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  • debian安装完之后发现sudo命令不能用 找了半天发现是没有安装sudo 得了,进入root安包,炸开他,apt-get install sudo 安装完发现又出现一堆怪问题 不管他,继续前进 在root设置sudoers配制文件 代码如下:chmod +w ...
  • 资源已跟新,请下载《Ubuntu 和 Debian安装Deepin第三方软件(QQ/TIM/微信/阿里旺旺/迅雷/百度网盘)脚本》
  • 一系列学习BeagleBone Black的心得。这是我根据网上的资料,以及很多相关书籍总结得来的,如果有兴趣一起学习嵌入式的话,欢迎互相交流。
  • Debian 安装

    万次阅读 2019-07-31 16:47:39
    这篇文章我会尽可能详细地说明如何快速安装纯净的Debian 8.2.0,需要懂一点vi编辑器的使用方法。 如果是新手,没用过 vim 编辑器也不用担心,我会尽量详细地说明使用方法。 首先在Debian官网上下载网络安装CD或者...

    这篇文章我会尽可能详细地说明如何快速安装纯净的Debian 8.2.0,需要懂一点vi编辑器的使用方法。 如果是新手,没用过 vim 编辑器也不用担心,我会尽量详细地说明使用方法。

    首先在Debian官网上下载网络安装CD或者完整DVD镜像,DVD镜像只需DVD-1即可。如果你的网络环境不错,推荐下载 netinst 包,通过网络安装 Debian 系统。

    下载好镜像后做成U盘启动盘,从U盘启动开机。在引导界面选择Graphical install(图形化安装),进入安装过程,如图:

    选择语言界面,选择中文吧,

     

    提示虽然是好心,但是安装过程中我就见到一处乱码还就是下面这个图上,直接选是,下一步。

    区域选择,选择中国。

    主机名,自己随便填吧。

    域名可不填,直接下一步。

    设置root密码,自己设定好并记牢,超级管理员账户啊。

    建立新用户,这个只是个昵称,不是登录时的用户名,可以根据自己喜好填。

    这玩意就是登录时的用户名了,设置时要多注意,并且一定要记住(其实记不住也没事,还有root呢)。

    设置用户密码。

    接下来该磁盘分区了,我用的虚拟机,但是方法上都一样的。

    有空闲分区的话推荐使用安装程序进行自动分区,当然也可以手动分区。自动分区的话如果是新手推荐“将所有文件放在同一个分区中”,有经验的就根据自己喜好调整吧。

    手动分区的话一定要记住挂载/根目录,否则会报错。Swap分区(交换分区)推荐大小为物理内存的两倍,比如我的实际内存为2G,swap给上4G就行了。

    完成调整后保存分区表即可。需要注意的是需要记住挂载 根目录/ 的分区号,方便后面安装grub,

    选是。

    对于软件安装,教程既然写的是纯净安装,那肯定是纯净为首了,对于软件包流行度调查,不参加即可。

    不扫描其他DVD,不使用网络镜像。

    我为了速度快所以用DVD-1完整镜像做了教程,如果是网络安装镜像的话不会有下面这个提示,对于网络镜像站点也选择不使用就行了。

    如果非要选择,在Asia的China中选ftp.cn.debian.org。

    选择软件包进行安装,当然是全不选,需要的后面会手动安装,在这里安装的桌面环境话会连接安全服务器更新内核,那速度真等着哭吧。

    安装完成后就是配置Grub了,如果你不想用Grub替换MBR,就选手动输入。

    然后输入你前面配置的挂载根目录/的文件系统,像我前面用的是/sda1,这里就输入/dev/sda1。

    安装完成后,拔掉启动U盘,直接点继续。

    开机后进入Grub引导界面,如果没有替换MBR的话需要在Windows操作系统下手动在Windows启动管理器里添加Grub启动项。

    Win 7 可以用 EasyBCD,WinXP 可用 WinGrub,使用方法百度上也是一大堆,这里不做介绍。正常进入Grub应该是这个样子,没装图形界面的话默认的界面还是有些 Geek 的,

    直接按回车进入Debian,等系统加载完如果出现下面的界面就说明启动成功了。

    在login后输入root,password后输入设置的超级管理员密码,以超级管理员权限进入系统。

    输入命令:

    vi /etc/apt/sources.list

    进入 vi 编辑器编辑源镜像站点。

    按 o 可以新建一行进行编辑操作,输入以下内容。

    deb http://ftp.cn.debian.org/debian jessie main non-free contrib
    deb http://ftp.cn.debian.org/debian jessie-proposed-updates main contrib non-free
    deb http://ftp.cn.debian.org/debian-security jessie/updates main contrib non-free
    deb-src http://ftp.cn.debian.org/debian/ jessie main contrib non-free

    输入完成后按键盘左上角的Esc键退出编辑模式,使用方向键移动光标进行定位,删除所有带有CD-ROM字样的条目。

    连续按两次d,即快速输入dd可以删除光标所在的当前行(需退出编辑模式才能生效,否则就是加了两个d),也可用Delete键逐一删除。

    删除完成后输入以下内容可完成保存和退出,注意前面有个冒号:

    :wq

    退出vi后,输入以下命令更新软件源:

    apt-get update

    更新完成后,会发现中间有一些菱形的字符,这是因为Linux命令行界面下无法加载中文字符造成的。

    安装中文字体:

    apt-get install ttf-wqy-*

    安装xfce4图形界面,当然你也可以安装kde4或者gnome等等桌面环境,根据个人喜好了,不同桌面的优劣可以自行百度对比。

    apt-get install xfce4 xfce4-terminal

    安装完成后,输入以下命令注销root用户:

    exit

    如果没有返回到login提示,再次重复上面的命令即可。

    成功注销root用户后,用自己设定的用户名和密码登录,进入后输入一下命令即可完成桌面环境的启动。

    startx

    这下就能看见桌面环境了,剩下的就不用多说了。

    如果出现中文乱码,以root权限进入xfce终端或在命令行界面输入以下命令:

    dpkg-reconfigure locales

    方向键上下选择,Page Up/Down可以翻页,空格键选中。

    将开头为zh_CN的几个全部选中,按回车键保存,选择zh_CN.UTF-8为默认locale,等待完成后重新启动系统即可解决乱码问题。

    最后,在你晚上睡觉前还有个事情,那就是执行下面的命令。

    apt-get update
    apt-get upgrade

    之后关闭显示器电源,让系统自动更新去吧,所谓的快速安装就是把安装过程中的系统更新放到了最后,仅此而已。

    这种安装方法有个不足之处,就是每次启动后必须手动打命令启动桌面环境,但是这个也没有太多影响,6个字符的命令敲完也就是两秒种的事。

    展开全文
  • Debian安装-源码

    2021-02-18 00:30:47
    在xfce4桌面上安装Debian 11 sudo ./install.sh sudo ./configure.sh 入门资源 以下资源是首次安装Debian的良好起点 关于计算机 笔记本电脑:技嘉Aero 15(2017) 发行版: Debian 11 Bullseye 桌面: xfce4 ...
  • 使用Debian Installer Netboot Assistant(di-netboot-assistant)软件可以轻松地在系统上托管Debian安装映像,其他系统可以使用Pre eXecution Environment(PXE)来启动Debian安装程序。 参考 Wiki
  • debian安装nginx 介绍 (Introduction) Nginx is one of the most popular web servers in the world and responsible for hosting some of the largest and highest-traffic sites on the internet. It is more ...

    debian安装nginx

    介绍 (Introduction)

    Nginx is one of the most popular web servers in the world and responsible for hosting some of the largest and highest-traffic sites on the internet. It is more resource-friendly than Apache in most cases and can be used as a web server or reverse proxy.

    Nginx是世界上最受欢迎的Web服务器之一,负责托管Internet上一些最大和流量最高的站点。 在大多数情况下,它比Apache更对资源友好,并且可以用作Web服务器或反向代理。

    In this guide, we’ll discuss how to install Nginx on your Debian 10 server.

    在本指南中,我们将讨论如何在Debian 10服务器上安装Nginx。

    先决条件 (Prerequisites)

    Before you begin this guide, you should have a regular, non-root user with sudo privileges configured on your server and an active firewall. You can learn how to set these up by following our initial server setup guide for Debian 10.

    在开始本指南之前,您应该已经在服务器和活动防火墙上配置了具有sudo特权的常规非root用户。 您可以通过遵循我们针对Debian 10的初始服务器设置指南来学习如何进行设置。

    When you have an account available, log in as your non-root user to begin.

    如果您有可用的帐户,请以非root用户身份登录以开始。

    步骤1 –安装Nginx (Step 1 – Installing Nginx)

    Because Nginx is available in Debian’s default repositories, it is possible to install it from these repositories using the apt packaging system.

    由于Nginx在Debian的默认存储库中可用,因此可以使用apt打包系统从这些存储库中安装Nginx。

    Since this is our first interaction with the apt packaging system in this session, let’s first update our local package index so that we have access to the most recent package listings:

    由于这是我们在本次会议中与apt打包系统的第一次交互,因此我们首先更新我们的本地包索引,以便可以访问最新的包清单:

    • sudo apt update

      sudo apt更新

    We can now install nginx:

    现在我们可以安装nginx

    • sudo apt install nginx

      sudo apt安装nginx

    When prompted to confirm the installation, hit Enter to proceed. After that, apt will install Nginx and any required dependencies to your server.

    当提示您确认安装时,请Enter继续。 之后, apt将为您的服务器安装Nginx和所有必需的依赖项。

    步骤2 –调整防火墙 (Step 2 – Adjusting the Firewall)

    Before testing Nginx, the firewall software needs to be adjusted to allow access to the service.

    在测试Nginx之前,需要调整防火墙软件以允许访问该服务。

    List the application configurations that ufw knows how to work with by typing:

    键入以下内容,列出ufw知道如何使用的应用程序配置:

    • sudo ufw app list

      sudo ufw应用程序列表

    You should get a listing of the application profiles:

    您应该获得应用程序配置文件的列表:

    
       
    Output
    Available applications: ... Nginx Full Nginx HTTP Nginx HTTPS ...

    As you can see, there are three profiles available for Nginx:

    如您所见,Nginx提供了三个配置文件:

    • Nginx Full: This profile opens both port 80 (normal, unencrypted web traffic) and port 443 (TLS/SSL encrypted traffic)

      Nginx Full :此配置文件同时打开端口80 (正常,未加密的网络流量)和端口443 (TLS / SSL加密的流量)

    • Nginx HTTP: This profile opens only port 80 (normal, unencrypted web traffic)

      Nginx HTTP :此配置文件仅打开端口80 (正常,未加密的网络流量)

    • Nginx HTTPS: This profile opens only port 443 (TLS/SSL encrypted traffic)

      Nginx HTTPS :此配置文件仅打开端口443 (TLS / SSL加密流量)

    It is recommended that you enable the most restrictive profile that will still allow the traffic you’ve configured. Since we haven’t configured SSL for our server yet in this guide, we will only need to allow traffic for HTTP on port 80.

    建议您启用限制性最强的配置文件,该配置文件仍将允许您配置的流量。 由于在本指南中我们尚未为服务器配置SSL,因此我们只需要允许端口80上的HTTP通信。

    You can enable this by typing:

    您可以通过键入以下内容启用此功能:

    • sudo ufw allow 'Nginx HTTP'

      sudo ufw允许'Nginx HTTP'

    You can verify the change by typing:

    您可以通过键入以下内容来验证更改:

    • sudo ufw status

      sudo ufw状态

    You should see HTTP traffic allowed in the displayed output:

    您应该在显示的输出中看到允许的HTTP流量:

    
       
    Output
    Status: active To Action From -- ------ ---- OpenSSH ALLOW Anywhere Nginx HTTP ALLOW Anywhere OpenSSH (v6) ALLOW Anywhere (v6) Nginx HTTP (v6) ALLOW Anywhere (v6)

    步骤3 –检查您的Web服务器 (Step 3 – Checking your Web Server)

    At the end of the installation process, Debian 10 starts Nginx. The web server should already be up and running.

    在安装过程结束时,Debian 10将启动Nginx。 Web服务器应该已经启动并正在运行。

    We can check with the systemd init system to make sure the service is running by typing:

    我们可以通过输入以下内容来检查systemd init系统,以确保服务正在运行:

    • systemctl status nginx

      systemctl状态nginx
    
       
    Output
    ● nginx.service - A high performance web server and a reverse proxy server Loaded: loaded (/lib/systemd/system/nginx.service; enabled; vendor preset: enabled) Active: active (running) since Wed 2019-07-03 12:52:54 UTC; 4min 23s ago Docs: man:nginx(8) Main PID: 3942 (nginx) Tasks: 3 (limit: 4719) Memory: 6.1M CGroup: /system.slice/nginx.service ├─3942 nginx: master process /usr/sbin/nginx -g daemon on; master_process on; ├─3943 nginx: worker process └─3944 nginx: worker process

    As you can see above, the service appears to have started successfully. However, the best way to test this is to actually request a page from Nginx.

    从上面可以看到,该服务似乎已成功启动。 但是,测试此问题的最佳方法是实际从Nginx请求一个页面。

    You can access the default Nginx landing page to confirm that the software is running properly by navigating to your server’s IP address. If you do not know your server’s IP address, try typing this at your server’s command prompt:

    您可以通过导航到服务器的IP地址来访问默认的Nginx登录页面,以确认软件是否正常运行。 如果您不知道服务器的IP地址,请尝试在服务器的命令提示符下键入以下内容:

    • ip addr show eth0 | grep inet | awk '{ print $2; }' | sed 's/\/.*$//'

      ip addr显示eth0 | grep inet | awk'{print $ 2; }'| sed's /\/.*$//'

    You will get back a few lines. You can try each in your web browser to see if they work.

    您将返回几行。 您可以尝试在网络浏览器中查看它们是否正常工作。

    When you have your server’s IP address, enter it into your browser’s address bar:

    拥有服务器的IP地址后,将其输入到浏览器的地址栏中:

    http://your_server_ip

    You should see the default Nginx landing page:

    您应该看到默认的Nginx登陆页面:

    This page is included with Nginx to show you that the server is running correctly.

    Nginx包含此页面,以向您显示服务器正在正常运行。

    步骤4 –管理Nginx流程 (Step 4 – Managing the Nginx Process)

    Now that you have your web server up and running, let’s review some basic management commands.

    现在您已启动并运行了Web服务器,让我们回顾一些基本的管理命令。

    To stop your web server, type:

    要停止您的Web服务器,请输入:

    • sudo systemctl stop nginx

      sudo systemctl停止nginx

    To start the web server when it is stopped, type:

    要在停止时启动Web服务器,请键入:

    • sudo systemctl start nginx

      sudo systemctl启动nginx

    To stop and then start the service again, type:

    要停止然后再次启动该服务,请键入:

    • sudo systemctl restart nginx

      sudo systemctl重启nginx

    If you are simply making configuration changes, Nginx can often reload without dropping connections. To do this, type:

    如果您只是在更改配置,Nginx通常可以在不断开连接的情况下重新加载。 为此,请键入:

    • sudo systemctl reload nginx

      须藤systemctl重新加载nginx

    By default, Nginx is configured to start automatically when the server boots. If this is not what you want, you can disable this behavior by typing:

    默认情况下,Nginx配置为在服务器启动时自动启动。 如果这不是您想要的,则可以通过键入以下内容来禁用此行为:

    • sudo systemctl disable nginx

      sudo systemctl禁用Nginx

    To re-enable the service to start up at boot, you can type:

    要重新启用该服务以在引导时启动,可以键入:

    • sudo systemctl enable nginx

      sudo systemctl启用nginx

    步骤5 –设置服务器块 (Step 5 – Setting Up Server Blocks)

    When using the Nginx web server, server blocks (similar to virtual hosts in Apache) can be used to encapsulate configuration details and host more than one domain on a single server. We will set up a domain called your_domain. To learn more about setting up a domain name with DigitalOcean, see our introduction to DigitalOcean DNS.

    使用Nginx Web服务器时, 服务器块 (类似于Apache中的虚拟主机)可用于封装配置详细信息,并在一台服务器上托管多个域。 我们将建立一个名为your_domain的域。 要了解有关使用DigitalOcean设置域名的更多信息,请参阅DigitalOcean DNS简介

    Nginx on Debian 10 has one server block enabled by default that is configured to serve documents out of a directory at /var/www/html. While this works well for a single site, it can become unmanageable if you are hosting multiple sites. Instead of modifying /var/www/html, let’s create a directory structure within /var/www for the your_domain website, leaving /var/www/html in place as the default directory to be served if a client request doesn’t match any other sites.

    默认情况下,Debian 10上的Nginx启用了一个服务器块,该服务器块被配置为从/var/www/html目录中提供文档。 尽管这对于单个站点非常有效,但是如果您托管多个站点,则可能变得难以管理。 而不是修改的/var/www/html ,让我们创建中的目录结构/var/www您的网域网站,留下/var/www/html作为如果客户端的请求不符合任何要服务的默认目录的地方其他网站。

    Create the directory for your_domain as follows, using the -p flag to create any necessary parent directories:

    使用-p标志创建所有必需的父目录,如下所示为your_domain创建目录:

    • sudo mkdir -p /var/www/your_domain/html

      须藤mkdir -p / var / www / your_domain / html

    Next, assign ownership of the directory with the $USER environment variable, which should reference your current system user:

    接下来,使用$USER环境变量分配目录的所有权,该变量应引用您当前的系统用户:

    • sudo chown -R $USER:$USER /var/www/your_domain/html

      须藤chown -R $ USER:$ USER / var / www / your_domain / html

    The permissions of your web root should be correct if you haven’t modified your umask value, but you can make sure by typing:

    如果您尚未修改umask值,则Web根目录的权限应该正确,但是可以通过键入以下umask来确保:

    • sudo chmod -R 755 /var/www/your_domain

      须藤chmod -R 755 / var / www / your_domain

    Next, create a sample index.html page using nano or your favorite editor:

    接下来,使用nano或您喜欢的编辑器创建一个示例index.html页面:

    • nano /var/www/your_domain/html/index.html

      纳米/ var / www / your_domain /html/index.html

    Inside, add the following sample HTML:

    在其中,添加以下示例HTML:

    /var/www/your_domain/html/index.html
    /var/www/your_domain/html/index.html
    <html>
        <head>
            <title>Welcome to your_domain</title>
        </head>
        <body>
            <h1>Success! Your Nginx server is successfully configured for <em>your_domain</em>. </h1>
    <p>This is a sample page.</p>
        </body>
    </html>

    Save and close the file when you are finished.

    完成后保存并关闭文件。

    In order for Nginx to serve this content, we need to create a server block with the correct directives that point to our custom web root. Instead of modifying the default configuration file directly, let’s make a new one at /etc/nginx/sites-available/your_domain:

    为了使Nginx提供此内容,我们需要创建一个服务器块,并使用指向我们自定义Web根的正确指令。 与其直接修改默认配置文件, /etc/nginx/sites-available/ your_domain/etc/nginx/sites-available/ your_domain创建一个新文件:

    • sudo nano /etc/nginx/sites-available/your_domain

      须藤纳米/ etc / nginx / sites-available / your_domain

    Paste in the following configuration block, which is similar to the default, but updated for our new directory and domain name:

    粘贴在以下配置块中,该配置块与默认配置块相似,但针对我们的新目录和域名进行了更新:

    /etc/nginx/sites-available/your_domain
    / etc / nginx / sites-available / your_domain
    server {
            listen 80;
            listen [::]:80;
    
            root /var/www/your_domain/html;
            index index.html index.htm index.nginx-debian.html;
    
            server_name your_domain www.your_domain;
    
            location / {
                    try_files $uri $uri/ =404;
            }
    }

    Notice that we’ve updated the root configuration to our new directory, and the server_name to our domain name.

    请注意,我们已将root配置更新到我们的新目录,并将server_name到我们的域名。

    Next, let’s enable this server block by creating a symbolic link to our custom configuration file inside the sites-enabled directory, which Nginx reads from during startup:

    接下来,我们通过在sites-enabled目录中创建指向我们的自定义配置文件的符号链接来启用此服务器块,Nginx在启动过程中从中读取:

    • sudo ln -s /etc/nginx/sites-available/your_domain /etc/nginx/sites-enabled/

      sudo ln -s / etc / nginx / sites-available / your_domain / etc / nginx / sites-enabled /

    Two server blocks are now enabled and configured to respond to requests based on their listen and server_name directives (you can read more about how Nginx processes these directives here):

    现在已启用并配置了两个服务器块,以基于它们的listenserver_name指令响应请求(您可以在此处阅读有关Nginx如何处理这些指令的更多信息):

    • your_domain: Will respond to requests for your_domain and www.your_domain.

      your_domain :将响应对your_domainwww. your_domain请求www. your_domain www. your_domain

    • default: Will respond to any requests on port 80 that do not match the other two blocks.

      default :将响应端口80上与其他两个模块不匹配的任何请求。

    To avoid a possible hash bucket memory problem that can arise from adding additional server names to your configuration, it is necessary to adjust a single value in the /etc/nginx/nginx.conf file. Open the file:

    为避免在配置中添加其他服务器名称而可能引起的哈希存储区内存问题,有必要调整/etc/nginx/nginx.conf文件中的单个值。 打开文件:

    • sudo nano /etc/nginx/nginx.conf

      须藤nano /etc/nginx/nginx.conf

    Find the server_names_hash_bucket_size directive and remove the # symbol to uncomment the line:

    找到server_names_hash_bucket_size指令并删除#符号以取消注释该行:

    /etc/nginx/nginx.conf
    /etc/nginx/nginx.conf
    ...
    http {
        ...
        server_names_hash_bucket_size 64;
        ...
    }
    ...

    Save and close the file when you are finished.

    完成后保存并关闭文件。

    Next, test to make sure that there are no syntax errors in any of your Nginx files:

    接下来,测试以确保您的任何Nginx文件中都没有语法错误:

    • sudo nginx -t

      须藤Nginx -t

    If there aren’t any problems, you will see the following output:

    如果没有任何问题,您将看到以下输出:

    
       
    Output
    nginx: the configuration file /etc/nginx/nginx.conf syntax is ok nginx: configuration file /etc/nginx/nginx.conf test is successful

    Once your configuration test passes, restart Nginx to enable your changes:

    一旦配置测试通过,请重新启动Nginx以启用您的更改:

    • sudo systemctl restart nginx

      sudo systemctl重启nginx

    Nginx should now be serving your domain name. You can test this by navigating to http://your_domain, where you should see something like this:

    Nginx现在应该为您的域名服务。 您可以通过导航到http:// your_domain ,您应该会在其中看到以下内容:

    第6步–熟悉重要的Nginx文件和目录 (Step 6 – Getting Familiar with Important Nginx Files and Directories)

    Now that you know how to manage the Nginx service itself, you should take a few minutes to familiarize yourself with a few important directories and files.

    既然您知道如何管理Nginx服务本身,那么您应该花几分钟时间来熟悉一些重要的目录和文件。

    内容 (Content)

    • /var/www/html: The actual web content, which by default only consists of the default Nginx page you saw earlier, is served out of the /var/www/html directory. This can be changed by altering Nginx configuration files.

      /var/www/html :实际的Web内容(默认情况下仅包含您之前看到的默认Nginx页面)从/var/www/html目录中提供。 这可以通过更改Nginx配置文件来更改。

    服务器配置 (Server Configuration)

    • /etc/nginx: The Nginx configuration directory. All of the Nginx configuration files reside here.

      /etc/nginx :Nginx配置目录。 所有Nginx配置文件都位于此处。

    • /etc/nginx/nginx.conf: The main Nginx configuration file. This can be modified to make changes to the Nginx global configuration.

      /etc/nginx/nginx.conf :主要的Nginx配置文件。 可以对其进行修改以更改Nginx全局配置。

    • /etc/nginx/sites-available/: The directory where per-site server blocks can be stored. Nginx will not use the configuration files found in this directory unless they are linked to the sites-enabled directory. Typically, all server block configuration is done in this directory, and then enabled by linking to the other directory.

      /etc/nginx/sites-available/ :可以存储每个站点服务器块的目录。 Nginx不会使用在此目录中找到的配置文件,除非它们链接到sites-enabled目录。 通常,所有服务器块配置都在此目录中完成,然后通过链接到另一个目录来启用。

    • /etc/nginx/sites-enabled/: The directory where enabled per-site server blocks are stored. Typically, these are created by linking to configuration files found in the sites-available directory.

      /etc/nginx/sites-enabled/ :存储已启用的每个站点服务器块的目录。 通常,通过链接到可在sites-available目录中找到的配置文件来创建这些文件。

    • /etc/nginx/snippets: This directory contains configuration fragments that can be included elsewhere in the Nginx configuration. Potentially repeatable configuration segments are good candidates for refactoring into snippets.

      /etc/nginx/snippets :此目录包含一些配置片段,这些片段可以包含在Nginx配置中的其他位置。 潜在的可重复配置段是重构为代码段的良好候选者。

    服务器日志 (Server Logs)

    • /var/log/nginx/access.log: Every request to your web server is recorded in this log file unless Nginx is configured to do otherwise.

      /var/log/nginx/access.log :除非配置Nginx否则,对Web服务器的每个请求都记录在此日志文件中。

    • /var/log/nginx/error.log: Any Nginx errors will be recorded in this log.

      /var/log/nginx/error.log :任何Nginx错误都将记录在此日志中。

    结论 (Conclusion)

    Now that you have your web server installed, you have many options for the type of content you can serve and the technologies you can use to create a richer experience for your users.

    现在,您已经安装了Web服务器,对于可以提供的内容类型以及可以用来为用户创造更丰富的体验的技术,您有很多选择。

    翻译自: https://www.digitalocean.com/community/tutorials/how-to-install-nginx-on-debian-10

    debian安装nginx

    展开全文
  • debian 安装 git 介绍 (Introduction) Software version control systems like Git enable you to keep track of your software at the source level. With versioning tools, you can track changes, revert to ...

    debian 安装 git

    介绍 (Introduction)

    Software version control systems like Git enable you to keep track of your software at the source level. With versioning tools, you can track changes, revert to previous stages, and branch to create alternate versions of files and directories.

    像Git这样的软件版本控制系统使您能够在源代码级别跟踪软件。 使用版本控制工具,您可以跟踪更改,还原到上一阶段以及分支以创建文件和目录的备用版本。

    As one of the most popular version control systems currently available, Git is a common choice among open-source and other collaborative software projects. Many projects’ files are maintained in a Git repository, and sites like GitHub, GitLab, and Bitbucket help to facilitate software development project sharing and collaboration.

    作为当前可用的最受欢迎的版本控制系统之一,Git是开源和其他协作软件项目中的常见选择。 许多项目的文件都保存在Git存储库中,而GitHub,GitLab和Bitbucket等站点则有助于促进软件开发项目的共享和协作。

    In this tutorial, we’ll install and configure Git on a Debian 10 server. We will cover how to install the software in two different ways, each of which have their own benefits depending on your specific needs.

    在本教程中,我们将在Debian 10服务器上安装和配置Git。 我们将介绍如何以两种不同的方式安装软件,每种方式都有自己的优势,具体取决于您的特定需求。

    先决条件 (Prerequisites)

    In order to complete this tutorial, you should have a non-root user with sudo privileges on an Debian 10 server. To learn how to achieve this setup, follow our Debian 10 initial server setup guide.

    为了完成本教程,您应该在Debian 10服务器上拥有一个具有sudo特权的非root用户。 要了解如何实现此设置,请遵循Debian 10初始服务器设置指南

    With your server and user set up, you are ready to begin. Jump to Installing Git with Default Packages (via the apt package manager) or Installing Git from Source to begin.

    设置好服务器和用户后,就可以开始了。 跳转至使用默认软件包安装Git (通过apt软件包管理器)或从源代码安装Git开始。

    使用默认软件包安装Git (Installing Git with Default Packages)

    Debian’s default repositories provide you with a fast method to install Git. Note that the version you install via these repositories may be older than the newest version currently available. If you need the latest release, consider moving to the next section of this tutorial to learn how to install and compile Git from source.

    Debian的默认存储库为您提供了一种安装Git的快速方法。 请注意,通过这些存储库安装的版本可能早于当前可用的最新版本。 如果您需要最新版本,请考虑转到本教程的下一部分 ,以学习如何从源代码安装和编译Git。

    First, use the apt package management tools to update your local package index. With the update complete, you can download and install Git:

    首先,使用apt软件包管理工具更新您的本地软件包索引。 完成更新后,您可以下载并安装Git:

    • sudo apt update

      sudo apt更新
    • sudo apt install git

      sudo apt安装git

    You can confirm that you have installed Git correctly by running the following command:

    您可以通过运行以下命令来确认已正确安装了Git:

    • git --version

      git --version
    
       
    Output
    git version 2.20.1

    With Git successfully installed, you can now move on to the Setting Up Git section of this tutorial to complete your setup.

    成功安装Git后,您现在可以转到本教程的“ 设置Git”部分以完成设置。

    从源代码安装Git (Installing Git from Source)

    A more flexible method of installing Git is to compile the software from source. This takes longer and will not be maintained through your package manager, but it will allow you to download the latest release and will give you some control over the options you include if you wish to customize.

    安装Git的一种更灵活的方法是从源代码编译软件。 这将花费更长的时间,并且不会通过软件包管理器进行维护,但是它将允许您下载最新版本,并且如果您希望自定义的话,还可以控制您包括的选项。

    Before you begin, you need to install the software that Git depends on. This is all available in the default repositories, so we can update our local package index and then install the packages.

    在开始之前,您需要安装Git依赖的软件。 这些在默认存储库中都可用,因此我们可以更新本地软件包索引,然后安装软件包。

    • sudo apt update

      sudo apt更新
    • sudo apt install make libssl-dev libghc-zlib-dev libcurl4-gnutls-dev libexpat1-dev gettext unzip

      sudo apt install make libssl-dev libghc-zlib-dev libcurl4-gnutls-dev libexpat1-dev gettext解压缩

    After you have installed the necessary dependencies, you can go ahead and get the version of Git you would like to install by visiting the Git project’s mirror on GitHub, available via the following URL:

    在安装了必要的依赖项之后,您可以继续访问GitHub上Git项目镜像 ,以获取要安装的Git版本,该镜像可通过以下URL获得:

    https://github.com/git/git

    From here, be sure that you are on the master branch. Click on the Tags link and select your desired Git version. Unless you have a reason for downloading a release candidate version (marked as rc), try to avoid these as they may be unstable.

    从这里,确保您在master分支上。 单击标签链接,然后选择所需的Git版本。 除非您有理由下载候选发布版本(标记为rc ),否则请尽量避免使用这些版本,因为它们可能不稳定。

    Next, on the right side of the page, click on the Clone or download button, then right-click on Download ZIP and copy the link address that ends in .zip.

    接下来,在页面右侧,单击“ 克隆”或“下载”按钮,然后右键单击“ 下载ZIP”并复制以.zip结尾的链接地址。

    Back on your Debian 10 server, move into the tmp directory to download temporary files.

    返回Debian 10服务器,移至tmp目录以下载临时文件。

    • cd /tmp

      cd / tmp

    From there, you can use the wget command to install the copied zip file link. We’ll specify a new name for the file: git.zip.

    从那里,您可以使用wget命令安装复制的zip文件链接。 我们将为文件指定一个新名称: git.zip

    • wget https://github.com/git/git/archive/v2.23.0.zip -O git.zip

      wget https://github.com/git/git/archive/ v2.23.0 .zip -O git.zip

    Unzip the file that you downloaded and move into the resulting directory by typing:

    解压缩下载的文件,并通过键入以下内容进入结果目录:

    • unzip git.zip

      解压缩git.zip
    • cd git-*

      cd git- *

    Now, you can make the package and install it by typing these two commands:

    现在,您可以通过键入以下两个命令来制作软件包并进行安装:

    • make prefix=/usr/local all

      使prefix = / usr / local全部
    • sudo make prefix=/usr/local install

      sudo make prefix = / usr /本地安装

    To ensure that the install was successful, you can type git --version and you should receive relevant output that specifies the current installed version of Git.

    为了确保安装成功,您可以键入git --version并且您应该收到指定Git当前安装版本的相关输出。

    Now that you have Git installed, if you want to upgrade to a later version, you can clone the repository, and then build and install. To find the URL to use for the clone operation, navigate to the branch or tag that you want on the project’s GitHub page and then copy the clone URL on the right side:

    现在已经安装了Git,如果要升级到更高版本,则可以克隆存储库,然后进行构建和安装。 要查找用于克隆操作的URL,请在项目的GitHub页面上导航至所需的分支或标记,然后在右侧复制克隆URL:

    At the time of writing, the relevant URL is:

    在撰写本文时,相关的URL为:

    https://github.com/git/git.git

    Change to your home directory, and use git clone on the URL you just copied:

    转到您的主目录,并在刚复制的URL上使用git clone

    • cd ~

      光盘〜
    • git clone https://github.com/git/git.git

      git clone https://github.com/git/git.git

    This will create a new directory within your current directory where you can rebuild the package and reinstall the newer version, just like you did above. This will overwrite your older version with the new version:

    这将在当前目录中创建一个新目录,您可以在其中重建软件包并重新安装较新的版本,就像您在上面所做的那样。 这将用新版本覆盖旧版本:

    • cd git

      光盘git
    • make prefix=/usr/local all

      使prefix = / usr / local全部
    • sudo make prefix=/usr/local install

      sudo make prefix = / usr /本地安装

    With this complete, you can be sure that your version of Git is up to date.

    完成此操作后,您可以确保您的Git版本是最新的。

    设置Git (Setting Up Git)

    Now that you have Git installed, you should configure it so that the generated commit messages will contain your correct information.

    既然已经安装了Git,则应该对其进行配置,以便生成的提交消息将包含正确的信息。

    This can be achieved by using the git config command. Specifically, we need to provide our name and email address because Git embeds this information into each commit we do. We can go ahead and add this information by typing:

    这可以通过使用git config命令来实现。 具体来说,我们需要提供我们的姓名和电子邮件地址,因为Git会将这些信息嵌入到我们所做的每次提交中。 我们可以继续输入以下内容来添加此信息:

    • git config --global user.name "Sammy"

      git config --global user.name“ 萨米 ”

    • git config --global user.email "sammy@domain.com"

      git config --global user.email“ sammy@domain.com ”

    We can see all of the configuration items that have been set by typing:

    我们可以通过键入以下命令查看已设置的所有配置项:

    • git config --list

      git config --list
    
       
    Output
    user.name=Sammy user.email=sammy@domain.com ...

    The information you enter is stored in your Git configuration file, which you can optionally edit by hand with a text editor like this:

    输入的信息存储在Git配置文件中,您可以选择使用文本编辑器手动编辑该文件,如下所示:

    • nano ~/.gitconfig

      纳米〜/ .gitconfig
    ~/.gitconfig contents
    〜/ .gitconfig内容
    [user]
      name = Sammy
      email = sammy@domain.com

    There are many other options that you can set, but these are the two essential ones needed. If you skip this step, you’ll likely see warnings when you commit to Git. This makes more work for you because you will then have to revise the commits you have done with the corrected information.

    您可以设置许多其他选项,但这是需要的两个基本选项。 如果跳过此步骤,则在提交到Git时可能会看到警告。 这将为您带来更多的工作,因为您将不得不使用更正的信息来修改您所做的提交。

    结论 (Conclusion)

    You should now have Git installed and ready to use on your system.

    现在,您应该已经安装了Git,可以在系统上使用它了。

    To learn more about how to use Git, check out these articles and series:

    要了解有关如何使用Git的更多信息,请查看以下文章和系列:

    Additionally, you can learn more by reviewing our series on An Introduction to Open Source for more information about using Git as part of open-source projects.

    此外,您可以阅读我们的“ 开源简介”系列了解更多有关使用Git作为开源项目一部分的信息。

    翻译自: https://www.digitalocean.com/community/tutorials/how-to-install-git-on-debian-10

    debian 安装 git

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  • Debian 小药盒 ...这是一个用来包装 Debian 安装介质的盒子的平面设计。因为 Debian 的 logo 与某药品十分相似,此前就有类似的梗,如下图。 这里的设计正与之相同。 Staff 在此处感谢以下对本项目作出贡献的朋
  • debian安装mysql 介绍 (Introduction) MySQL is a prominent open source database management system used to store and retrieve data for a wide variety of popular applications. MySQL is the M in the LAMP ...

    debian安装mysql

    介绍 (Introduction)

    MySQL is a prominent open source database management system used to store and retrieve data for a wide variety of popular applications. MySQL is the M in the LAMP stack, a commonly used set of open source software that also includes Linux, the Apache web server, and the PHP programming language.

    MySQL是一个杰出的开源数据库管理系统,用于存储和检索各种流行应用程序的数据。 MySQL是LAMP堆栈中的MLAMP堆栈是一组常用的开源软件,还包括Linux,Apache Web服务器和PHP编程语言。

    In Debian 10, MariaDB, a community fork of the MySQL project, is packaged as the default MySQL variant. While MariaDB works well in most cases, if you need features found only in Oracle’s MySQL, you can install and use packages from a repository maintained by the MySQL developers.

    在Debian 10中,MariaDB(MySQL项目的一个社区分支)被打包为默认MySQL变体。 尽管MariaDB在大多数情况下都能正常运行,但是如果您需要仅在Oracle MySQL中才能找到的功能,则可以从MySQL开发人员维护的存储库中安装和使用软件包。

    To install the latest version of MySQL, we’ll add this repository, install the MySQL software itself, secure the install, and finally we’ll test that MySQL is running and responding to commands.

    要安装最新版本MySQL,我们将添加此存储库,安装MySQL软件本身,确保安装的安全性,最后我们将测试MySQL是否正在运行并响应命令。

    先决条件 (Prerequisites)

    Before starting this tutorial, you will need:

    在开始本教程之前,您需要:

    第1步-添加MySQL软件存储库 (Step 1 — Adding the MySQL Software Repository)

    The MySQL developers provide a .deb package that handles configuring and installing the official MySQL software repositories. Once the repositories are set up, we’ll be able to use Debian’s standard apt command to install the software.

    MySQL开发人员提供了一个.deb软件包,用于配置和安装官方MySQL软件存储库。 设置好存储库后,我们将能够使用Debian的标准apt命令来安装软件。

    Before we do this, we need to install the prerequisite GnuPG package, an open-source implementation of the OpenPGP standard.

    在执行此操作之前,我们需要安装必备的GnuPG软件包,这是OpenPGP标准的开源实现。

    Let’s begin by updating the local package index to reflect the latest upstream changes:

    让我们首先更新本地包索引以反映最新的上游更改:

    • sudo apt update

      sudo apt更新

    Then, install the gnupg package:

    然后,安装gnupg软件包:

    • sudo apt install gnupg

      sudo apt安装gnupg

    After confirming the installation, apt will install gnupg and its dependencies.

    确认安装后,apt将安装gnupg及其依赖项。

    Next, we’ll download the MySQL .deb package with wget and then install it using the dpkg command.

    接下来,我们将使用wget下载MySQL .deb软件包,然后使用dpkg命令进行安装。

    Load the MySQL download page in your web browser. Find the Download button in the lower-right corner and click through to the next page. This page will prompt you to log in or sign up for an Oracle web account. We can skip that and instead look for the link that says No thanks, just start my download. Right-click the link and select Copy Link Address (this option may be worded differently, depending on your browser).

    在Web浏览器中加载MySQL下载页面 。 在右下角找到“ 下载”按钮,然后单击进入下一页。 该页面将提示您登录或注册Oracle Web帐户。 我们可以跳过该链接,而是寻找表示“ 不,谢谢”的链接,只需开始下载即可 。 右键单击链接,然后选择“ 复制链接地址” (此选项的措词可能有所不同,具体取决于您的浏览器)。

    Now we’re going to download the file. On your server, move to a directory you can write to. Download the file using wget, remembering to paste the address you just copied in place of the highlighted portion below:

    现在我们将下载文件。 在服务器上,移至您可以写入的目录。 使用wget下载文件,记得将刚复制的地址粘贴到下面突出显示的部分:

    • cd /tmp

      cd / tmp
    • wget https://dev.mysql.com/get/mysql-apt-config_0.8.13-1_all.deb

      wget https://dev.mysql.com/get/mysql-apt-config_0.8.13-1_all.deb

    The file should now be downloaded in our current directory. List the files to make sure:

    现在应该将文件下载到我们的当前目录中。 列出文件以确保:

    • ls

      ls

    You should see the filename listed:

    您应该看到列出的文件名:

    
       
    Output
    mysql-apt-config_0.8.13-1_all.deb . . .

    Now we’re ready to install:

    现在我们准备安装:

    • sudo dpkg -i mysql-apt-config*

      须藤dpkg -i mysql-apt-config *

    dpkg is used to install, remove, and inspect .deb software packages. The -i flag indicates that we’d like to install from the specified file.

    dpkg用于安装,删除和检查.deb软件包。 -i标志指示我们要从指定的文件安装。

    During the installation, you’ll be presented with a configuration screen where you can specify which version of MySQL you’d prefer, along with an option to install repositories for other MySQL-related tools. The defaults will add the repository information for the latest stable version of MySQL and nothing else. This is what we want, so use the down arrow to navigate to the Ok menu option and hit ENTER.

    在安装过程中,将为您提供一个配置屏幕,您可以在其中指定所需MySQL版本,并可以选择安装其他MySQL相关工具的存储库。 默认值将添加最新稳定版本MySQL的存储库信息,仅此而已。 这就是我们想要的,因此请使用向下箭头导航至“ Ok菜单选项,然后按ENTER

    The package will now finish adding the repository. Refresh your apt package cache to make the new software packages available:

    软件包现在将完成添加存储库。 刷新您的apt软件包缓存以使新软件包可用:

    • sudo apt update

      sudo apt更新

    Now that we’ve added the MySQL repositories, we’re ready to install the actual MySQL server software. If you ever need to update the configuration of these repositories, just run sudo dpkg-reconfigure mysql-apt-config, select new options, and then sudo apt-get update to refresh your package cache.

    既然我们已经添加了MySQL存储库,就可以安装实际MySQL服务器软件了。 如果您需要更新这些存储库的配置,只需运行sudo dpkg-reconfigure mysql-apt-config ,选择新选项,然后执行sudo apt-get update刷新包缓存。

    第2步-安装MySQL (Step 2 — Installing MySQL)

    Having added the repository and with our package cache freshly updated, we can now use apt to install the latest MySQL server package:

    添加了存储库并更新了软件包缓存后,我们现在可以使用apt安装最新MySQL服务器软件包:

    • sudo apt install mysql-server

      sudo apt安装mysql服务器

    apt will look at all available mysql-server packages and determine that the MySQL provided package is the newest and best candidate. It will then calculate package dependencies and ask you to approve the installation. Type y then ENTER. The software will install.

    apt将查看所有可用的mysql-server软件包,并确定MySQL提供的软件包是最新和最佳的软件包。 然后它将计算软件包的依赖关系,并要求您批准安装。 键入y然后按ENTER 。 该软件将安装。

    You will be asked to set a root password during the configuration phase of the installation. Choose and confirm a secure password to continue. Next, a prompt will appear asking for you to select a default authentication plugin. Read the display to understand the choices. If you are not sure, choosing Use Strong Password Encryption is safer.

    在安装的配置阶段,将要求您设置root密码。 选择并确认安全密码以继续。 接下来,将出现提示,要求您选择默认的身份验证插件。 阅读显示内容以了解选择。 如果不确定,请选择“ 使用强密码加密”

    MySQL should be installed and running now. Let’s check using systemctl:

    MySQL应该已经安装并正在运行。 让我们使用systemctl进行systemctl

    • sudo systemctl status mysql

      sudo systemctl状态mysql
    ● mysql.service - MySQL Community Server
       Loaded: loaded (/lib/systemd/system/mysql.service; enabled; vendor preset: enabled)
       Active: active (running) since Thu 2019-07-25 17:20:12 UTC; 3s ago
         Docs: man:mysqld(8)
               http://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/en/using-systemd.html
      Process: 2673 ExecStartPre=/usr/share/mysql-8.0/mysql-systemd-start pre (code=exited, status=0/SUCCESS)
     Main PID: 2709 (mysqld)
       Status: "Server is operational"
        Tasks: 39 (limit: 4915)
       Memory: 378.4M
       CGroup: /system.slice/mysql.service
               └─2709 /usr/sbin/mysqld
    
    Jul 25 17:20:10 sammy systemd[1]: Starting MySQL Community Server...
    Jul 25 17:20:12 sammy systemd[1]: Started MySQL Community Server.

    The Active: active (running) line means MySQL is installed and running. Now we’ll make the installation a little more secure.

    Active: active (running)行表示MySQL已安装并正在运行。 现在,我们将使安装更加安全。

    步骤3 —保护MySQL (Step 3 — Securing MySQL)

    MySQL comes with a command we can use to perform a few security-related updates on our new install. Let’s run it now:

    MySQL附带了一个命令,我们可以使用该命令在新安装的系统上执行一些与安全性相关的更新。 现在运行它:

    • mysql_secure_installation

      mysql_secure_installation

    This will ask you for the MySQL root password that you set during installation. Type it in and press ENTER. Now we’ll answer a series of yes or no prompts. Let’s go through them:

    这将要求您提供在安装过程中设置MySQL root密码。 ENTER它,然后按ENTER 。 现在,我们将回答一系列的是或否提示。 让我们来看看它们:

    First, we are asked about the validate password plugin, a plugin that can automatically enforce certain password strength rules for your MySQL users. Enabling this is a decision you’ll need to make based on your individual security needs. Type y and ENTER to enable it, or just hit ENTER to skip it. If enabled, you will also be prompted to choose a level from 0–2 for how strict the password validation will be. Choose a number and hit ENTER to continue.

    首先,询问我们有关validate password插件的问题 ,该插件可以为您MySQL用户自动执行某些密码强度规则。 启用此功能是您需要根据个人安全需求做出的决定。 键入y ENTER以启用它,或直接按ENTER跳过它。 如果启用,还将提示您从0–2中选择一个级别,以验证密码验证的严格程度。 选择一个数字,然后按ENTER继续。

    Next you’ll be asked if you want to change the root password. Since we just created the password when we installed MySQL, we can safely skip this. Hit ENTER to continue without updating the password.

    接下来,将询问您是否要更改root密码。 由于我们是在安装MySQL时才创建密码的,因此可以安全地跳过此步骤。 按ENTER继续而不更新密码。

    The rest of the prompts can be answered yes. You will be asked about removing the anonymous MySQL user, disallowing remote root login, removing the test database, and reloading privilege tables to ensure the previous changes take effect properly. These are all a good idea. Type y and hit ENTER for each.

    其余提示可以回答“ 是” 。 系统将询问您有关删除匿名 MySQL用户,不允许远程root登录,删除测试数据库以及重新加载特权表以确保先前的更改正确生效的问题。 这些都是好主意。 ENTER y并为每个ENTER

    The script will exit after all the prompts are answered. Now our MySQL installation is reasonably secured. Let’s test it again by running a client that connects to the server and returns some information.

    回答所有提示后,脚本将退出。 现在我们MySQL安装已得到合理保护。 让我们通过运行连接到服务器并返回一些信息的客户端来再次对其进行测试。

    步骤4 –测试MySQL (Step 4 – Testing MySQL)

    mysqladmin is a command line administrative client for MySQL. We’ll use it to connect to the server and output some version and status information:

    mysqladmin是MySQL的命令行管理客户端。 我们将使用它来连接到服务器并输出一些版本和状态信息:

    • mysqladmin -u root -p version

      mysqladmin -u root -p版本

    The -u root portion tells mysqladmin to log in as the MySQL root user, -p instructs the client to ask for a password, and version is the actual command we want to run.

    -u root部分告诉mysqladmin以MySQL 用户身份登录, -p指示客户端要求输入密码,而version是我们要运行的实际命令。

    The output will let us know what version of the MySQL server is running, its uptime, and some other status information:

    输出将使我们知道正在运行哪个版本MySQL服务器,其正常运行时间以及其他一些状态信息:

    
       
    Output
    mysqladmin Ver 8.0.17 for Linux on x86_64 (MySQL Community Server - GPL) Copyright (c) 2000, 2019, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation and/or its affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective owners. Server version 8.0.17 Protocol version 10 Connection Localhost via UNIX socket UNIX socket /var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock Uptime: 3 min 9 sec Threads: 2 Questions: 10 Slow queries: 0 Opens: 128 Flush tables: 3 Open tables: 48 Queries per second avg: 0.052

    This output confirms that you’ve successfully installed and secured the latest MySQL server.

    此输出确认您已成功安装并保护了最新MySQL服务器。

    结论 (Conclusion)

    You’ve now installed the latest stable version of MySQL, which should work for many popular applications.

    现在,您已经安装了最新的稳定版本MySQL,该版本应适用于许多流行的应用程序。

    翻译自: https://www.digitalocean.com/community/tutorials/how-to-install-the-latest-mysql-on-debian-10

    debian安装mysql

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