增强现实与虚拟现实When speaking of technological novelties, despite all positive aspects of the given innovation, sooner or later it turns out that according to law, the novelties might be problematic...
When speaking of technological novelties, despite all positive aspects of the given innovation, sooner or later it turns out that according to law, the novelties might be problematic. Usually, these issues are regularly fixed by new models and various updates. But when speaking of Augmented Reality, an important question rises — is it legal for someone to place a virtual object on private property? Should virtual objects comply with legal limitations similarly to real ones? Given that they can’t be seen solely with a human eye, how should that exactly be justified?
In 2018, a group of artists created an entirely new experience for New York’s Museum of Modern Art (MoMA). Jackson Pollock gallery, which is situated on the fifth floor of MoMA , has been turned into an unofficial and unauthorised Augmented Reality experience. For those who downloaded the MoMAR Gallery app, Pollock’s paintings can be seen through smartphones as a remixed version of the original or even entirely replaced by the artists’ works.49 Unauthorized augmentations in museums are not a novelty. What I mean by “unauthorized augmentation” is creating some additional experience, that is not consulted with the authorities, such as the mentioned above MoMAR Gallery app, which presented different versions of pieces of art created with Augmented Reality.
In 1991, cassettes with an alternative audio guide were distributed in the Metropolitan Museum of Art. The project was called “Masterpieces Without the Director.” This guide was created by independent artists that did not consult the content of the project with museum authorities. Nowadays having such software as ARKit or ARCore, it’s fairly easy to build and distribute complex Augmented Reality applications that can be used in chosen places — parks, museums, but even someone’s private property. This possibility, of course, raises questions such as: who owns virtual space? Is it legal to place a virtual object on private property? Should the MoMA example be treated as trespassing on its virtual space? And more importantly — is this dubious character of AR an asset or flaw?
According to Alexia Bedat, “at the moment, there is no such thing as a recognised right to control the space or virtual augmentations of your work.” However, some existing laws may apply to this kind of cases. “Virtual trespassing” is a new concept that will probably begin a discussion on the limits of augmentation. Taking pictures in museums used to be prohibited, although it is nowadays pretty common for people to take out their smartphones and take photos in front of some famous works to have a souvenir or to share it on Facebook or Instagram. Museums could ban AR apps in their rules, but this brings us back to the question: will it pay off? Especially considering the fact, that some museums already encourage smartphone usage in order to engage the visitors. Augmented Reality could be an excellent benefit for museums, for example, by attracting a broader audience and expanding their interest in art. After all, the original exhibitions are not influenced by this technology, and people can still enjoy them. And, if they wish, they could experience a virtual bonus. As long as the augmentations do not cross any boundaries (ethical, religious, sexual, etc.) they might be treated as a beta version, a remix of the original works. And even though that might raise many voices of disagreement (as a profanation to fine art), it must be accepted and more importantly — controlled. There must be specific rules and legal limits for both the artists and space owners to function in order. Loic Tallon, the Metropolitan Museum of Art’s digital chief sums up the MoMA case as follows, “From my perspective, it’s not really worth fighting against it, because gravity is not working on our favor. (…) The museum’s mission is to collect, preserve, and study works of art. If someone is making an AR experience out of the collection, I see it as pure mission fulfillment.”
On 22nd of September 2018, the Intrepid Sea, Air and Space Museum opened an exhibition which introduced an original tour of the Space Shuttle Enterprise. A hologram of Mae Jemison, the first woman of color to go into space, materialised before the eyes of visitors wearing HoloLens headsets and guided them through space exploration history. Jemison became digital with the help of 106 cameras that captured her image in 3D, which was then rendered as a hologram and viewed through the HoloLens. Implementation of AR components into apps is becoming a lot cheaper and more manageable. In the case of museums, the added interaction is a great possibility for engaging visitors and encouraging them to explore far more than the eye by itself can see. Mae Jemison is a lively hologram and part of the Intrepid exhibition, which creates the opportunity to experience the presence of an important figure from space history almost like in real life, face to face. Susan Marenoff-Zausner, President of the Intrepid Sea, Air, and Space Museum says, “We want to make sure that while our artifacts create this exciting and tactile opportunity, we want to make sure we’re capturing our current generation in the language they’re speaking.”
In 2018, Microsoft created a tour for the London Natural History Museum that involved a hologram of David Attenborough who, similarly to Mae Jemison, shows the visitors around the exhibitions and shares information about the display. Microsoft also worked with the Kyoto National Museum and, with the use of HoloLens, created an exhibition where visitors could admire artifacts that are up to 400 years old. And of course, like in the previous examples, they were guided by a 3D hologram, which in this case was a Zen Buddhist monk.
2018年，微软为伦敦自然历史博物馆组织了一次巡回演出，其中涉及戴维·阿滕伯勒(David Attenborough)的全息照相，他与梅·杰米森(Mae Jemison)相似，向参观者展示展览并分享有关展览的信息。 微软还与京都国家博物馆(Kyoto National Museum)合作，并借助HoloLens创建了一个展览，游客可以欣赏到长达400年的文物。 当然，就像前面的示例一样，它们由3D全息图引导，在这种情况下，该全息图是禅宗和尚。
Augmented Reality creates a chance to show more layers of information. For example, some museums use AR to show damaged or broken artifacts in their original shape. However, AR in museums is not only about HoloLens; for instance, the Perez Art Museum Miami created AR installations which visitors could see using their smartphones. Similarly, an exhibition in the Smithsonian American Art Museum was translated in order to be solely devoted to smartphone AR experience.
增强现实技术提供了展示更多信息层的机会。 例如，一些博物馆使用AR展示原始形状的损坏或破碎的文物。 但是，博物馆中的AR不仅与HoloLens有关，而且与HoloLens有关。 例如，迈阿密佩雷斯艺术博物馆(Perez Art Museum Miami)创造了AR设备，访客可以使用智能手机观看。 同样，史密森尼美国艺术博物馆的展览也被翻译成专门致力于智能手机AR体验的翻译。
A new era of exhibitions is adding a bit of magic to the regular museum experience we are all used to. It still makes us interact with the real world, along with a virtual surprise. This creates a new level of engagement with art. Mae Jemison concludes, “If that gets one more kid curious about science and space, then it’s all worth it.” We might ask ourselves now: are new technologies like Augmented Reality an asset, or might it turn out to be a problem? The virtual siege in MoMA shows that new technologies come with new kinds of threats. It is easy to access any property using virtual components in just one app. But the real risk comes when authorities must deal with the problem — do they adapt to the changing world and allow augmentations or stick to the old rules? Given how accessible and easy it is to augment the reality in a chosen space, such projects and actions need legal control and regulations. On the other hand, if used for a useful purpose, it is a great way of developing new experiences, broadening knowledge, and helping people learn more about the surrounding world. There are many pros and cons to discuss in order to make the decision beneficiary for both sides.
This writing was taking from Paulina Kowalska’s thesis How Technology Influences the Modern World: a Short Study on Augmented Reality, published in 2019 at the Polish-Japanese Academy of Information Technology in the New Media Arts Department. The work was overseen by dr hab. Ewa Satalecka, mgr inż. Marcin Wichrowski and dr. Paulina Duda.
本文摘自Paulina Kowalska的论文《技术如何影响现代世界：增强现实的简短研究》，该研究于2019年在波兰-日本信息技术学院新媒体艺术系出版。 这项工作由哈布博士监督。 伊娃·萨塔莱卡(Ewa Satalecka)，mgrinż。 Marcin Wichrowski和博士 宝琳娜·杜达(Paulina Duda)。
虚拟现实和增强现实技术 App builders that are looking to achieve a greater level of success will often look to areas that have yet to be explored. Augmented reality and virtual reality are opening up ...
App builders that are looking to achieve a greater level of success will often look to areas that have yet to be explored. Augmented reality and virtual reality are opening up whole new worlds to app builders. For example, there are a number of app builders who are already looking to the NBA in this regard.
The NBA has established a reputation for themselves as a progressive league from a technological standpoint. Teams are already participating in competitive gaming, as numerous franchises have created their own e-sports teams. Now, the league is partnering with app builders to find out more about how they can leverage augmented reality and virtual reality to their benefit.
At the 2019 All-Star Game, the NBA's plans for augmented reality and virtual reality started to come into focus. On All-Star Saturday night, various superstars were photographed. A wide range of futuristic cameras were used to take video as well. The players were snapped from every possible angle and the league is not leaving any stone unturned.
These photos and videos were captured so that they can be used by the AR app that the NBA has already rolled out. This app is designed to take the fan into the world of the players and provides a more behind the scenes look. Since this is a league that prides itself on having a global audience, these types of apps are only going to gain in popularity.
App builders will continue to work with league officials to find out more about the benefits of virtual reality and augmented reality. The NBA has already made serious inroads in both areas. In addition to the aforementioned augmented reality app, the league is providing weekly live broadcasts that are powered by NextVR and Intel.
This league is not about to rest on its laurels, though. Those who have had the chance to speak with league executives find that there are a plethora of plans for the future. These apps are just the beginning. This is the type of work that needs to be done, in order to break ground for other sports. The NBA prides themselves on remaining ahead of other leagues in this regard.
While augmented reality and virtual reality are already playing a major role in the NBA, it remains to be seen if these advancements will lead to serious changes for the other Big Four sports (MLB, NHL and NFL). As for the National Basketball Association, these advances are the product of forward thinking executives who have been working behind the scenes for years.
The NBA has been examining the role that virtual reality is going to play for some time now. The technology was first utilized during a preseason game in 2014. The Golden State Warriors' 2015-2016 season opener was streamed in virtual reality as well. These innovations were a long time coming and the league put in the man hours necessary.
NextVR and Intel have remained by the league's side for the entirety of this experiment. Turner Sports and ESPN are also working with the league to find out more about what their broadcasts will look like once they are ready to utilize augmented reality and virtual reality on a more regular basis. With any luck, these technologies will become commonplace.
One of the league's primary areas of focus is a crucial one. When they take the time to meet with app builders, one of the first questions that is asked is focused on accessibility. Augmented reality and virtual reality apps are not always usable across all platforms. Since the NBA has a global audience to consider, this is an area that is going to examined by app builders and league executives alike.
There are a growing number of devices being used by NBA fans all around the world. If augmented reality and virtual reality are going to continue to play a key role in the NBA going forward, accessibility is everything. As technologies continue to emerge, the league must decide how they are going to be distributed to the general public.
The NBA bet big on these technologies by investing in them early and now they are reaping the benefits. Every form of technology is not always going to succeed. This is something that NBA executives and app builders are acutely aware of. The top organizations do not wait for a technology to mature before they decide to start learning about it.
This is what separates the best organizations from those that struggle to establish a forward thinking point of view. No fan of a professional sports league wants to watch an organization learn in front of them. The NBA is playing a crucial role by establishing a strong foothold with both of these technologies. They are also creating an environment where these technologies can be used more readily.
Intel and NextVR are in contact with the league on a daily basis. Games are filmed for the augmented reality and virtual reality apps. Longer features are also being created for the fans to enjoy. It is safe to say that these advancements are just the beginning of something great.
The league has yet to release any numbers when it comes to user engagement but NBA fans around the world who are unable to head to the arena are already benefiting. It remains to be seen what the future holds for the league but one thing is clear: they are already taking the proper steps to get the most out of AR and VR technology.