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  • abstract  可以实现实时、高质量的语音合成。比传统的系统速度快10倍以上,RTF(real time factor)表明它可以应用于实时系统。 1. introduction  两个要求: 高质量 实时性  高质量的语音合成系统包括基频F0和谱...

    附一个大佬的marlin讲解主页链接 http://shartoo.github.io/

    abstract

     可以实现实时、高质量的语音合成。比传统的系统速度快10倍以上,RTF(real time factor)表明它可以应用于实时系统。通过3个语音信号相关的参数合成语音–基频f0, 谱包络spectrum envelope, 非周期信号参数aperiodic parameter。

    1. introduction

     两个要求:

    1. 高质量
    2. 实时性

     高质量的语音合成系统包括基频F0和谱包络估计算法,以及参数估计的合成算法。之前的研究:STRAIGHT可以合成高质量的语音,对语音很容易进行操作。为了满足实时性,提出简化版–Real time STRAIGHT,但是大大削弱了语音质量。
     WORLD声码器用3个算法提取3个参数,然后用一个合成算法把他们当作输入,可以实现高质量的语音合成。

    2. overview of WORLD

     图1是处理的过程

    1. 输入wave通过DIO算法估计出F0 contour(基频)
    2. F0和wave作为输入,由cheap trick估计出spectral envelope(频谱包络)
    3. 输入F0/sp/wave,用PLATINUM将提取出来的信号进行估计,得到aperiodic parameter(非周期参数)。非周期参数的定义和之前的不一样。
       WORLD不能和STRAIGHT的衍生系列一样操纵非周期参数,但是可以和它们一样操作F0和频率包络。

    在这里插入图片描述

    2.1 DIO: F0估计算法

     F0是周期信号的最长持续时间的倒数(基频会产生二次谐波,三次谐波,周期是基频的整数分之一,最长的周期是基频的持续周期,所以理论上会对应频率最低的部分,在语谱图上对应最下边的亮线,频率能量最高的部分),提出很多算法以估计F0;它有两种特性:一个是时域特征,比如自相关,一个是频域特征,比如倒谱ceph。
     WORLD用DIO估计F0,比YIN、SWIPE要快,但是性能依然很好。DIO分为三步:
    1⃣️不同频带的低通滤波器:因为不知道F0的基频,所以这一步包含不同周期的sin低通滤波器;
    2⃣️计算得到各个可能的F0的可靠性,因为由基波分量组成的sin信号包含四个间隔(两个顶点、两个过零点),如图2所示。如果滤波器得到的间隔长度是一致的,说明是同一个基波。
    3⃣️选出置信度最高的基波。
    在这里插入图片描述

    2.2 CheapTrick: Spectral Envelope Estimation Algorithm

    谱包络也是一个重要的参数,如下图所示,是指在频率-振幅图中,用平滑的曲线将所有共振峰连接起来,这个平滑的曲线就是谱包络。预测它的典型算法有cepstrum和LPC(linear predictive coding)。难度在于估计的结果取决于the temporal position,很难消除它的影响。
     WORLD用CheapTrick去做谱分析,它的思想来源于pitch synchronous analysis (音高同步分析),使用长度为3T0的hanning window。
    在这里插入图片描述

    1. 首先计算窗口波形下的谱能量,对它窗口下的总能量按照公式(1)进行时域稳定。
      在这里插入图片描述
    2. 然后用rectangular window对(1)得到的功率谱进行平滑,求得单个周期能量w0=2pai/T0
      在这里插入图片描述
    • 最后,进行specialized liftering
      ps是功率谱pw的倒谱,

    倒谱(cepstrum):一种信号的傅里叶变换谱经过对数运算后再进行傅里叶反变换。由于一般傅里叶谱是复数谱,因而又称复倒谱。
    在这里插入图片描述

    2.3 PLATINUM:提取非周期参数

      mixed excitation和aperiodicity经常用在合成中。在Legacy-STRAIGHT 和 TANDEM-STRAIGHT中,aperiodicity被用于合成周期和非周期的信号。WORLD则直接用从波形、F0、和谱包络中得到的mixed excitation—PLATINUM。
     PLATINUM 窗长2T,窗函数X(w)X(w)被最小的相谱分割。相谱SmwSm(w)可以计算为
    在这里插入图片描述
    提取的excitation function可以表示为

     在PLATINUM中,每一个声带振动相关的temporal position(??)必须确定,它是由F0和波形共同决定的。步骤是:(1)确定出有声的部分;(2)确定这个部分时间上的中心位置ta;(3)时间间隔ta±T0,在这个区间的temporal position有最大值y(t)2,将这个数值定义为最大值,一旦初始值被确定,基于声码器的合成算法自动计算其他的vocal position(声带位置),定义为基于F0 contour脉冲响应的起源。这个过程在每一个有声段都被重复执行。

    2.4 Synthesis Algorithm

     Legacy-STRAIGHT and TANDEM-STRAIGHT依靠周期和非周期的response计算声带振动,TANDEM-STRAIGHT直接用周期响应,Legacy-STRAIGHT操纵group delay以避免嗡嗡声。
     在WORLD中,声带的振动是基于最小相位响应和激励信号上计算的。从图3可以看出,WORLD比STRAIGHT的卷积要少,因此计算力的需求更少。F0被用于决定每一个声带振动的初始时间位置。
    在这里插入图片描述
     图4说明了WORLD和STRAIGHT从输入语音提取激励信号,并且合成语音的过程。最上边是输入的wav,中间是卷积之前的激励信号;下边是合成的wav。因为Legacy 和TANDEM的激励信号不仅取决于谱包络,也取决于非周期性,它从拉平的谱包络中计算。

    2.5 implementation

     作者的网站上可以获得C语言版和matlab版的代码实现,但是最新的Legacy-STRAIGHT只有matlab版,为了公平比较,下文都用matlab进行对比。

    3. evaluation

     所有系统都对用户可以设定的参数进行了优化,使其在特定情况下的性能更好;但是为了真是比较各个系统真正的合成性能,我们用的都是没有优化的系统。
     WORLD的执行命令如下:x–input waveform; fs采样率; f0基频,最后合成的时候只用到f0和spec
    在这里插入图片描述
    &dmsp;TANDEM-STRAIGHT的执行命令:第1步提取的基频会在后续步进行优化,source表示f0和非周期信息(ap),
    在这里插入图片描述
    legacy-STRAIGHT,f0和ap的信息在同一步里边提取,
    在这里插入图片描述

    3.2 Characteristics of Speech Used in the Evaluation

     用带有浊辅音的speech进行测试,之前的测试基本都只有元音,图5说明了F0的范围,基本都是100-300hz.
    在这里插入图片描述

    3.3 Subjective Evaluation of Sound Quality

     基于MUSHRA做的测试,至少要给一个piece100分,分5个等级。
     图7是测试结果,在女声上区别不大,WORLD和legacy非常接近;但是在男声上,WORLD要明显优于其他的系统。
    在这里插入图片描述

    3.4 Evaluation of Processing Speed

    WORLD明显优于其他的,legacy主要加速了F0的处理速度(但是增大了sp的估计时间)。
    在这里插入图片描述

    4. discussion

    4.1 Sound Quality of Synthesized Speech

     world需要输入的语音帧有比较高的信噪比,如果有噪声的话很难合成高质量的语音。而且vuv(voice unvoice)的估计准确率也会很大程度影响语音的质量。改进目标–增强噪声鲁棒性。
     WORLD和原始语音在音素的边界有区别,WORLD和其他系统的区别不仅在于音素边界,也在合成的元音质量;TANDEM-STRAIGHT比其他系统合成的男声元音差很多,主要是因为合成语音相位的区别。相比于high F0的系统,在low F0中人们可以更容易察觉到语音相位的不同,说明在low-pitch speech中使用最小相位是不合适的。Legacy-STRAIGHT中使用group delay manipulation改善low-pitch的语音质量,这也是legacy和TANDEM合成质量区别的一个原因。已经证明相位对于语音质量是有影响的,这也是WORLD下一步改进的目标。

    4.2 Processing Speed

     WORLD比其他的系统处理速度快很多,主要在(1)其他系统对每一帧做STFT,计算密集,WORLD使用DIO算法对整个wav滤波,计算过零间隔,速度快很多;(2)其他系统用两个系统估计sp,cheaptrick只需要一个;(3)估计ap的时候,WORLD没有post-preprocessing;(4)合成的时候, WORLD做一个简单的卷积就可以实现。
     进一步提速的方式,改写matlab代码为C,换CPU到GPU。

    WORLD提取到的是187维特征

    0-59 60-119 120-179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186
    60 60 60 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
    mgc △mgc △△mgc uvu lnf0 △lnf0 △△lnf0 ln bap △ln bap △△ln bap

    △表示后一帧与前一帧 求一阶差分
    △△表示后一帧与前一帧求2阶差分
    目的是平滑处理
    p.s.单独用make之后得到的analysis命令,16khz语音提取到的ap是一阶,44khz提取到的ap是5阶
    对于f(x)f(x),一阶差分δn=f(xn)f(xn1)\delta_n=f(x_{n})-f(x_{n-1})
    二阶差分δδn=δnδn1\delta\delta_n=\delta_{n}-\delta_{n-1}

    展开全文
  • Hello world

    2020-07-28 23:32:48
    C++ 首个程序Hello world。详细的介绍了代码和运行方式。
  • world.json

    2020-07-30 23:33:23
    echarts3 在世界地图中绘制中国省份的轮廓
  • world_china.js

    2020-07-26 23:32:17
    自己整合的地图资源 有需要的可以下载
  • C语言(一)HelloWorld

    万次阅读 2018-06-02 17:34:39
    C语言HelloWorld 开始C语言之路
    C语言(一)HelloWorld

            使用Java工作到一定阶段之后发现自己的实现方式在效率上有些低,开始补习数据结构,也是为了给C++打基础。当初大学的时候学习的那些都还给老师了,所以还得从零开始。本想着看文档学来着,环境都没有怎么搞?去传智播客官网上找找C的视频然后自己下载下来看吧。

            个人建议有Java基础的话再学习C,否则你会很痛苦。

            开始学习C语言之路:

            1、下载Visual studio集成开发环境。如图(1-1)

                        

                                                                                                图(1-1)

            2、安装过程略过,这个必要的C和C++插件自己选择,破解自己去找对应的序列号。(这些是一个程序员的基本功),打开IDE如图(2-1)

                        

                                                                                            图(2-1)

            3、点击文件—>新建—>项目如图(3-1)

                        

                                                                                           图(3-1)

            4、从图(3-1)的视图弹出对话框如图(4-1)

                        

        ·                                                                                图(4-1)

            5、等待项目创建:

                        点击确定按钮,等待如图(5-1)结束之后,

                        

                                                                                        图(5-1)

            6、当方案创建完毕之后如图(6-1),鼠标右键单击源文件,弹出对话框如图(6-2)

                        

                                                                                              图(6-1)

                        

                                                                                              图(6-2)

            7、点击新建项之后,如图(7-1)

                        

                                                                                             图(7-1)

            8、选择c++文件,此时注意!此时注意!此时注意!修改文件名称为 Hello.c 如图(8-1)

                        

                                                                                                图(8-1)

            9、打开 Hello.c 文件,然后编辑代码如图(9-1)

                        

                                                                                                图(9-1)

            代码如下:

    
                #include <stdio.h>
    
                int main() {
    	        printf("Hello World !");
    	        return 0;
                 }
    
    

            #include <stdio.h> 导入 , stdio 指的是 "standard input & output"

            按 F5 运行的时候发现一闪而过,我们可以打个断点。运行结果如图(9-2)

                        

                                                                                        图(9-2)

            10、C语言HelloWorld结束。

                        

                        

    展开全文
  • World Creator学习(一)

    千次阅读 2019-05-02 08:32:26
    World Creator快捷键: 移动:WASD 放大:鼠标右键双击 相机升降:Q、E 显示全部地形:F 全屏:F10 截图:F11 加速:Shift 显示地形基本信息:F2 指北:F3 地形线框显示:F4 显示地形过滤器:F5 贴图...

    World Creator快捷键:

    移动:WASD

    放大:鼠标右键双击

    相机升降:Q、E

    显示全部地形:F

     全屏:F10

    截图:F11

    加速:Shift

    显示地形基本信息:F2

    指北:F3

    地形线框显示:F4

    显示地形过滤器:F5

    贴图显示:F6

    物件对象显示:F7

    显示细节物件:F8

    将人偶显示在鼠标所在位置:H/shift+H

     

    展开全文
  • 【Python学习之路】文件读写

    万次阅读 2019-12-15 20:55:23
    hello world! python is good! today is a good day. Writing test.txt 读文件 使用 open 函数或者 file 函数来读文件,使用文件名的字符串作为输入参数: f = open('test.txt') f = file...

    文件读写

    写入测试文件:

    %%writefile test.txt
    this is a test file.
    hello world!
    python is good!
    today is a good day.
    
    Writing test.txt
    

    读文件

    使用 open 函数或者 file 函数来读文件,使用文件名的字符串作为输入参数:

    f = open('test.txt')
    
    f = file('test.txt')
    

    这两种方式没有太大区别。

    默认以读的方式打开文件,如果文件不存在会报错。

    可以使用 read 方法来读入文件中的所有内容:

    text = f.read()
    print text
    
    this is a test file.
    hello world!
    python is good!
    today is a good day.
    

    也可以按照行读入内容,readlines 方法返回一个列表,每个元素代表文件中每一行的内容:

    f = open('test.txt')
    lines = f.readlines()
    print lines
    
    ['this is a test file.\n', 'hello world!\n', 'python is good!\n', 'today is a good day.']
    

    使用完文件之后,需要将文件关闭。

    f.close()
    

    事实上,我们可以将 f 放在一个循环中,得到它每一行的内容:

    f = open('test.txt')
    for line in f:
        print line
    f.close()
    
    this is a test file.
    
    hello world!
    
    python is good!
    
    today is a good day.
    

    删除刚才创建的文件:

    import os
    os.remove('test.txt')
    

    写文件

    我们使用 open 函数的写入模式来写文件:

    f = open('myfile.txt', 'w')
    f.write('hello world!')
    f.close()
    

    使用 w 模式时,如果文件不存在会被创建,我们可以查看是否真的写入成功:

    print open('myfile.txt').read()
    
    hello world!
    

    如果文件已经存在, w 模式会覆盖之前写的所有内容:

    f = open('myfile.txt', 'w')
    f.write('another hello world!')
    f.close()
    print open('myfile.txt').read()
    
    another hello world!
    

    除了写入模式,还有追加模式 a ,追加模式不会覆盖之前已经写入的内容,而是在之后继续写入:

    f = open('myfile.txt', 'a')
    f.write('... and more')
    f.close()
    print open('myfile.txt').read()
    
    another hello world!... and more
    

    写入结束之后一定要将文件关闭,否则可能出现内容没有完全写入文件中的情况。

    还可以使用读写模式 w+

    f = open('myfile.txt', 'w+')
    f.write('hello world!')
    f.seek(6)
    print f.read()
    f.close()
    
    world!
    

    这里 f.seek(6) 移动到文件的第6个字符处,然后 f.read() 读出剩下的内容。

    import os
    os.remove('myfile.txt')
    

    二进制文件

    二进制读写模式 b:

    import os
    f = open('binary.bin', 'wb')
    f.write(os.urandom(16))
    f.close()
    
    f = open('binary.bin', 'rb')
    print repr(f.read())
    f.close()
    
    '\x86H\x93\xe1\xd8\xef\xc0\xaa(\x17\xa9\xc9\xa51\xf1\x98'
    
    import os
    os.remove('binary.bin')
    

    换行符

    不同操作系统的换行符可能不同:

    • \r
    • \n
    • \r\n

    使用 U 选项,可以将这三个统一看成 \n 换行符。

    关闭文件

    Python中,如果一个打开的文件不再被其他变量引用时,它会自动关闭这个文件。

    所以正常情况下,如果一个文件正常被关闭了,忘记调用文件的 close 方法不会有什么问题。

    关闭文件可以保证内容已经被写入文件,而不关闭可能会出现意想不到的结果:

    f = open('newfile.txt','w')
    f.write('hello world')
    g = open('newfile.txt', 'r')
    print repr(g.read())
    
    ''
    

    虽然这里写了内容,但是在关闭之前,这个内容并没有被写入磁盘。

    使用循环写入的内容也并不完整:

    f = open('newfile.txt','w')
    for i in range(3000):
        f.write('hello world: ' + str(i) + '\n')
    
    g = open('newfile.txt', 'r')
    print g.read()
    f.close()
    g.close()
    
    hello world: 0
    hello world: 1
    hello world: 2
    hello world: 3
    hello world: 4
    hello world: 5
    hello world: 6
    hello world: 7
    hello world: 8
    hello world: 9
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    hello 
    
    import os
    os.remove('newfile.txt')
    

    出现异常时候的读写:

    f = open('newfile.txt','w')
    for i in range(3000):
        x = 1.0 / (i - 1000)
        f.write('hello world: ' + str(i) + '\n')
    
    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    
    ZeroDivisionError                         Traceback (most recent call last)
    
    <ipython-input-20-8dc1cc9b29ec> in <module>()
          1 f = open('newfile.txt','w')
          2 for i in range(3000):
    ----> 3     x = 1.0 / (i - 1000)
          4     f.write('hello world: ' + str(i) + '\n')
    
    
    ZeroDivisionError: float division by zero
    

    查看已有内容:

    g = open('newfile.txt', 'r')
    print g.read()
    f.close()
    g.close()
    
    hello world: 0
    hello world: 1
    hello world: 2
    hello world: 3
    hello world: 4
    hello world: 5
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    hell
    

    可以看到,出现异常的时候,磁盘的写入并没有完成,为此我们可以使用 try/except/finally 块来关闭文件,这里 finally 确保关闭文件,所有的写入已经完成。

    f = open('newfile.txt','w')
    try:
        for i in range(3000):
            x = 1.0 / (i - 1000)
            f.write('hello world: ' + str(i) + '\n')
    except Exception:
        print "something bad happened"
    finally:
        f.close()
    
    something bad happened
    
    g = open('newfile.txt', 'r')
    print g.read()
    g.close()
    
    hello world: 0
    hello world: 1
    hello world: 2
    hello world: 3
    hello world: 4
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    with 方法

    事实上,Python提供了更安全的方法,当 with 块的内容结束后,Python会自动调用它的close 方法,确保读写的安全:

    with open('newfile.txt','w') as f:
        for i in range(3000):
            x = 1.0 / (i - 1000)
            f.write('hello world: ' + str(i) + '\n')
    
    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    
    ZeroDivisionError                         Traceback (most recent call last)
    
    <ipython-input-24-9d2a70065b27> in <module>()
          1 with open('newfile.txt','w') as f:
          2     for i in range(3000):
    ----> 3         x = 1.0 / (i - 1000)
          4         f.write('hello world: ' + str(i) + '\n')
    
    
    ZeroDivisionError: float division by zero
    

    try/exception/finally 效果相同,但更简单。

    g = open('newfile.txt', 'r')
    print g.read()
    g.close()
    
    hello world: 0
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    所以,写文件时候要确保文件被正确关闭。

    import os
    os.remove('newfile.txt')
    
    展开全文
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  • 怎么用C++写hello world,看这里!

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  • 在Python3中替换给出字符串中的指定字符或者特殊字符的方法: 1,用replace()进行替换 2,用正则表达式进行替换 import re # 1,用字符串本身的replace...b1 = a1.replace('world', 'python') print('1原始...
  • 文件名helloworld.java 源码: public class HelloWorld {  public static void main(String[] args) {  System.out.println("Hello world"); } } 【编译报错内容】 F:\learning\java\java>javac hellowor
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  • arr = "hello world".split(" ") new_str = f"{arr[0].capitalize()} {arr[1].capitalize()}" print(new_str)
  • 出现这种原因大多是环境变量没配好,运行出现的错误 我的是环境VS2017+opencv3.4.1+cmake编译 所以环境变量配的路径是:  
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    万次阅读 2020-04-02 00:06:22
    万能的HelloWorld!#include &lt;stdio.h&gt; int main(void) { printf("HelloWorld!"); return 0; }下面进行讲解上面的程序:#include 预处理器指令,此处引用了stdio.hmain 主函数,...
  • 安装完各种环境工具之后(sudo apt install g++) 继而新建一个空白文档Helloworl.cpp,粘贴进最简单的代码: #include int main(){ cout, Linux!...g++ Helloworld.cpp 自动生成了a.out文件
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