stolen?
      ​ c. Joe had his leg broken in a fight.
      ​ d. It took me two hours to get the washing done.
      ​ e. Don’t get your plans changed.

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