Facial Recognition Technology is a developing technology that shines a light on a new aspect of security and identity. How does it work and what are some of its practical application successes and failures in our modern-day society?
什么是面部识别技术？ (What is Facial Recognition Technology?)
Facial recognition technology, or otherwise commonly known as facial recognition systems, are computer-dependent security systems that can automatically detect and identify human faces. In simple terms, it is a way of recognizing a human face through technology. These machines rely on algorithms to do basic tasks such as identifying a person from a crowd. This technology uses facial features from photos and/or videos to better compare the information with a secured database of known faces to find a match.
面部识别技术或其他通常称为面部识别系统的技术是计算机相关的安全系统，可以自动检测和识别人脸。 简单来说，它是通过技术识别人脸的一种方式。 这些机器依靠算法来执行基本任务，例如从人群中识别一个人。 这项技术使用照片和/或视频中的面部特征来更好地将信息与已知面Kong的安全数据库进行比较，以找到匹配项。
面部识别如何工作？ (How does Facial Recognition work?)
From a human’s point-of-view, we know people by their faces and their respective facial features because after repeatedly seeing a person, it will automatically get stored into your brain. This is how facial recognition works in technology with the usage of algorithms and databases instead of the eyes and brain. According to a Georgetown University study, half of all American adults have their images stored in one or more facial recognition databases that law enforcement agencies can search and verify.
从人的角度来看，我们通过其面Kong和各自的面部特征来了解人们，因为在反复看到一个人之后，它会自动存储到您的大脑中。 这就是面部识别技术在技术中如何使用算法和数据库而不是眼睛和大脑的方式。 根据乔治敦大学的一项研究，所有美国成年人中有一半的图像存储在一个或多个面部识别数据库中，执法机构可以对其进行搜索和验证。
Here is the process as to how this technology works:
(Sources: Electronic Privacy Information Center (EPIC) and Norton Security)
- A picture of one’s face is captured from a photo or video. It needs to be able to identify a human face and extract it from other people and the background (environment, buildings, cars, etc.). 一个人的脸部照片是从照片或视频中捕获的。 它需要能够识别人脸并从其他人和背景(环境，建筑物，汽车等)中提取出来。
- The system and its technology will then analyze and measure nodal points on the face, such as the distance between the eyes, distance from the forehead to the chin, the shape of the cheekbones, and many other key distinguishable features that separate you from other human faces. All of these examined facial features equate to a personal facial signature. 然后，该系统及其技术将分析和测量面部的结点，例如眼睛之间的距离，前额到下巴的距离，the骨的形状以及许多其他可与您分开的关键特征面Kong。 所有这些检查过的面部特征都等同于个人面部特征。
- Your facial signature is compared to a database of known faces. According to the Federal Bureau of Investigation’s (FBI) May 2018 report, the FBI has had access to 412 million facial images for searches. 将您的面部特征与已知面Kong的数据库进行比较。 根据联邦调查局(FBI)2018年5月的报告，联邦调查局已经获得了4.12亿张面部图像进行搜索。
- The system will then determine whether your face matches with a face in a database using nodal points/key facial features that distinguish you from the environment and other human beings. 然后，系统将使用节点/关键面部特征(将您与环境和其他人类区分开来)来确定您的面部是否与数据库中的面部匹配。
面部识别技术在现实生活中有哪些应用？ (What Are Some Real-Life Applications of Facial Recognition Technology?)
Social Media: Platforms like Facebook use an algorithm to spot faces when a person uploads a photo to their network. When they ask if you want to tag people in your photos, you are given the option to either tag or not tag anyone in this picture. If you say yes, it will create a link to their profiles. Facebook can recognize faces with a 98% accuracy.
社交媒体：当人们将照片上传到网络时，Facebook之类的平台使用一种算法来识别人脸。 当他们询问您是否要标记照片中的人物时，您可以选择是否标记此照片中的任何人。 如果您选择是，它将创建一个指向其个人资料的链接。 Facebook可以以98％的准确度识别人脸。
Phone Manufacturers: Companies like Apple use facial recognition technology to unlock their phones. It started with the iPhone X/XS/XS Max/XR and it is now on higher generations including the iPhone 11, iPhone 11 Pro, and iPhone 11 Pro Max. Using this technology, it makes sure you’re the right person accessing the phone. According to Apple, the chance of unlocking your phone is about one in one million.
手机制造商：像Apple这样的公司都使用面部识别技术来解锁手机。 它始于iPhone X / XS / XS Max / XR，现在已经出现在更高的世代中，包括iPhone 11，iPhone 11 Pro和iPhone 11 Pro Max。 使用这项技术，可以确保您是正确的访问电话的人。 根据苹果公司的说法，解锁手机的机会约为百万分之一。
The United States Government (Department of Homeland Security/Transportation Security Administration): This technology can monitor people coming in and going out of airports. The Department of Homeland Security has used this technology to identify people who have overstayed their visas or under criminal investigation.
Retailers: Shops can now use surveillance cameras with this technology to scan the faces of every shopper. The primary goal is to fish out suspicious characters and potential shoplifters.
Businesses with Restricted Areas and Secured Entrances: Many companies have traded in security badges that granted them access into certain parts of the building for facial recognition systems. Instead of having to scan your card, you can walk up to the restricted area/secured entrance and it will open up after scanning your face and confirming it is an authorized person.
Marketers and Advertisers: Marketers use one’s gender, age, ethnicity, and many other traits when targeting groups for a product or an idea. With facial recognition, they will be able to figure out the pattern of audiences that attend conferences, concerts, campaign events, etc.
面部识别技术使用成功 (Successes of Facial Recognition Technology Usage)
Within forty days, the United States Customs and Border Protection (CBP) officials along with the facial recognition technology at the Washington Dulles International Airport in Northern Virginia have caught three imposters.
August 22rd, 2018: Three Days After Facial Recognition Technology System Installation atWashington Dulles International Airport in Northern Virginia.
(Directly from the United States Customs and Border Protection Website)
A 26-year-old man traveling from San Paulo, Brazil presented a French passport to the CBP officer conducting primary inspections. The officer utilized CBP’s new facial comparison biometric technology which confirmed the man was not a match to the passport he presented. The CBP officer referred the traveler to secondary inspection for a comprehensive examination. During this thorough check, CBP officers noted the traveler’s behavior changed and he became visibly nervous. A search revealed the man’s authentic Republic of Congo identification card concealed in his shoe.
一名来自巴西圣保罗的26岁男子向法国海关和边境保护局官员出示了法国护照，以进行初步检查。 该官员利用了CBP的新面部比较生物识别技术，该技术证实该人与他出示的护照不符。 CBP官员将旅客转介至第二次检查以进行全面检查。 在进行彻底检查期间，CBP官员注意到旅行者的行为发生了变化，并且明显变得紧张。 搜查发现该男子的鞋中藏有该男子的真实刚果共和国身份证。
September 8th, 2018: Second Imposter Within Three Weeks of Facial Recognition Technology System Installation at Washington Dulles International Airport in Northern Virginia.
(Directly from the United States Customs and Border Protection Website)
A 26-year-old woman, who arrived on a flight from Accra, Ghana, presented a United States Passport to a CBP officer for admission as a returning citizen. Utilizing the new facial comparison technology, the CBP officer established that the traveler was not a match to the passport and referred her for further examination. A secondary examination confirmed that the traveler was a Ghanaian citizen and an imposter to the United States passport.
一名来自加纳阿克拉的航班上的26岁妇女向美国海关和边境保护局官员出示了美国护照，以作为回国公民。 CBP官员利用新的面部比较技术，确定旅行者与护照不符，并转介她进行进一步检查。 二次检查证实该旅客是加纳公民，是美国护照的冒名顶替者。
October 2nd, 2018: Third Imposter Within Two Months of Facial Recognition Technology System Installation at Washington Dulles International Airport in Northern Virginia.
(Directly from the United States Customs and Border Protection Website)
A 26-year-old Cameroonian woman arrived on a flight from Accra, Ghana, which had originated from Johannesburg, South Africa. The women presented a United States Passport in the name of a 31-year-old United States citizen to the present CBP officer. The facial recognition technology used by the officer reported a mismatch to the photo in the passport. CBP officers confirmed her true identity during a secondary inspection and biometric examination. She was arrested for misuse of a passport (19 USC 1544).
一名26岁的喀麦隆妇女从加纳阿克拉起飞，该飞机起源于南非约翰内斯堡。 这些妇女以现年31岁的美国公民的名义向现任CBP官员出示了美国护照。 警察使用的面部识别技术报告护照上的照片不匹配。 CBP官员在二次检查和生物特征检查期间确认了她的真实身份。 她因滥用护照被捕(19 USC 1544)。
为什么要在面部识别方面关注其隐私？ (Why Should One Be Concerned About Their Privacy In Regards To Facial Recognition?)
With some modern-day examples of facial recognition listed above, the respective owners of these tools and databases don’t obtain permission from a person to capture their facial details. One will not have control over their personal information and how it is used.
Here are some examples of how your privacy could be violated:
(Source: Norton Security)
Security: One’s facial data can be collected and stored, often without your permission. There is a possibility that hackers could access and steal that data.
Prevalence: Facial recognition technology has started to become more widespread amongst the entirety of the United States and possibly the world. This means that your facial signature could end up in a lot of places without your knowledge. There is little to no chance that a person would know who has access to their faceprint.
流行：面部识别技术已开始在美国乃至整个世界范围内变得越来越普遍。 这意味着您的面部特征可能会在您不知情的情况下出现在很多地方。 一个人几乎不可能知道谁有权使用自己的面部印记。
Ownership: Without any doubt, a person owns their face which is located above their neck. However, digital images are different. A person could have given up their right to ownership when you signed up on a social media network. A third-party could even track down images of you online and sell that data.
拥有权：毫无疑问，一个人拥有自己脖子上方的脸。 但是，数字图像是不同的。 当您在社交媒体网络上注册时，一个人可能已经放弃了所有权。 第三方甚至可以在线追踪您的图像并出售这些数据。
Safety: Facial recognition could lead to online harassment and stalking. The way it could potentially work is when someone takes a picture of you without your knowledge and uses facial recognition software to find out exactly who you are.
Mistaken Identity: Facial recognition systems may not be fully accurate. Check out the challenges part of the article to learn more about a real-life example.
Basic Freedoms: Government agencies and other authorized groups have the ability to track you in regards to what you do and where you go.
面部识别技术使用失败 (Failures of Facial Recognition Technology Usage)
Facial recognition systems have been used by police forces for over two decades. Studies by Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have found that the technology is more accurate on white men compared to the other demographics/races. This is most likely because of a lack of diversity in the images used to develop the established databases.
面部识别系统已被警察部队使用了二十多年。 麻省理工学院(MIT)和美国国家标准与技术研究院(NIST)的研究发现，与其他人口统计/种族相比，该技术在白人男性上更为准确。 这很可能是由于用于开发已建立的数据库的图像缺乏多样性。
Here is an example of a fault in facial recognition technology.
On a Thursday afternoon in January, Robert Williams was in his office when he got a call from the Detroit Police Department telling him to come to the station to be arrested. Thinking that it was a prank, he ignored the entire conversation. An hour later, he pulled into his driveway in Farmington Hills, Michigan when a cop car pulled up behind him. Two officers got out and handcuffed Williams on his front lawn in front of his wife and two daughters.
1月的一个星期四下午，罗伯特·威廉姆斯(Robert Williams)在底特律警察局打来电话，告诉他要去警察局逮捕。 认为这是一个恶作剧，他忽略了整个对话。 一个小时后，当一辆警车从他身后驶过时，他驶入密歇根州法明顿希尔斯的车道。 两名警官下车，将威廉姆斯铐在妻子和两个女儿面前的前草坪上。
The police drove Mr. Williams to a detention center. He had his mugshot, fingerprints, and DNA taken. He was held overnight in jail. The next day, two detectives took him to an interrogation room. The interrogation happened in this format below.
警察把威廉姆斯先生赶到拘留所。 他拍摄了面部照片，指纹和DNA。 他被关在监狱里过夜。 第二天，两名侦探将他带到讯问室。 审讯以下面的这种格式发生。
Detective 1: When was the last time you went to a Shinola store?
- Shinola is an upscale boutique that sells watches, bicycles, and leather goods in Detroit, Michigan. Shinola是一家位于密歇根州底特律的高档精品店，出售手表，自行车和皮革制品。
Robert Williams: My wife and I checked it out when the store first opened in 2014.
- One of the detectives then turned over the first piece of paper. It was a still image from a surveillance video that showed a heavily built man, dressed in black, and wearing a St. Louis Cardinals cap standing in front of a watch display. Five timepieces, in total worth $3,800.00, were shoplifted. 然后，一名侦探把第一张纸翻了过来。 这是来自监视视频的静止图像，显示了一个身材魁梧的男子，身穿黑色衣服，戴着圣路易斯红雀队的帽子站在手表显示器前。 窃取了五枚总价值为$ 3,800.00的时计。
One of the Detectives: Is this you?
- The second piece of paper that was shown was a close-up. The photo was blurry, but it was distinctive enough to tell that it wasn’t Robert Williams. 显示的第二张纸是特写镜头。 这张照片很模糊，但是足以证明不是罗伯特·威廉姆斯。
Robert Williams: No, this is not me. Do you think all black men look alike?
- Robert Williams knew that he didn’t commit the crime. What he didn’t know was that his case is the first publically known account of an American being wrongfully accused and arrested based on a flawed match from a facial recognition algorithm. 罗伯特·威廉姆斯(Robert Williams)知道他没有犯罪。 他所不知道的是，他的案子是第一个公开的说法，即基于面部识别算法中的错误匹配，美国人被错误地指控和逮捕。
The charges against Robert Williams were dropped soon after they discovered it was a mistake made by the facial recognition technology itself.
After this incident occurred, Amazon, Microsoft, and IBM announced that they would stop or pause their facial recognition offerings for law enforcement. The facial recognition technology used by police departments across the country is supplied by companies that aren’t known to many people. Companies include Cognitec, NEC, Vigilant Solutions, Rank One Computing, and Clearview AI.
发生此事件后，亚马逊，微软和IBM宣布将停止或暂停其面部识别产品以进行执法。 全国各地的警察部门使用的面部识别技术由许多人所不了解的公司提供。 公司包括Cognitec，NEC，Vigilant Solutions，Rank One Computing和Clearview AI。
Overall, facial recognition technology is extremely beneficial when it comes to matching a high-resolution picture to a database of faces. It shouldn’t be a primary source of evidence to accuse and arrest an individual because of the race boundaries and the fluctuation of accuracy levels between the demographics.
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