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  • kickstart

    2016-01-07 09:42:40
    kickstart

    31.4. Kickstart Options

    The following options can be placed in a kickstart file. If you prefer to use a graphical interface for creating your kickstart file, use the Kickstart Configurator application. Refer to Chapter 32, Kickstart Configurator for details.

    Note

    If the option is followed by an equals mark (=), a value must be specified after it. In the example commands, options in brackets ([]) are optional arguments for the command.
    autopart (optional)
    Automatically create partitions — 1 GB or more root ( /) partition, a swap partition, and an appropriate boot partition for the architecture. One or more of the default partition sizes can be redefined with the part directive.
    • --encrypted — Should all devices with support be encrypted by default? This is equivalent to checking the Encrypt checkbox on the initial partitioning screen.
    • --passphrase= — Provide a default system-wide passphrase for all encrypted devices.
    ignoredisk (optional)
    Causes the installer to ignore the specified disks. If the target system contains read-only devices, they must be specified with ignoredisk or the installation will stop and prompt for whether it should ignore the device.
    ignoredisk is useful if you use autopartition and want to be sure that some disks are ignored. For example, without ignoredisk, attempting to deploy on a SAN-cluster the kickstart would fail, as the installer detects passive paths to the SAN that return no partition table. The --only-use option specifies that only the disks listed will be used during installation.
    The ignoredisk option is also useful if you have multiple paths to your disks.
    The syntax is:
    ignoredisk --drives=drive1,drive2,...
    where driveN is one of sda, sdb,..., hda,... etc.
    • --only-use — specifies a list of disks for the installer to use. All other disks are ignored. For example, to use disk sda during installation and ignore all other disks:
      ignoredisk --only-use=sda
    autostep (optional)
    Similar to interactive except it goes to the next screen for you. It is used mostly for debugging and should not be used when deploying a system because it may disrupt package installation.
    • --autoscreenshot — Take a screenshot at every step during installation and copy the images over to /root/anaconda-screenshots after installation is complete. This is most useful for documentation.
    auth or authconfig (required)
    Sets up the authentication options for the system. It is similar to the authconfig command, which can be run after the install. By default, passwords are normally encrypted and are not shadowed.
    • --enablemd5 — Use md5 encryption for user passwords.
    • --enablenis — Turns on NIS support. By default, --enablenis uses whatever domain it finds on the network. A domain should almost always be set by hand with the --nisdomain= option.
    • --nisdomain= — NIS domain name to use for NIS services.
    • --nisserver= — Server to use for NIS services (broadcasts by default).
    • --useshadow or --enableshadow — Use shadow passwords.
    • --enableldap — Turns on LDAP support in /etc/nsswitch.conf, allowing your system to retrieve information about users (UIDs, home directories, shells, etc.) from an LDAP directory. To use this option, you must install the nss_ldap package. You must also specify a server and a base DN (distinguished name) with --ldapserver= and --ldapbasedn=.
    • --enableldapauth — Use LDAP as an authentication method. This enables the pam_ldap module for authentication and changing passwords, using an LDAP directory. To use this option, you must have the nss_ldap package installed. You must also specify a server and a base DN with --ldapserver= and --ldapbasedn=.
    • --ldapserver= — If you specified either --enableldap or --enableldapauth, use this option to specify the name of the LDAP server to use. This option is set in the /etc/ldap.conf file.
    • --ldapbasedn= — If you specified either --enableldap or --enableldapauth, use this option to specify the DN in your LDAP directory tree under which user information is stored. This option is set in the /etc/ldap.conf file.
    • --enableldaptls — Use TLS (Transport Layer Security) lookups. This option allows LDAP to send encrypted usernames and passwords to an LDAP server before authentication.
    • --enablekrb5 — Use Kerberos 5 for authenticating users. Kerberos itself does not know about home directories, UIDs, or shells. If you enable Kerberos, you must make users' accounts known to this workstation by enabling LDAP, NIS, or Hesiod or by using the /usr/sbin/useradd command. If you use this option, you must have the pam_krb5 package installed.
    • --krb5realm= — The Kerberos 5 realm to which your workstation belongs.
    • --krb5kdc= — The KDC (or KDCs) that serve requests for the realm. If you have multiple KDCs in your realm, separate their names with commas (,).
    • --krb5adminserver= — The KDC in your realm that is also running kadmind. This server handles password changing and other administrative requests. This server must be run on the master KDC if you have more than one KDC.
    • --enablehesiod — Enable Hesiod support for looking up user home directories, UIDs, and shells. More information on setting up and using Hesiod on your network is in /usr/share/doc/glibc-2.x.x/README.hesiod, which is included in the glibc package. Hesiod is an extension of DNS that uses DNS records to store information about users, groups, and various other items.
    • --hesiodlhs — The Hesiod LHS ("left-hand side") option, set in /etc/hesiod.conf. This option is used by the Hesiod library to determine the name to search DNS for when looking up information, similar to LDAP's use of a base DN.
    • --hesiodrhs — The Hesiod RHS ("right-hand side") option, set in /etc/hesiod.conf. This option is used by the Hesiod library to determine the name to search DNS for when looking up information, similar to LDAP's use of a base DN.

      Note

      To look up user information for "jim", the Hesiod library looks up jim.passwd<LHS><RHS>, which should resolve to a TXT record that looks like what his passwd entry would look like ( jim:*:501:501:Jungle Jim:/home/jim:/bin/bash). For groups, the situation is identical, except jim.group<LHS><RHS> would be used.
      Looking up users and groups by number is handled by making "501.uid" a CNAME for "jim.passwd", and "501.gid" a CNAME for "jim.group". Note that the library does not place a period . in front of the LHS and RHS values when performing a search. Therefore the LHS and RHS values need to have a period placed in front of them in order if they require this.
    • --enablesmbauth — Enables authentication of users against an SMB server (typically a Samba or Windows server). SMB authentication support does not know about home directories, UIDs, or shells. If you enable SMB, you must make users' accounts known to the workstation by enabling LDAP, NIS, or Hesiod or by using the /usr/sbin/useradd command to make their accounts known to the workstation. To use this option, you must have the pam_smb package installed.
    • --smbservers= — The name of the server(s) to use for SMB authentication. To specify more than one server, separate the names with commas (,).
    • --smbworkgroup= — The name of the workgroup for the SMB servers.
    • --enablecache — Enables the nscd service. The nscd service caches information about users, groups, and various other types of information. Caching is especially helpful if you choose to distribute information about users and groups over your network using NIS, LDAP, or hesiod.
    • --passalgo — Enables SHA256 or SHA512 hashing for passphrases. Use --passalgo=sha256 or --passalgo=sha512 and remove the --enablemd5 if present.
    bootloader (required)
    Specifies how the boot loader should be installed. This option is required for both installations and upgrades.
    • --append= — Specifies kernel parameters. To specify multiple parameters, separate them with spaces. For example:
      bootloader --location=mbr --append="hdd=ide-scsi ide=nodma"
    • --driveorder — Specify which drive is first in the BIOS boot order. For example:
      bootloader --driveorder=sda,hda
    • --hvargs — If using GRUB, specifies Xen hypervisor arguments. To specify multiple parameters, separate them with spaces. For example:
      bootloader --hvargs="dom0_mem=2G dom0_max_vcpus=4"
    • --location= — Specifies where the boot record is written. Valid values are the following: mbr (the default), partition (installs the boot loader on the first sector of the partition containing the kernel), or none (do not install the boot loader).
    • --password= — If using GRUB, sets the GRUB boot loader password to the one specified with this option. This should be used to restrict access to the GRUB shell, where arbitrary kernel options can be passed.
    • --md5pass= — If using GRUB, similar to --password= except the password should already be encrypted.
    • --upgrade — Upgrade the existing boot loader configuration, preserving the old entries. This option is only available for upgrades.
    clearpart (optional)
    Removes partitions from the system, prior to creation of new partitions. By default, no partitions are removed.

    Note

    If the clearpart command is used, then the --onpart command cannot be used on a logical partition.

    Important

    Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 cannot use unformatted DASDs when installing with kickstart and the cmdline user interface. Use the following command in your kickstart file and explicitly list all DASDs that you want to be low-level formatted with dasdfmt automatically in case they are not yet low-level formatted:
    clearpart --initlabel --drives=names_of_DASDs
    For example:
    clearpart --initlabel --drives=dasda,dasdb,dasdc
    • --all — Erases all partitions from the system.
    • --drives= — Specifies which drives to clear partitions from. For example, the following clears all the partitions on the first two drives on the primary IDE controller:
      clearpart --drives=hda,hdb --all
    • --initlabel — Initializes the disk label to the default for your architecture (for example msdos for x86 and gpt for Itanium). It is useful so that the installation program does not ask if it should initialize the disk label if installing to a brand new hard drive.
    • --linux — Erases all Linux partitions.
    • --none (default) — Do not remove any partitions.
    cmdline (optional)
    Perform the installation in a completely non-interactive command line mode. Any prompts for interaction halts the install. This mode is useful on IBM System z systems with the x3270 console.
    device (optional)
    On most PCI systems, the installation program autoprobes for Ethernet and SCSI cards properly. On older systems and some PCI systems, however, kickstart needs a hint to find the proper devices. The device command, which tells the installation program to install extra modules, is in this format:
    device <type> <moduleName> --opts=<options>
    • <type> — Replace with either scsi or eth.
    • <moduleName> — Replace with the name of the kernel module which should be installed.
    • --opts= — Mount options to use for mounting the NFS export. Any options that can be specified in /etc/fstab for an NFS mount are allowed. The options are listed in the nfs(5) man page. Multiple options are separated with a comma.
    driverdisk (optional)
    Driver diskettes can be used during kickstart installations. You must copy the driver diskettes's contents to the root directory of a partition on the system's hard drive. Then you must use the driverdisk command to tell the installation program where to look for the driver disk.
    driverdisk <partition> [--type=<fstype>]
    Alternatively, a network location can be specified for the driver diskette:
    driverdisk --source=ftp://path/to/dd.img
    driverdisk --source=http://path/to/dd.img
    driverdisk --source=nfs:host:/path/to/img
    • <partition> — Partition containing the driver disk.
    • --type= — File system type (for example, vfat or ext2).
    firewall (optional)
    This option corresponds to the Firewall Configuration screen in the installation program:
    firewall --enabled|--disabled [--trust=] <device> [--port=]
    • --enabled or --enable — Reject incoming connections that are not in response to outbound requests, such as DNS replies or DHCP requests. If access to services running on this machine is needed, you can choose to allow specific services through the firewall.
    • --disabled or --disable — Do not configure any iptables rules.
    • --trust= — Listing a device here, such as eth0, allows all traffic coming to and from that device to go through the firewall. To list more than one device, use --trust eth0 --trust eth1. Do NOT use a comma-separated format such as --trust eth0, eth1.
    • <incoming> — Replace with one or more of the following to allow the specified services through the firewall.
      • --ssh
      • --telnet
      • --smtp
      • --http
      • --ftp
    • --port= — You can specify that ports be allowed through the firewall using the port:protocol format. For example, to allow IMAP access through your firewall, specify imap:tcp. Numeric ports can also be specified explicitly; for example, to allow UDP packets on port 1234 through, specify 1234:udp. To specify multiple ports, separate them by commas.
    firstboot (optional)
    Determine whether the Setup Agent starts the first time the system is booted. If enabled, the firstboot package must be installed. If not specified, this option is disabled by default.
    • --enable or --enabled — The Setup Agent is started the first time the system boots.
    • --disable or --disabled — The Setup Agent is not started the first time the system boots.
    • --reconfig — Enable the Setup Agent to start at boot time in reconfiguration mode. This mode enables the language, mouse, keyboard, root password, security level, time zone, and networking configuration options in addition to the default ones.
    halt (optional)
    Halt the system after the installation has successfully completed. This is similar to a manual installation, where anaconda displays a message and waits for the user to press a key before rebooting. During a kickstart installation, if no completion method is specified, this option is used as the default.
    The halt option is roughly equivalent to the shutdown -h command.
    For other completion methods, refer to the poweroff, reboot, and shutdown kickstart options.
    graphical (optional)
    Perform the kickstart installation in graphical mode. This is the default.
    install (optional)
    Tells the system to install a fresh system rather than upgrade an existing system. This is the default mode. For installation, you must specify the type of installation from cdrom, harddrive, nfs, or url (for FTP or HTTP installations). The install command and the installation method command must be on separate lines.
    • cdrom — Install from the first CD-ROM drive on the system.
    • harddrive — Install from a Red Hat installation tree on a local drive, which must be either vfat or ext2.
      • --biospart=
        BIOS partition to install from (such as 82).
      • --partition=
        Partition to install from (such as sdb2).
      • --dir=
        Directory containing the variant directory of the installation tree.
      For example:
      harddrive --partition=hdb2 --dir=/tmp/install-tree
    • nfs — Install from the NFS server specified.
      • --server=
        Server from which to install (hostname or IP).
      • --dir=
        Directory containing the variant directory of the installation tree.
      • --opts=
        Mount options to use for mounting the NFS export. (optional)
      For example:
      nfs --server=nfsserver.example.com --dir=/tmp/install-tree
    • url — Install from an installation tree on a remote server via FTP or HTTP.
      For example:
      url --url http://<server>/<dir>
      or:
      url --url ftp://<username>:<password>@<server>/<dir>
    interactive (optional)
    Uses the information provided in the kickstart file during the installation, but allow for inspection and modification of the values given. You are presented with each screen of the installation program with the values from the kickstart file. Either accept the values by clicking Next or change the values and click Next to continue. Refer to the autostep command.
    iscsi (optional)
    iscsi --ipaddr= [options].
    Specifies additional iSCSI storage to be attached during installation. If you use the iscsi parameter, you must also assign a name to the iSCSI node, using the iscsiname parameter. The iscsiname parameter must appear before the iscsi parameter in the kickstart file.
    We recommend that wherever possible you configure iSCSI storage in the system BIOS or firmware (iBFT for Intel systems) rather than use the iscsi parameter. Anaconda automatically detects and uses disks configured in BIOS or firmware and no special configuration is necessary in the kickstart file.
    If you must use the iscsi parameter, ensure that networking is activated at the beginning of the installation, and that the iscsi parameter appears in the kickstart file before you refer to iSCSI disks with parameters such as clearpart or ignoredisk.
    • --port= (mandatory) — the port number (typically, --port=3260)
    • --user= — the username required to authenticate with the target
    • --password= — the password that corresponds with the username specified for the target
    • --reverse-user= — the username required to authenticate with the initiator from a target that uses reverse CHAP authentication
    • --reverse-password= — the password that corresponds with the username specified for the initiator
    iscsiname (optional)
    Assigns a name to an iSCSI node specified by the iscsi parameter. If you use the iscsi parameter in your kickstart file, this parameter is mandatory, and you must specify iscsiname in the kickstart file before you specify iscsi.
    key (optional)
    Specify an installation key, which is needed to aid in package selection and identify your system for support purposes.
    • --skip — Skip entering a key. Usually if the key command is not given, anaconda will pause at this step to prompt for a key. This option allows automated installation to continue if you do not have a key or do not want to provide one.
    keyboard (required)
    Sets system keyboard type. Here is the list of available keyboards on i386, Itanium, and Alpha machines:
    be-latin1, bg, br-abnt2, cf, cz-lat2, cz-us-qwertz, de, de-latin1, 
    de-latin1-nodeadkeys, dk, dk-latin1, dvorak, es, et, fi, fi-latin1, 
    fr, fr-latin0, fr-latin1, fr-pc, fr_CH, fr_CH-latin1, gr, hu, hu101, 
    is-latin1, it, it-ibm, it2, jp106, la-latin1, mk-utf, no, no-latin1, 
    pl, pt-latin1, ro_win, ru, ru-cp1251, ru-ms, ru1, ru2,  ru_win, 
    se-latin1, sg, sg-latin1, sk-qwerty, slovene, speakup,  speakup-lt, 
    sv-latin1, sg, sg-latin1, sk-querty, slovene, trq, ua,  uk, us, us-acentos
    
    The file /usr/lib/python2.2/site-packages/rhpl/keyboard_models.py also contains this list and is part of the rhpl package.
    lang (required)
    Sets the language to use during installation and the default language to use on the installed system. For example, to set the language to English, the kickstart file should contain the following line:
    lang en_US
    The file /usr/share/system-config-language/locale-list provides a list of the valid language codes in the first column of each line and is part of the system-config-language package.
    Certain languages (mainly Chinese, Japanese, Korean, and Indic languages) are not supported during text mode installation. If one of these languages is specified using the lang command, installation will continue in English though the running system will have the specified language by default.
    langsupport (deprecated)
    The langsupport keyword is deprecated and its use will cause an error message to be printed to the screen and installation to halt. Instead of using the langsupport keyword, you should now list the support package groups for all languages you want supported in the %packages section of your kickstart file. For instance, adding support for French means you should add the following to %packages:
    @french-support
    logvol (optional)
    Create a logical volume for Logical Volume Management (LVM) with the syntax:
    logvol <mntpoint> --vgname=<name> --size=<size> --name=<name> <options>
    The options are as follows:
    • --noformat — Use an existing logical volume and do not format it.
    • --useexisting — Use an existing logical volume and reformat it.
    • --fstype= — Sets the file system type for the logical volume. Valid values are xfs, ext2, ext3, ext4, swap, vfat, and hfs.
    • --fsoptions= — Specifies a free form string of options to be used when mounting the filesystem. This string will be copied into the /etc/fstab file of the installed system and should be enclosed in quotes.
    • --bytes-per-inode= — Specifies the size of inodes on the filesystem to be made on the logical volume. Not all filesystems support this option, so it is silently ignored for those cases.
    • --size= — The minimum size of the logical volume in megabytes. Specify an integer value here, and do not append the number with MB. If the logical volume is set to grow, the minimum size must be provided.
    • --grow= — Tells the logical volume to grow to fill available space (if any), or up to the maximum size setting, while conforming to other limitations.
    • --maxsize= — The maximum size in megabytes when the logical volume is set to grow. Specify an integer value here, and do not append the number with MB.
    • --recommended= — Determine the size of the logical volume automatically.
    • --percent= — Specify the size of the logical volume as a percentage of available space in the volume group.
    Create the partition first, create the logical volume group, and then create the logical volume. For example:
    part pv.01 --size 3000 
    volgroup myvg pv.01
    logvol / --vgname=myvg --size=2000 --name=rootvol
    
    logging (optional)
    This command controls the error logging of anaconda during installation. It has no effect on the installed system.
    • --host= — Send logging information to the given remote host, which must be running a syslogd process configured to accept remote logging.
    • --port= — If the remote syslogd process uses a port other than the default, it may be specified with this option.
    • --level= — One of debug, info, warning, error, or critical.
      Specify the minimum level of messages that appear on tty3. All messages will still be sent to the log file regardless of this level, however.
    mediacheck (optional)
    If given, this will force anaconda to run mediacheck on the installation media. This command requires that installs be attended, so it is disabled by default.
    monitor (optional)
    If the monitor command is not given, anaconda will use X to automatically detect your monitor settings. Please try this before manually configuring your monitor.
    • --hsync= — Specifies the horizontal sync frequency of the monitor.
    • --monitor= — Use specified monitor; monitor name should be from the list of monitors in /usr/share/hwdata/MonitorsDB from the hwdata package. The list of monitors can also be found on the X Configuration screen of the Kickstart Configurator. This is ignored if --hsync or --vsync is provided. If no monitor information is provided, the installation program tries to probe for it automatically.
    • --noprobe= — Do not try to probe the monitor.
    • --vsync= — Specifies the vertical sync frequency of the monitor.
    mouse (deprecated)
    The mouse keyword is deprecated.
    multipath (optional)
    Specifies a multipath device in the format:
    multipath --name=mpathX --device=device_name --rule=policy
    For example:
    multipath --name=mpath0 --device=/dev/sdc --rule=failover
    The available options are:
    • --name= — the name for the multipath device, in the format mpathX, where X is an integer.
    • --device= — the block device connected as a multipath device.
    • --rule= — a multipath policy: failover, multibus, group_by_serial, group_by_prio, or group_by_node_name. Refer to the multipath manpage for a description of these policies.
    network (optional)
    Configures network information for the system. If the kickstart installation requires networking (when the Kickstart file is accessed over HTTP, FTP or NFS), the device specified in the first network command is activated with configuration specified by the command. If the --device= option is not specified and multiple network devices are available, the device used to access the Kickstart file over the network is selected, or the user is asked to choose the device.
    Note that if network configuration is not specified in the first network command (for example, if the --bootproto= option is missing), the device will be activated with configuration set by boot options. On the installed system, this device will be configured using the default value, which is --bootproto= dhcp.
    • --bootproto= — One of dhcp, bootp, static or query.
      The default option is dhcp. bootp and dhcp are treated the same.
      The DHCP method uses a DHCP server system to obtain its networking configuration. As you might guess, the BOOTP method is similar, requiring a BOOTP server to supply the networking configuration. To direct a system to use DHCP:
      network --bootproto=dhcp
      To direct a machine to use BOOTP to obtain its networking configuration, use the following line in the kickstart file:
      network --bootproto=bootp
      The static method requires that you enter all the required networking information in the kickstart file. As the name implies, this information is static and is used during and after the installation. The line for static networking is more complex, as you must include all network configuration information on one line. You must specify the IP address, netmask, gateway, and nameserver.
      Note that although the presentation of this example on this page has broken the line, in a real kickstart file, you must include all this information on a single line with no break.
      network --bootproto=static --ip=10.0.2.15 --netmask=255.255.255.0 
       --gateway=10.0.2.254 --nameserver=10.0.2.1
      
      If you use the static method, be aware of the following two restrictions:
      • All static networking configuration information must be specified on one line; you cannot wrap lines using a backslash, for example.
      • You can also configure multiple nameservers here. To do so, specify them as a comma-delimited list in the command line.
        Note that although the presentation of this example on this page has broken the line, in a real kickstart file, you must include all this information on a single line with no break.
        network --bootproto=static --ip=10.0.2.15 --netmask=255.255.255.0
         --gateway=10.0.2.254 --nameserver 192.168.2.1,192.168.3.1
        
      If you set this option to query, you will be prompted to manually configure the network options during the actual installation process.
      network --bootproto=query
    • --device= — Used to specify the network device being configured. For example:
      network --bootproto=dhcp --device=eth0
      The above example configures device eth0 for DHCP.
    • --ip= — IP address for the machine to be installed.
    • --gateway= — Default gateway as an IP address.
    • --nameserver= — Primary nameserver, as an IP address.
    • --nodns — Do not configure any DNS server.
    • --netmask= — Netmask for the installed system.
    • --hostname= — Hostname for the installed system.
    • --ethtool= — Specifies additional low-level settings for the network device which will be passed to the ethtool program. When autoneg is not specified, autoneg off is inserted automatically.
    • --essid= — The network ID for wireless networks.
    • --wepkey= — The encryption key for wireless networks.
    • --onboot= — Whether or not to enable the device at boot time.
    • --dhcpclass= — The DHCP class.
    • --mtu= — The MTU of the device.
    • --noipv4 — Disable IPv4 on this device.
    • --noipv6 — Disable IPv6 on this device.
    part or partition (required for installs, ignored for upgrades)
    Creates a partition on the system.
    If more than one Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation exists on the system on different partitions, the installation program prompts the user and asks which installation to upgrade.

    Warning

    All partitions created are formatted as part of the installation process unless --noformat and --onpart are used.
    For a detailed example of part in action, refer to Section 31.4.1, “Advanced Partitioning Example”.
    • <mntpoint> — The <mntpoint> is where the partition is mounted and must be of one of the following forms:
      • /<path>
        For example, /, /usr, /home
      • swap
        The partition is used as swap space.
        To determine the size of the swap partition automatically, use the --recommended option:
        swap --recommended
        The recommended maximum swap size for machines with less than 2GB of RAM is twice the amount of RAM. For machines with 2GB or more, this recommendation changes to 2GB plus the amount of RAM.
      • raid.<id>
        The partition is used for software RAID (refer to raid).
      • pv.<id>
        The partition is used for LVM (refer to logvol).

        Note

        You can assign any value to the <id> field, but ensure these values are consistent across volumes and volume groups. The default value for the first volume is 01.
    • --size= — The minimum partition size in megabytes. Specify an integer value here such as 500. Do not append the number with MB.
    • --grow — Tells the partition to grow to fill available space (if any), or up to the maximum size setting.

      Note

      If you use --grow= without setting --maxsize= on a swap partition, Anaconda will limit the maximum size of the swap partition. For systems that have less than 2GB of physical memory, the imposed limit is twice the amount of physical memory. For systems with more than 2GB, the imposed limit is the size of physical memory plus 2GB.
    • --maxsize= — The maximum partition size in megabytes when the partition is set to grow. Specify an integer value here, and do not append the number with MB.
    • --noformat — Tells the installation program not to format the partition, for use with the --onpart command.
    • --onpart= or --usepart= — Put the partition on the already existing device. For example:
      partition /home --onpart=hda1
      puts /home on /dev/hda1, which must already exist.
    • --ondisk= or --ondrive= — Forces the partition to be created on a particular disk. For example, --ondisk=sdb puts the partition on the second SCSI disk on the system.
    • --asprimary — Forces automatic allocation of the partition as a primary partition, or the partitioning fails.
    • --type= (replaced by fstype) — This option is no longer available. Use fstype.
    • --fstype= — Sets the file system type for the partition. Valid values are xfs, ext2, ext3, ext4, swap, vfat, and hfs.
    • --start= — Specifies the starting cylinder for the partition. It requires that a drive be specified with --ondisk= or ondrive=. It also requires that the ending cylinder be specified with --end= or the partition size be specified with --size=.
    • --end= — Specifies the ending cylinder for the partition. It requires that the starting cylinder be specified with --start=.
    • --bytes-per-inode= — Specifies the size of inodes on the filesystem to be made on the partition. Not all filesystems support this option, so it is silently ignored for those cases.
    • --recommended — Determine the size of the partition automatically.
    • --onbiosdisk — Forces the partition to be created on a particular disk as discovered by the BIOS.
    • --encrypted — Specifies that this partition should be encrypted.
    • --passphrase= — Specifies the passphrase to use when encrypting this partition. Without the above --encrypted option, this option does nothing. If no passphrase is specified, the default system-wide one is used, or the installer will stop and prompt if there is no default.
    • --fsoptions= — Specifies a free form string of options to be used when mounting the filesystem. This string will be copied into the /etc/fstab file of the installed system and should be enclosed in quotes.
    • --label= — assign a label to an individual partition.

    Note

    If partitioning fails for any reason, diagnostic messages appear on virtual console 3.
    poweroff (optional)
    Shut down and power off the system after the installation has successfully completed. Normally during a manual installation, anaconda displays a message and waits for the user to press a key before rebooting. During a kickstart installation, if no completion method is specified, the halt option is used as default.
    The poweroff option is roughly equivalent to the shutdown -p command.

    Note

    The poweroff option is highly dependent on the system hardware in use. Specifically, certain hardware components such as the BIOS, APM (advanced power management), and ACPI (advanced configuration and power interface) must be able to interact with the system kernel. Contact your manufacturer for more information on you system's APM/ACPI abilities.
    For other completion methods, refer to the halt, reboot, and shutdown kickstart options.
    raid (optional)
    Assembles a software RAID device. This command is of the form:
    raid <mntpoint> --level=<level> --device=<mddevice> <partitions*>
    • <mntpoint> — Location where the RAID file system is mounted. If it is /, the RAID level must be 1 unless a boot partition ( /boot) is present. If a boot partition is present, the /boot partition must be level 1 and the root ( /) partition can be any of the available types. The <partitions*> (which denotes that multiple partitions can be listed) lists the RAID identifiers to add to the RAID array.
    • --level= — RAID level to use (0, 1, 4, 5, 6, or 10).
    • --device= — Name of the RAID device to use (such as md0 or md1). RAID devices range from md0 to md15, and each may only be used once.
    • --bytes-per-inode= — Specifies the size of inodes on the filesystem to be made on the RAID device. Not all filesystems support this option, so it is silently ignored for those cases.
    • --spares= — Specifies the number of spare drives allocated for the RAID array. Spare drives are used to rebuild the array in case of drive failure.
    • --fstype= — Sets the file system type for the RAID array. Valid values are xfs, ext2, ext3, ext4, swap, vfat, and hfs.
    • --fsoptions= — Specifies a free form string of options to be used when mounting the filesystem. This string will be copied into the /etc/fstab file of the installed system and should be enclosed in quotes.
    • --noformat — Use an existing RAID device and do not format the RAID array.
    • --useexisting — Use an existing RAID device and reformat it.
    • --encrypted — Specifies that this RAID device should be encrypted.
    • --passphrase= — Specifies the passphrase to use when encrypting this RAID device. Without the above --encrypted option, this option does nothing. If no passphrase is specified, the default system-wide one is used, or the installer will stop and prompt if there is no default.
    The following example shows how to create a RAID level 1 partition for /, and a RAID level 5 for /usr, assuming there are three SCSI disks on the system. It also creates three swap partitions, one on each drive.
    part raid.01 --size=60 --ondisk=sda
    part raid.02 --size=60 --ondisk=sdb 
    part raid.03 --size=60 --ondisk=sdc
    
    part swap --size=128 --ondisk=sda  
    part swap --size=128 --ondisk=sdb  
    part swap --size=128 --ondisk=sdc
    
    part raid.11 --size=1 --grow --ondisk=sda  
    part raid.12 --size=1 --grow --ondisk=sdb  
    part raid.13 --size=1 --grow --ondisk=sdc
    
    raid / --level=1 --device=md0 raid.01 raid.02 raid.03  
    raid /usr --level=5 --device=md1 raid.11 raid.12 raid.13
    
    For a detailed example of raid in action, refer to Section 31.4.1, “Advanced Partitioning Example”.
    reboot (optional)
    Reboot after the installation is successfully completed (no arguments). Normally, kickstart displays a message and waits for the user to press a key before rebooting.
    The reboot option is roughly equivalent to the shutdown -r command.
    Specify reboot to automate installation fully when installing in cmdline mode on System z.
    For other completion methods, refer to the halt, poweroff, and shutdown kickstart options.
    The halt option is the default completion method if no other methods are explicitly specified in the kickstart file.

    Note

    Use of the reboot option may result in an endless installation loop, depending on the installation media and method.
    repo (optional)
    Configures additional yum repositories that may be used as sources for package installation. Multiple repo lines may be specified.
    repo --name=<repoid> [--baseurl=<url>| --mirrorlist=<url>]
    
    • --name= — The repo id. This option is required.
    • --baseurl= — The URL for the repository. The variables that may be used in yum repo config files are not supported here. You may use one of either this option or --mirrorlist, not both.
    • --mirrorlist= — The URL pointing at a list of mirrors for the repository. The variables that may be used in yum repo config files are not supported here. You may use one of either this option or --baseurl, not both.
    rootpw (required)
    Sets the system's root password to the <password> argument.
    rootpw [--iscrypted] <password>
    • --iscrypted — If this is present, the password argument is assumed to already be encrypted.
    selinux (optional)
    Sets the state of SELinux on the installed system. SELinux defaults to enforcing in anaconda.
    selinux [--disabled|--enforcing|--permissive]
    • --enforcing — Enables SELinux with the default targeted policy being enforced.

      Note

      If the selinux option is not present in the kickstart file, SELinux is enabled and set to --enforcing by default.
    • --permissive — Outputs warnings based on the SELinux policy, but does not actually enforce the policy.
    • --disabled — Disables SELinux completely on the system.
    services (optional)
    Modifies the default set of services that will run under the default runlevel. The services listed in the disabled list will be disabled before the services listed in the enabled list are enabled.
    • --disabled — Disable the services given in the comma separated list.
    • --enabled — Enable the services given in the comma separated list.

    Important

    If you include spaces in the comma-separated list, kickstart will enable or disable only the services up to the first space. For example:
    services --disabled auditd, cups,smartd, nfslock
    will disable only the auditd service. To disable all four services, this entry should include no spaces between services:
    services --disabled auditd,cups,smartd,nfslock
    shutdown (optional)
    Shut down the system after the installation has successfully completed. During a kickstart installation, if no completion method is specified, the halt option is used as default.
    The shutdown option is roughly equivalent to the shutdown command.
    For other completion methods, refer to the halt, poweroff, and reboot kickstart options.
    skipx (optional)
    If present, X is not configured on the installed system.
    text (optional)
    Perform the kickstart installation in text mode. Kickstart installations are performed in graphical mode by default.
    timezone (required)
    Sets the system time zone to <timezone> which may be any of the time zones listed by timeconfig.
    timezone [--utc] <timezone>
    • --utc — If present, the system assumes the hardware clock is set to UTC (Greenwich Mean) time.
    upgrade (optional)
    Tells the system to upgrade an existing system rather than install a fresh system. You must specify one of cdrom, harddrive, nfs, or url (for FTP and HTTP) as the location of the installation tree. Refer to install for details.
    user (optional)
    Creates a new user on the system.
    user --name=<username> [--groups=<list>] [--homedir=<homedir>] [--password=<password>] [--iscrypted] [--shell=<shell>] [--uid=<uid>]
    • --name= — Provides the name of the user. This option is required.
    • --groups= — In addition to the default group, a comma separated list of group names the user should belong to. The groups must exist before the user account is created.
    • --homedir= — The home directory for the user. If not provided, this defaults to /home/ <username>.
    • --password= — The new user's password. If not provided, the account will be locked by default.
    • --iscrypted= — Is the password provided by --password already encrypted or not?
    • --shell= — The user's login shell. If not provided, this defaults to the system default.
    • --uid= — The user's UID. If not provided, this defaults to the next available non-system UID.
    vnc (optional)
    Allows the graphical installation to be viewed remotely via VNC. This method is usually preferred over text mode, as there are some size and language limitations in text installs. With no options, this command will start a VNC server on the machine with no password and will print out the command that needs to be run to connect a remote machine.
    vnc [--host=<hostname>] [--port=<port>] [--password=<password>]
    • --host= — Instead of starting a VNC server on the install machine, connect to the VNC viewer process listening on the given hostname.
    • --port= — Provide a port that the remote VNC viewer process is listening on. If not provided, anaconda will use the VNC default.
    • --password= — Set a password which must be provided to connect to the VNC session. This is optional, but recommended.
    volgroup (optional)
    Use to create a Logical Volume Management (LVM) group with the syntax:
    volgroup <name> <partition> <options>
    The partition is described in the form pv.<id>. Any value can be assigned for <id> fields, as long as these values are consistent across volumes and volume groups. The default and lowest value is 01.
    The options are as follows:
    • --noformat — Use an existing volume group and do not format it.
    • --useexisting — Use an existing volume group and reformat it.
    • --pesize= — Set the size of the physical extents.
    Create the partition first, create the logical volume group, and then create the logical volume. For example:
    part pv.01 --size 3000 
    volgroup myvg pv.01 
    logvol / --vgname=myvg --size=2000 --name=rootvol
    For a detailed example of volgroup in action, refer to Section 31.4.1, “Advanced Partitioning Example”.
    xconfig (optional)
    Configures the X Window System. If this option is not given, the user must configure X manually during the installation, if X was installed; this option should not be used if X is not installed on the final system.
    • --driver — Specify the X driver to use for the video hardware.
    • --videoram= — Specifies the amount of video RAM the video card has.
    • --defaultdesktop= — Specify either GNOME or KDE to set the default desktop (assumes that GNOME Desktop Environment and/or KDE Desktop Environment has been installed through %packages).
    • --startxonboot — Use a graphical login on the installed system.
    • --resolution= — Specify the default resolution for the X Window System on the installed system. Valid values are 640x480, 800x600, 1024x768, 1152x864, 1280x1024, 1400x1050, 1600x1200. Be sure to specify a resolution that is compatible with the video card and monitor.
    • --depth= — Specify the default color depth for the X Window System on the installed system. Valid values are 8, 16, 24, and 32. Be sure to specify a color depth that is compatible with the video card and monitor.
    zerombr (optional)
    If zerombr is specified any invalid partition tables found on disks are initialized. This destroys all of the contents of disks with invalid partition tables.
    Note that this command was previously specified as zerombr yes. This form is now deprecated; you should now simply specify zerombr in your kickstart file instead.
    zfcp (optional)
    Define a Fiber channel device (IBM System z).
    zfcp [--devnum=<devnum>] [--fcplun=<fcplun>] [--scsiid=<scsiid>] [--scsilun=<scsilun>] [--wwpn=<wwpn>]
    %include (optional)
    Use the %include /path/to/file command to include the contents of another file in the kickstart file as though the contents were at the location of the %include command in the kickstart file.

    31.4.1. Advanced Partitioning Example

    The following is a single, integrated example showing the clearpart, raid, part, volgroup, and logvol kickstart options in action:
    clearpart --drives=hda,hdc --initlabel  
    # Raid 1 IDE config 
    part raid.11    --size 1000     --asprimary     --ondrive=hda 
    part raid.12    --size 1000     --asprimary     --ondrive=hda 
    part raid.13    --size 2000     --asprimary     --ondrive=hda 
    part raid.14    --size 8000                     --ondrive=hda 
    part raid.15    --size 1 --grow                 --ondrive=hda             
    part raid.21    --size 1000     --asprimary     --ondrive=hdc 
    part raid.22    --size 1000     --asprimary     --ondrive=hdc 
    part raid.23    --size 2000     --asprimary     --ondrive=hdc 
    part raid.24    --size 8000                     --ondrive=hdc 
    part raid.25    --size 1 --grow                 --ondrive=hdc  
    
    # You can add --spares=x  
    raid /          --fstype ext3 --device md0 --level=RAID1 raid.11 raid.21 
    raid /safe      --fstype ext3 --device md1 --level=RAID1 raid.12 raid.22 
    raid swap       --fstype swap --device md2 --level=RAID1 raid.13 raid.23 
    raid /usr       --fstype ext3 --device md3 --level=RAID1 raid.14 raid.24 
    raid pv.01      --fstype ext3 --device md4 --level=RAID1 raid.15 raid.25  
    
    # LVM configuration so that we can resize /var and /usr/local later 
    volgroup sysvg pv.01     
    logvol /var             --vgname=sysvg  --size=8000     --name=var 
    logvol /var/freespace   --vgname=sysvg  --size=8000     --name=freespacetouse 
    logvol /usr/local       --vgname=sysvg  --size=1 --grow --name=usrlocal
    
    This advanced example implements LVM over RAID, as well as the ability to resize various directories for future growth.

    展开全文
  • Kickstart

    2020-11-11 10:59:04
    Kickstart 一、特点 实现批量安装,部署系统环境快,可实现无人值守安装 二、工作原理 PXE的工作过程: 1、PXE Client 从自己的PXE网卡启动,向本网络中的DHCP服务器索取IP; 2、DHCP 服务器返回分配给客户机的IP * ...

    Kickstart

    一、特点

    实现批量安装,部署系统环境快,可实现无人值守安装

    二、工作原理

    PXE的工作过程:

    1、PXE Client 从自己的PXE网卡启动,向本网络中的DHCP服务器索取IP;

    2、DHCP 服务器返回分配给客户机的IP * 以及PXE文件的放置位置(该文件一般是放在一台TFTP服务器 上) ;

    3、PXE Client 向本网络中的TFTP服务器索取pxelinux.0 文件;

    4、PXE Client 取得pxelinux.0 文件后之执行该文件;

    5、根据pxelinux.0 的执行结果,通过TFTP服务器加载内核和文件系统 ;

    6、进入安装画面, 此时可以通过选择HTTP、FTP、NFS 方式之一进行安装;

    kickstart原理:在安装过程中记录典型的需要人工干预填写的各种参数,并生成一个名为ks.cfg的文件。如果在安装过程中(不只局限于生成Kickstart安装文件的机器) 出现要填写参数的情况,安装程序首先会去查找Kickstart生成的文件,如果找到合适的参数,就采用所找到的参数;如果没有找到合适的参数,便需要安装者手工干预了。

    三、kickstart无人值守安装

    注:涉及ks脚本,需在图形化下配置ks服务器

    1、安装软件

    yum install tftp-server xinetd dhcp httpd syslinux system-config-kickstart -y

    xinetd:tftp的守护进程

    syslinux:生成pxelinux.0的文件

    system-config-kickstart:生成ks脚本的工具

    2、配置DHCP

    1)编辑配置文件 vim /etc/dhcp/dhcpd.conf

    添加如下内容

    subnet 192.168.1.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 {

    range dynamic-bootp 192.168.1.3 192.168.1.100;

    filename “pxelinux.0”;

    next-server 192.168.1.1;

    }

    注:ks服务器IP为:192.168.1.1

    2)启动服务:systemctl restart dhcpd

    开机自启:systemctl enable dhcpd

    3、配置tftp-server

    1)编辑tftp配置文件 vim /etc/xinetd.d/tftp

    14行:disable = yes 改为:disable = no

    2)重启服务:systemctl restart xinetd

    开机自启:systemctl enable xinetd

    a、准备PXE相关文件到tftp根目录(/var/lib/tftpboot)

    1)建立PXE配置目录

    mkdir -v /var/lib/tftpboot/pxelinux.cfg

    2)挂载光盘

    mount /dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom

    3)进入光盘挂载点,copy文件到/var/lib/tftpboot/pxelinux.cfg

    cd /mnt/cdrom

    cp isolinux/*.msg /var/lib/tftpboot/

    cp isolinux/isolinux.cfg /var/lib/tftpboot/pxelinux.cfg/default

    cp images/pxeboot/vmlinuz /var/lib/tftpboot/ ————内核

    cp images/pxeboot/initrd.img /var/lib/tftpboot/ ————存放驱动程序的文件

    cp /usr/share/syslinux/pxelinux.0 /var/lib/tftpboot/

    cp /usr/share/syslinux/vesamenu.c32 /var/lib/tftpboot/

    b、修改/var/lib/tftpboot/pxelinux.cfg/default权限并编辑

    chmod 644 /var/lib/tftpboot/pxelinux.cfg/default

    vim /var/lib/tftpboot/pxelinux.cfg/default

    2行更改为:timeout 10

    61到63行改为:

    label linux

    menu label ^Install CentOS 7

    kernel vmlinuz

    append initrd=initrd.img quiet

    注释66(label check字段下)行的 menu default

    并添加以下字段

    label ks

    kernel vmlinuz

    menu default

    append ks=http://192.168.1.1/ks.cfg initrd=initrd.img

    ks标签为apach服务器所在主机的位置

    4、配置apach

    1)创建光盘挂载目录

    mkdir -pv /var/www/html/centos

    2)挂载光盘

    mount /dev/cdrom /var/www/html/centos/

    3)ks脚本生成(GUI模式下)

    1、启动ks生成工具

    system-config-kickstart

    2、脚本设置

    3、设置完成后,选择“文件”->“保存” 文件名为ks.cfg,路径为/var/www/html下

    注:若软件包选择不可选,可在ks.cfg文件下添加以下内容(即安装基础设施服务器)

    vim ks.cfg进行编辑,最后一行添加以下内容:

    %packages

    @base

    @core

    kexec-tools

    %end

    5、重新启动相关服务

    httpd:systemctl restart httpd

    tftp:systemctl restart xinetd

    dhcpd:systemctl restart dhcpd

    6、客户端测试

    客户端创建一台虚拟机,将网卡与kickstart网卡服务器绑定为同一网段,启动后即可实现CentOS7 的自动安装与部署

    展开全文
  • kickstart-源码

    2021-03-16 01:29:07
    kickstart
  • ubuntu-kickstart:Ubuntu的Kickstart配置文件
  • kickstart教程

    2012-10-11 22:47:46
    linux kickstart 教程
  • CS-Kickstart CS Kickstart的新信息网站。
  • KickStart2021-源码

    2021-04-01 04:42:25
    KickStart2021
  • linux18-kickstart

    2020-08-10 10:27:27
    绍linux18-kickstart
  • kickstart文件生成器 我称其为kickstart生成器,因为我主要使用它来生成kickstart文件并将其提供给pxebooting。 由于它具有的功能,该程序更像quertstring到Web文本转换器。 注意 url.Values将被解析为map [string]...
  • kickstart详解

    2013-10-17 11:30:48
    kickstart详细解释说明及示例。 内容涵盖RHEL5、RHEL6。
  • kickstart.sh

    2020-09-10 10:45:58
    netdata一键安装脚本 ,该脚本负责整个安装流程控制,首先下载kickstart.sh脚本并执行,该脚本会安装依赖,默认最小化依赖,依赖安装完后会下载tar包,并解压在/tmp/kickstart-XXX/下,执行netdata-insrall.sh脚本...
  • kickstart安装

    2019-09-29 00:18:34
    安装Kickstart # yum install system-config-kickstart 8.2 在桌面环境下配置Kickstart 启动X Windows 环境 # startx 配置Kickstart # system-config-kickstart A. 设置语言,键盘,时区,Root...

    1、生成ks.cfg 文件

     安装Kickstart

    # yum install system-config-kickstart

    8.2 在桌面环境下配置Kickstart

    启动X Windows 环境

    # startx

    配置Kickstart

    # system-config-kickstart

    A. 设置语言,键盘,时区,Root密码,安装完毕后重启等。

    6

    B. 设置安装方式,这篇文章介绍的是HTTP方式的安装,故选择HTTP

    C. 安装MBR

    8

    D. 设置分区

    9

    E. 分区总览

    10

    F. 配置网络

    11

    G. 认证配置

    12

    H. SELinux 和防火墙配置

    13

    I. 图形环境配置

    14

    J. 软件包安装选择

    15

    L. 生成ks.cfg 文件,保存在/var/www/html/ 文件夹下

    17

    我们可以打开/var/www/html/ks.cfg 文件进行查看并做修改。

    platform=x86, AMD64, or Intel EM64T 
    #version=DEVEL 
    # Firewall configuration 
    firewall --disabled 
    # Install OS instead of upgrade 
    install 
    # Use network installation 
    url --url=http://172.16.68.61/cobbler/ks_mirror/CentOS_6.5_x86_64-x86_64/ #这个选项告诉安装程序:到服务器172.16.68.61 的HTTP根目录下的cdrom 文件夹下寻找安装介质
    # Root password 
    rootpw --iscrypted $1$vsvtP./e$6PVMNfJd.shq2LgFJjYfA1 
    # System authorization information 
    auth  --useshadow  --enablemd5 
    # Use graphical install 
    graphical 
    firstboot --disable 
    # System keyboard 
    keyboard us 
    # System language 
    lang en_US 
    # SELinux configuration 
    selinux --disabled 
    # Installation logging level 
    logging --level=info 
    # Reboot after installation 
    reboot 
    # System timezone 
    timezone  --isUtc Asia/Shanghai 
    # Network information 
    network  --bootproto=dhcp --device=eth0 --onboot=on 
    # System bootloader configuration 
    key --skip 
    bootloader --append="rhgb quiet" --location=mbr --driveorder=sda 
    # Clear the Master Boot Record 
    zerombr 
    # Partition clearing information 
    clearpart --all --initlabel 
    # Disk partitioning information 
    part / --fstype="ext4" --size=8192 
    part swap --fstype="swap" --size=1024 
    part /home --fstype="ext4" --size=2048
    
    %packages 
    @base
    
    %end

    说明:key --skip 如果是红帽系统,此选项可以跳过输入序列号过程;如果是CentOS 系列,则可以不保留此项内容;

    reboot 此选项必须存在,也必须文中设定位置,不然kickstart显示一条消息,并等待用户按任意键后才重新引导;

    clearpart --all --initlabel 此条命令必须添加,不然系统会让用户手动选择是否清除所有数据,这就需要人为干预了,从而导致自动化过程失败;

    创建kickstart文件
            kickstart文件是一个简单的文本文件,它包含了一个项目列表,每个项目由一个关键字来识别.可以用「Kickstart 配置」应用程序创建它或是自己从头编写.红帽企业Linux安装程序也根据在安装过程中的选择创建一个简单的kickstart文件,这个文件被写入到/root/anaconda-ks.cfg.可以用任何能够把文件保存为ASCII文本的文本编辑器或字处理器来编辑它.
            首先,在创建kickstart文件时留意下列问题:
                    1.每节必须按顺序指定.除非特别申明,每节内的项目则不必按序排列.小节的顺序为:
                            命令部分,这里应该包括必需的选项.
                            %packages部分,这部分选择需要安装的软件包.
                            %pre和%post部分,这两个部分可以按任何顺序排列而且不是必需的.
                    2.不必需的项目可以被省略.
                    3.如果忽略任何必需的项目,安装程序会提示用户输入相关的项目的选择,就象用户在典型的安装过程中所遇到的一样.一旦用户进行了选择,安装会以非交互的方式(unattended)继续(除非找到另外一个没有指定的项目).
                    4.以井号("#")开头的行被当作注释行并被忽略.
            对于 kickstart 升级,下列项目是必需的:
                    1.语言
                    2.安装方法
                    3.设备规格(如果这个设备是在安装过程中所需要的)
                    4.键盘设置
                    5.upgrade 关键字
                    6.引导装载程序配置
                    7.如果任何其他的项目被指定为upgrade,这些项目将被忽略(注意这包括了软件包选择).
    
    kickstart命令选项
            下面的选项可以放入kickstart文件.如果喜欢使用图形化的界面来创建kickstart文件,可以使用"Kickstart 配置"应用程序.(注:如果某选项后面跟随了一个等号(=),它后面就必须指定一个值.在示例命令中,括号([])中的选项是命令的可选参数.)
            autopart(可选)
                    自动创建分区,大于1GB的根分区(/),交换分区和适合于不同体系结构的引导分区.一个或多个缺省分区的大小可以用part指令重新定义.
            ignoredisk(可选)
                    导致安装程序忽略指定的磁盘.如果使用自动分区并希望忽略某些磁盘的话,这就很有用.
                            例如,没有ignoredisk,如要试图在SAN-cluster系统里部署,kickstart就会失败,因为安装程序检测到SAN不返回分区表的被动路径(passive path).
                    如果有磁盘的多个路径时,ignoredisk选项也有用处.
                    语法是:
                            ignoredisk --drives=drive1,drive2,...
                            这里driveN是sda,sdb... hda等等中的一个.
            autostep(可选)
                    和interactive相似,除了它进入下一屏幕,它通常用于调试.
                    --autoscreenshot,安装过程中的每一步都截屏并在安装完成后把图片复制到/root/anaconda-screenshots.这对于制作文档很有用.
            auth或authconfig(必需)
                    为系统设置验证选项.这和在安装后运行的authconfig命令相似.在缺省情况下,密码通常被加密但不使用影子文件(shadowed).
                    --enablemd5,每个用户口令都使用md5加密.
                    --enablenis,启用NIS支持.在缺省情况下,--enablenis使用在网络上找到的域.域应该总是用--nisdomain=选项手工设置.
                    --nisdomain=,用在NIS服务的NIS域名.
                    --nisserver=,用来提供NIS服务的服务器(默认通过广播).
                    --useshadow或--enableshadow,使用屏蔽口令.
                    --enableldap,在/etc/nsswitch.conf启用LDAP支持,允许系统从LDAP目录获取用户的信息(UIDs,主目录,shell 等等).要使用这个选项,必须安装nss_ldap软件包.也必须用--ldapserver=和--ldapbasedn=指定服务器和base DN(distinguished name).
                    --enableldapauth,把LDAP作为一个验证方法使用.这启用了用于验证和更改密码的使用LDAP目录的pam_ldap模块.要使用这个选项,必须安装nss_ldap软件包.也必须用--ldapserver=和--ldapbasedn=指定服务器和base DN.
                    --ldapserver=,如果指定了--enableldap或--enableldapauth,使用这个选项来指定所使用的LDAP服务器的名字.这个选项在/etc/ldap.conf文件里设定.
                    --ldapbasedn=,如果指定了--enableldap或--enableldapauth,使用这个选项来指定用户信息存放的LDAP目录树里的DN.这个选项在/etc/ldap.conf文件里设置.
                    --enableldaptls,使用TLS(传输层安全)查寻.该选项允许LDAP在验证前向LDAP服务器发送加密的用户名和口令.
                    --enablekrb5,使用Kerberos 5验证用户.Kerberos自己不知道主目录,UID或shell.如果启用了Kerberos,必须启用LDAP,NIS,Hesiod或者使用/usr/sbin/useradd命令来使这个工作站获知用户的帐号.如果使用这个选项,必须安装pam_krb5软件包.
                    --krb5realm=,工作站所属的Kerberos 5领域.
                    --krb5kdc=,为领域请求提供服务的KDC.如果的领域内有多个KDC,使用逗号(,)来分隔它们.
                    --krb5adminserver=,领域内还运行kadmind的KDC.该服务器处理改变口令以及其它管理请求.如果有不止一个KDC,该服务器必须是主KDC.
                    --enablehesiod,启用Hesiod支持来查找用户主目录,UID 和 shell.在网络中设置和使用 Hesiod 的更多信息,可以在 glibc 软件包里包括的 /usr/share/doc/glibc-2.x.x/README.hesiod里找到.Hesiod是使用DNS记录来存储用户,组和其他信息的 DNS 的扩展.
                    --hesiodlhs,Hesiod LHS("left-hand side")选项在/etc/hesiod.conf里设置.Hesiod 库使用这个选项来决定查找信息时搜索DNS的名字,类似于LDAP对 base DN的使用.
                    --hesiodrhs,Hesiod RHS("right-hand side")选项在/etc/hesiod.conf里设置.Hesiod 库使用这个选项来决定查找信息时搜索DNS的名字,类似于LDAP对base DN的使用.
                    --enablesmbauth,启用对SMB服务器(典型的是Samba或Windows服务器)的用户验证.SMB验证支持不知道主目录,UID 或 shell.如果启用SMB,必须通过启用LDAP,NIS,Hesiod或者用/usr/sbin/useradd命令来使用户帐号为工作站所知.要使用这个选项,必须安装pam_smb软件包.
                    --smbservers=,用来做SMB验证的服务器名称.要指定不止一个服务器,用逗号(,)来分隔它们.
                    --smbworkgroup=,SMB服务器的工作组名称.
                    --enablecache,启用nscd服务.nscd服务缓存用户,组和其他类型的信息.如果选择在网络上用NIS,LDAP或hesiod分发用户和组的信息,缓存就尤其有用.
            bootloader(必需)
                    指定引导装载程序怎样被安装.对于安装和升级,这个选项都是必需的.
                    --append=,指定内核参数.要指定多个参数,使用空格分隔它们.
                            例如:bootloader --location=mbr --append="hdd=ide-scsi ide=nodma"
                    --driveorder,指定在BIOS引导顺序中居首的驱动器.
                            例如:bootloader --driveorder=sda,hda
                    --location=,指定引导记录被写入的位置.有效的值如下:mbr(缺省),partition(在包含内核的分区的第一个扇区安装引导装载程序)或none(不安装引导装载程序).
                    --password=,如果使用GRUB,把GRUB引导装载程序的密码设置到这个选项指定的位置.这应该被用来限制对可以传入任意内核参数的GRUB shell的访问.
                    --md5pass=,如果使用GRUB,这和--password=类似,只是密码已经被加密.
                    --upgrade,升级现存的引导装载程序配置,保留其中原有的项目.该选项仅可用于升级.
            clearpart(可选)
                    在创建新分区之前,从系统上删除分区.默认不会删除任何分区.
                    注:如果使用了clearpart命令,--onpart命令就不能够用在逻辑分区上.
                    --all,删除系统上所有分区.
                    --drives=,指定从哪个驱动器上清除分区.
                            例如,下面的命令清除了主IDE控制器上的前两个驱动器上所有分区
                            clearpart --drives=hda,hdb --all
                    --initlabel,根据不同体系结构把磁盘标签初始化为缺省设置(例如,msdos用于x86而gpt用于Itanium).当安装到一个崭新的硬盘时,这很有用,安装程序不会询问是否应该初始化磁盘标签.
                    --linux,删除所有Linux分区.
                    --none(缺省),不要删除任何分区.
            cmdline(可选)
                    在完全的非交互式的命令行模式下进行安装.任何交互式的提示都会终止安装.这个模式对于有x3270控制台的IBM System z系统很有用.
            device(可选)
                    在多数的PCI系统里,安装程序会正确地自动探测以太网卡和SCSI卡.然而,在老的系统和某些PCI系统里,kickstart需要提示来找到正确的设备.device命令用来告诉安装程序安装额外的模块,它有着这样的格式:
                    device --opts=
                    ,用scsi或eth代替
                    ,使用应该被安装的内核模块的名称来替换.
                    --opts=,传递给内核模块的选项.注意,如果把选项放在引号里,可以传递多个选项.
                            例如:--opts="aic152x=0x340 io=11"
                                                      
            driverdisk(可选)
                    可以在kickstart安装过程中使用驱动软盘.必须把驱动软盘的内容复制到系统的硬盘分区的根目录下.然后必须使用driverdisk 命令来告诉安装程序到哪去寻找驱动磁盘.
                    driverdisk [--type=]
                    另外,也可以为驱动程序盘指定一个网络位置:
                    driverdisk --source=ftp://path/to/dd.img
                    driverdisk --source=http://path/to/dd.img
                    driverdisk --source=nfs:host:/path/to/img
                            ,包含驱动程序盘的分区.
                            --type=,文件系统类型(如:vfat,ext2,ext3).
            firewall(可选)
                    这个选项对应安装程序里的「防火墙配置」屏幕:
                    firewall --enabled|--disabled [--trust=] [--port=]
                    --enabled或者--enable,拒绝不是答复输出请求如DNS答复或DHCP请求的进入连接.如果需要使用在这个机器上运行的服务,可以选择允许指定的服务穿过防火墙.
                    --disabled或--disable,不要配置任何iptables规则.
                    --trust=,在此列出设备,如eth0,这允许所有经由这个设备的数据包通过防火墙.如果需要列出多个设备,使用--trust eth0 --trust eth1.不要使用以逗号分隔的格式,如--trust eth0, eth1.
                    ,使用以下服务中的一个或多个来替换,从而允许指定的服务穿过防火墙.
                            --ssh
                            --telnet
                            --smtp
                            --http
                            --ftp
                    --port=,可以用端口:协议(port:protocal)格式指定允许通过防火墙的端口.
                            例如,如果想允许IMAP通过的防火墙,可以指定imap:tcp.还可以具体指定端口号码,要允许UDP分组在端口1234通过防火墙,输入1234:udp.要指定多个端口,用逗号将它们隔开.
            firstboot(可选)
                    决定是否在系统第一次引导时启动"设置代理".如果启用,firstboot软件包必须被安装.如果不指定,这个选项是缺省为禁用的.
                    --enable或--enabled,系统第一次引导时,启动"设置代理".
                    --disable或--disabled,系统第一次引导时,不启动"设置代理".
                    --reconfig,在系统引导时在重配置(reconfiguration)模式下启用"设置代理".这个模式启用了语言,鼠标,键盘,根密码,安全级别,时区和缺省网络配置之外的选项.
            halt(可选)
                    在成功地完成安装后关闭系统.这和手工安装相似,手工安装的anaconda会显示一条信息并等待用户按任意键来重启系统.在kickstart安装过程中,如果没有指定完成方法(completion method),将缺省使用reboot选项.
                    halt选项基本和shutdown -h命令相同.
                    关于其他的完成方法,请参考kickstart的poweroff,reboot和shutdown选项.
            graphical(可选)
                    在图形模式下执行kickstart安装.kickstart安装默认在图形模式下安装.
            install(可选)
                    告诉系统来安装全新的系统而不是在现有系统上升级.这是缺省的模式.必须指定安装的类型,如cdrom,harddrive,nfs或url(FTP 或HTTP安装).install命令和安装方法命令必须处于不同的行上.
            cdrom
                    从系统上的第一个光盘驱动器中安装.
            harddrive
                    从本地驱动器的vfat或ext2格式的红帽安装树来安装.
                    --biospart=,从BIOS分区来安装(如82).
                    --partition=,从分区安装(如sdb2).
                    --dir=,包含安装树的variant目录的目录.
                            例如:harddrive --partition=hdb2 --dir=/tmp/install-tree
            nfs
                    从指定的NFS服务器安装.
                            --server=,要从中安装的服务器(主机名或IP).
                            --dir=,包含安装树的variant目录的目录.
                            --opts=,用于挂载NFS输出的Mount选项(可选).
                                    例如:nfs --server=nfsserver.example.com --dir=/tmp/install-tree
            url
                    通过FTP或HTTP从远程服务器上的安装树中安装.
                            例如:url --url http:///>
                            或:url --url ftp://:@/>
            ignore disk(可选)
                    用来指定在分区,格式化和清除时anaconda不应该访问的磁盘.这个命令有一个必需的参数,就是用逗号隔开的需要忽略的驱动器列表.
                    例如:ignoredisk --drives=[disk1,disk2,...]
            interactive(可选)
                    在安装过程中使用kickstart文件里提供的信息,但允许检查和修改给定的值.将遇到安装程序的每个屏幕以及kickstart文件里给出的值.通过点击"下一步"接受给定的值或是改变值后点击"下一步"继续.请参考autostep命令.
            iscsi(可选)
                    issci --ipaddr= [options].
                    --target
                    --port=
                    --user=
                    --password=
            iscsiname(可选)
            key(可选)
                    指定安装密钥,它在软件包选择和获取支持时设别系统的时候是必需的.这个命令是红帽企业Linux-specific,它对Fedora来说没有意义并且会被忽略.
                    --skip,跳过输入密钥.通常,如果没有key命令,anaconda将暂停并提示输入密钥.如果没有密钥或不想提供它,这个选项允许继续自动化安装.
            keyboard(必需)
                    设置系统键盘类型.这里是 i386,Itanium,和 Alpha 机器上可用键盘的列表:
                    be-latin1, bg, br-abnt2, cf, cz-lat2, cz-us-qwertz, de, de-latin1, 
                    de-latin1-nodeadkeys, dk, dk-latin1, dvorak, es, et, fi, fi-latin1, 
                    fr, fr-latin0, fr-latin1, fr-pc, fr_CH, fr_CH-latin1, gr, hu, hu101, 
                    is-latin1, it, it-ibm, it2, jp106, la-latin1, mk-utf, no, no-latin1, 
                    pl, pt-latin1, ro_win, ru, ru-cp1251, ru-ms, ru1, ru2,  ru_win, 
                    se-latin1, sg, sg-latin1, sk-qwerty, slovene, speakup,  speakup-lt, 
                    sv-latin1, sg, sg-latin1, sk-querty, slovene, trq, ua,  uk, us, us-acentos
                    文件/usr/lib/python2.2/site-packages/rhpl/keyboard_models.py 也包含这个列表而且是 rhpl 软件包的一部分.
            lang(必需)
                    设置在安装过程中使用的语言以及系统的缺省语言.例如,要把语言设置为英语,kickstart文件应该包含下面的一行:
                    lang en_US
                    文件/usr/share/system-config-language/locale-list里每一行的第一个字段提供了一个有效语言代码的列表,它是system-config-language软件包的一部分.
                    文本模式的安装过程不支持某些语言(主要是中文,日语,韩文和印度的语言).如果用lang命令指定这些语言中的一种,安装过程仍然会使用英语,但是系统会缺省使用指定的语言.
            langsupport(不赞成)
                    langsupport关键字已经被取消而且使用它将导致屏幕出现错误信息及终止安装.作为代替,应该在kickstart文件里的%packages 部分列出所支持的语言的支持软件包组.例如,要支持法语,应该把下面的语句加入到
                    %packages:
                    @french-support
            logvol(可选)
                    使用以下语法来为逻辑卷管理(LVM)创建逻辑卷:
                    logvol --vgname= --size= --name=
                    这些选项如下所示:
                    --noformat,使用一个现存的逻辑卷,不进行格式化.
                    --useexisting,使用一个现存的逻辑卷,重新格式化它.
                    --fstype=,为逻辑卷设置文件系统类型.合法值有:ext2,ext3,swap和vfat.
                    --fsoptions=,为逻辑卷设置文件系统类型.合法值有:ext2,ext3,swap和vfat.
                    --bytes-per-inode=,指定在逻辑卷上创建的文件系统的节点的大小.因为并不是所有的文件系统都支持这个选项,所以在其他情况下它都被忽略.
                    --grow=,告诉逻辑卷使用所有可用空间(若有),或使用设置的最大值.
                    --maxsize=,当逻辑卷被设置为可扩充时,以MB为单位的分区最大值.在这里指定一个整数值,不要在数字后加MB.
                    --recommended=,自动决定逻辑卷的大小.
                    --percent=,用卷组里可用空间的百分比来指定逻辑卷的大小.
                    首先创建分区,然后创建逻辑卷组,再创建逻辑卷.
                            例如:
                            part pv.01 --size 3000 
                            volgroup myvg pv.01
                            logvol / --vgname=myvg --size=2000 --name=rootvol
            logging(可选)
                    这个命令控制安装过程中anaconda的错误日志.它对安装好的系统没有影响.
                    --host=,发送日志信息到给定的远程主机,这个主机必须运行配置为可接受远程日志的syslogd进程.
             --port=,如果远程的syslogd进程没有使用缺省端口,这个选项必须被指定.
                    --level=,debug,info,warning,error或critical中的一个.
                    指定tty3上显示的信息的最小级别.然而,无论这个级别怎么设置,所有的信息仍将发送到日志文件.
            mediacheck(可选)
                    如果指定的话,anaconda将在安装介质上运行mediacheck.这个命令只适用于交互式的安装,所以缺省是禁用的.
            monitor(可选)
                    如果monitor命令没有指定,anaconda将使用X来自动检测的显示器设置.请在手工配置显示器之前尝试这个命令.
                    --hsync=,指定显示器的水平频率.
                    --vsync=,指定显示器的垂直频率.
                    --monitor=,使用指定的显示器;显示器的名字应该在hwdata软件包里的/usr/share/hwdata/MonitorsDB列表上.这个显示器的列表也可以在Kickstart Configurator的X配置屏幕上找到.如果提供了--hsync或--vsync,它将被忽略.如果没有提供显示器信息,安装程序将自动探测显示器.
                    --noprobe=,不要试图探测显示器.
            mouse(已取消)
                    mouse 关键字已经被取消,使用它将导致屏幕出现错误信息并终止安装.
            network(可选)
                    为系统配置网络信息.如果 kickstart安装不要求联网(换句话说,不从NFS,HTTP或FTP安装),就不需要为系统配置网络.如果安装要求联网而kickstart文件里没有提供网络信息,安装程序会假定从eth0通过动态IP地址(BOOTP/DHCP)来安装,并配置安装完的系统动态决定IP地址.network选项为通过网络的kickstart安装以及所安装的系统配置联网信息.
                    --bootproto=,dhcp,bootp或static中的一种,缺省值是dhcp.bootp和dhcp被认为是相同的.
                            static方法要求在kickstart文件里输入所有的网络信息.顾名思义,这些信息是静态的且在安装过程中和安装后所有.静态网络的设置行更为复杂,因为必须包括所有的网络配置信息.必须指定IP地址,网络,网关和命名服务器.
                            例如("\"表示连续的行):
                            network --bootproto=static --ip=10.0.2.15 --netmask=255.255.255.0 \
                            --gateway=10.0.2.254 --nameserver=10.0.2.1
                            如果使用静态方法,请注意以下两个限制:
                                    所有静态联网配置信息都必须在一行上指定,不能使用反斜线来换行.
                                    在这里只能够指定一个命名服务器.然而,如果需要的话,可以使用kickstart文件的%post段落来添加更多的命名服务器.
                    --device=,用来选择用于安装的特定的以太设备.注意,除非kickstart文件是一个本地文件(如ks=floppy),否则--device=的使用是无效的.这是因为安装程序会配置网络来寻找kickstart文件.
                            例如: network --bootproto=dhcp --device=eth0
                    --ip=,要安装的机器的IP地址.
                    --gateway=,IP地址格式的默认网关.
                    --nameserver=,主名称服务器,IP地址格式.
                    --nodns,不要配置任何 DNS 服务器.
                    --netmask=,安装的系统的子网掩码.
                    --hostname=,安装的系统的主机名.
                    --ethtool=,指定传给ethtool程序的网络设备的其他底层设置.
                    --essid=,无线网络的网络ID.
                    --wepkey=,无线网络的加密密钥.
                    --onboot=,是否在引导时启用该设备.
                    --class=,DHCP类型.
                    --mtu=,该设备的MTU.
                    --noipv4=,禁用此设备的IPv4.
                    --noipv6=,禁用此设备的IPv6.
            multipath(可选)
                    multipath --name= --device= --rule=
            part或partition(对于安装是必需的,升级可忽略).
                    在系统上创建分区.
                    如果不同分区里有多个红帽企业Linux系统,安装程序会提示用户升级哪个系统.
                    警告:作为安装过程的一部分,所有被创建的分区都会被格式化,除非使用了--noformat和--onpart.
                    ,是分区的挂载点,它必须是下列形式中的一种:
                            /,例如,/,/usr,/home
                            swap,该分区被用作交换空间,要自动决定交换分区的大小,使用--recommended选项.
                                    swap --recommended
                                    自动生成的交换分区的最小值大于系统内存的数量,但小于系统内存的两倍.
                            raid.,该分区用于 software RAID(参考 raid).
                            pv.,该分区用于 LVM(参考 logvol).
                    --size=,以MB为单位的分区最小值.在此处指定一个整数值,如500.不要在数字后面加MB.
                    --grow,告诉分区使用所有可用空间(若有),或使用设置的最大值.
                    --maxsize=,当分区被设置为可扩充时,以MB为单位的分区最大值.在这里指定一个整数值,不要在数字后加MB.
                    --noformat,用--onpart命令来告诉安装程序不要格式化分区.
                    --onpart=或--usepart=,把分区放在已存在的设备上.
                            例如:partition /home --onpart=hda1,把/home置于必须已经存在的/dev/hda1上.
                    --ondisk=或--ondrive=,强迫分区在指定磁盘上创建.
                            例如:--ondisk=sdb把分区置于系统的第二个SCSI磁盘上.
                    --asprimary,强迫把分区分配为主分区,否则提示分区失败.
                    --type=(用fstype代替),这个选项不再可用了.应该使用fstype.
                    --fstype=,为分区设置文件系统类型.有效的类型为ext2,ext3,swap和vfat.
                    --start=,指定分区的起始柱面,它要求用--ondisk=或ondrive=指定驱动器.它也要求用--end=指定结束柱面或用--size=指定分区大小.
                    --end=,指定分区的结束柱面.它要求用--start=指定起始柱面.
                    --bytes-per-inode=,指定此分区上创建的文件系统的节点大小.不是所有的文件系统都支持这个选项,所以在其他情况下它都被忽略.
                    --recommended,自动决定分区的大小.
                    --onbiosdisk,强迫在 BIOS 找到的特定磁盘上创建分区.
                    注:如果因为某种原因分区失败了,虚拟终端3上会显示诊断信息.
            poweroff(可选)
                    在安装成功后关闭系统并断电.通常,在手工安装过程中,anaconda会显示一条信息并等待用户按任意键来重新启动系统.在kickstart的安装过程中,如果没有指定完成方法,将使用缺省的reboot选项.
            raid(可选)
                    组成软件RAID设备.该命令的格式是:
                    raid --level= --device=
                    ,RAID文件系统被挂载的位置.如果是/,除非已经有引导分区存在(/boot),RAID级别必须是1.如果已经有引导分区,/boot分区必须是级别1且根分区(/)可以是任何可用的类型.(这表示可以有多个分区)列出了加入到RAID阵列的RAID标识符.
                    --level=,要使用的RAID级别(0,1,或5).
                    --device=,要使用的RAID设备的名称(如md0或md1).RAID设备的范围从md0直到md7,每个设备只能被使用一次.
                    --bytes-per-inode=,指定RAID设备上创建的文件系统的节点大小.不是所有的文件系统都支持这个选项,所以对于那些文件系统它都会被忽略.
                    --spares=,指定RAID阵列应该被指派N个备用驱动器.备用驱动器可以被用来在驱动器失败时重建阵列.
                    --fstype=,为RAID阵列设置文件系统类型.合法值有:ext2,ext3,swap和vfat.
                    --fsoptions=,指定当挂载文件系统时使用的free form字符串.这个字符串将被复制到系统的/etc/fstab文件里且应该用引号括起来.
                    --noformat,使用现存的RAID设备,不要格式化RAID阵列.
                    --useexisting,使用现存的RAID设备,重新格式化它.
            reboot(可选)
                    在成功完成安装(没有参数)后重新启动.通常,kickstart会显示信息并等待用户按任意键来重新启动系统.
            repo(可选)
                    配置用于软件包安装来源的额外的yum库.可以指定多个repo行.
                    repo --name= [--baseline=| --mirrorlist=]
                    --name=,repo id.这个选项是必需的.
                    --baseurl=,库的URL.这里不支持yum repo配置文件里使用的变量.可以使用它或者--mirrorlist,亦或两者都不使用.
                    --mirrorlist=,指向库镜像的列表的URL.这里不支持yum repo配置文件里可能使用的变量.可以使用它或者--baseurl,亦或两者都不使用.
            rootpw(必需)
                    把系统的根口令设置为参数.
                    rootpw [--iscrypted] 
                    --iscrypted,如果该选项存在,口令就会假定已被加密.
            selinux(可选)
                    在系统里设置SELinux状态.在anaconda里,SELinux缺省为enforcing.
                    selinux [--disabled|--enforcing|--permissive]
                    --enforcing,启用SELinux,实施缺省的targeted policy.
                            注:如果kickstart文件里没有selinux选项,SELinux将被启用并缺省设置为--enforcing.
                    --permissive,输出基于SELinux策略的警告,但实际上不执行这个策略.
                    --disabled,在系统里完全地禁用 SELinux.
            services(可选)
                    修改运行在缺省运行级别下的缺省的服务集.在disabled列表里列出的服务将在enabled列表里的服务启用之前被禁用.
                    --disabled,禁用用逗号隔开的列表里的服务.
                    --enabled,启用用逗号隔开的列表里的服务.
            shutdown(可选)
                    在成功完成安装后关闭系统.在kickstart安装过程中,如果没有指定完成方法,将使用缺省的reboot选项.
            skipx(可选)
                    如果存在,安装的系统上就不会配置X.
            text(可选)
                    在文本模式下执行kickstart安装. kickstart安装默认在图形模式下安装.
            timezone(可选)
                    把系统时区设置为,它可以是timeconfig列出的任何时区.
                    timezone [--utc] 
                    --utc,如果存在,系统就会假定硬件时钟被设置为UTC(格林威治标准)时间.
            upgrade(可选)
                    告诉系统升级现有的系统而不是安装一个全新的系统.必须指定 cdrom,harddrive,nfs或url(对于FTP和HTTP而言)中的一个作为安装树的位置.详情请参考 install.
            user(可选)
                    在系统上创建新用户.
                    user --name= [--groups=] [--homedir=] [--password=] [--iscrypted] [--shell=] [--uid=]
                    --name=,提供用户的名字.这个选项是必需的.
                    --groups=,除了缺省的组以外,用户应该属于的用逗号隔开的组的列表.
                    --homedir=,用户的主目录.如果没有指定,缺省为/home/.
                    --password=,新用户的密码.如果没有指定,这个帐号将缺省被锁住.
                    --iscrypted=,所提供的密码是否已经加密?
                    --shell=,用户的登录shell.如果不提供,缺省为系统的缺省设置.
                    --uid=,用户的UID.如果未提供,缺省为下一个可用的非系统 UID.
            vnc(可选)
                    允许通过VNC远程地查看图形化的安装.文本模式的安装通常更喜欢使用这个方法,因为在文本模式下有某些大小和语言的限制.如果为no,这个命令将启动不需要密码的VNC服务器并打印出需要用来连接远程机器的命令.
                    vnc [--host=] [--port=] [--password=]
                    --host=,不启动VNC服务器,而是连接至给定主机上的VNC viewer进程.
                    --port=,提供远程VNC viewer进程侦听的端口.如果不提供,anaconda将使用VNC的缺省端口.
                    --password=,设置连接VNC会话必需的密码.这是可选的,但却是我们所推荐的选项.
            volgroup(可选)
                    用来创建逻辑卷管理(LVM)组,其语法格式为:
                    volgroup 
                    这些选项如下所示:
                    --noformat,使用一个现存的卷组,不要格式化它.
                    --useexisting,使用一个现存的卷组,重新格式化它.
                    --pesize=,设置物理分区(physical extent)的大小.
                    首先创建分区,然后创建逻辑卷组,再创建逻辑卷.例如:
            xconfig(可选)
                    配置X Window 系统.如果没有指定这个选项且安装了X,用户必须在安装过程中手工配置X;如果最终系统里没有安装X,这个选项不应该被使用.
                    --driver,指定用于视频硬件的 X 驱动.
                    --videoram=,指定显卡的显存数量.
                    --defaultdesktop=,指定GNOME或KDE作为缺省的桌面(假设已经通过%packages安装了GNOME或KDE桌面环境).
                    --startxonboot,在安装的系统上使用图形化登录.
                    --resolution=,指定安装的系统上X窗口系统的默认分辨率.有效值有:640x480,800x600,1024x768,1152x864, 1280x1024,1400x1050,1600x1200.请确定指定与视频卡和显示器兼容的分辨率.
                    --depth=,指定安装的系统上的 X 窗口系统的默认色彩深度.有效值有:8,16,24,和 32.请确定指定与视频卡和显示器兼容的色彩深度.
            zerombr(可选)
                    如果指定了zerombr且yes是它的唯一参数,任何磁盘上的无效分区表都将被初始化.这会毁坏有无效分区表的磁盘上的所有内容.这个命令的格式应该如下:
                    zerombr yes
                    其它格式均无效.
            zfcp(可选)
                    zfcp [--devnum=] [--fcplun=] [--scsiid=] [--scsilun=] [--wwpn=]
            %include
                    使用 %include/path/to/file命令可以把其他文件的内容包含在kickstart文件里,就好像这些内容出现在kickstart文件的%include命令后一样.
    
    kickstart的软件包选择
            在kickstart文件里使用%packages命令来列出想安装的软件包(仅用于全新安装,升级安装时不支持软件包指令).
            可以指定单独的软件包名或是组,以及使用星号通配符.安装程序可以定义包含相 关软件包的组.关于组的列表,请参考第一张红帽企业 Linux光盘里的 variant/repodata/comps-*.xml. 每个组都有一个编号,用户可见性的值,名字,描述和软件包列表.在软件包列表里,如果这个组被选择的话,组里的标记为"mandatory"的软件包就必须被安装;标记为"default"的软件包缺省被选择;而标记为"optional"的软件包必须被明确地选定才会被安装.
            多数情况下,只需要列出想安装的组而不是单个的软件包.注意Core和Base组总是缺省被选择,所以并不需要在%packages部分指定它们.
            这里是一个 %packages 选择的示例:
            %packages 
            @ X Window System 
            @ GNOME Desktop Environment 
            @ Graphical Internet 
            @ Sound and Video dhcp
            如所看到的,组被指定了,每个占用一行,用@符号开头,后面是comps.xml文件里给出的组全名.组也可以用组的id指定,如gnome-desktop.不需要额外字符就可以指定单独的软件包(上例里的dhcp行就是一个单独的软件包).
            %packages 指令也支持下面的选项:
                    --nobase,不要安装@Base 组.如果想创建一个很小的系统,可以使用这个选项.
                    --resolvedeps,选项已经被取消了.目前依赖关系可以自动地被解析.
                    --ignoredeps,选项已经被取消了.目前依赖关系可以自动地被解析.
                    --ignoremissing,忽略缺少的软件包或软件包组,而不是暂停安装来向用户询问是中止还是继续安装.
                            例如:%packages --ignoremissing
    kickstart预安装脚本
            可以在 ks.cfg文件被解析后马上加入要运行的命令.这个部分必须处于kickstart文件的最后(在命令部分之后)而且必须用%pre命令开头.可以在%pre部分访问网络;然而,此时命名服务还未被配置,所以只能使用IP地址.
            注:预安装脚本不在改换了的根环境(chroot)中运行.
            --interpreter /usr/bin/python,允许指定不同的脚本语言,如Python.把/usr/bin/python替换成想使用的脚本语言.
    
    kickstart安装后脚本
            也可以加入在系统安装完毕后运行的命令.这部分内容必须在kickstart的最后而且用%post命令开头.它被用于实现某些功能,如安装其他的软件和配置其他的命名服务器.
            注:如果用静态IP信息和命名服务器配置网络,可以在%post部分访问和解析IP地址.如果使用DHCP配置网络,当安装程序执行到%post部分时,/etc/resolv.conf文件还没有准备好.此时,可以访问网络,但是不能解析IP地址.因此,如果使用DHCP,必须在%post部分指定IP地址.
            注:post-install 脚本是在 chroot 环境里运行的.因此,某些任务如从安装介质复制脚本或RPM将无法执行.
            --nochroot,允许指定想在chroot环境之外运行的命令.
                    下例把/etc/resolv.conf文件复制到刚安装的文件系统里.
                    %post --nochroot cp /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/sysimage/etc/resolv.conf
            --interpreter /usr/bin/python
                    允许指定不同的脚本语言,如Python.把/usr/bin/python替换成想使用的脚本语言.
    
    开始kickstart安装
            要开始kickstart安装,必须从制作的引导介质或红帽企业Linux光盘引导系统,并输入在引导提示下输入特殊的引导命令.如果ks命令行参数被传递给内核,安装程序将寻找kickstart文件.
            第一张光盘和软盘
                    如果ks.cfg文件位于软盘的vfat或ext2文件系统里,而且从红帽企业Linux光盘引导的话,也可以使用linux ks=floppy命令.
                    另外一个引导方法是,从红帽企业Linux光盘引导并使用软盘上的vfat或ext2文件系统里的kickstart文件.要实现这样的方法,在boot:提示下输入下面的命令:linux ks=hd:fd0:/ks.cfg
            使用驱动程序盘
                    如果要使用带有kickstart的驱动盘,需要指定dd选项.
                            例如,从软盘引导并使用驱动盘,可以在boot:提示下输入命令linux ks=floppy dd
            引导光盘
                    如果kickstart文件位于引导光盘上,把光盘插入机器,引导系统并在boot:提示下输入命令linux ks=cdrom:/ks.cfg
            其它启动 kickstart 安装的方法如下列举:
                    askmethod,如果我们没有在的光驱里检测到红帽企业Linux光盘的话,请不要自动地把光盘作为安装来源.
                    autostep,使kickstart成为非交互式的.
                    debug,马上启动pdb.
                    dd,使用驱动盘.
                    dhcpclass=,发送自定义的DHCP vendor class identifier.ISC的dhcpcd可以用"option vendor-class-identifier"来查看这个值.
                    dns=,用逗号隔开的用于网络安装的命名服务器列表.
                    driverdisk,和'dd'相同.
                    expert,启用特殊的功能,允许对可移除介质(removable media)进行分区和提示驱动盘
                    gateway=,用于网络安装的网关.
                    graphical,强制图形化安装.ftp/http 安装模式时必须使用图形化界面.
                    isa,提示用户输入ISA设备配置.
                    ip=,用于网络安装的IP地址,对于DHCP使用'dhcp'.
                    keymap=,使用的键盘格式.有效值是那些可以用于'keyboard' kickstart命令的值.
                    ks=nfs::/,安装程序在NFS服务器上的里寻找kickstart文件.安装程序使用DHCP来配置以太网卡.例如,如果的NFS服务器是server.example.com且kickstart文件是NFS共享目录的里/mydir/ks.cfg,正确的引导命令应该是ks=nfs:server.example.com:/mydir/ks.cfg.
                    ks=http:///,安装程序在HTTP服务器上的里寻找kickstart文件.安装程序使用DHCP来配置以太网卡.例如,如果的HTTP服务器是server.example.com且kickstart文件是HTTP目录的里/mydir/ks.cfg,正确的引导命令应该是ks=http://server.example.com/mydir/ks.cfg.
                    ks=floppy,安装程序在/dev/fd0里的软盘上的vfat或ext2文件系统里寻找ks.cfg文件.
                    ks=floppy:/,安装程序在/dev/fd0里的软盘上以寻找kickstart文件.
                    ks=hd::/,安装程序把文件系统挂载在(必须是vfat或ext2),而且在该文件系统里以来寻找 kickstart 文件,如ks=hd:sda3:/mydir/ks.cfg.
                    ks=file:/,安装程序试图从文件系统里读取;并没有挂载任何文件.如果kickstart文件已经在initrd映像里时我们通常使用这个方法.
                    ks=cdrom:/,安装程序以在光盘上寻找kickstart文件.
                    ks,如果单独使用ks,安装程序将配置以太网卡使用DHCP.kickstart文件从DHCP应答的"bootServer"里读取,就像是NFS服务器共享kickstart文件一样.在缺省情况下,bootServer与DHCP服务器是同一个.kickstart文件的名字是下列之一:
                            如果指定了DHCP且引导文件以/开头,DHCP提供的引导文件将在NFS服务器上寻找.
                            如果指定了DHCP且引导文件不以/开头,DHCP提供的引导文件将在NFS服务器的/kickstart目录里寻找.
                            如果DHCP没有指定引导文件,安装程序将试图读取/kickstart/1.2.3.4-kickstart,这里的1.2.3.4是被安装的机器的数字化IP地址.
                    ksdevice=,安装程序使用这个网络设备来连接网络.如要使用通过eth1设备连接至系统的NFS服务器上的kickstart文件来启动kickstart安装,可以在boot:提示下使用ks=nfs::/ ksdevice=eth1命令.
                    kssendmac,把HTTP头加到对设置系统有帮助的ks=http://请求里.在CGI环境变量里包括所有网卡的MAC地址,如:"X-RHN-Provisioning-MAC-0: eth0 01:23:45:67:89:ab".
                    lang=,安装时使用的语言.这应该是'lang' kickstart命令可以使用的有效语言之一.
                    loglevel=,设置记录日志信息的最低级别.的值可以是debug,info,warning,error和critical.缺省值是info.
                    lowres,强制图形用户界面安装程序运行在640x480分辨率下.
                    mediacheck,激活加载者代码,可以允许用户选择测试安装介质(如果是基于ISO的方法)的完整性.
                    method=cdrom,执行基于光盘的安装.
                    method=ftp://,使用来进行FTP安装.
                    method=hd:///,用上的进行基于硬盘驱动器的安装.
                    method=http://,用来进行基于HTTP的安装.
                    method=nfs:,用来进行NFS安装.
                    netmask=,用于网络安装的掩码.
                    nofallback,如果图形化用户界面退出时失败.
                    nofb,不要载入某些语言进行文本安装时所需要的 VGA16 帧缓冲.
                    nofirewire,不要装载对防火墙设备的支持.
                    noipv6,在安装过程中禁用 IPv6 网络.
                    nokill,当发生致命错误时,阻止anaconda终止所有运行程序的调试选项.
                    nomount,不要在救援模式下自动挂载任何已安装的Linux分区.
                    nonet,不要自动探测网络设备.
                    noparport,不要试图装载对并行端口的支持.
                    nopass,不要把键盘和鼠标信息传递给安装程序的第二阶段.当执行网络安装时,它可以用来在安装的第二阶段测试鼠标和键盘配置屏幕.
                    nopcmcia,忽略系统上的任何PCMCIA控制器.
                    noprobe,提示用户输入而不要试图检测硬件.
                    noshell,安装过程中tty2上不要出现shell.
                    nostorage,不要自动探测存储设备(SCSI,IDE,RAID).
                    nousb,不要装载USB支持(如果安装过程在早些时候挂起,这会有帮助).
                    nousbstorage,不要在安装程序的载入程序中禁止载入usbstorage模块.它对SCSI系统上的设备排序可能有帮助.
                    rescue,运行救援环境.
                    resolution=,在指定模式下运行安装程序,如'1024x768'模式.
                    serial,启用串行控制台支持.
                    skipddc,跳过对显示器的DDC探测,如果系统被挂起的这可能有帮助.
                    syslog=[:],一旦安装过程被启动并运行,发送日志信息到的可选端口上的syslog进程.这要求远程syslog进程接受连接(-r 选项).
                    text,强制文本模式的安装.
                    updates,提示包含更新(bug修复)的软盘.
                    updates=ftp://,基于FTP的包含更新的映像文件.
                    updates=http://,基于HTTP的包含更新的映像文件.
                    upgradeany,不需要符合升级所期望的语法的/etc/redhat-release.
                    vnc,启用基于vnc的安装.将需要连接到使用vnc客户端程序的机器.
                    vncconnect=[:],一旦安装过程开始启动并运行,连接到上的vnc客户端,也可以使用可选端口.也要求'vnc' 选项被指定.
                    vncpassword=,启用vnc连接的密码.这将阻止其他人无意地连接到基于vnc的安装上.也要求'vnc'选项被指定.
    
    一个简单完整的实例
            install
            cdrom
            key 2515dd4e215225dd
            lang en_US.UTF-8
            keyboard us
            xconfig --startxonboot
            network --device eth0 --bootproto static --ip 192.168.100.8 --netmask 255.255.255.0 --gateway 192.168.100.2 --nameserver 122.70.138.10 --hostname test.huabo.org
            rootpw --iscrypted $1$BPHqwNav$CjjfBezv5OuecU3rNkdDb/
            firewall --enabled --port=22:tcp
            authconfig --enableshadow --enablemd5
            selinux --enforcing
            timezone Asia/Chongqing
            bootloader --location=mbr --driveorder=sda --append="rhgb quiet"
            clearpart --drives=sda,sdb,sdc,sdd --initlabel
            part    /boot    --fstype ext3    --size=100    --ondrive=sda
            part    /        --fstype ext3    --size=4000   --ondrive=sda
            part    swap     --size=512       --ondrive=sda
            part    raid.11  --size=1  --grow  --asprimary  --ondrive=sdb
            part    raid.21  --size=1  --grow  --asprimary  --ondrive=sdc
            part    raid.31  --size=1  --grow  --asprimary  --ondrive=sdd
            raid    pv.01  --device=md0 --level=RAID5 raid.11 raid.21 raid.31
            volgroup  vgname  pv.01
            logvol  /home  --fstype=ext3 --vgname=vgname  --size=4000  --name=home
            
            %packages  --ignoremissing
    @gnome-desktop @core @base-x @chinese-support xorg-x11-utils xorg-x11-server-Xnest

     

    转载于:https://www.cnblogs.com/zhenhui/p/6233285.html

    展开全文
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