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• 可用性测试易用性和有用性In my last article, we talked about ways to really nail down your usability goals before you even think about testing. 在我的上一篇文章中，我们讨论了在确定测试之前就真正确定...
可用性测试易用性和有用性In my last article, we talked about ways to really nail down your usability goals before you even think about testing.
在我的上一篇文章中，我们讨论了在确定测试之前就真正确定可用性目标的方法 。
Once your goals are clear, you’re ready to hone your test planning to meet those specific goals. There are many tests to choose from, and many types of people to recruit, so narrowing your focus really helps get you closer to the result you’re looking for.
明确目标之后，就可以准备测试计划以实现这些特定目标。 有很多测试可供选择，并且招募了许多类型的人员，因此缩小重点确实可以使您更接近所需的结果。
Depending on your hypothesis and what you want to learn, sometimes your usability test might not even require testing the actual product.
根据您的假设和您要学习的知识，有时您的可用性测试甚至可能不需要测试实际产品。
Source: Usability Testing
资料来源： 可用性测试
Let’s take a look at the different categories of usability tests, how to find the appropriate testing audience, and how to make it digestible with a simple usability plan.
让我们看一下可用性测试的不同类别，如何找到合适的测试对象，以及如何通过简单的可用性计划使其易于消化。
测试类型 (Types of Test)
Deciding which style of test to administer is a pivotal decision in the entire process of usability testing, so don’t take it lightly. On the bright side, the more concrete your usability goals are, the more smoothly the selection process will go.
在可用性测试的整个过程中，决定管理哪种测试风格是至关重要的决定，因此请不要掉以轻心。 从好的方面来说，您的可用性目标越具体，选择过程就越顺利。
But no matter what type of test you choose, you should always start with a pilot test. Many people like to gloss over this, but sacrificing a little extra time for a pilot test almost always pays off.
但无论你选择什么类型的测试，你应该始终以启动试点测试 。 许多人都喜欢掩饰这一点，但是牺牲一点额外的时间进行试点测试几乎总能带来回报。
什么是试点测试？ (What’s a Pilot Test?)
“A test!? No-one mentioned a test to me “Photo: The Library of Congress “一个测试！？ 没有人向我提到一项测试“ 照片：国会图书馆
Don’t worry, you won’t need make friends with aviators.
不用担心，您不需要与飞行员交朋友。
Pilot testing is a test run of your greater user test. In A Practical Guide to Usability Testing, Joseph S. Dumas and Janice C. Redish call pilot tests a "dress rehearsal for the usability test to follow."
试点测试是对更大的用户测试的测试运行。 在实用性测试实用指南中 ， 约瑟夫·杜马斯 ( Joseph S. Dumas)和珍妮丝·C·雷迪什(Janice C. Redish)的电话飞行员测试是“ 为进行后续的可用性测试排练 ”。
You will conduct the test and collect the data in the same way you would a real test, but the difference is that you won’t analyze or include this data. You are, quite literally, testing your test.
您将以与实际测试相同的方式进行测试并收集数据，但是不同之处在于您不会分析或包含这些数据。 从字面上看，您正在测试您的测试 。
This may seem like a waste of time — and you will likely be tempted to just jump head-long into the actual tests — but pilot tests are highly recommended. This is because in most cases, something WILL go wrong with your first test. Whether it is technical problems, human error, or a situational occurrence, it’s rare that a first test session goes well – or even adequately.
这似乎是在浪费时间-并且您可能会被吸引去直接进入实际测试-但是强烈建议您进行试点测试。 这是因为在大多数情况下，第一次测试会出错。 无论是技术问题，人为失误还是情况发生，第一次测试都进行得很好或什至是足够的情况很少见。
However, the idea is that these tests should be as scientific and precise as possible. If you want the most reliable data, run a pilot test or two until you feel you understand all the variables thoroughly, and have ironed out all the kinks. 但是，想法是这些测试应尽可能科学和精确。 如果您想要最可靠的数据，请进行一两次试点测试，直到您完全了解所有变量并消除了所有问题为止。
测试类型 (The Types of Tests)
I’ve written a Usability Testing Guide, that delves more deeply into the specifics of each type of user testing method if you're interested. But for this article, we’ll give you an overview so you know what the landscape looks like.
我编写了《 可用性测试指南》 ，如果您有兴趣，可以更深入地研究每种类型的用户测试方法的细节。 但是对于本文，我们将向您进行概述，以便您了解其外观。
Source: Nielsen Norman Group
资料来源： 尼尔森·诺曼集团
Christian Rohrer, McAfee’s Chief Design Officer, explains in an article for the Nielsen Norman Group the distinctions between the types of tests. While Christian uses a complex three-dimensional framework to explain the their differences, for simplicity’s sake we’re going to focus on his division based on how the product is used.
McAfee首席设计官Christian Rohrer 在Nielsen Norman Group的一篇文章中解释了测试类型之间的区别。 尽管Christian使用复杂的三维框架来解释它们之间的差异，但为简单起见，我们将基于产品的使用方式将重点放在他的部门上。
Scripted use of the product : These tests focus on specific usage aspects. The degree of scripting varies, with more scripting generating more controlled data. 产品的脚本使用：这些测试专注于特定的使用方面。 脚本的程度各不相同，更多的脚本会生成更多的受控数据。 Decontextualized use of the product : Tests that don’t use the product — at least in the actual testing phase — are designed for broader understanding of topics like UX or generating ideas. 产品的脱机使用：至少在实际测试阶段不使用产品的测试旨在使用户更广泛地理解UX等主题或产生想法。 Natural (and near-natural) use of the product : These tests seek to understand common usage behaviors and trends with the product, prioritizing real user data at the cost of control. This tests fundamental assumptions of how a product is being used. 产品的自然(和近乎自然)使用：这些测试旨在了解产品的常见使用行为和趋势，从而以控制为代价确定真实用户数据的优先级。 这测试了如何使用产品的基本假设。  Hybrid : Hybrid tests are creative and non-traditional tests. Geared towards understanding the users’ mentality, these tests vary in what they can accomplish. 混合测试：混合测试是创造性测试和非传统测试。 为了了解用户的心态，这些测试在他们可以完成的工作上各不相同。  任务类型 (The Types of Tasks)
Each type of test is divided into tasks, the execution of which will affect the validity and overall usefulness of the data collected. While each test will have its own properties for the type of tasks, Tingting Zhao, Usability Specialist for Ubuntu, points out some distinctions to keep in mind when designing tasks. 每种测试都分为任务，任务的执行将影响所收集数据的有效性和整体有用性。 尽管每个测试都会针对任务类型具有自己的属性，但Ubuntu的可用性专家赵婷婷 指出了设计任务时要记住的一些区别。
When creating tasks for participants of usability tasks, there are two choices you need to make. The first choice is whether to phrase your tasks directly or with a scenario.
为可用性任务的参与者创建任务时，需要做出两个选择。 首选是直接对任务进行措辞还是对场景进行措辞。
Direct Tasks — A direct task is "purely instructional." These are instructions such as “Find a turkey recipe on the Food Network,” or “Learn about wiener dogs on the blog.” Direct tasks are generally more technical in nature, and could detract from the user’s experience of the product as a whole. 直接任务 -直接任务是“纯粹的指导性”。 这些说明包括“ 在食物网络上查找火鸡食谱 ”或“ 在博客上了解维纳狗 ”。 直接任务通常本质上是技术性更高的，并且可能会损害用户对整个产品的体验。  Scenario Tasks — Scenario tasks phrase the instructions in a real-life example: "You’re going to a high school reunion this weekend. You want to find a nice outfit on the Macy’s website ". Scenario tasks are more common than direct tasks because they help the user forget that they’re taking a test; however, care should be put into making the scenarios as realistic as possible. 方案任务 —方案任务在一个真实的示例中说明了这些说明：“ 您本周末要去一次高中同学聚会。您想在Macy的网站上找到一套不错的服装 ”。 场景任务比直接任务更常见，因为它们可以帮助用户忘记他们正在测试。 但是，应注意使方案尽可能切合实际。 Source: Zezz
资料来源： Zezz
The second distinction to make when creating tasks is between closed and open-ended tasks.
创建任务时要做出的第二个区分是封闭式和开放式任务。
Closed: A closed task is one with clearly defined success or failure. These are used for testing specific factors like success rate or time. For example, in our Yelp redesign exercise, we gave participants the following task: "Your friend is having a birthday this weekend. Find a fun venue that can seat up to 15 people."
已关闭 ：已关闭任务是明确定义成功或失败的任务。 这些用于测试特定因素，例如成功率或时间。 例如，在我们的Yelp重新设计练习中 ，我们给参与者以下任务：“ 您的朋友这个周末过生日，找到一个可容纳15人的有趣场所 。” Open-ended: An open-ended task is one where the user can complete it several ways. These are more subjective and most useful when trying to determine how your user behaves spontaneously, or how they prefer to interact with your product. For example: "You heard your coworkers talking about UXPin.com. You’re interested in learning what it is and how it works."
开放式 ：用户可以通过多种方式完成开放式任务。 这些在尝试确定用户的自发行为或他们希望与产品进行交互的方式时更加主观，最有用。 例如：“ 您听到您的同事谈论UXPin.com。您有兴趣了解它是什么以及它如何工作 。”  寻找合适的可用性测试受众 (Finding the Right Usability Test Audience)
photo: Police Lineup 照片：警察阵容
With all this talk of data and research, it can be easy to forget that the core component of these tests are the actual people. To think of your participants as merely test subjects is a mistake; they are all individuals with their own personalities and their own way of doing things.
通过所有关于数据和研究的讨论，很容易忘记这些测试的核心部分是实际人员。 将您的参与者视为仅仅是测试对象是错误的； 他们都是具有自己个性和处事方式的个人。
Deciding the type of people you want to provide you data is a major factor — even if ultimately you decide you want them to be random.
确定要提供数据的人员类型是一个主要因素-即使最终您决定希望他们随机。
Unless you’re designing the ‘Beatles-like’ product — where almost everyone can enjoy it — it’s best to narrow down your target audience to the users most likely to use your product. 除非您要设计“类似于甲壳虫”的产品(几乎每个人都可以使用它)，否则最好将目标受众范围缩小到最有可能使用您产品的用户。
Source: UserTesting Dashboard
资料来源： UserTesting资讯主页
Knowing your target audience is not really a topic for usability testing; in theory, this is something you should have already decided in your Product Definition phase.
真正了解目标受众并不是可用性测试的主题； 从理论上讲，这是您应该在“产品定义”阶段做出的决定。
However, depending on the complexity of your tasks, you may need more than one user group. For example, when  conducting user testing for our Yelp redesign, we realized we needed two groups of people: those with Yelp accounts, and those who did not. Once we knew the overall groups, we then decided that both groups needed to have users who were located in the US, used Yelp at most 1-2x a week, and browsed mostly on their desktops.
但是，根据您任务的复杂性，您可能需要多个用户组。 例如，在对Yelp重新设计进行用户测试时，我们意识到我们需要两组人：拥有Yelp帐户的人和没有Yelp帐户的人。 一旦了解了整个小组，我们便决定两个小组都需要有一个位于美国的用户，每周最多使用1-2x的Yelp，并主要在其台式机上进行浏览。
When focusing in on your test group, it’s also important not to obsess over demographics. The biggest differentiator will likely be whether users have prior experience or are knowledgeable about their domain or industry — not gender, age, or geography.
当专注于测试组时，不要迷恋人口统计学也很重要。 最大的区别可能是用户是否具有过往经验或是否了解其领域或行业 ，而不是性别，年龄或地理位置。
Once you know whom you’re looking for, it’s time to get out there and find them. If you find you have more than one target group, that’s okay; just remember to test each group independently of each other — that will make your data more telling.
知道要寻找的人之后，就该到那里寻找他们了。 如果发现您有多个目标群体，那就没关系； 只需记住分别测试每个组即可，这将使您的数据更具说服力。
招募用户 (Recruiting Users)
Knowing who you want for the test is only half the battle; you still need to get them to come (or agree to let you come to them). Luckily, Jeff Sauro, founder of Measuring Usability LLC, lists seven of the most effective methods and usability tools for recruiting people for usability tests. Below, we’ll briefly describe each method (we’re big fans of UserTesting and hallway testing).
知道要考试的人只是成功的一半。 您仍然需要让他们来(或同意让您来他们)。 幸运的是， Measurement Usability LLC的创始人Jeff Sauro 列出了七种最有效的方法和可用性工具来招募人员进行可用性测试。 下面，我们将简要介绍每种方法(我们是UserTesting和走廊测试的忠实拥护者)。
Existing Users — By definition, these are your target users. Try self-promoting on your website, or work with your customer service department to locate interested users. Even if you’re researching a new product or if your company has produced similar products in the past, there’s a chance they both target the same type of person. 现有用户-根据定义，这些是您的目标用户。 尝试在您的网站上进行自我推广，或与客户服务部门合作找到感兴趣的用户。 即使您正在研究新产品，或者您的公司过去生产过类似的产品，也有可能它们都针对同一类型的人。
UserTesting (http://www.usertesting.com/) — A website designed specifically for this, UserTesting lets you select users by age, gender, location, and even more customizable options. The site delivers audio and video of users actually testing your site or app.
UserTesting ( http://www.usertesting.com/) -为此专门设计的网站，UserTesting允许您按年龄，性别，位置以及更多可自定义的选项选择用户。 该网站向实际测试您的网站或应用程序的用户提供音频和视频 。
Mechanical Turk (https://www.mturk.com/mturk/welcome) — Amazon’s crowdsurfing network is the cheaper version of UserTesting— but just keep in mind that you get what you pay for. The upside, of course, is that if your testing is simple, you can recruit a ton of people for a very low cost.
Mechanical Turk ( https://www.mturk.com/mturk/welcome) —亚马逊的人群冲浪网络是UserTesting的便宜版本，但请记住，您会得到所要支付的费用。 当然，好处是，如果您的测试很简单，则可以以非常低的成本招募大量人员。
Craigslist (http://www.craigslist.org/) — While somewhat random, Craigslist has long been a reliable option for getting people together. Keep in mind that if you’re looking for high-income users or users with highly specialized skills, you likely won’t reach them here.
Craigslist ( http://www.craigslist.org/) —尽管Craigslist有点随机，但长期以来一直是使人们聚在一起的可靠选择。 请记住，如果您正在寻找高收入用户或具有高度专业技能的用户，则可能在这里找不到他们。 Panel Agencies  If you’re looking for numbers for an unmoderated test, a panel agency might be the way to go. With vast databases organized by demographics, you can reach your targets for between $15 –$55 per response. Try Op4G,Toluna, or Research Now.
面板代理商如果您正在寻找未经审核的测试编号，则可以选择面板代理商。 借助按人口统计数据组织的庞大数据库，您可以以每次响应$15 –$ 55的价格达到目标。 尝试Op4G ， Toluna或立即研究 。 Market Research Recruiter —  This is the option if you’re looking for professionals with a very specific set of skills, like hardware engineers, CFOs, etc. However, these can also be expensive, costing hundreds per participant. If you’re still interested, try Plaza Research (don’t let the outdated site fool you).
市场研究招聘人员—如果您正在寻找具有非常特定技能的专业人员(例如硬件工程师，CFO等)，则可以使用此选项。但是，这些费用也很昂贵，每位参与者要花费数百美元。 如果您仍然感兴趣，请尝试使用Plaza Research (不要让过时的网站欺骗您)。
Hallway Testing —  "Hallway" testing is a term that means random, as in whoever if walking by the hallway at the moment you’re conducting the test. These may be co-workers, friends, family, or people on the street.  While these test subjects may be the easiest to recruit, remember that the farther you get from your target audience, the less helpful the data.  DigitalGov provides a live example and a list of tips.
走廊测试- “走廊”测试是一个随机的术语，就像您在进行测试时在走廊上走过的人一样。 这些人可能是同事，朋友，家人或大街上的人。 虽然这些测试对象最容易招募，但请记住，您与目标受众的距离越远，数据的帮助就越少。 DigitalGov提供了一个实时示例和提示列表 。 Like all other factors, how you choose to find your participants will depend on your specific needs. Keep in mind the who and why you’re looking for, but don’t neglect the how much. Qualitative tests can be run with as few as 5 people, quantitative tests require at least 20 people for statistical significance. For a full list of user recruiting tips, check out Jakob Nielsen’s list of 234 tips and tricks to recruiting people for usability tests.
像所有其他因素一样，如何选择寻找参与者的方法取决于您的特定需求。 请记住你要找的是谁 ， 为什么 ，但不要忽视了多少 。 定性检验最少可以进行5个人进行 ，定量检验至少需要20个人才能具有统计意义 。 有关用户招聘技巧的完整列表，请查看Jakob Nielsen 列出的234项技巧和窍门，以招募人员进行可用性测试。
If you’re conducting later-stage beta testing, you can recruit beta testers from within your existing user base, as long as it’s large enough. If, however, you need to recruit them elsewhere, Udemy explains the best ways to find them.
如果您要进行后期Beta测试，则可以从现有用户群中招募Beta测试人员，只要它足够大即可。 但是，如果您需要在其他地方招聘他们， 乌迪米(Udemy)解释了找到它们的最佳方法 。
可用性测试计划 (Usability Test Plan)
You’re almost ready to dive into your testing, but before you do, there’s just one last thing: a one-page usability checklist. This succinct outline will tell stakeholders everything they need to know about the test, but without boring them with all the details.
您几乎已经准备好进行测试，但是在开始之前，只有最后一件事：一页的可用性清单。 简洁的大纲将告诉利益相关者他们需要了解的有关测试的所有信息，但不会让他们感到厌烦。
Source: Usability Testing Kit
资料来源： 可用性测试套件
Tomer Sharon, Author and UX Researcher at Google Search,  provides a simple outline for your synopsis:
Title : What you’re studying and the type of test. 标题：您正在研究的内容和考试类型。 Author and Stakeholders : Everyone involved in conducting the test. 作者和涉众：参与测试的每个人。 Date : Don’t forget to update this every time. 日期：别忘了每次更新。 Background : A brief history of the study, under five lines. 背景：这项研究的简史 ，下五线。 Goals : Try to sum it up with one sentence, but if you have multiple goals, use a short bulleted list. 目标：尝试用一个句子来概括它，但是如果您有多个目标，请使用简短的项目符号列表。 Research Questions : Make it clear these are the questions you hope to answer with the study, not the questions you’ll be asking the participants. 研究问题：明确这些是您希望在研究中回答的问题， 而不是您要问参与者的问题。 Methodology : Since we’re outside of an academic environment, a simple what, where, and for how long will suffice. 方法论：由于我们不在学术环境之内，所以简单的what ， where和多长时间就足够了。 Participants : The specific characteristics of the people you’re looking for, and why. 参与者： 您正在寻找的人的具体特征，以及原因。 Schedule : Include the three important dates: when recruitment starts, when the study takes place, and when the results will be ready. 时间表：包括三个重要日期：何时开始招聘，何时进行研究以及何时准备好结果。 Script Placeholder : Until the full-study script is available, a simple "TBD" is fine. 脚本占位符：在可以使用完整研究脚本之前，可以使用简单的“ TBD”。 With the usability checklist in hand, all the key players will be on the same page, so to speak. We’ve provided a free usability testing kit (which includes a testing report) so that you can incorporate these points.
有了可用性清单，可以说所有关键参与者都在同一页面上。 我们提供了免费的可用性测试工具包 (其中包括测试报告)，以便您可以整合这些要点。
外卖 (The Takeaway)
What we’ve covered today should give you a rock-solid foundation for knowing how to pick both your tests and your participants.
我们今天介绍的内容将为您提供坚实的基础，让他们知道如何选择测试和参与者。
However if you’re looking for even more detail, grab a copy of my free 109-page Guide to Usability Testing. This includes best practices from companies like Apple, Buffer, DirecTV, and others.
但是，如果您需要更多信息，请阅读109页的免费可用性测试指南 。 其中包括Apple，Buffer，DirecTV等公司的最佳做法。
If you’re looking for some help in creating your usability test plan, try The Guide to UX Design Process & Documentation.
如果您在创建可用性测试计划时需要帮助，请尝试UX设计过程和文档指南 。
Finally, we can’t stress enough the importance of these pre-planning phases. The type of test and users you go with will have the biggest impact on your results, and going with the wrong choices will greatly reduce the accuracy.
最后，我们不能足够强调这些预先计划阶段的重要性。 测试的类型和用户将对结果产生最大的影响，选择错误的选项将大大降低准确性。
Having a solid plan can make all the difference, and ensure that you meet your own personal needs. 有一个可靠的计划可以发挥所有作用，并确保您满足自己的个人需求。 翻译自: https://www.sitepoint.com/choosing-usability-tests-participants/可用性测试易用性和有用性
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