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  • 计算机组织与体系结构 第四版 光盘内容下载。
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  • 计算机组织与体系结构 计算机体系结构中的内存组织 (Memory Organization in Computer Architecture) A memory unit is the collection of storage units or devices together. The memory unit stores the binary ...

    计算机组织与体系结构

    A memory unit is the collection of storage units or devices together. The memory unit stores the binary information in the form of bits. Generally, memory/storage is classified into 2 categories:

    存储单元是一起存储单元或设备的集合。 存储单元以位的形式存储二进制信息。 通常,内存/存储分为两类:

    • Volatile Memory: This loses its data, when power is switched off.

      易失性存储器 :关闭电源后,它将丢失其数据。

    • Non-Volatile Memory: This is a permanent storage and does not lose any data when power is switched off.

      非易失性内存 :这是一个永久性存储,在关闭电源时不会丢失任何数据。

    记忆层级 (Memory Hierarchy)

    Memory Hierarchy

    The total memory capacity of a computer can be visualized by hierarchy of components. The memory hierarchy system consists of all storage devices contained in a computer system from the slow Auxiliary Memory to fast Main Memory and to smaller Cache memory.

    计算机的总存储容量可以通过组件的层次结构可视化。 内存分层系统由计算机系统中包含的所有存储设备组成,从慢速辅助内存到快速主内存再到较小的高速缓存。

    Auxillary memory access time is generally 1000 times that of the main memory, hence it is at the bottom of the hierarchy.

    辅助存储器的访问时间通常是主存储器的1000倍 ,因此它位于层次结构的底部。

    The main memory occupies the central position because it is equipped to communicate directly with the CPU and with auxiliary memory devices through Input/output processor (I/O).

    主存储器占据中心位置,因为它可以通过输入/输出处理器(I / O)直接与CPU和辅助存储设备进行通信。

    When the program not residing in main memory is needed by the CPU, they are brought in from auxiliary memory. Programs not currently needed in main memory are transferred into auxiliary memory to provide space in main memory for other programs that are currently in use.

    当CPU需要不驻留在主存储器中的程序时,会将它们从辅助存储器中引入。 主存储器中当前不需要的程序被转移到辅助存储器中,以在主存储器中为当前正在使用的其他程序提供空间。

    The cache memory is used to store program data which is currently being executed in the CPU. Approximate access time ratio between cache memory and main memory is about 1 to 7~10

    高速缓冲存储器用于存储CPU中当前正在执行的程序数据。 高速缓存和主存储器之间的近似访问时间比率约为1到7〜10

    Memory Organization

    内存访问方法 (Memory Access Methods)

    Each memory type, is a collection of numerous memory locations. To access data from any memory, first it must be located and then the data is read from the memory location. Following are the methods to access information from memory locations:

    每种内存类型都是许多内存位置的集合。 要从任何内存访问数据,首先必须找到它,然后再从内存位置读取数据。 以下是从内存位置访问信息的方法:

    1. Random Access: Main memories are random access memories, in which each memory location has a unique address. Using this unique address any memory location can be reached in the same amount of time in any order.

      随机存取 :主存储器是随机存取存储器,其中每个存储器位置都有一个唯一的地址。 使用此唯一地址,可以在相同的时间内以任何顺序访问任何存储位置。

    2. Sequential Access: This methods allows memory access in a sequence or in order.

      顺序访问 :此方法允许按顺序或顺序访问内存。

    3. Direct Access: In this mode, information is stored in tracks, with each track having a separate read/write head.

      直接访问 :在这种模式下,信息存储在磁道中,每个磁道都有一个单独的读/写头。

    主记忆体 (Main Memory)

    The memory unit that communicates directly within the CPU, Auxillary memory and Cache memory, is called main memory. It is the central storage unit of the computer system. It is a large and fast memory used to store data during computer operations. Main memory is made up of RAM and ROM, with RAM integrated circuit chips holing the major share.

    直接在CPU内部通信的存储单元,辅助存储器和高速缓存存储器称为主存储器。 它是计算机系统的中央存储单元。 它是一种大型且快速的内存,用于在计算机运行期间存储数据。 主存储器由RAMROM组成 ,RAM集成电路芯片占据了主要份额。

    • RAM: Random Access Memory

      RAM:随机存取存储器

      • DRAM: Dynamic RAM, is made of capacitors and transistors, and must be refreshed every 10~100 ms. It is slower and cheaper than SRAM.DRAM :动态RAM,由电容器和晶体管组成,必须每10到100毫秒刷新一次。 它比SRAM慢且便宜。
      • SRAM: Static RAM, has a six transistor circuit in each cell and retains data, until powered off.SRAM :静态RAM,每个单元中都有六个晶体管电路,并保留数据,直到断电为止。
      • NVRAM: Non-Volatile RAM, retains its data, even when turned off. Example: Flash memory.NVRAM :非易失性RAM,即使关闭,也会保留其数据。 示例:闪存。
    • ROM: Read Only Memory, is non-volatile and is more like a permanent storage for information. It also stores the bootstrap loader program, to load and start the operating system when computer is turned on. PROM(Programmable ROM), EPROM(Erasable PROM) and EEPROM(Electrically Erasable PROM) are some commonly used ROMs.

      ROM:只读存储器,是非易失性的,更像是信息的永久存储。 它还存储引导加载程序,以在计算机打开时加载并启动操作系统。 PROM (可编程ROM), EPROM (可擦除PROM)和EEPROM (电可擦除PROM)是一些常用的ROM。

    辅助记忆 (Auxiliary Memory)

    Devices that provide backup storage are called auxiliary memory. For example: Magnetic disks and tapes are commonly used auxiliary devices. Other devices used as auxiliary memory are magnetic drums, magnetic bubble memory and optical disks.

    提供备份存储的设备称为辅助内存。 例如:磁盘和磁带是常用的辅助设备。 用作辅助存储器的其他设备是磁鼓,磁泡存储器和光盘。

    It is not directly accessible to the CPU, and is accessed using the Input/Output channels.

    它不能直接由CPU访问,而可以通过输入/输出通道进行访问。

    高速缓存存储器 (Cache Memory)

    The data or contents of the main memory that are used again and again by CPU, are stored in the cache memory so that we can easily access that data in shorter time.

    CPU一次又一次使用的主存储器的数据或内容存储在高速缓存中,以便我们可以在较短的时间内轻松访问该数据。

    Whenever the CPU needs to access memory, it first checks the cache memory. If the data is not found in cache memory then the CPU moves onto the main memory. It also transfers block of recent data into the cache and keeps on deleting the old data in cache to accomodate the new one.

    每当CPU需要访问内存时,它都会首先检查高速缓存。 如果在高速缓存中找不到数据,则CPU移至主存储器。 它还将最新数据块传输到缓存中,并继续删除缓存中的旧数据以适应新数据。

    命中率 (Hit Ratio)

    The performance of cache memory is measured in terms of a quantity called hit ratio. When the CPU refers to memory and finds the word in cache it is said to produce a hit. If the word is not found in cache, it is in main memory then it counts as a miss.

    高速缓存的性能是根据称为命中率的数量来衡量的。 当CPU引用内存并在高速缓存中找到单词时,据说会导致命中 。 如果在高速缓存中未找到该单词,则该单词位于主内存中,则视为未命中

    The ratio of the number of hits to the total CPU references to memory is called hit ratio.

    命中次数与CPU对内存的总引用数之比称为命中率。

    Hit Ratio = Hit/(Hit + Miss)

    Hit Ratio = Hit/(Hit + Miss)

    联想记忆 (Associative Memory)

    It is also known as content addressable memory (CAM). It is a memory chip in which each bit position can be compared. In this the content is compared in each bit cell which allows very fast table lookup. Since the entire chip can be compared, contents are randomly stored without considering addressing scheme. These chips have less storage capacity than regular memory chips.

    它也被称为内容可寻址存储器(CAM) 。 它是一个可以比较每个位位置的存储芯片。 在此,在每个位单元中对内容进行比较,从而可以非常快速地进行表查找。 由于可以比较整个芯片,因此可以在不考虑寻址方案的情况下随机存储内容。 这些芯片的存储容量比常规存储芯片要小。

    翻译自: https://www.studytonight.com/computer-architecture/memory-organization

    计算机组织与体系结构

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  • 计算机组织与体系结构实验报告
  • 计算机组织与体系结构 计算机体系结构:输入/输出组织 (Computer Architecture: Input/Output Organisation) In this tutorial we will learn about how Input and Output is handled in a computer system. 在本...

    计算机组织与体系结构

    In this tutorial we will learn about how Input and Output is handled in a computer system.

    在本教程中,我们将学习如何在计算机系统中处理输入和输出。

    输入/输出子系统 (Input/Output Subsystem)

    The I/O subsystem of a computer provides an efficient mode of communication between the central system and the outside environment. It handles all the input-output operations of the computer system.

    计算机的I / O子系统在中央系统和外部环境之间提供了一种有效的通信模式。 它处理计算机系统的所有输入输出操作。

    外围设备 (Peripheral Devices)

    Input or output devices that are connected to computer are called peripheral devices. These devices are designed to read information into or out of the memory unit upon command from the CPU and are considered to be the part of computer system. These devices are also called peripherals.

    连接到计算机的输入或输出设备称为外围设备 。 这些设备被设计为根据来自CPU的命令将信息读取到存储单元中或从存储单元中读取信息,并被视为计算机系统的一部分。 这些设备也称为外围设备

    For example: Keyboards, display units and printers are common peripheral devices.

    例如: 键盘人机界面打印机是常见的外围设备。

    There are three types of peripherals:

    外围设备有三种类型:

    1. Input peripherals : Allows user input, from the outside world to the computer. Example: Keyboard, Mouse etc.

      输入外围设备 :允许用户从外界向计算机输入。 示例:键盘,鼠标等

    2. Output peripherals: Allows information output, from the computer to the outside world. Example: Printer, Monitor etc

      输出外围设备 :允许从计算机向外界输出信息。 示例:打印机,监视器等

    3. Input-Output peripherals: Allows both input(from outised world to computer) as well as, output(from computer to the outside world). Example: Touch screen etc.

      输入输出外围设备 :允许输入(从废弃世界到计算机)以及输出(从计算机到外部世界)。 示例:触摸屏等

    介面 (Interfaces)

    Interface is a shared boundary btween two separate components of the computer system which can be used to attach two or more components to the system for communication purposes.

    接口是计算机系统的两个独立组件之间的共享边界,可用于将两个或多个组件连接到系统以进行通信。

    There are two types of interface:

    接口有两种:

    1. CPU Inteface

      CPU接口

    2. I/O Interface

      I / O介面

    Let's understand the I/O Interface in details,

    让我们详细了解I / O接口,

    输入输出接口 (Input-Output Interface)

    Peripherals connected to a computer need special communication links for interfacing with CPU. In computer system, there are special hardware components between the CPU and peripherals to control or manage the input-output transfers. These components are called input-output interface units because they provide communication links between processor bus and peripherals. They provide a method for transferring information between internal system and input-output devices.

    连接到计算机的外围设备需要特殊的通信链接才能与CPU接口。 在计算机系统中,CPU和外围设备之间有特殊的硬件组件来控制或管理输入输出传输。 这些组件称为输入输出接口单元,因为它们提供了处理器总线和外围设备之间的通信链接。 它们提供了一种在内部系统和输入输出设备之间传递信息的方法。

    I / O数据传输方式 (Modes of I/O Data Transfer)

    Data transfer between the central unit and I/O devices can be handled in generally three types of modes which are given below:

    中央单元和I / O设备之间的数据传输通常可以通过以下三种类型的模式进行处理:

    1. Programmed I/O

      编程的I / O

    2. Interrupt Initiated I/O

      中断启动的I / O

    3. Direct Memory Access

      直接内存访问

    编程的I / O (Programmed I/O)

    Programmed I/O instructions are the result of I/O instructions written in computer program. Each data item transfer is initiated by the instruction in the program.

    编程的I / O指令是用计算机程序编写的I / O指令的结果。 每次数据项传输均由程序中的指令启动。

    Usually the program controls data transfer to and from CPU and peripheral. Transferring data under programmed I/O requires constant monitoring of the peripherals by the CPU.

    通常,程序控制与CPU和外围设备之间的数据传输。 在已编程的I / O下传输数据需要CPU对外围设备进行持续监视。

    中断启动的I / O (Interrupt Initiated I/O)

    In the programmed I/O method the CPU stays in the program loop until the I/O unit indicates that it is ready for data transfer. This is time consuming process because it keeps the processor busy needlessly.

    在已编程的I / O方法中,CPU停留在程序循环中,直到I / O单元指示已准备好进行数据传输为止。 这是耗时的过程,因为它使处理器不必要地忙碌。

    This problem can be overcome by using interrupt initiated I/O. In this when the interface determines that the peripheral is ready for data transfer, it generates an interrupt. After receiving the interrupt signal, the CPU stops the task which it is processing and service the I/O transfer and then returns back to its previous processing task.

    通过使用中断启动的I / O可以解决此问题。 这样,当接口确定外设已准备好进行数据传输时,它将生成一个中断。 在接收到中断信号后,CPU停止正在处理的任务并为I / O传输提供服务,然后返回其先前的处理任务。

    直接内存访问 (Direct Memory Access)

    Removing the CPU from the path and letting the peripheral device manage the memory buses directly would improve the speed of transfer. This technique is known as DMA.

    从路径中卸下CPU并让外围设备直接管理内存总线将提高传输速度。 此技术称为DMA

    In this, the interface transfer data to and from the memory through memory bus. A DMA controller manages to transfer data between peripherals and memory unit.

    在这种情况下,接口通过内存总线在内存之间传输数据。 DMA控制器管理外设与存储单元之间的数据传输。

    Many hardware systems use DMA such as disk drive controllers, graphic cards, network cards and sound cards etc. It is also used for intra chip data transfer in multicore processors. In DMA, CPU would initiate the transfer, do other operations while the transfer is in progress and receive an interrupt from the DMA controller when the transfer has been completed.

    许多硬件系统都使用DMA,例如磁盘驱动器控制器,图形卡,网络卡和声卡等。它还用于多核处理器中的芯片内数据传输。 在DMA中,CPU将启动传输,在传输过程中执行其他操作,并在传输完成后从DMA控制器接收中断。

    Input/Output Organisation

    Above figure shows block diagram of DMA

    上图显示了DMA的框图

    翻译自: https://www.studytonight.com/computer-architecture/input-output-organisation

    计算机组织与体系结构

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