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  • springboot 关于 Class path contains multiple SLF4J bindings.警告的解决   有一次配置好springboot项目启动后,忽然发现有下边的警告: SLF4J: Class path contains multiple SLF4J bindings. SLF4J: Found...

    springboot 关于 Class path contains multiple SLF4J bindings.警告的解决

      有一次配置好springboot项目启动后,忽然发现有下边的警告:

    SLF4J: Class path contains multiple SLF4J bindings.
    SLF4J: Found binding in [jar:file:/E:/mavenJarOnline/ch/qos/logback/logback-classic/1.1.9/logback-classic-1.1.9.jar!/org/slf4j/impl/StaticLoggerBinder.class]
    SLF4J: Found binding in [jar:file:/E:/mavenJarOnline/org/slf4j/slf4j-log4j12/1.7.22/slf4j-log4j12-1.7.22.jar!/org/slf4j/impl/StaticLoggerBinder.class]
    SLF4J: See http://www.slf4j.org/codes.html#multiple_bindings for an explanation.
    SLF4J: Actual binding is of type [ch.qos.logback.classic.util.ContextSelectorStaticBinder]
    原因分析:

      上边的大概意思是说logback-classic 包和slf4j-log4j12 包,关于org/slf4j/impl/StaticLoggerBinder.class 这个类发生了冲突。
      发生这个错误的原因,首先logback 日志的开发者和log4j 的开发者据说是一波人,而springboot 默认日志是,较新的logback 日志。但是在以前流行的日志却是log4j ,而且很多的第三方工具都含有log4j 得引入。
      而我们在项目开发中,难免会引入各种各样的工具包,所以,基本上springboot 项目,如果不注意,肯定会出现这种冲突的。

    问题隐患:

      当然最关心的是它是否有隐患,如果你在开发工具中运行,对,没毛病,一般会正常启动。
      经过我使用情况中的观察,貌似springboot 配置成tomcat运行 ,即修改成war 包之后,一般这个警告没有什么影响;但是如果是传统的jar 包,尽管你在开发工具中能正常运行,也可能在打完包之后不能运行。

    问题出现:

      因为我们是分布式项目开发,服务层作为一个jar 运行,而接口调用和前端页面,作为一个war 一起运行,也就是说我们即有war ,又有jar ,项目部署的时候,需要打完包之后运行才可以。
      在打完包之后,war 包能正常运行,jar 包不能正常运行,报了如下错误:

    Exception in thread "main" java.lang.reflect.InvocationTargetException
            at sun.reflect.NativeMethodAccessorImpl.invoke0(Native Method)
            at sun.reflect.NativeMethodAccessorImpl.invoke(Unknown Source)
            at sun.reflect.DelegatingMethodAccessorImpl.invoke(Unknown Source)
            at java.lang.reflect.Method.invoke(Unknown Source)
            at org.springframework.boot.loader.MainMethodRunner.run(MainMethodRunner
    .java:48)
            at org.springframework.boot.loader.Launcher.launch(Launcher.java:87)
            at org.springframework.boot.loader.Launcher.launch(Launcher.java:50)
            at org.springframework.boot.loader.JarLauncher.main(JarLauncher.java:51)
    
    Caused by: java.lang.ExceptionInInitializerError
            at org.slf4j.impl.StaticLoggerBinder.<init>(StaticLoggerBinder.java:72)
            at org.slf4j.impl.StaticLoggerBinder.<clinit>(StaticLoggerBinder.java:45
    )
            at org.slf4j.LoggerFactory.bind(LoggerFactory.java:150)
            at org.slf4j.LoggerFactory.performInitialization(LoggerFactory.java:124)
    
            at org.slf4j.LoggerFactory.getILoggerFactory(LoggerFactory.java:412)
            at org.slf4j.LoggerFactory.getLogger(LoggerFactory.java:357)
            at org.apache.commons.logging.impl.SLF4JLogFactory.getInstance(SLF4JLogF
    actory.java:155)
            at org.apache.commons.logging.impl.SLF4JLogFactory.getInstance(SLF4JLogF
    actory.java:132)
            at org.apache.commons.logging.LogFactory.getLog(LogFactory.java:273)
            at org.springframework.boot.SpringApplication.<clinit>(SpringApplication
    .java:190)
            at spingboot.study.SpringbootStudyApplication.main(SpringbootStudyApplic
    ation.java:14)
            ... 8 more
    Caused by: java.lang.IllegalStateException: Detected both log4j-over-slf4j.jar A
    ND bound slf4j-log4j12.jar on the class path, preempting StackOverflowError. See
     also http://www.slf4j.org/codes.html#log4jDelegationLoop for more details.
            at org.slf4j.impl.Log4jLoggerFactory.<clinit>(Log4jLoggerFactory.java:54
    )
            ... 19 more

    问题解决:

      当然问题我不敢确定一定是因为warjar 的原因,你们也可能不关心这个,我们只想知道如何解决这种问题而已。
      问题解决办法很简单,就是既然抛了jar包冲突 ,那我们就排除一个jar 包即可。关键是排除哪一个jar包 ,这里注意下了,如果你用的是logback 日志,一定要排除slf4j-log4j12 包,不要排除logback-classic 包。
      即找到pom.xml 文件,如果你们的开发工具,比如eclipseidea 都可以看引入jar 包的联系,比如idea可以这样看到你的依赖结构:
    这里写图片描述
      点击后,弹出下边的这样的结构:

    这里写图片描述
      通过上图中,你可以看到zookeeper 包中默认引入了slf4j-log4j12包,除此之外,还有我们springboot 一定引入的spring-boot-starter-web 包,它里边也有这个slf4j-log4j12 引入。
      我们只要在pom.xml 里排除这个即可。
    如下:

    <dependency>
         <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-web</artifactId>
            <!--排除这个slf4j-log4j12-->
            <exclusions>
                <exclusion>
                    <groupId>org.slf4j</groupId>
                    <artifactId>slf4j-log4j12</artifactId>
                </exclusion>
            </exclusions>
    </dependency>

      下边是我们项目引入的第三方的工具包中:

     <dependency>
        <groupId>org.apache.zookeeper</groupId>
         <artifactId>zookeeper</artifactId>
         <version>3.4.8</version>
         <!--排除这个slf4j-log4j12-->
         <exclusions>
             <exclusion>
                 <groupId>org.slf4j</groupId>
                 <artifactId>slf4j-log4j12</artifactId>
             </exclusion>
         </exclusions>
     </dependency>
    展开全文
  • Notes on Multiple Object Tracking: Part 1 Given a video contains moving objects of a specific class (e.g., pedestrian, vehicles, etc.), the task of multiple object tracking (MOT) is to locate all the ...

    Notes on Multiple Object Tracking: Part 1

    Given a video contains moving objects of a specific class (e.g., pedestrian, vehicles, etc.), the task of multiple object tracking (MOT) is to locate all the objects of interest and associate them to find their correspondence across time.

    Tracking-by-detection is recently the most successful paradigm among MOT methods. The paradigm separate tracking into two stages. First, an object detector is applied to each video frame. In a second step, a tracker is used to associate these detections to tracks. This note makes a survey of tracking-by-detection methods, where the input is a video and all the detections, and the output is the tracking results.

    Lets first refer to a very simple basic implementation of multiple object tracking, and see what problems it may produce and try to improve this implementation.

    (Note: For clarity, we name the objects we have tracked over time, i.e. frame 1~t, as tracks and the unassociated ones detected in a new frame, i.e. frame t+1, as detections)

    展开全文
  • multiple points

    千次阅读 2015-11-02 11:51:51
    java.lang.NumberFormatException: multiple points  由于在多线程中调用全局变量SimpleDateFormat,才会时不时报multiple points异常,原因是SimpleDateFormat 线程是不安全的 解决办法,在调用中每次获取一个新...

    java.lang.NumberFormatException: multiple points 

    由于在多线程中调用全局变量SimpleDateFormat,才会时不时报multiple points异常,原因是SimpleDateFormat 线程不安全的

    解决办法,在调用中每次获取一个新的实例 new SimpleDateFormat()


    展开全文
  • Find The Multiple

    2017-09-04 07:58:34
    Given a positive integer n, write a program to find out a nonzero multiple m of n whose decimal representation contains only the digits 0 and 1. You may assume that n is not greater than 200 and there...
  • Multiple Lights

    千次阅读 2016-07-09 08:28:49
    Multiple Lights 到目前为止,所有的effect中都只使用了一种光源(不算ambient light)。但没有理由说明不能在同一种effect中结合使用directinal,point和spotlights,或者多个相同类型的光源。同时使用多个光源...

    Multiple Lights

    到目前为止,所有的effect中都只使用了一种光源(不算ambient light)。但没有理由说明不能在同一种effect中结合使用directinal,point和spotlights,或者多个相同类型的光源。同时使用多个光源主要瓶颈在于性能问题以及一个shader模型中可用的指令数量。列表7.4和7.5列出了支持多种光源的effect的代码。这段代码没什么新的构造,因此首先讨论更新后的Common.fxh文件,该文件中增加了一些新的结构体和通用函数。然后再深入讲解effect部分的代码。
    列表7.4 Common.fxh 用于Multiple Point Lights中的通用函数
    #ifndef _COMMON_FXH
    #define _COMMON_FXH
    
    /************* Constants *************/
    
    #define FLIP_TEXTURE_Y 1
    
    /************* Data Structures *************/
    
    struct POINT_LIGHT
    {
        float3 Position;
        float LightRadius;
        float4 Color;
    };
    
    struct LIGHT_CONTRIBUTION_DATA
    {
        float4 Color;
        float3 Normal;
        float3 ViewDirection;
        float4 LightColor;
        float4 LightDirection;	
        float4 SpecularColor;
        float SpecularPower;	
    };
    
    /************* Utility Functions *************/
    
    float2 get_corrected_texture_coordinate(float2 textureCoordinate)
    {
        #if FLIP_TEXTURE_Y
            return float2(textureCoordinate.x, 1.0 - textureCoordinate.y); 
        #else
            return textureCoordinate; 
        #endif
    }
    
    float3 get_vector_color_contribution(float4 light, float3 color)
    {
        // Color (.rgb) * Intensity (.a)
        return light.rgb * light.a * color;
    }
    
    float3 get_scalar_color_contribution(float4 light, float color)
    {
        // Color (.rgb) * Intensity (.a)
        return light.rgb * light.a * color;
    }
    
    float4 get_light_data(float3 lightPosition, float3 worldPosition, float lightRadius)
    {
        float4 lightData;
        float3 lightDirection = lightPosition - worldPosition;
    
        lightData.xyz = normalize(lightDirection);
        lightData.w = saturate(1.0f - length(lightDirection) / lightRadius); // Attenuation
    
        return lightData;
    }
    
    float3 get_light_contribution(LIGHT_CONTRIBUTION_DATA IN)
    {
        float3 lightDirection = IN.LightDirection.xyz;	
        float n_dot_l = dot(IN.Normal, lightDirection);	
        float3 halfVector = normalize(lightDirection + IN.ViewDirection);
        float n_dot_h = dot(IN.Normal, halfVector);
        
        float4 lightCoefficients = lit(n_dot_l, n_dot_h, IN.SpecularPower);
        float3 diffuse = get_vector_color_contribution(IN.LightColor, lightCoefficients.y * IN.Color.rgb) * IN.LightDirection.w;
        float3 specular = get_scalar_color_contribution(IN.SpecularColor, min(lightCoefficients.z, IN.Color.w)) * IN.LightDirection.w * IN.LightColor.w;
        
        return (diffuse + specular);
    }
    
    #endif /* _COMMON_FXH */
    


    Support Structures and Utility Functions

    每一个point light都需要一个position,一个color以及一个radius。因此,如果要同时使用4个point lights,需要4组position,color和radius。通过POINT_LIGHT结构体把这三个成员组织在一起,就可以使用一个简单的声明创建一个point lights的数组,比如POINT_LIGHT PointLights[NUM_LIGHTS]。注意POINT_LIGHT的数据成员都没有指定annotations(semantics)。当使用一个结构体数组的时候,无法对结构体的成员设定annotations,而且annotations无法用于结构体成员。
    另一个新加的结构体是LIGHT_CONTRIBUTION_DATA。该结构体的成员包括表面的color和normal,以及view direction,light color,light direction,specular color,和specular power,这些成员用于实现单个光源的diffuse和specular运算。通用函数get_light_contribution()的参数就是LIGHT_CONTRIBUTEION_DTA数据类型,该函数使用了与之前相同的步骤来计算diffuse和specular,并返回一个结合了diffuse和specular的float3类型的颜色值。另一个通用函数get_light_data()用于计算LIGHT_CONTRIBUTION_DATA结构体中的light directiont和attenuation成员。列表7.5列出了multiple point light effect的代码,该代码中使用了Common.fxh中的结构和通用函数。
    列表7.5 MultiplePointLights.fx
    #include "include\\Common.fxh"
    
    /************* Resources *************/
    
    #define NUM_LIGHTS 4
    
    cbuffer CBufferPerFrame
    {
        POINT_LIGHT PointLights[NUM_LIGHTS];
        
        float4 AmbientColor : AMBIENT <
            string UIName =  "Ambient Light";
            string UIWidget = "Color";
        > = {1.0f, 1.0f, 1.0f, 0.0f};
        
        float3 CameraPosition : CAMERAPOSITION < string UIWidget="None"; >;
    }
    
    cbuffer CBufferPerObject
    {
        float4x4 WorldViewProjection : WORLDVIEWPROJECTION < string UIWidget="None"; >;
        float4x4 World : WORLD < string UIWidget="None"; >;
        
        float4 SpecularColor : SPECULAR <
            string UIName =  "Specular Color";
            string UIWidget = "Color";
        > = {1.0f, 1.0f, 1.0f, 1.0f};
    
        float SpecularPower : SPECULARPOWER <
            string UIName =  "Specular Power";
            string UIWidget = "slider";
            float UIMin = 1.0;
            float UIMax = 255.0;
            float UIStep = 1.0;
        > = {25.0f};
    }
    
    Texture2D ColorTexture <
        string ResourceName = "default_color.dds";
        string UIName =  "Color Texture";
        string ResourceType = "2D";
    >;
    
    SamplerState ColorSampler
    {
        Filter = MIN_MAG_MIP_LINEAR;
        AddressU = WRAP;
        AddressV = WRAP;
    };
    
    RasterizerState DisableCulling
    {
        CullMode = NONE;
    };
    
    /************* Data Structures *************/
    
    struct VS_INPUT
    {
        float4 ObjectPosition : POSITION;
        float2 TextureCoordinate : TEXCOORD;
        float3 Normal : NORMAL;
    };
    
    struct VS_OUTPUT
    {
        float4 Position : SV_Position;
        float3 WorldPosition : POSITION;
        float3 Normal : NORMAL;
        float2 TextureCoordinate : TEXCOORD0;
    };
    
    /************* Vertex Shader *************/
    
    VS_OUTPUT vertex_shader(VS_INPUT IN)
    {
        VS_OUTPUT OUT = (VS_OUTPUT)0;
        
        OUT.Position = mul(IN.ObjectPosition, WorldViewProjection);
        OUT.WorldPosition = mul(IN.ObjectPosition, World).xyz;		
        OUT.TextureCoordinate = get_corrected_texture_coordinate(IN.TextureCoordinate);
        OUT.Normal = normalize(mul(float4(IN.Normal, 0), World).xyz);
    
        return OUT;
    }
    
    /************* Pixel Shader *************/
    
    float4 pixel_shader(VS_OUTPUT IN, uniform int lightCount) : SV_Target
    {
        float4 OUT = (float4)0;
            
        float3 normal = normalize(IN.Normal);
        float3 viewDirection = normalize(CameraPosition - IN.WorldPosition);	
        float4 color = ColorTexture.Sample(ColorSampler, IN.TextureCoordinate);
        float3 ambient = get_vector_color_contribution(AmbientColor, color.rgb);
            
        LIGHT_CONTRIBUTION_DATA lightContributionData;
        lightContributionData.Color = color;
        lightContributionData.Normal = normal;
        lightContributionData.ViewDirection = viewDirection;
        lightContributionData.SpecularColor = SpecularColor;
        lightContributionData.SpecularPower = SpecularPower;
        
        float3 totalLightContribution = (float3)0;
        
        [unroll]
        for (int i = 0; i < lightCount; i++)
        {
            lightContributionData.LightDirection = get_light_data(PointLights[i].Position, IN.WorldPosition, PointLights[i].LightRadius);	
            lightContributionData.LightColor = PointLights[i].Color;
            totalLightContribution += get_light_contribution(lightContributionData);
        }
    
        OUT.rgb = ambient + totalLightContribution;
        OUT.a = 1.0f;
            
        return OUT;
    }
    
    /************* Techniques *************/
    
    technique10 Lights1
    {
        pass p0
        {
            SetVertexShader(CompileShader(vs_4_0, vertex_shader()));
            SetGeometryShader(NULL);
            SetPixelShader(CompileShader(ps_4_0, pixel_shader(1)));
                
            SetRasterizerState(DisableCulling);
        }
    }
    
    technique10 Lights2
    {
        pass p0
        {
            SetVertexShader(CompileShader(vs_4_0, vertex_shader()));
            SetGeometryShader(NULL);
            SetPixelShader(CompileShader(ps_4_0, pixel_shader(2)));
                
            SetRasterizerState(DisableCulling);
        }
    }
    
    technique10 Lights3
    {
        pass p0
        {
            SetVertexShader(CompileShader(vs_4_0, vertex_shader()));
            SetGeometryShader(NULL);
            SetPixelShader(CompileShader(ps_4_0, pixel_shader(3)));
                
            SetRasterizerState(DisableCulling);
        }
    }
    
    technique10 Lights4
    {
        pass p0
        {
            SetVertexShader(CompileShader(vs_4_0, vertex_shader()));
            SetGeometryShader(NULL);
            SetPixelShader(CompileShader(ps_4_0, pixel_shader(4)));
                
            SetRasterizerState(DisableCulling);
        }
    }

    Multiple Point Lights Preamble

    代码中首先定义了宏NUM_LIGHTS,用于指定PointLights数组中元素的数量。只需要简单的修改这个宏,就可以增加或减少场景中的lights数量,以及对应的techniques(马上就会讲解多个techniques)。CBufferPerFrame中的ambient color和camera position与之前的一样。实际上,代码的前置部分与单个point light effect中的对应代码也保持一样,除了在VS_OUTPUT结构体中去掉了Attention成员。每一个light的衰减因子都在pixel shader中计算。

    Multiple Point Lights Vertex and Pixel Shader

    Vertex shader部分的代码非常简单,没有计算针对单个光源的任何数据。单个光源的计算完全由pixel shader完成。在pixel shader中,首先进行texture sample,再计算ambient值。然后构造一个LIGHT_CONTRIBUTION_DATA类型的变量,首先使用各个光源之间共同不变的值来赋值给该变量的成员,具体的包括,纹理采样的color,表面的法向量,view direction,以及specular的color和指数。
    接下来,根据光源的数量执行一个循环,光源的数量由uniform shader参数lightColor指定。这个参数并不是由rasterizer阶段传递过来的,也不会随着每一个pixel变化,而是在shader编译时由一种technique指定的。因此lightColor在编译期间是常量,但是又能像一个普通变量那样赋值。由于使用了uniform参数,HLSL编译器会创建多个版本的pixel shader,每一个版本都根据technique提供的lightColor参数值不同而不同。然后HLSL编译器就可以unroll循环,并消除由动态流量控制导致的任何性能损失。
    在循环中,先lightContribution的成员变量进行赋值,再调用函数get_light_contribution()计算light的diffuse和specular值。每一种光的计算结果都相加到totalLightContribution变量中,最后再把ambient值与该变量结合产生最终的pixel color。

    Multiple Point Lights Techniques

    这是第一个使用多种techniques的effect,而且不同techniques中的pixel shader使用不同的lightCount参数。具体地说,该effect中有4种techniques,分别为Lights1,Lights2,Lights3和Lights4;techniques的名称与effect中可用的lights数量一一对应。在调用CompilerShader()函数时指定了lightCount参数,CompilerShader()函数会忽略nonuniform shader输入,并把提供的参数值赋给第一个uniform参数。
    CPU端的应用程序从4种techniques中选择一个执行。例如,如果在object附近有3个可用的point lights,CPU端的应用程序应该选择Lights3 technique。在NVIDIA FX Composer中,展开multiple point lights material(在Assets panel中),并选择某个特定technique(如图7.6所示)

    图7.6 Options for selecting multiple techniques within the Assets panel of NVIDIA FX Composer.
    你也可以在不使用uniform参数的情况下,实现多种techniques。比如,根据显卡的功能,可能有低,中,高三个级别的vertex和pixel shader。又或者使用多个uniform参数和多种technique序列。和所有编程方式一样,可以使用多种方法达到同样的结果,建议尝试使用多种方法来实现。

    Multiple Point Lights Output

    图7.7显示了在multiple point lights effect中使用4个光源的输出结果。

    图7.7 MultiplePointLights.fx, with four lights enabled, applied to a sphere with a texture of Earth.
    (Texture from Reto Stöckli, NASA Earth Observatory.)


    每一个光源都相对原点,沿着x,y和z轴偏移10个单位坐标位置。在地图中,Austrilia区域呈现出红色调,Africa带有一点bluish-purple(蓝紫色)。照射到这片区域的光是纯红色和纯蓝色,而照射到底部和中心位置的光则是纯白色。图7.8中列出了具体的坐标,颜色和半径。另外需要注意的是,由于结构成员无法绑定annotations,所以需要手动指定每个光源的positions和colors。

    图7.8 The Properties panel of NVIDIA FX Composer, showing the data supplied to the multiple point lights effect.

    总结

    本章主要讲解了在场景中使用point lights,spotlights以及multiple lights。实现了每一种光照系统模型的effects,并进入学习了HLSL。增加了一些常用结构体和通用函数,用于支持功能越来越多的effects,并讲解了shader中的uniform参数以及在多种HLSL techniques中用法。到现在为止,已经讲完了HLSL的基础部分,下一章将开始讲解中级和高级部分。

    Exercises

    1. Experiment with the point light effect. Create a point light in NVIDIA FX Composer’s Render panel, and then bind it to your material. Change the light’s position, rotation, color, and intensity, and observe the results.
    2. Implement the modification to the point light effect, which performs the light direction calculation in the pixel shader. Compare the output to the original point light effect.
    3. Explore the spotlight effect. Create a plane in NVIDIA FX Composer’s Render panel, and assign it your spotlight material. Then create and bind a spotlight. Change the light’s position, rotation, color, and intensity, and observe the results.
    4. Experiment with the multiple point lights effect. Select different techniques to enable one, two, three, and four lights. Vary the data for each of the lights, and observe the results.
    5. Extend the multiple point lights effect to support up to eight lights.
    6. Write an effect that supports directional, point, and spotlights—one of each type. Ensure that the specular highlight is modulated by the intensity of each light.


    1.测试point light effect。在NVIDIA FX Composer的Render panel中创建一个point light,然后与material绑定。改变light的position,rotation,color以及intensity,并观察输出结果。
    2.修改point light effect,把计算light direction的操作放到pixel shader中,完成PointLightModification effect。比较PointLightModification effect和PointLight effect的输出结果。
    3.测试spotlight effect。在NVIDIA FX Composer的Render panel中创建一个plane,并把spotlight material指定给该plane。然后创建一个spotlight并绑定到spotlight material中。改变light的position,rotation,color以及intensity,并观察输出结果。
    4.测试multiple point lights effect。在MultiplePointLights_Material中选择不同的techniques,分别表示使用1个,2个,3个以及4个光源,并观察输出结果。
    5.扩展multiple point lights effect,增加到同时支持8个lights。
    6.编写一种effect,同时支持directional,point以及spotlights。要确保specular highlight由每一种light的强度计算得出。

    本章配套学习代码:
    展开全文
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